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1

Latino Cross-Cultural Same Sex Male Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing six different gay couples this article illustrates salient issues relevant to Latino cross-cultural same-sex male relationships. It emphasizes issues of both similarities and differences in terms of ethnicity, race, class, language, and other domains of influence. It conveys the potential danger of conceptualizing Latinos as members of a same race group, or as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, it identifies

Andres Nazario

2003-01-01

2

Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003–2007 estimates  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A considerable number of new studies with estimates of relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected. PMID:18647866

Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

2008-01-01

3

Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence

K Konda; E R Segura; R Lyerla; Carlos F Caceres

2010-01-01

4

A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Bush, Stephanie L.; Robison, Bruce H.

2012-01-01

5

Male Gender Role Conflict, Gay Men, and Same-Sex Romantic Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some theorists have suggested that the traditionally socialized male reluctance to express intimacy is compounded within gay men's same-sex romantic relationships. In both Study 1 and Study 2, analysis-of-variance comparisons between single gay men and gay men in a same-sex relationship failed to confirm this assertion. At the same time, hierarchical regression results demonstrated a small negative relationship between the

Stephen R. Wester; David R. Pionke; David L. Vogel

2005-01-01

6

Relationship Characteristics and HIV Transmission Risk in Same-sex Male Couples in HIV Serodiscordant Relationships  

PubMed Central

Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004

Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.

2014-01-01

7

On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context.  

PubMed

Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health. PMID:21816858

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin

2012-03-01

8

Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.  

PubMed

The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

2012-11-01

9

Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females  

PubMed Central

Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2013-01-01

10

Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.  

PubMed

Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

2013-02-23

11

Conceptions of Privacy and the Non-disclosure of Same-Sex Behaviour Among Behaviourally-Bisexual Men in Heterosexual Relationships  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management theory (Petronio 2002), we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends, and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: 1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else’s; 2) others had no reason to know; 3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal; 4) they were private people in general; and 5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information, and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Cohn, Daniel J.; Siegel, Karolynn

2014-01-01

12

Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.  

PubMed

Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

2014-01-01

13

The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted black adolescent males.  

PubMed

Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

2015-04-01

14

Male Same Sex Couple Dynamics and Received Social Support for HIV Medication Adherence  

PubMed Central

This qualitative study examines received social support by analyzing relationship dynamics concerning antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV+ seroconcordant and serodiscordant male couples. Using narrative data from forty participants (20 couples interviewed separately), we describe patterns of relationship dynamics and support preferences. One group viewed adherence as a Personal Responsibility. A second group viewed adherence as a Couple Responsibility and integrated support for medication adherence into the relationship. A third group was in the process of ending their relationships and adherence support was one-sided or withdrawn altogether. Examining support exchanges contexts at cultural, situational, relational, and personal levels illuminated adherence processes. Qualitative methods provided a framework for investigating these complex relationships and their associations with HIV treatment adherence. PMID:20651943

Wrubel, Judith; Stumbo, Scott; Johnson, Mallory O.

2010-01-01

15

Non-monogamy and sexual relationship quality among same-sex male couples.  

PubMed

Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. PMID:22906124

Parsons, Jeffrey T; Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Grov, Christian

2012-10-01

16

The association between substance use and intimate partner violence within Black male same-sex relationships.  

PubMed

Compared with the extant research on heterosexual intimate partner violence (IPV)-including the knowledge base on alcohol and illicit drug use as predictors of such IPV-there is a paucity of studies on IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially Black MSM. This study investigates the prevalence of experiencing and perpetrating IPV among a sample of Black MSM couples and examines whether heavy drinking and/or illicit substance use is associated with IPV. We conducted a secondary analysis on a data set from 74 individuals (constituting 37 Black MSM couples) screened for inclusion in a couple-based HIV prevention pilot study targeting methamphetamine-involved couples. More than one third (n= 28, 38%) reported IPV at some point with the current partner: 24 both experiencing and perpetrating, 2 experiencing only, and 2 perpetrating only. IPV in the past 30 days was reported by 21 (28%) of the participants: 18 both experiencing and perpetrating, 1 experiencing only, and 2 perpetrating only. Heavy drinking and methamphetamine use each was associated significantly with experiencing and perpetrating IPV throughout the relationship as well as in the past 30 days. Rock/crack cocaine use was significantly associated with any history of experiencing and perpetrating IPV. Altogether, IPV rates in this sample of Black MSM couples equal or exceed those observed among women victimized by male partners as well as the general population of MSM. This exploratory study points to a critical need for further efforts to understand and address IPV among Black MSM. Similar to heterosexual IPV, results point to alcohol and illicit drug use treatment as important avenues to improve the health and social well-being of Black MSM. PMID:24919997

Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; McVinney, L Donald; Hess, Leona; Fopeano, Mark V; Hwang, Hyesung G; Charania, Mahnaz; Mansergh, Gordon

2015-03-01

17

Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

18

Adaptive value of same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross  

PubMed Central

Same-sex pairing is widespread among animals but is difficult to explain in an evolutionary context because it does not result in reproduction, and thus same-sex behaviour often is viewed as maladaptive. Here, we compare survival, fecundity and transition probabilities of female Laysan albatross in different pair types, and we show how female–female pairing could be an adaptive alternative mating strategy, albeit one that resulted in lower fitness than male–female pairing. Females in same-sex pairs produced 80% fewer chicks, had lower survival and skipped breeding more often than those in male–female pairs. Females in same-sex pairs that raised a chick sometimes acquired a male mate in the following year, but females in failed same-sex pairs never did, suggesting that males exert sexual selection by assessing female quality and relegating low-quality females into same-sex pairs. Sexual selection by males in a monomorphic, non-ornamented species is rare and suggests that reconsideration is needed of the circumstances in which alternative reproductive behaviour evolves. Given the lack of males and obligate biparental care in this species, this research demonstrates how same-sex pairing was better than not breeding and highlights how it could be an adaptive strategy under certain demographic conditions. PMID:24285198

Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

2014-01-01

19

Personal or relational? Examining sexual health in the context of HIV serodiscordant same-sex male couples  

PubMed Central

Couples’ ability to adopt a “we” orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a “we” orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a “we” orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples. PMID:23636681

Gamarel, K.E.; Starks, T.J; Dilworth, S.E.; Neilands, T.B.; Taylor, J.M.; Johnson, M.O.

2014-01-01

20

Intimacy in same-sex friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to evaluate the significance of the finding that females are more disclosing in their same-sex friendships than are males. No support was found for the suggestion that males feel just as close to their same-sex friends as do females. However, there was support for a developmental contention that during adolescence both sexes expect to become more

John M. Reisman

1990-01-01

21

Victimization, use of violence, and drug use at school among male adolescents who engage in same-sex sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between the number of male sexual partners of adolescent males and the frequency of victimization at school, missed school because of fear, used drugs at school, and engagement of fighting and weapon carrying both in and out of school.Study design: Sexually active male adolescents (N = 3886) in 8th through 12th grades were administered the

Robert H. DuRant; Daniel P. Krowchuk; Sara H. Sinal

1998-01-01

22

Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this commentary, the legal ramifications and implications of the recent ruling by the Massachusetts Supreme Court allowing same-sex marriages to occur in that state are examined. The author then suggests a hypothetical scenario for what the future might look like assuming that the Massachusetts decision is not overturned by adoption of a state constitutional amendment.

Vincent J. Samar

2005-01-01

23

Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 ?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 ?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 ?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

2015-02-01

24

Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.  

PubMed

Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

2014-05-01

25

Same-sex pair-bonds are equivalent to male–female bonds in a life-long socially monogamous songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Same-sex sexual behaviors are well documented in both captive and wild animals. In monogamous species, these behaviors are\\u000a often exclusive, each individual having only one same-sex partner. A bias in sex ratio has been proposed as a social context\\u000a yielding same-sex pair-bonding, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. Focusing on a life-long pair-bonding songbird,\\u000a the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata,

Julie E. Elie; Nicolas Mathevon; Clémentine Vignal

26

In Peru, reporting male sex partners imparts significant risk of incident HIV/STI infection: all men engaging in same-sex behavior need prevention services  

PubMed Central

Background Detailed information on the sexual behavior of bisexual, non-gay identified men and the relationship between same-sex behavior and HIV/STI incidence are limited. This study provides information on the sexual behavior with male partners of non-gay identified men in urban, coastal Peru and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence. Methods We analyzed data from 2146 non-gay identified men with a baseline and then two years of annual follow-up, including detailed information on sexual behavior with up to 5 sex partners, to determine characteristics associated with bisexual behavior. Discrete time proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of self-reported sex with men on subsequent HIV/STI incidence. Results Over the three study visits, sex with a man was reported by 18.9% of men, 90% of whom also reported sex with a female partner. At baseline, reported bisexual behavior was associated with other sexual risk behaviors such as exchanging sex for money and increased risk of HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. The number of study visits in which recent sex with men was reported was positively correlated with risk of other sexual risk behaviors and incident HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. Recent sex with a man was associated with increased HIV/STI incidence, HR 1.79 (95% CI 1.19 – 2.70), after adjusting for socio-demographics and other sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Given the prevalence of recent sex with men and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence, interventions with non-gay identified men who have sex with men and their partners are warranted. PMID:23965772

Konda, Kelika A.; Lescano, Andres G.; Celentano, David D.; Hall, Eric; Montano, Silvia M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Coates, Thomas J.; Cáceres, Carlos F.

2013-01-01

27

The role of male-male relationships in partner violence treatment groups: the effects of improving same sex relationships on attachment  

E-print Network

from their peers creates fear of negative evaluation and rejection to avoid humiliating labels such as ?sissy?, thus leading to conformity to traditional normative behaviors (Jennings & Murphy, 2000, p. 23). Traditional masculine socialization... guards against male and female induced shame and humiliation, yet also creates a barrier to emotional expressiveness, connection, and sensitivity with both sexes (Jennings & Murphy, 2000). 7 Male-Male Disconnection There are many other...

Barnes, Ashley D.

2009-05-15

28

Sex Differences in Reactions to Outperforming Same-Sex Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current studies were designed to examine whether female adolescents have more negative reactions than male adolescents to achieving more than their same-sex friends. In Study 1, 51 females and 48 males from grades 8 and 10 were administered questions assessing their reactions to performing better than their closest same-sex friends in four…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Schinazi, Joy

2004-01-01

29

Same-sex Marriage Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legalizing marriage for same-sex couples has become a topic of more and more debate since last summer’s U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas. It has even advanced to the stage where many state governments are looking at their legislation and how the term “marriage” is legally defined. In addition, our nation’s president is considering the proposal of an

Evan Wolfson; Lynn T. Wardle

2004-01-01

30

Same-sex imitation: The avoidance of cross-sex models or the acceptance of same-sex models?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment examined whether acceptance of same-sex behavior and rejection of opposite-sex behavior contribute equally to the same-sex imitation effect in both boys and girls. Third- and fourth-grade children observed four male and four female peer models display preferences toward a variety of objects. For each object, only four models were asked for their preferences. In this way, it was

Kay Bussey; David G. Perry

1982-01-01

31

The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

Lau, Charles Q.

2012-01-01

32

Advance Planning by Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples can leave partners vulnerable in a crisis or emergency. Advance planning is one strategy couples can use to establish legal rights. Analyses of data collected from both partners in 131 same-sex couples suggested that executing advance-planning documents (wills, powers of attorney for finance and…

Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Rostosky, Sharon S.; Prather, Robert A.

2006-01-01

33

Children in Same-Sex Marriages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

2009-01-01

34

Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[From Summary] Massachusetts became the first state to legalize marriage between same-sex couples May 17, as a result of a November 2003 decision by the state's highest court that denying gay and lesbian couples the right to marry violated the state's constitution. Currently federal law does not recognize same-sex marriages. This report discusses the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), P.L.

Alison M. Smith

2004-01-01

35

Polygamy and Same-Sex Marriage - Allies or Adversaries Within the Same-Sex Marriage Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the charged slippery slope accusation that permitting same-sex marriage will inevitably lead to the legalization of polygamy. While same-sex marriage advocates generally distance their cause from polygamy and its disparaging history when responding to such accusations, this article determines whether that response is appropriate, or alternatively, whether the same-sex marriage movement could benefit from linkages between polygamy

Jaime M. Gher

2008-01-01

36

Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

2008-01-01

37

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

38

"Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

2008-01-01

39

Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity  

PubMed Central

This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

2012-01-01

40

Same-Sex Behavior and Health Indicators of Sexually Experienced Filipino Young Adults.  

PubMed

The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159

Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D

2014-11-22

41

Sex differences in same-sex friendship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined sex differences in the same-sex friendships of college men and women. In a questionnaire study, self-reports were obtained of number of friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions with friends, and emotional intimacy. A role-play study provided more direct information about conversations between friends. Men and women did not differ in quantitative aspects

Mayta A. Caldwell; Letitia Anne Peplau

1982-01-01

42

Same-sex partner preference in zebra finches: pairing flexibility and choice.  

PubMed

This study examined flexibility and choice in same-sex pair-bonding behavior in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches form life-long monogamous relationships and extra pair behavior is very low, making them an ideal species in which to study same-sex pairing. We examined same-sex behaviors using both semi-naturalistic choice paradigms and skewed sex ratios. In the first experiment, we allowed zebra finches to pair in aviaries with equal sex ratios as part of multiple experiments. On average, 6.4% (N = 78) of unmanipulated pairs were same-sex: all but one was female-female. In a second experiment, we identified pairs from same-sex cages and selected 20 total same-sex pairs (10 of each sex). We then gave pairs a chance to court and pair with members of the opposite sex and observed their behavior for three days. Females did not retain their partner, but most paired with males. In contrast, some males did retain their partner. Similarly, females were more likely to engage in pairing behaviors with males than with their partners or other females whereas males were equally likely to engage in same-sex and opposite-sex pairing behaviors. These findings suggest that same-sex partnerships in zebra finches can be facultative, based on the sex ratio of the group in which they live, but can also be a choice, when opportunities to pair with opposite-sex individuals are possible. Furthermore, it is possible that females are more flexible in this choice of same-sex partnerships than are males. PMID:25190500

Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Zatirka, Brendon P

2014-11-01

43

Gender, masculinity-femininity, and emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using multiple regression techniques, this research examines the relationship of gender and of masculinity— femininity to self-reported emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship among male and female college students, a segment of the population for which friendship is thought to be of particular salience. Findings indicate that, as hypothesized, males report significantly lower levels of emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship than

Dorie Giles Williams

1985-01-01

44

Romantic attachment and relationship functioning in same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The sample included 274 female couples, 188 male couples, 34 women whose female partners did not participate, and 39 men whose male partners did not participate. Participants were recruited from geographically diverse regions of the United States and Canada and provided data by responding to pencil-and-paper surveys. Attachment insecurity in both self and partner were linked with poor relationship functioning across a range of variables (satisfaction, commitment, trust, communication, problem intensity). The pattern of results was identical for women and men, but the effects were stronger in male couples for some associations between attachment variables and indices of positive relationship functioning. Monogamy was positively associated with relationship quality only when participants or their partners reported moderate or high levels of attachment anxiety. Contrary to hypothesis, attachment did not moderate links between minority stressors and relationship functioning. PMID:23356467

Mohr, Jonathan J; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E

2013-01-01

45

MODERNIZING DIVORCE JURISDICTION: SAME-SEX COUPLES AND MINIMUM CONTACTS  

E-print Network

1669 MODERNIZING DIVORCE JURISDICTION: SAME-SEX COUPLES AND MINIMUM CONTACTS COURTNEY G. JOSLIN I. SAME-SEX COUPLES: MARRIED WITH NOWHERE TO DIVORCE........ 1678 II. WHY IT MATTERS..................................................................................... 1700 B. Divorce Jurisdiction: Waning Interest Despite Increasing Disjunction

Finzi, Adrien

46

Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child  

E-print Network

Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Status, _________________________________________________, declare ______________________________________________ as my Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child. Print Name of Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child I understand that my employer has a legitimate need to know

Ziurys, Lucy M.

47

Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

2005-01-01

48

LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC  

E-print Network

MARRIED SINGLE LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE YES NO MEMBER: SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC PARTNER CODE STREET ADDRESS (NO P.O.BOX) E-MAIL ADDRESS (Mandatory) Yes or NoAre you enrolling a same-sex D V RETIRED DISABLED SURVIVING SPOUSE DATE RETIRED M D V To qualify a same-sex Domestic

Ziurys, Lucy M.

49

A Functional Comparison of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Friendships during Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated how adolescents perceive their same-sex and opposite-sex friendships. A total of 576 6th-through 12th-grade students rated both their same-sex and opposite-sex friendships on 11 functional and structural attributes. MANOVA and ANOVA results revealed significant gender differences for most of the attributes, but no grade differences. The females gave higher ratings than did the males to both

Jacques D. Lempers; Dania S. Clark-Lempers

1993-01-01

50

An empirical analysis of the matching patterns of same-sex and opposite-sex couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 1990 Census data to compare the matching behaviors of four types of cohabiting couples: same-sex male couples, same-sex female couples, opposite-sex unmarried couples, and married couples. In general, we found evidence of positive assortative mating for all traits and across all types of couples. The positive assortative mating, however, is stronger for non-labormarket traits (e.g., age, education) than

Lisa K. Jepsen; Christopher A. Jepsen

2002-01-01

51

Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.  

PubMed

This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

Shi, Liang

2013-01-01

52

Commitment in same-sex love relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to desribe and compare commitment structures among lesbian and gay male living-together relationships, and to develop an instrument which would measure different dimensions of commitment among gay dyads without some heterosexual biases inherent in traditional measures of interpersonal commitment. Questionnaire data collected from 32 lesbians and 50 gay males who had lived together for at least six

Robert A. Lewis; Ellen B. Kozac; Robert M. Milardo; Wayne A. Grosnick

1981-01-01

53

Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Siblings: Activity Choices, Roles, Behavior, and Gender Stereotypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At-home observation of 40 sibling dyads was conducted to describe sex-role characteristics of school-aged same-sex and cross-sex siblings. Male dyads interacted less than other sibling groups, while older sisters in female or male-female dyads engaged in the most teaching and managing. Older sister dyads exhibited the greatest role asymmetrics.…

Stoneman, Zolinda; And Others

1986-01-01

54

An Exploration of Long-Term, Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of 220 gay men and lesbians, 22–74 years of age, who had been in same-sex relationships for 2 or more years was conducted to explore the relationship benchmark events, perceptions of difference between same-sex and heterosexual relationships, and specific challenges faced by same-sex couples. Results indicate that clinicians who work with this population must comprehend and address the

Suzanne Degges-White; John Marszalek

2007-01-01

55

Cutting edge couples : An ethnography of same-sex marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Following the landmark 2003 Ontario Court of Appeal decision legalizing same-sex marriage, some same-sex couples sought to formalize their unions through legal marriage. The purpose of this paper is to explore the personal and political reflections of recently married same-sex couples on the meaning of their marriages for themselves, their partners, their community as well as the implications

Dawn Onishenko; Lea Caragata

2009-01-01

56

Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927

Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

2013-01-01

57

Three-year follow-up of same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples not in civil unions, and heterosexual married couples.  

PubMed

This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a sibling to a member of a civil union couple). Despite the legalized nature of their relationships, civil union couples did not differ on any measure from same-sex couples who were not in civil unions. However, same-sex couples not in civil unions were more likely to have ended their relationships than same-sex civil union or heterosexual married couples. Compared with heterosexual married participants, both types of same-sex couples reported greater relationship quality, compatibility, and intimacy and lower levels of conflict. Longitudinal predictors of relationship quality at Time 2 included less conflict, greater level of outness, and a shorter relationship length for men in same-sex relationships and included less conflict and more frequent sex for women in same-sex relationships at Time 1. PMID:18194009

Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Rothblum, Esther D; Solomon, Sondra E

2008-01-01

58

WEDDING BELL BLUES: Understanding the Same-Sex Marriage Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Same-sex marriage proponents defend their position by arguing that government neutrality is violated when the state allows only people of different genders to marry one another. Yet the same-sex marriage position is far from neutral. It asserts that government ought to prefer a view of human nature that sees human institutions, such as marriage and the family, as artificial

Francis J. Beckwith

1996-01-01

59

Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

Hand, Michael

2013-01-01

60

Same-Sex Marriage: A Current South African Christian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with same-sex marriage from a Biblical Christian perspective. It is not a treatise on homosexuality from either a Biblical or sociological point of view. The article deals with homosexuality, per se, only in as much as is necessary to examine the question of the Biblical Christian stance concerning same-sex marriage. The article starts with a brief overview

Christopher Peppler

61

Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

2008-01-01

62

Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

2013-01-01

63

Gendered (s)explorations among same-sex attracted young people in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to import a more complex understanding of gendered subjectivity into discussions of young people and homosexuality, and is based on an Australian national survey (n=749) of same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) aged between 14 and 21. Results revealed significant gender differences with regard to patterns of sexual attraction, behaviour and identity labels among participants. For the young men

DEBORAH DEMPSEY; LYNNE HILLIER; LYN HARRISON

2001-01-01

64

Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

2008-01-01

65

Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was

Kimberly F. Balsam; Theodore P. Beauchaine; Esther D. Rothblum; Sondra E. Solomon

2008-01-01

66

Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine ongoing close friendships among same-sex adults. An analysis of frequency and depth of conversational topics was undertaken. The self-reports of female participants showed that they converse more frequently than the male participants about intimate topics and daily and shared activities. Sex differences on depth of topic discussion also emerged, with females reporting greater depth

Elizabeth J. Aries; Fern L. Johnson

1983-01-01

67

Assortative matching among same-sex and different-sex couples in the United States, 1990–2000  

PubMed Central

Same-sex couples are less likely to be homogamous than different-sex couples on a variety of characteristics including race/ethnicity, age, and education. This study confirms results from previous studies which used 1990 U.S. census data and extends previous analyses to examine changes from 1990 to 2000. We find that same-sex male cohabitors are generally the least likely to resemble one another, followed by same-sex female cohabitors, different-sex cohabitors, and different-sex married couples. Despite estimated growth in the numbers of same-sex couples in the population and the increasing acceptance of same-sex unions, we find little evidence of diminishing differences in the resemblance of same- and different-sex couples between 1990 and 2000, with the possible exception of educational homogamy. PMID:20333322

Schwartz, Christine R.; Graf, Nikki L.

2010-01-01

68

Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children.  

PubMed

Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several states offer partner-benefit programs. Studying the effect of these various forms of unions on children could inform the debate over gay marriage to the benefit of all sides of the argument. PMID:16158732

Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

2005-01-01

69

Sexual Consent Behaviors in Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consent is a key issue in defining sexual coercion yet few researchers have analyzed sexual consent attitudes and behaviors and, to date, there has been no published research examining sexual consent within same-sex relationships. The main objective of this study was to identify which behaviors people use to ask for and to indicate sexual consent to their same-sex partner(s). A

Melanie A. Beres; Edward Herold; Scott B. Maitland

2004-01-01

70

Exposing Sex Stereotypes in Recent Same-Sex Marriage Jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines sex discrimination arguments in recent same-sex marriage cases. Since 1993, when the Hawaii Supreme Court held in Baehr v. Lewin that denying same-sex couples the right to marry could state a claim of sex discrimination, every state high court to consider the issue has rejected the claim. But many recent decisions have in fact relied upon sex-based

Deborah A. Widiss; Elizabeth Rosenblatt; Douglas NeJaime

2007-01-01

71

Beyond Interstate Recognition in the Same-Sex Marriage Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national same-sex marriage debate has been dominated for the past decade by the interstate recognition issue. This article seeks to shift the focus of the debate to same-sex marriage prohibitions themselves and their incompatibility with several limitations of federal constitutional law.\\u000aAfter showing the legal irrelevance of the Defense of Marriage Act to the interstate recognition issue, the article

Gary J. Simson

2006-01-01

72

Risk assessment of adolescents with same-sex relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the risk status on health and behavior for those with same-sex partners and those without.Methods: Add Health data provide a sample of 20,745 adolescents in grades 7 through 12 interviewed at home. The risk statuses of respondents with no partners, same-sex-only partners, and partners of both sexes were compared to respondents with opposite-sex partners only. Respondents were

J. Richard Udry; Kim Chantala

2002-01-01

73

Influence of male competition on male mating behaviour in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, male mating behaviour is corre- lated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mex- icana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the

74

Influence of male competition on male mating behaviour in the cave molly, Poecilia mexicana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species, male mating behaviour is correlated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mexicana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the presence of

Rüdiger Riesch; Ingo Schlupp; Martin Plath

2006-01-01

75

What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion  

PubMed Central

While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage. PMID:20596244

Scherrer, Kristin S.

2010-01-01

76

Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.  

PubMed

It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170

Trandafir, Mircea

2015-02-01

77

The demographics of same-sex marriages in Norway and Sweden.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the demographics of same-sex marriages--that is, registered partnerships-in Norway and Sweden. We give an overview of the demographic characteristics of the spouses of these partnerships, study patterns of their divorce risks, and compare the dynamics of same-sex couples with those of heterosexual marriages. We use longitudinal information from the population registers of the two countries that cover all persons in partnerships. Our demographic analyses include information on characteristics such as age, sex, geographic background, experience of previous opposite-sex marriage, parenthood, and educational attainment of the partners involved. The results show that in many respects, the distributions of married populations on these characteristics differ by the sex composition of the couples. Patterns in divorce risks are rather similar in same-sex and opposite-sex marriages, but divorce-risk levels are considerably higher in same-sex marriages. The divorce riskforfemale partnerships is double that for male partnerships. PMID:16579209

Andersson, Gunnar; Noack, Turid; Seierstad, Ane; Weedon-Fekjaer, Harald

2006-02-01

78

Table of Contents Pg. 1 Qualified Same-Sex Domestic Partner Certification Instructions  

E-print Network

Table of Contents Pg. 1 Qualified Same-Sex Domestic Partner Certification Instructions Pg. 2 Qualified Same-Sex Domestic Partner Affidavit Pg. 3 Qualified Same-Sex Domestic Partner Declaration of Tax at this time to continue offering benefits to qualified same-sex domestic partners. Qualified same-sex domestic

Ziurys, Lucy M.

79

An Economic Analysis of Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institution of marriage is the foundation of the family and of society. Even though it is a private institution, it has been regulated by society, depending on the specific time and history, religious perceptions, legal rules or customs, and norms. According to historical judicial interpretation, marriage has been viewed as a heterosexual union, same-sex rela-tionships are precluded from the

Christina Müller

80

Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

Potter, Daniel

2012-01-01

81

Cultural Conflicts, Civil Rights, and Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A second temporal pathway has been composed by social groups concerned with the extension of civil rights law. The social construction of legal meanings that provided expansive equal protection logic to plaintiffs demanding recognition of same-sex marriage has been energetically opposed by some conservative social movements, state legislatures, Congress and the Executive. Where opposition to public recognition of gays and

Jon Goldberg-Hiller

82

CALIFORNIA HIGH COURT VOIDS SAME-SEX MARRIAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

By unanimous vote, the seven justices of the California Supreme Court ruled on August 12 in Lockyer v. City and County of San Francisco, 95 P.3d 459, 17 Cal. Rptr. 3d 225, that local of- ficials in San Francisco could not unilaterally defy the state's marriage law and issue licenses to same-sex couples. Suggesting that \\

Arthur S. Leonard; Ian Chesir-Teran; Allen Drexel; Joseph Griffin; Alan J. Jacobs; Steven Kolodny; Sharon McGowan; Daniel R Schaffer; Audrey E. Weinberger; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong

2004-01-01

83

Religion and Public Opinion about Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to analyze the relationship between religion, measured in terms of religious affiliation and religiosity, and public opinion about same-sex marriage, civil unions, and a federal constitutional amendment that would prohibit gay marriage. Copyright (c) 2006 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Laura R. Olson; Wendy Cadge; James T. Harrison

2006-01-01

84

Friendship: Communication and interactional patterns in same-sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the classic work of Georg Simmel on dyadic intimacy and dependency and more recent work on self-disclosure, this study uses subjective accounts to compare same-sex dyadic friendships. Past research has neglected the important dimension of content. Thus, a major purpose was to specify three content levels of communication — topical, relational, and personal — and to determine sex

Lynne R. Davidson; Lucile Duberman

1982-01-01

85

Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

2006-01-01

86

Domestic Violence between Same-Sex Partners: Implications for Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…

Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.

2003-01-01

87

Divorce-Risk Patterns in Same-Sex \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides an investigation into patterns in divorce risks of partners in same-sex marriages, or registered partnerships, in Norway and Sweden. A comparison with patterns in divorce risks in heterosexual marriages is provided. Our study is based on longitudinal information from the population registers of the two countries, covering all persons in partnerships. Our demographic analyses involve information

Gunnar Andersson; Turid Noack; Ane Seierstad; Harald Weedon-Fekjær

88

Same-sex social behavior in meadow voles: Multiple and rapid formation of attachments.  

PubMed

Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring-summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles. PMID:19419672

Beery, Annaliese K; Routman, David M; Zucker, Irving

2009-04-20

89

Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.  

PubMed

Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

2014-10-01

90

Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animals it has been shown that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by intrauterine position. Thus fetuses located between two male fetuses are exposed to higher levels of testosterone (T) than fetuses situated between two female fetuses or one female and one male fetus. In a group of opposite-sex (OS) twin girls and same-sex (SS) twin girls a potential

Celina C. C. Cohen-Bendahan; Jan K. Buitelaar; Stephanie H. M. van Goozen; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis

2004-01-01

91

Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons.  

PubMed

Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. 'social connectedness') with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes--females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

Archie, Elizabeth A; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

2014-10-22

92

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations.  

PubMed

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

Massey, Sean G; Merriwether, Ann M; Garcia, Justin R

2013-01-01

93

Same-sex and cross-sex relationships.  

PubMed

This study examines same-sex and cross-sex close relationships of older adults using a national probability sample survey. Specifically, we focus on three relational characteristics: psychological closeness, geographical proximity, and support exchange. These characteristics are examined with four types of close relationships: spouse, children, siblings, and friends. Results indicate that although older persons tend to have more women in the network and receive more support from those women, they are not necessarily closer, either psychologically or geographically, to the women than to the men in their network. The data also suggest a noticeable shift from same-sex alliance to female salience in the networks when older men, as well as women, become widowed and require more support. The findings are discussed in light of three principles which have guided research on sex differences in close relationships: relation hierarchy, femaleness, and sex commonality. PMID:8931625

Akiyama, H; Elliott, K; Antonucci, T C

1996-11-01

94

Same-sex marriage and the Irish Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the recent Irish High Court case of Zappone and Gilligan v. Revenue Commissioners and Others, a challenge to the constitutionality of the state's interpretation of the Irish Tax Code vis-à-vis the foreign marriage of a same-sex couple and their right to marry each other under Irish law. The right to marry and the nature of marriage are

Aisling OSullivan

2009-01-01

95

Seeking Help for Same-Sex Relationship Abuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hundred ninety-nine ethnically diverse gay men, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people were surveyed regarding use of resources to stop same-sex relationship abuses. Just over half (54%) reported seeking help, and most resources, with the exception of police, shelter and crisis hotlines, were considered helpful. When asked about perceived services needed, most participants focused on intra-psychic solutions rather than use

Susan C. Turell

2000-01-01

96

Comparing male escorts' sexual behaviour with their last male client versus non-commercial male partner.  

PubMed

Apart from research suggesting that male escorts are less likely to have condomless anal sex (CAS) with their male clients compared with male non-clients, little is known about how male escorts' behaviour differs between their clients and non-clients. In spring 2013, 387 Internet-based male escorts completed an online survey that included identical questions about their sexual behaviour with their last male client and male non-client. Encounters with non-commercial partners were significantly more likely to involve a greater range of sexual behaviours, including giving oral sex to partner, kissing, anal receptive sex and sex without condoms. These findings suggest that escorts may display a greater sexual repertoire with non-commercial partners compared to their clients. Encounters with non-commercial partners were also rated as more satisfying than with clients. Condomless anal sex was less common with clients, suggesting that escorts and clients may take active roles in mitigating risks for HIV and STI transmission with each other. Although the modal response for CAS was to abstain, more than half of participants reported CAS during at least one of the two encounters assessed. Behavioural and/or biomedical HIV-prevention strategies would be appropriate for some male escorts to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:25277601

Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2015-01-01

97

Office of Human Resources, SDP001, rev. 3/14 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership, Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership  

E-print Network

Office of Human Resources, SDP001, rev. 3/14 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership, Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership For Benefit Coverage I, ____________________________________________________________ , and ___________________________________________________________________ Employee's Full Name (print) Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Full Name (print

98

The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex  

E-print Network

The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex Marriage against same-sex marriage, organized a summer school near Paris to celebrate a year of mobilization in April 2013, legalizing same-sex marriage and the adoption of children by same-sex married couples

Boyer, Edmond

99

The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptot* *ically Normal  

E-print Network

The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptot* *ically Normal "* *Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n_(2_n_-_1 by Maple package SameSexMarriages downloadable from http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/SameSex

Zeilberger, Doron

100

Environmental modulation of same-sex affiliative behavior in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080

Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving

2015-03-01

101

Misconstructing Sexuality in Same-Sex Marriage Jurisprudence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on sociology, queer studies, \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009and legal scholarship, this Comment develops a textual methodology to study \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009sexuality in court opinions. In \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009particular, this methodology uses inconsistencies between opinions to highlight \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009how courts rely on cultural assumptions. \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009This Comment applies this methodology to eighteen state same-sex \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009marriage cases, identifying four analytic models of sexuality: sexuality \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009consists only of behaviors; sexuality belongs

Jeffrey Kosbie

2011-01-01

102

Same-sex and opposite-sex teacher model influences on science career commitment among high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the relationship between the science career commitment and the science teacher models of 141 female and 129 male high school students. On the basis of earlier findings, it was predicted that Ss with same-sex teacher models would indicate a higher science career commitment. Furthermore, it was predicted that perceived teacher attractiveness and amount of science-related teacher contact would affect

Jayne E. Stake; Charles R. Granger

1978-01-01

103

Vermont Poised to Approve Same-Sex Civil Unions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acknowledging that it will likely cost some of them their jobs, on April 19, Vermont's Senate approved a bill establishing marriage-like civil unions for gay couples by a vote of nineteen to eleven. In the face of numerous hostile letters and phone calls, and even vandalism to their cars, the Senators, including two Republicans, displayed considerable courage in approving a measure simply because they believed it was the right thing to do regardless of the political consequences. The vote followed passage of a similar bill in the House, which was introduced after a ruling by the State Supreme Court in December that same-sex couples were being unconstitutionally denied the benefits of marriage. Provided the House approves the slight changes made by the Senate, Democratic Governor Howard Dean has said he will sign the bill, perhaps as early as June. Among other things, the legislation would allow same-sex couples to form civil unions that entitle them to the approximately 300 rights and benefits available to married couples under state law. These couples would still not be entitled to federal benefits available to married couples in regard to taxes and Social Security, and it is highly unlikely that any other state will recognize the unions, at least for the present time. Still, the bill goes well beyond any present legislation and is widely regarded, by supporters and opponents alike, as a milestone for gay civil rights.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

104

Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study.  

PubMed

Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669

Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare

2015-03-01

105

Straightening out the queer? Same?sex experience and attraction among young people in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of same?sex experience, from deep kissing, through petting to genital contact, same?sex romantic attraction and reported same?sex arousal in a representative sample of young men and women aged 17–18 in Norway. While same?sex experiences were reported as being more prevalent among young women (27.4%) than among young men (6.5%), the

Kristinn Hegna; Camilla Jordheim Larsen

2007-01-01

106

Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Help Exchanges in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined same-sex and cross-sex help exchanges in reading and math classes among third and fifth-grade students. Students sought help more frequently from same sex. Girls, more than boys, reported liking their boy helpers as much as their same-sex helpers. (Author/JAZ)

Nelson-LeGall, Sharon; DeCooke, Peggy A.

1987-01-01

107

3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

2011-01-01

108

77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...is amending its regulations to add same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

2012-07-20

109

76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...amend its regulations to include same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

2011-03-03

110

Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity  

E-print Network

1 Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity Reviews & Critical Commentary, online review, posted on May 8, 2014, http://councilforeuropeanstudies.org/critcom/same-sex-unions-in-europe-some-observations-on- european-diversity/ Maks Banens CMW ­ CNRS, University of Lyon Same-sex unions gained considerable legal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex

Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

2012-01-01

112

Sexual Dis-Orientation: Transgendered People and Same-Sex Marriage  

E-print Network

same-sex marriage became very real; in 1993, the Hawaii Supreme Court,Supreme Court which states that the restriction against same-sex marriageSupreme Court or the passage of an amendment to the Hawaii constitution forbidding such mar- riages, same-sex marriage

Coombs, Mary

1998-01-01

113

Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

2009-01-01

114

BRIEF REPORT Ovarian Cycle Phase and Same-Sex Mating Behavior in  

E-print Network

BRIEF REPORT Ovarian Cycle Phase and Same-Sex Mating Behavior in Japanese Macaque Females ANN C. O, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin The relationship of the ovarian cycle phase to same-sex mounting of same-sex and heterosexual mounting behavior in the females were analyzed for phase variation during

Fedigan, Linda M.

115

The Brain Reaction to Viewing Faces of Opposite- and Same-Sex Romantic Partners  

PubMed Central

We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual) and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual). We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups. PMID:21209829

Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul

2010-01-01

116

Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.  

PubMed

For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

Ramello, Stefano

2013-04-01

117

Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage  

PubMed Central

Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

2013-01-01

118

Asymmetric reproductive character displacement in male aggregation behaviour  

PubMed Central

Reproductive character displacement—the evolution of traits that minimize reproductive interactions between species—can promote striking divergence in male signals or female mate preferences between populations that do and do not occur with heterospecifics. However, reproductive character displacement can affect other aspects of mating behaviour. Indeed, avoidance of heterospecific interactions might contribute to spatial (or temporal) aggregation of conspecifics. We examined this possibility in two species of hybridizing spadefoot toad (genus Spea). We found that in Spea bombifrons sympatric males were more likely than allopatric males to associate with calling males. Moreover, contrary to allopatric males, sympatric S. bombifrons males preferentially associated with conspecific male calls. By contrast, Spea multiplicata showed no differences between sympatry and allopatry in likelihood to associate with calling males. Further, sympatric and allopatric males did not differ in preference for conspecifics. However, allopatric S. multiplicata were more variable than sympatric males in their responses. Thus, in S. multiplicata, character displacement may have refined pre-existing aggregation behaviour. Our results suggest that heterospecific interactions can foster aggregative behaviour that might ultimately contribute to clustering of conspecifics. Such clustering can generate spatial or temporal segregation of reproductive activities among species and ultimately promote reproductive isolation. PMID:21177683

Pfennig, Karin S.; Stewart, Alyssa B.

2011-01-01

119

Asymmetric reproductive character displacement in male aggregation behaviour.  

PubMed

Reproductive character displacement--the evolution of traits that minimize reproductive interactions between species--can promote striking divergence in male signals or female mate preferences between populations that do and do not occur with heterospecifics. However, reproductive character displacement can affect other aspects of mating behaviour. Indeed, avoidance of heterospecific interactions might contribute to spatial (or temporal) aggregation of conspecifics. We examined this possibility in two species of hybridizing spadefoot toad (genus Spea). We found that in Spea bombifrons sympatric males were more likely than allopatric males to associate with calling males. Moreover, contrary to allopatric males, sympatric S. bombifrons males preferentially associated with conspecific male calls. By contrast, Spea multiplicata showed no differences between sympatry and allopatry in likelihood to associate with calling males. Further, sympatric and allopatric males did not differ in preference for conspecifics. However, allopatric S. multiplicata were more variable than sympatric males in their responses. Thus, in S. multiplicata, character displacement may have refined pre-existing aggregation behaviour. Our results suggest that heterospecific interactions can foster aggregative behaviour that might ultimately contribute to clustering of conspecifics. Such clustering can generate spatial or temporal segregation of reproductive activities among species and ultimately promote reproductive isolation. PMID:21177683

Pfennig, Karin S; Stewart, Alyssa B

2011-08-01

120

Correlates of Same-Sex Sexuality in Heterosexually Identified Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, little is known about heterosexually identified individuals who nonetheless acknowledge same-sex interests. To address this shortcoming, the prevalence of same-sex attractions, fantasies, and experiences among heterosexually identified college students was examined, as well as differences between those who are exclusively heterosexual in their interests and those who are nonexclusive because they report some same-sex attractions or fantasies. Students (N = 243)

Zhana Vrangalova; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

2010-01-01

121

Effects of sex and sex roles on same-sex touch.  

PubMed

Touch is an important aspect of nonverbal behavior. Important aspects of the relationship of gender and sex roles with same-sex touch were highlighted. 259 subjects participated in the procedure, yielding a significant difference between men and women on same-sex touch. Further, androgyny was significantly correlated with ratings on the Same-sex Touching Scale. Specific conclusions regarding these findings were discussed. PMID:8022666

Crawford, C B

1994-04-01

122

Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among

Jennifer J Power; Amaryll Perlesz; Margot J Schofield; Marian K Pitts; Rhonda Brown; Ruth McNair; Anna Barrett; Andrew Bickerdike

2010-01-01

123

A study of same sex touching attitudes: Scale development and personality predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward same sex touching is an area of considerable importance to understanding sex?role rigidity and heterosexual intimacy, and are thought to be significant to sexual adjustment and well?being. A reliable and valid scale is needed for research on same sex touching. In this article, seven phases in the development of a Likert?type scale measuring attitudes toward same sex touching

Knud S. Larsen; Jeff LeRoux

1984-01-01

124

Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex marriage was passed by a voter referendum. In

Julie L. Shulman; Gabrielle Gotta; Robert-Jay Green

2012-01-01

125

Gender Politics and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores policy and legal debates over same-sex marriage in the United States, focusing on the indirect effects of the struggle over same-sex marriage and how these implicate the interests of women, including women in heterosexual relationships. The paper highlights the effects of the institutional structures of American politics, which have shaped the same-sex marriage debate in particular ways,

Miriam Smith

2010-01-01

126

The Future Impact of Same-Sex Marriage: More Questions Than Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Same-sex relationships have already significantly altered family law, by leading to new formal relationship statuses and incorporation of the principle that both of a child’s legal parents can be of the same sex. This essay explores further changes that may lie ahead as same-sex marriage debates increasingly affect both family law and the social meanings of marriage. Marriage as an

Nan D. Hunter

2012-01-01

127

Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.  

PubMed

Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

2014-11-01

128

Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate?=?81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (??=?2.93, 95% CI?=?0.35 to 5.52, P?=?.03; ??=?5.60, 95% CI?=?2.69 to 8.52, P?=?<.001; and ??=?6.01, 95% CI?=?2.84 to 9.17, P?=?<.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (??=?-3.03, 95% CI?=?-5.86 to -0.21, P?=?.04; ??=?-10.45, 95% CI?=?-18.48 to -2.42, P?=?.01; and ??=?-9.82, 95% CI?=?-17.86 to -1.78, P?=?.02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (? =0.94, 95% CI?=?0.08 to 1.81, P?=?.03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in health policy, improving child health outcomes. PMID:24952766

2014-01-01

129

Female Same-Sex Families in the Dialectics of Marginality and Conformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and

Ana Marija Sobo?an

2011-01-01

130

Poaching, promiscuity, and deceit: Combatting mating rivalry in same-sex friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

If humans faced recurrently over evolutionary history the adaptive problem of competition with same-sex friends for mates, they may have evolved psychological mechanisms designed to prevent and combat mating rivalry with same-sex friends. Four studies were conducted to test hypotheses about the design of these mechanisms. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 406 and N = 342, respectively) we

APRIL L. BLESKE; TODD K. SHACKELFORD

2001-01-01

131

“Queer Eye” for Social Work: Rethinking Pedagogy and Practice with Same-sex Attracted Young People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant discourses on sexualities construct limited representations and understanding of same-sex attracted young people, often resulting in material and detrimental effects for young people who do not fit the heterosexual mould. Traditionally, social work theory and practice with same-sex attracted young people has relied on ethnic and essentialised models for understanding sexual difference. In the present article, the author reviews

Paul Willis

2007-01-01

132

Indigenous African marriage and same-sex partnerships: Conflicts and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 the Constitutional Court of South Africa ruled the common law definition of marriage to be unconstitutional because it did not accord same-sex couples the same benefits and responsibilities as heterosexual couples. This defect was corrected by the legislature with the enactment of the Civil unions Act. The recognition of same-sex partnerships or marriages by the Act reflects and

Gugulethu Nkosi

2007-01-01

133

Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

2012-01-01

134

Same-sex Couples and the Law: Recent Developments in the British Isles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article chronicles the treatment of same-sex couples in England and the Republic of Ireland in recent years in order to ascertain (i) the impact that incorporation of the European Convention into the domestic law of each State has had on the rights of same-sex couples, (ii) what the introduction of civil partnership legislation might mean for the future of

Brian Tobin

2009-01-01

135

Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Where We Are and Where We Are Going  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal landscape for same-sex couples seeking to marry has shifted dramatically over the last five years. On October 10, 2008, the Connecticut Supreme Court became the third state high court to rule that its state constitution could not sustain a statutory framework that excludes same-sex couples from marrying, following the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on November 18, 2003, and

Jennifer Levi

2009-01-01

136

Connecticut Legislates for Civil Unions and Against Same-Sex Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

For only the second time, a state has legislated to provide significant legal recognition for same-sex partners without being under court order to take such an action, as Connecticut en- acted a Civil Union Act (substitute Senate Bill 963, as amended by the House) that essentially provides all the state law rights and responsi- bilities of spouses for those same-sex

Arthur S. Leonard; Alan J. Jacobs; Sharon McGowan; Tara Scavo; Daniel R Schaffer; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong

2005-01-01

137

CALIFORNIA SUPREME COURT RULES FOR SAME-SEX MARRIAGE; DECLARES SEXUAL ORIENTATION A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Supreme Court ruled in In re Marriage Cases, 2008 WL 2051892 (May 15, 2008), that same-sex couples are entitled to marry in that state, and that same-sex couples married elsewhere are entitled to have their marriages recognized as valid in California. Furthermore, the court held that sexual orienta- tion is a suspect classification under the Cali- fornia Constitution,

Arthur S. Leonard; Chris Benecke; Glenn Edwards; Alan J. Jacobs; Bryan Johnson; Steven Kolodny; Alvin Lee; Ruth Uselton; Eric Wursthorn; Daniel R Schaffer

138

The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Washington State  

E-print Network

Center tax, the Tourism Promotion Area town guests. 8 Atourism expenditures for non-resident same-sex couples and the total out-of townand Tourism Figures by Resident Same-Sex Couples and their Guests SPENDING Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Out-of-Town

Kastanis, Angeliki; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Herman, Jody L.

2012-01-01

139

Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…

Thyer, Bruce A.

2007-01-01

140

Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…

Howard, J. Paul R.

2003-01-01

141

Client Discourses on the Process of Seeking Same-Sex Couple Counselling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…

Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie

2013-01-01

142

Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

2009-01-01

143

Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…

Herek, Gregory M.

2006-01-01

144

The Construction and Enactment of Same-Sex Marriage in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how same-sex partnership recognition (SSPR) was enacted into policy in Argentina. It begins by looking at the history and structure of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movements to explain why same-sex marriage, and not civil unions, became the primary goal. Next, it considers what the constitutional and statutory law was before the marriage bill passed

Shawn Schulenberg

2012-01-01

145

Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

2013-01-01

146

Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: Subverting the Heterosexist Paradigm of the Title VII  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the proper starting point is to provide protection for gay men and lesbians against discrimination and harassment. Until there is such protection, any attempt to use Title VII to regulate same-sex sexual harassment will intensify the privileging of one kind of same-sex interaction over another: straight subordinates will be protected from gay supervisors, while gay subordinates

Carolyn Grose

1995-01-01

147

The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal Shalosh B. EKHAD1  

E-print Network

The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal gets married. Then the expectation of the random variable "Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n (2 n - 1://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/pj.html . Accompanied by Maple package SameSexMarriages downloadable from http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/SameSex

Zeilberger, Doron

148

Desirable rights: same-sex sexual subjectivities, socio-economic transformations, global flows and boundaries--in India and beyond.  

PubMed

Sexual rights are increasingly and unevenly advanced internationally as constitutive of progressive legal possibilities for same-sex desiring subjects. Legislative progress in this area has taken place in the context of recognition of same-sex sexual subjects within the globalising flow of neo-liberal political-economic ideologies in some parts of the word, and resurgent homophobia as a countervailing trend elsewhere (or indeed even within the same context). Ambivalent responses to sexual rights praxis in people's day-to-day lives indicate complex relationships between sexual subjectivity, economy, law, the state, and people's most intimate aspirations. Rights on grounds of same-sex sexualities may or may not be perceived as universally desirable, even among those people who might otherwise be imagined as their beneficiaries. Given this, the relationship between sexual subjectivities, political economies, and rights must be understood in terms of multifaceted refractions, attending to generative and curtailing possibilities--imagined in people's differing responses to free-market capital, legislation, and possibilities for livelihood. These issues are explored in respect of ethnographic work in West Bengal, India, with a particular focus on male-bodied subjects who evince both masculine and feminine subjectivities, and in respect of recent contestations in law, polity, and sexual rights praxis. PMID:25162750

Boyce, Paul

2014-01-01

149

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

150

Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

2002-01-01

151

Behavioural responses of male killer whales to a `leapfrogging' vessel  

E-print Network

Behavioural responses of male killer whales to a `leapfrogging' vessel Rob Williams* , David E together to identify whalewatching practices that minimise disturbance to northern resident killer whales. Local guidelines request that boaters approach whales no closer than 100m. Additionally, boaters

152

Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.  

PubMed Central

Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

Willcox, R R

1981-01-01

153

Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders.  

PubMed

During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

2013-01-01

154

Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders  

PubMed Central

During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

2013-01-01

155

Money, Morals, and Modernity: Making Sense of Same-Sex Sexualities in Malawi  

E-print Network

same-sex sexualities in the name of human rights andhuman rights activists who worked to reframe debates about homosexuality and same-sexsex sexualities as incongruent with the global discourses concerning democracy and human

McKay, Tara

2012-01-01

156

Exploratory and antipredator behaviours differ between territorial and nonterritorial male lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative territorial tactics may be part of a broader behavioural tendency that can influence the expression of other behavioural traits. We compared the exploratory and predator avoidance behaviours of territorial and floater male water skinks, Eulamprus heatwolei, to identify whether these alternative behavioural tactics are part of a broader behavioural dichotomy. Floater and territorial males differed in their tendencies to

Jessica Stapley; J. Scott Keogh

2004-01-01

157

Care, Intimacy and Same-Sex Partnership in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article addresses the emergence of same-sex relationships as a public policy issue in contemporary society. Historical and cross-cultural evidence shows how same-sex relationships have been an integral part of the kinship system, household economies and iconography of many societies, and that desire and relationship are produced in diverse ways at the confluence of kinship, gender and life stage expectations

Barry D. Adam

2004-01-01

158

Religion and Support for Same-Sex Marriage: Implications from the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the existing scholarship on the relationship between various religion-related concepts and support for same-sex marriage. From this literature, this paper argues that research examining the influence of religion on attitudes about same-sex marriage must attend not only to religious tradition and religiosity, but also to the everyday theologies (Moon, 2004) that people of faith use to construct

N. Eugene Walls

2010-01-01

159

Difference without dominance: Children's talk in mixed- and same-sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interaction. We tape-recorded the conversations of 43 pairs of Caucasian working-class children playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children appear to develop gender-differentiated speech styles. Boys brag and insult their opponents in both mixed- and same-sex conditions more often than do girls. Girls talk

Laura A. McCloskey; Lerita M. Coleman

1992-01-01

160

Civilized Unions, Civilized Rights: Same-Sex Relationships in Aotearoa New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research on same-sex relationships has involved comparisons with opposite-sex relationships, often in order to develop frameworks to understand the dynamics of such same-sex relationships, or to demonstrate readiness for legal recognition such as marriage or “civil union.” Civil unions for both same- and opposite-sex couples have been legal in New Zealand since April 2005. A large national study of

Mark Henrickson

2010-01-01

161

The Interaction of Sex, Verbal, and Nonverbal Cues in Same-Sex First Encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment examined sex differences in responses to various combinations of verbal and nonverbal content during a same-sex\\u000a interaction. Fifty men and thirty women participated in a same-sex interview task with a confederate posing as another participant.\\u000a Confederates disclosed either superficial or emotional information, and they faced away from or toward the participant, when\\u000a answering questions. Results revealed that men

Jonathan S. Gore

2009-01-01

162

Conflicts of Law and Policy Relating to Same-Sex Marriage Recognition in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how Wisconsin courts will treat the marriages of same-sex couples who were validly married in other states; specifically focusing on recognition of the incidents—such as divorce, property ownership, and inheritance—stemming from those marriages. After examining Wisconsin conflict-of-laws jurisprudence, the article describes the public policy problems that may result if Wisconsin courts do not recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages.

Zachary Willenbrink

2010-01-01

163

Is Same-Sex Marriage a Threat to Traditional Marriages?: How Courts Struggle with the Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the threat posed by the same-sex marriage to the traditional institution of marriages. It provides a brief overview of the manners of the U.S. courts' legal recognition of same-sex marriage and is contrasted with the approach of the German Federal Constitutional Court. It regarded German's judicial approach of the traditional institution argument, which provides a clearly explained

Patrick Busch

2011-01-01

164

Wedding Bell Blues: The Income Tax Consequences of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, gay and lesbian couples have gone to court to force the government to allow same-sex couples to marry. Largely unnoticed during the debates surrounding same-sex marriages are their economic consequences, including the impact on government tax collections. It is well-known that a couple's joint income tax burden can change with marriage. Many couples, especially two- earner couples with similar

James Robert Alm; M. V. Lee Badgett; Leslie A. Whittington

2000-01-01

165

Northern Enlightenment: Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers have an ethical and professional responsibility to promote social justice and equality for oppressed groups, including sexual minorities. Advocating for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage is one way to enact this responsibility. The legal recognition of same-sex marriage is a significant accomplishment toward equality for gay and lesbian Canadians—one in which the social work profession played a

Michael R. Woodford; Peter A. Newman; Shari Brotman; Bill Ryan

2010-01-01

166

Predicting the Support of Same-Sex Relationship Rights Among Social Work Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, the United States has seen several instances of legislative action on the topic of same-sex marriages and civil unions. As some studies explored public reactions to such laws, the perspectives of social workers and social work students have mostly been ignored. In addressing part of this oversight, this paper looks at the approval of same-sex relationship rights

Eric Swank; Lisa Raiz

2010-01-01

167

Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent’s

Gregory M. Herek

2006-01-01

168

Delinquency, Victimization, and Substance Use Among Adolescents With Female Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether parental sexual orientation has an impact on human development has important implications for psychological theories and for legal policy. This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. different-sex parents), family and relationship variables, substance use, delinquency, and victimization of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents living with female same-sex couples and 44 adolescents living with different-sex

Jennifer L. Wainright; Charlotte J. Patterson

2006-01-01

169

Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and

Nigel Dickson; Charlotte Paul; Peter Herbison

2003-01-01

170

Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and rela- tionship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses

Jennifer L. Wainright; Stephen T. Russell; Charlotte J. Patterson

2004-01-01

171

The demographics of same-sex marriages in Norway and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the demographics of same-sex marriages—that is, registered partnerships—in Norway and Sweden.\\u000a We give an overview of the demographic characteristics of the spouses of these partnerships, study patterns of their divorce\\u000a risks, and compare the dynamics of same-sex couples with those of heterosexual marriages. We use longitudinal information\\u000a from the population registers of the two countries that

Gunnar Andersson; Turid Noack; Ane Seierstad; Harald Weedon-Fekjaer

2006-01-01

172

Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

2013-03-01

173

Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.  

PubMed

We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

2014-04-01

174

Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.  

PubMed

Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

2014-11-01

175

Same-sex Sexuality and Adolescent Psychological Well-being: The Influence of Sexual Orientation, Early Reports of Same-sex Attraction, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth

Justin Jager; Pamela E. Davis-Kean

2010-01-01

176

Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Brussels  

E-print Network

Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Excellence/European Studies Center. While same-sex marriage was long regarded as the privilege of a few activists. Given the diversity of countries where same-sex marriage is currently under discussion

Machery, Edouard

177

Stigma and intimacy in same-sex relationships: a narrative approach.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in romantic relationships experience stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from widespread social devaluation of same-sex relationships. Research on same-sex couples has demonstrated a negative association between experiences of stigma and relationship quality. However, critical questions remain unanswered regarding how experiences of stigma become more or less meaningful within the context of same-sex relationships. This paper presents a study of the stories that a purposive sample of 99 individuals in same-sex relationships wrote about their relational high points, low points, decisions, and goals, as well as their experiences of stigma directly related to their relationships. Narrative analysis of these stories revealed that participants utilized several psychological strategies for making meaning of their experiences of stigma within the context of their relationships. Some participants framed stigma as having a negative impact on their relationships, while others framed stigma as relevant, but external to their lives. Some participants saw stigma as providing an opportunity to (re)define notions of commitment and relational legitimacy. Additionally, many participants framed stigma as bringing them closer to their partners and strengthening the bond within their relationships. The results of this study illuminate the psychological strategies individuals in same-sex couples use to make meaning of, cope with, and overcome societal devaluation thereby furthering understandings of the association between stigma and intimacy within marginalized relationships. PMID:21355641

Frost, David M

2011-02-01

178

In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

2012-10-01

179

Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes  

PubMed Central

The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a ‘roving male’ tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833

Seeber, Peter A.; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André

2013-01-01

180

Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes.  

PubMed

The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a 'roving male' tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833

Seeber, Peter A; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André

2013-10-23

181

Inter-population variation in male mating behaviours in the sailfin mollie, Poecilia latipinna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Male sailfin mollies show size-dependent variation in sexual behaviour. The level of variation between six north Florida populations in rates of condition-dependent behaviours was estimated and whether behavioural variation is ordered with respect to male body size distributions was determined. In five of six populations, courtship display rates increased with male length, supporting previous evidence. Several results were not

MARGARET B. PTACEK; JOSEPH TRAVIS

1996-01-01

182

Enigmatic Liaisons in Lepidoptera: A Review of Same-Sex Courtship and Copulation in Butterflies and Moths  

PubMed Central

Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera. PMID:23452066

Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

2012-01-01

183

Beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: Spanish and Chilean university students.  

PubMed

The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children. A total of 491 participants completed the study (208 Spaniards and 283 Chileans). The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex (men have a greater degree of rejection), traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection. The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed. PMID:25012637

Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Cardenas-Castro, Manuel

2014-01-01

184

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

2012-01-01

185

Correlates of Individual Versus Joint Participation in Online Survey Research with Same-Sex Male Couples.  

PubMed

Internet-based surveys are commonly utilized as a cost-effective mechanism for data collection in social and health psychology research. Little is known about the differences between partnered gay men who participate alone compared to those with partners who also agree to participate. A sample of 260 partnered gay/bisexual men from New York City completed an online survey covering demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, substance use, and relationship satisfaction. Upon completion, they had the option to send the study link to their partner. In total, 104 (40 %) participants successfully recruited their partners, 90 (34.6 %) were unsuccessful, and 66 (25.4 %) declined the option to refer their partners. Men who did not refer their partners were significantly older, in relationships longer, and reported higher personal income. Participants who successfully recruited partners reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction. While generalizability is limited given the diversity of methodological factors that influence research participation, these data provide an initial insight into the effects on sample composition imposed by the implementation of dyadic (vs. unpaired) designs in online studies. PMID:25432879

Starks, Tyrel J; Millar, Brett M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2014-11-29

186

Neural activation during anticipation of opposite-sex and same-sex faces in heterosexual men and women.  

PubMed

Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli. PMID:23128082

Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard

2013-02-01

187

Gender and Friendships: Hers and His, Same-Sex and Cross-Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies investigating gender differences in friendships have assumed that friendships were same-sex relationships. Only a few studies have focused on friendships between the sexes and most of these have used college student samples. This study examined friendships of 156 professional men and women using a self-report questionnaire consisting…

Sapadin, Linda A.

188

Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Mentoring of Female Proteges: A Comparative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied mentoring relationships for 205 female retail proteges in cross- and same-sex mentoring relationships. Found no significant differences between groups on mentor and protege age differences, protege career level at relationship onset, company affiliation, mentor characteristics, benefits derived, problems reported, duration of relationship,…

Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

1991-01-01

189

Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence Against Women Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and represents the first multiple variable regression analysis of U.S.

Adam M. Messinger

2011-01-01

190

Same-sex practicing men in Tanzania from 1860 to 2010.  

PubMed

This article offers a review of published texts describing sexual relations between men in Tanzania in the period 1860-2010. It explores ways in which men who have sex with men have been named and understood; describes the sexual and social roles associated with differing same-sex identities and subjectivities; tracks politics, policies, and sociocultural expressions relating to sex between men; and explores the ways in which men's same-sex sexual practices have been responded to in the context of health and HIV. Among the impressions emerging from the historical record is that sex between men is not (and has not been) uncommon in Tanzania; that a significant conceptual distinction exists between men who are anally receptive and men who penetrate anally; and that there has been a range of views on, and opinions about, same-sex relations within the wider society. There is evidence that same-sex practicing men in Tanzania have been affected by HIV at least since 1982, with one seroprevalence study indicating that the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men was quite disproportionate as far back as 2007. However, while men who have sex with men have been defined as a "vulnerable population" with respect to HIV in national frameworks since 2003, this had not led to any significant amount of targeted HIV prevention work being reported by either local or international actors by 2010. PMID:24752788

Moen, Kåre; Aggleton, Peter; Leshabari, Melkizedeck T; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

2014-08-01

191

Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

Messinger, Adam M.

2011-01-01

192

Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

Beck, Terence A.

2013-01-01

193

Same-sex Marriage: The Cultural Wars and the Lessons of Legal History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces much of the history of marriage as the legal civil institution has changed over the centuries, resulting in the growing recognition of same-sex unions in various forms including marriage. The author posits that while marriage had it origins in religious concepts it has over the last few centuries evolved into a civil institution. In the United States

Kindregan Charles P. Jr

2004-01-01

194

Said and Unsaid: State Legislative Signaling to State Courts over Same Sex Marriage 1990–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1990 through 2004, same sex marriage emerged as a major policy issue. In responding to this controversial policy issue, many state legislatures demonstrated unusual behavior. A substantial minority of state legislatures continued to introduce new legislative bills on this topic long after the legal position of the respective state would indicate that the state had articulated a recognized and

SCOTT BARCLAY; SHAUNA FISHER

2008-01-01

195

Baehr v. Lewin: Hawaii Takes a Tentative Step to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Baehr v. Lewin, the Supreme Court of Hawaii sparked a controversy that has potential nationwide implications. The court held that three same-sex couples were entitled to an evidentiary hearing to determine if the State can demonstrate that denying the couples the right to marry under the Hawaii Marriage Law furthers compelling state interests. If the State fails its burden,

Marty K. Courson

2010-01-01

196

Marriage Makes Cents: How Law & Economics Justifies Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrew Koppelman's book presents the legal and moral case for gay equality. He contends that various arguments, such as privacy and sex discrimination, justify the equal treatment of gay men and lesbians. By analogizing the struggle for equality to the debate surrounding same-sex marriage, Koppelman suggests that although change will come, the courts are presently too far ahead of public

Ryan Nishimoto

2003-01-01

197

Case note: Same-sex Marriage in South Africa –the constitutional Court's Judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late last year the Constitutional Court of South Africa decided that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the common law definition of marriage and the statutory marriage formula was unconstitutional as it violated the rights of such couples to equality. The Court suspended the declaration of invalidity for one year to allow Parliament to enact new legislation to correct the

Beth Goldblatt

2006-01-01

198

Equal Protection, Same-Sex Marriage, and Classifying on the Basis of Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews several state court analyses of whether same-sex marriage bans violate the equal protection guarantees afforded by the respective state constitutions. The article discusses the lack of uniformity not only with respect to the result but with respect to the kind of classification that is implicated in such bans. The article concludes that unless the Supreme Court corrects

Mark Strasser

2012-01-01

199

Speak Now: Progressive Considerations on the Advent of Civil Marriage for Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amidst the political and legal storm surrounding the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's recent groundbreaking decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, which extends marriage rights to same- sex couples in Massachusetts, this Essay seeks to maintain the debate questioning the supremacy of marriage as the ideal family unit. The Essay presents examples of the subordinating effects that marriage laws

Kara S Suffredini; Madeleine V Findley

2004-01-01

200

VOTERS APPROVE STATE CONSTITUTIONAL BANS ON SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN ELEVEN STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In state-wide referenda held in eleven states during the national elections on November 2, voters approved proposed state constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage by com- fortable margins. The new amendments were approved by voters in Arkansas, Georgia, Ken- tucky, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon and Utah. Advanced speculation that the Oregon measure might be narrowly defeated

Arthur S. Leonard; Allen E. Drexel; Joseph Griffin; Alan J. Jacobs; Sharon McGowan; Tara Scavo; Daniel R Schaffer; Audrey E. Weinberger; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong

201

Media Influence and Frame Diversity in the Debate Over Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the author uses content analysis of newspaper articles to analyze the frames used in debates over constitutional amendments that legally prohibit same-sex marriage and other relationship recognition. The findings from this analysis contradict previous research on mediated public discussion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights that find polarization by values of equal rights versus traditional morality.

Katherine McFarland

2011-01-01

202

Same-Sex Marriages, Conflict of Laws and Public Policy -- a Modern Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is concerned with the policy implications of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships. It is represented by an extrapolation from the decision of Chang J. of the Hawaii Circuit Court in Baehr and Others v. Miike as well as a consideration of the reaction to that case in the United States and of the literature surrounding the policy

Frank Bates

1999-01-01

203

You are a family of four covering you, your spouse/same-sex domestic partner,  

E-print Network

2 Scenario: You are a family of four covering you, your spouse/same-sex domestic partner, and two (No X-Rays or lab work) $150 $500 Two well-child visits with immunization $0 $0 Four sick child visits

204

On the Potential and Perils of Same-Sex Marriage: A Perspective from Queer Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has witnessed a polemical debate over the merits of same-sex marriage. The crux of this acrimonious debate, the question of legalization, has entered the political vernacular, manifesting in Canada in form of the Civil Marriage Act (2005) and in the United States in form of the recently defeated Federal Marriage Amendment (2006). In this paper, I endeavor

Ajnesh Prasad

2008-01-01

205

Legislating Unequal Treatment: An Exploration of Public Policy on Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social policy surrounding same-sex marriage has resulted in subsequent changes to public policy. Over the past 15 years, increased discussion surrounding the issue has emerged, inciting the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA). It is particularly salient for social workers to keep abreast of legislation that is impacting vulnerable and disenfranchised populations. Since the

Jill M. Chonody; Kenneth Scott Smith; Melanie A. Litle

2012-01-01

206

Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

Willetts, Marion C.

2011-01-01

207

Intimacy Expectations in Same-Sex Friendships: A Prototype Interaction-Pattern Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype interaction-pattern model of intimacy expectations was proposed. The central tenet of this model was that people develop knowledge of the patterns of relating that are likely to produce intimacy in a same-sex friendship. Further, it was posited that these interaction patterns are structured as prototypes, such that some patterns of relating are regarded as more likely to create

Beverley Fehr

2004-01-01

208

Same Sex Attraction, Homophobic Bullying and Mental Health of Young People in Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a…

McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk

2008-01-01

209

Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

2012-01-01

210

Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

2011-01-01

211

Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

2008-01-01

212

One Statute for Two Spirits: Same-Sex Marriage in Indian Country  

E-print Network

On March 15, 2013, the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (LTBB) became the third tribal nation to recognize same sex unions. The LTBB statute, Waganakising Odawak Statute 2013-003, defines marriage as “the legal and voluntary union of two...

Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-04-16

213

Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

2008-01-01

214

Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

2006-01-01

215

Well-Being among Same-Sex-and Opposite-Sex-Attracted Youth at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors,…

Rivers, Ian; Noret, Nathalie

2008-01-01

216

Work-Family Interface for Same-Sex, Dual-Earner Couples: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author highlights information for career counselors to consider when addressing work-family interface with individuals who are members of same-sex, dual-earner couples or families. D. E. Super's (1990) life-span, life-space theory is the framework used to organize the literature review and discussion of current trends. Issues related to the…

Perrone, Kristin M.

2005-01-01

217

Differential Mental Development of 18 Month-Old Same-Sexed and Opposite-Sexed Twins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study which examined the performance of 48 pairs of 18-month-old twins on the Mental Development Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether score differences would be found for the three subgroups of identical, fraternal same-sexed, and fraternal opposite-sexed twins. Of the 96 subjects, 46 (23…

Black, Kathryn Norcross; Campbell, Kathleen M.

218

Well-Being Among Same-Sex- and Opposite-Sex- Attracted Youth at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors, concerns and

Ian Rivers; Nathalie Noret

2008-01-01

219

Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

2014-01-01

220

Sexually selected behaviour: red squirrel males search for reproductive success.  

PubMed

1. Differential male reproductive success is commonplace in mammals and frequently attributed to variation in morphological traits that provide individuals with a competitive advantage in female defence mating systems. Other mammalian mating systems, however, have received comparatively little attention and correlates of male reproductive success in them are less well understood. 2. We studied a free-ranging population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) exhibiting year-round individual territoriality. Males must temporarily vacate their territories to locate spatially dispersed receptive females, thereby setting the stage for a scramble competition mating system. 3. We predicted that both male annual mating success (measured as the number of females copulated with) and annual reproductive success (measured as the number of offspring sired) would be positively correlated with both search ability (measured as the number of oestrous females located over the mating season) and effort (measured as mating season home range size), generating directional sexual selection on these two metrics. 4. Mating season home ranges of males showed, on average, an almost 10-fold increase relative to those measured during the nonmating season, while those of females showed a more moderate twofold increase and both annual mating and reproductive success of males was positively correlated with search ability and search effort. 5. The spatial dispersion of females, resulting from the strict territorial social structure of red squirrels, gave rise to a predicted scramble competition mating system. Furthermore, the strength of sexual selection on behavioural traits in this mating system equalled previous estimates for morphological traits in female defence mating systems. PMID:19040682

Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Gunn, Melissa R; Coltman, David W

2009-03-01

221

Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study  

PubMed Central

Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further, the mixed method design enables triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data. A broad recruitment strategy has already enabled a large sample size with the inclusion of both gay men and lesbians. PMID:20211027

2010-01-01

222

Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement  

PubMed Central

Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments PMID:20221417

Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

2010-01-01

223

Characteristics of female sexually transmitted disease clinic clients who report same-sex behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Female STD clinic clients were categorized by report of sex partners' gender in the preceding 2 months and characterized with respect to HIV risk and STD diagnosis. Among 18,585 visits, 290 women (1.5%) reported sex exclusively with women, and 841 (4.5%) reported sex with both men and women. Relative to women reporting sex only with men, those reporting sex

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Laura A. Koutsky; H. Hunter Handsfield

2001-01-01

224

A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.  

PubMed

The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

2014-06-01

225

WHEN CLIENTS SEEK TREATMENT FOR SAME-SEX ATTRACTION: ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE RIGHT TO CHOOSE DEBATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Psychological Association’s (APA, 1992) Ethical Principle D: Respect for Rights and Dignity is an important ethical principle for psychologists who work with clients who experience same-sex attraction and seek change. Psychologists have an ethical responsibility to allow individuals to pursue treatment aimed at curbing experiences of same-sex attraction or modifying same-sex behaviors, not only because it affirms the

Mark A. Yarhouse

1998-01-01

226

The defense of marriage act (DOMA): its impact on those seeking same sex marriages.  

PubMed

Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included. PMID:15774352

Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A

2004-01-01

227

Moving from ambivalence to certainty: older same-sex couples marry in Canada.  

PubMed

A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality). PMID:23701954

Humble, Áine M

2013-06-01

228

Perceptions of and Experience With System Responses to Female Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors’ perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV. PMID:21278817

Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Glass, Nancy

2011-01-01

229

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour  

E-print Network

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

Innes, David J.

230

Legal recognition of same-sex relationships within the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade the legal recognition of same-sex relationships has garnered\\u000aconsiderable attention around the globe. The substantive discussion about whether to permit\\u000asame-sex couples to formalize their relationship is one of the most contested issues within\\u000aEurope and the United States. The issue becomes even more disputed and complicated in the\\u000acase of cross-border situations because the

K. Boele-Woelki

2008-01-01

231

Adolescent Same-Sex and Both-Sex Romantic Attractions and Relationships: Implications for Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. Methods. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II

Alyssa Easton; Paul Mowery; Dawn Comeau

2008-01-01

232

An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?  

PubMed

Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22029563

Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

2011-01-01

233

Same-sex marriage, sodomy laws, and the sexual lives of young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gains for lesbian and gay adults demanding the rights to privacy and marriage that they consider their due as U.S. citizens\\u000a do not hold the same promise for young people. Both the 2003 Lawrence v. Texas Supreme Court decision and 2004 successes of the same-sex marriage movement in the United States fail to alter the oppressive\\u000a social conditions in which

Jessica Fields

2004-01-01

234

Herbert Blumer's Theory of Collective Definition and the Battle Over Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of Herbert Blumer's seminal work, “Social Problems as Collective Behavior,” symbolic interaction theory is synopsized and then applied to explore the emergence of same-sex marriage as an issue in American legal and legislative systems. Since 1965, a series of key U.S. Supreme Court decisions has more fully defined constitutionally guaranteed rights of privacy, equal protection, and self-determination.

Walter S. Knauff

2007-01-01

235

Litigating Same-Sex Marriage: Might the Courts Actually Be Bastions of Rationality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great political philosopher John Stuart Mill once asked, “Was there any domination which did not appear natural to those that possessed it?” (Mill 1984, 269–270). For same-sex couples seeking access to the institution of marriage, the public sense that marriage is naturally and obviously meant only for opposite-sex couples has been a formidable barrier. The first state supreme courts

Evan Gerstmann

2005-01-01

236

Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study seeks to describe the population of college students with same-sex sexual experience and determine if these students report more substance use than their peers with only opposite-sex experience. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by a national random sample of college students on 119 campuses in 1999. A total of 10,301 sexually active students were categorized as having only

Marla Eisenberg; Henry Wechsler

2003-01-01

237

Body Size at Birth and Same-Sex Marriage in Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unexplained excess of overweight has been reported among lesbians. In contrast, reports suggest that gay men may be, on\\u000a average, slightly lighter and shorter than heterosexual men. We studied associations between weight, length, and body mass\\u000a index (BMI) at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood among 818,671 Danes. We used linear regression to calculate\\u000a differences in mean body

Morten Frisch; Slobodan Zdravkovic

2010-01-01

238

Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: A Legal Assessment with Implications for Organizational Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal debate over sexual harassment (SH) has taken an interesting turn concerning the controversial issue of same-sex sexual harassment (SSSH). Disagreement among circuit courts' decisions propelled the U.S. Supreme Court to grant full review to the SSSH case of Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al. (1996) [83 F.3d 118 (5th Cir. 1996) [online]. Available: http:\\/\\/laws.findlaw.com\\/5th\\/9530510cvl.html]. In a

Deborah Erdos Knapp; Gary A. Kustis

2000-01-01

239

Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: A Legal Assessment with Implications for Organizational Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal debate over sexual harassment (SH) has taken an interesting turn concerning the controversial issue of same-sex sexual harassment (SSSH). Disagreement among circuit courts' decisions propelled the U.S. Supreme Court to grant full review to the SSSH case of Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al. (1996) [83 F.3d 118 (5th Cir. 1996) [on-line]. Available: http:\\/\\/laws.findlaw.com\\/5th\\/9530510cvl.html]. In a

Deborah Erdos Knapp; Gary A. Kustis

2000-01-01

240

Variability in Goals as a Function of Same-Sex and Other-Sex Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to investigate how young adult men's and women's goals for interacting with peers changed as a function of the social situation (working with a same-sex or other-sex peer on a collaborative task). In a within-subjects design, 40 men and 40 women (Mean age = 19.5 years, SD = 2.10) worked with a man and

Jennifer Pickard; JoNell Strough

2003-01-01

241

Trendlines: Court Decisions, Proposed Legislation, and Their Likely Impact on Binational Same-Sex Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family is a cornerstone of U.S. immigration policy. The United States grants green cards to every immigrant who is validly married to a U.S. citizen—unless the marriage is to someone of the same sex. The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) denies federal recognition of so-called samesex marriages. Recent social, political, judicial, and legislative trends suggest the eventual abrogation of DOMA.

Jay Strozdas

2011-01-01

242

Associations between relationship quality and depressive symptoms in same-sex couples.  

PubMed

Extending research based on different-sex (i.e., heterosexual) couples, the authors explored associations between romantic relationship quality and depressive symptoms in a geographically diverse sample (N = 571) of U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. The authors also examined whether this association was moderated by individual characteristics (gender, age, and internalized heterosexism) or relationship factors (relationship length, commitment, and interdependence). Results indicated a moderate negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms, echoing findings from different-sex couples. This association was not moderated by gender, age, internalized heterosexism, or relationship length. In contrast, commitment and interdependence did demonstrate moderating effects. Although the negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms was present at all levels of commitment and interdependence, it was amplified at higher commitment and interdependence levels. In general, findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting many commonalities between same-sex and opposite sex couples. Specifically, they suggest the importance of relationship quality to the emotional well-being of LGBT adults, supporting clinical interventions and social policies that promote healthy and stable same-sex relationships. PMID:25000131

Whitton, Sarah W; Kuryluk, Amanda D

2014-08-01

243

'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.  

PubMed

This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others. PMID:25317726

Bennett, Jane

2014-10-15

244

Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish  

PubMed Central

In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

2013-01-01

245

Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

2002-01-01

246

Same-sex Relationships and the Full Faith and Credit Clause: Reducing America to the Lowest Common Denominator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother's former same-sex partner. As more states

Rena M Lindevaldsen

2009-01-01

247

Referenda and the District of Columbia's Human Rights Act: Voting on Same-Sex Marriage in the Nation's Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with Massachusetts in 2003, the courts and legislatures of many states have had to decide whether same-sex marriage is or should be a fundamental right under their respective constitutions. Although only five states and the District of Columbia legally perform same-sex marriages, a few other jurisdictions are in the process of proposing laws moving in that direction. However, the

Jacob Stewart

2011-01-01

248

From International Idea to Domestic Policy: Explaining the Emergence of Same-Sex Partnership Recognition in Argentina and Brazil  

E-print Network

Supreme Court to intervene if Alsina continues to annul these same-sex marriages.Supreme Court in Argentina may also soon be on the verge of recognizing same-sex marriagesame-sex marriage rights to any couple who simply petitioned a court. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court

Schulenberg, Shawn Richard

2010-01-01

249

The Impact of the Print Media on the Timing and Direction of Government Action on Same Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As public opinion has become more supportive of lesbian and gay rights some states have recognized same sex marriage. In this paper we seek to evaluate the relationship between mass media slant, public attitudes and state action. We measure newspaper opinion and state level public opinion on same sex marriage. And we employ statistical methods to determine whether state courts

Scott Barclay; Daniel Chomsky

250

Health Care Utilization and Health Indicators Among a National Sample of U.S. Veterans in Same-Sex Partnerships  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine health indicators of same-sex partnered veterans as compared with their opposite-sex partnered veteran and nonveteran peers. Methods Same-sex partner status was derived by self-reported same-sex partnerships in data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Outcome variables included health risk disparities associated with sexual minority status (e.g., frequent mental distress) and veteran status (e.g., firearm ownership). Stratified multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of same-sex partnered veteran status with health indicators. Results Same-sex partnered veterans had higher odds of being overweight and keeping firearms in the house compared with same-sex partnered nonveterans. Same-sex partnered veterans were less likely than opposite-sex partnered veterans to be overweight, and they were more than twice as likely to be current smokers when compared with opposite-sex partnered nonveterans. Conclusions Findings suggest both that some health disparities patterns identified by same-sex partnership status among the general population also exist among veteran populations, and that some unique distinctions may exist, particularly related to BMI and firearm ownership. Collection of information about sexual minority status within Department of Veterans Affairs data sources is needed to more accurately assess the health of this minority population. PMID:23495467

Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert; Silver, Eric; Silenzio, Vincent

2013-01-01

251

Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex

Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

2009-01-01

252

Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.  

PubMed

Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body. PMID:23423424

Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

2013-09-01

253

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish  

E-print Network

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish MARCO DADDA harassment is often intense and is costly for females. In Gambusia holbrooki, sexual harassment can greatly behaviour is a flexible strategy and that male sexual harassment may represent an important factor

Pilastro, Andrea

254

Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-10-01

255

Sexually transmitted disease among married Zambian women: the role of male and female sexual behaviour in prevention and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have evaluated the relation between male and female sexual behaviour and STD among married African women. The objectives of this study were to identify male and female sexual behaviour associated with female STD, and to explore whether incorporating male and female sexual behaviour and male symptoms can improve algorithms for STD management in married African women. METHODS:

C S Morrison; M R Sunkutu; E Musaba; L H Glover

1997-01-01

256

Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction  

PubMed Central

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

2011-01-01

257

Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women  

PubMed Central

In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

2011-01-01

258

Psychological distress, well-being, and legal recognition in same-sex couple relationships.  

PubMed

Legal recognition of same-sex couple relationships provides at least some material benefits to couple members; however, few studies have examined the associations between legal recognition and psychological distress or well-being. Using an online survey sample of 2,677 lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) individuals, participants were placed in 4 groups: single, dating, in a committed relationship, and in a legally recognized relationship. Analyses revealed that participants in committed or legally recognized relationships reported less psychological distress (i.e., internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and stress) and more well-being (i.e., the presence of meaning in life) than single participants. Significant group differences and multivariate analyses indicated that participants in a legally recognized relationship reported less internalized homophobia, fewer depressive symptoms, lower levels of stress, and more meaning in their lives than those in committed relationships, even after controlling for other factors. The need for further research on the psychological benefits of legal relationship recognition for same-sex couples is discussed. PMID:20175612

Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Horne, Sharon G

2010-02-01

259

Disclosure of same-sex behavior by young Chinese migrant men: context and correlates.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to explore the disclosure of same-sex behavior by men who have sex with men (MSM) to different groups of people (i.e. family, friends, coworkers, and doctors) and the associated sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. A self-administered survey was conducted among 307 migrant MSM, aged 18-30, in Beijing in 2009. Most MSM disclosed their same-sex behavior to friends (69%), followed by family (25%), coworkers (25%), and doctors (24%). Factors associated with disclosure to friends included higher levels of perceived stigma, social capital and acculturation in Beijing, and suspecting partner to have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Factors associated with disclosure to family included lower levels of internalized stigma, higher levels of acculturation in Beijing, and both risk and protective behavioral factors. MSM who disclosed to coworkers reported having worked in more cities, living with coworkers, and lower levels of social capital in Beijing. Disclosure to doctors was related to STD infection, sex partner, and sociodemographic factors. Results indicated that selective disclosure by MSM was situational and context-based. Future HIV/STD intervention needs to take into account factors relevant to their selective disclosure to different audiences. PMID:23654216

Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yinjie; Jiang, Shuling; Tu, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

260

Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural  

E-print Network

Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural ecology. Generally, theory suggests that while a male's reproductive success is limited by the number of mates he has and plentiful, a female should be able to maximize her reproductive success by mating with only a single male

Neff, Bryan D.

261

A Critical Appraisal of Assimilationist and Radical Ideologies Underlying Same-Sex Marriage in LGBT Communities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates over same-sex marriage have reached the main stage of contemporary U.S. politics. The purpose of this essay is to identify and examine how sexual ideologies in U.S. LGBT communities inform and influence relationship construction in general and same-sex marriage in particular. To accomplish this, we first discuss the nature of sexual ideologies. Next, we identify current sexual ideologies in

Gust A. Yep; Karen E. Lovaas; John P. Elia

2003-01-01

262

Same-Sex Relationships and the Full Faith and Credit Clause: Reducing America to the Lowest Common Denominator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother’s former same-sex partner. As more states

Rena M. Lindevaldsen

2009-01-01

263

State recognition of same-sex relationships and preparations for end of life among lesbian and gay boomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared 793 nonheterosexual baby boomers on their relationship status (single or in a civil union) and the state\\u000a in which they lived (did or did not recognize same-sex civil unions). Analyses revealed patterns attributable to participants’\\u000a relationship status, state recognition, and the combination of these variables. Findings showed that state recognition of\\u000a same-sex unions has an impact not

Brian de Vries; Anne M. Mason; Jean Quam; Kimberly Acquaviva

2009-01-01

264

Old Constitutions and New Issues: National Lessons from Vermont's State Constitutional Case on Marriage of Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vermont Supreme Court's 1999 ruling in Baker v. State was a watershed decision, holding that same-sex couples in Vermont were entitled to the same benefits and protections as opposite-sex married couples. While Baker is extremely important as a matter of substantive law, and as a contribution to the national discussion of the issues surrounding marriage of same sex-couples, it

Robert F Williams

2002-01-01

265

Beyond Racial Precedents: Loving v. Virginia as an Appropriate Legal Model and Strategy for Same-Sex Marriage Litigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores how LGBT marriage activists and lawyers have employed a racial interpretation of due process and equal protection in recent same-sex marriage litigation. Special attention is paid to the Supreme Court's opinion in Loving v. Virginia, the landmark case that declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional. By exploring the use of racial precedent in same-sex marriage litigation and its treatment

Michael J. Csere

2010-01-01

266

Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on research in Tanzania, this paper critically examines the widely circulating notion that African same-sex attracted men are hard-to-reach individuals and populations. Despite expectations to the contrary, it was neither time consuming nor difficult to identify and get to know same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam. On the contrary, a large and diverse group of such men could

Kåre Moen; Peter Aggleton; Melkizedeck T. Leshabari; Anne-Lise Middelthon

2011-01-01

267

Not at all so hard-to-reach: same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on research in Tanzania, this paper critically examines the widely circulating notion that African same-sex attracted men are hard-to-reach individuals and populations. Despite expectations to the contrary, it was neither time consuming nor difficult to identify and get to know same-sex attracted men in Dar es Salaam. On the contrary, a large and diverse group of such men could

Kåre Moen; Peter Aggleton; Melkizedeck T. Leshabari; Anne-Lise Middelthon

2012-01-01

268

The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.  

PubMed

The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

2015-02-01

269

Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) demonstrate same-sex partner preferences.  

PubMed

Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are territorial during warm months but demonstrate social tolerance under low temperatures. In spring, females nest together and some pairs participate in communal nursing and rearing of young. Because communal nursing involves significant cooperation, selective pair-bonds may develop between 2 nestmates. Using a choice apparatus, the authors determined that (a) captive females demonstrated partner preferences for a nestmate; (b) partner preferences were enduring and persisted after dyadic separation; and (c) following the loss of a nestmate, females did not develop preferences for a new nestmate, even after extended cohabitation. Data support the hypothesis that captive meadow voles develop selective and enduring same-sex social bonds that may, under free-living conditions, facilitate communal nesting and cooperative rearing of young. PMID:14498804

Parker, Karen J; Lee, Theresa M

2003-09-01

270

The Effects Of Unequal Access To Health Insurance For Same-Sex Couples In California  

PubMed Central

Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694

Ponce, Ninez A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Pizer, Jennifer C.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

271

Agonistic behaviour and dominance in stoats (Mustela erminea L.).  

PubMed

Behavioural mechanisms underlying distribution in a stoat (Mustela erminea) population were examined experimentally in an enclosure simulating natural habitats with living prey. Agonistic behaviours, displayed by individual stoats of different sex and age while being tested in pairs in various combinations were recorded. Dominance relationships between different categories of stoats (femalefemale, adult and juvenile male male) were examined, as was social dominance between individual stoats of the same sex. In further experiments designed to examine the influence of establishment on the social dominance, the behaviour of established introduced animals was observed. PMID:563152

Erlinge, S

1977-08-01

272

Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

2014-04-01

273

Harmful to None: Why California Should Recognize Out-Of-State Same-Sex Marriages under Its Current Marital Choice of Law Rule  

E-print Network

of same-sex marriage, the Hawaii Supreme Court partiallySAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN AMERICA In May of 1993, the Hawaii Supreme Courtsame-sex marriage statutes have been passed in California Two California Supreme Court

Cavazos, Sandra

1998-01-01

274

The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

2011-01-01

275

Use this form if you are the Spouse, Same-sex Domestic Partner of an employee or retiree of The Johns Hopkins  

E-print Network

is the value of part-time study not to exceed $5,250 in a calendar year. Spouses and same-sex domestic partnersUse this form if you are the Spouse, Same-sex Domestic Partner of an employee or retiree-time employment at the university. Same-sex domestic partners and their dependent children may also participate

Niebur, Ernst

276

Faculty Senate Resolution in Support of Benefits for Same Sex Domestic Partners Approved by the University of Virginia Faculty Senate, 04 March 2014  

E-print Network

Faculty Senate Resolution in Support of Benefits for Same Sex Domestic Partners Approved University, support extending benefits at their institutions to include same-sex domestic partners; And, whereas extension of same- sex domestic partner benefits would be essential to recruitment and retention

Acton, Scott

277

IMPORTANT BENEFIT UPDATE CONCERNING SAME-SEX SPOUSES The State of Maryland Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program will be  

E-print Network

IMPORTANT BENEFIT UPDATE CONCERNING SAME-SEX SPOUSES The State of Maryland Employee and Retiree Health and Welfare Benefits Program will be immediately updated to include same-sex spouses as eligible, not just same sex spouses and will be used to determine if coverage for the spouse is subject to imputed

Adali, Tulay

278

Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children.  

PubMed

Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families. PMID:25221780

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

2014-09-01

279

Same-Sex Legal Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Methods. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18–70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion?=?3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35?608 individuals (weighted proportion?=?96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36?774 individuals. Results. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P?same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Conclusions. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue. PMID:23237155

LeBlanc, Allen J.; Lee Badgett, M. V.

2013-01-01

280

Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum oestrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, avoid contact with their young on the day that the young are born. However, on succeeding days, fathers spend nearly as much time in contact with their offspring as do mothers. We undertook a series of studies to investigate the causes of the day-to-day change in male parental behaviour. In experiment 1, we tested

MERTICE M. CLARK; Jeanine Johnson; BENNETT G. GALEF

2004-01-01

281

Effects of exposure to predatory cues on territorial behaviour of male fathead minnows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a laboratory study to determine if male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, altered their territorial behaviour associated with reproduction in response to combinations of visual and chemical cues from northern pike, Esox lucius. We introduced the following stimuli to a territorial male: a brick (control), fathead minnow alarm pheromone, a pike fed brook stickleback, Culea inconstans, or a pike

Hilary M. Jones; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

1997-01-01

282

Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)  

E-print Network

of testosterone in paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), where males provide both sole defenceEffects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Chandra M. C. Rodgers*, Bryan D. Neff* & Rosemary Knapp * Department of Biology, Western

Neff, Bryan D.

283

Gender, topic, and time in observed demand-withdraw interaction in cross- and same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The demand-withdraw interaction pattern has been extensively studied and consistently linked to relationship quality in cross-sex relationships, but it has received little study using observational data in same-sex relationships. Demand-withdraw behavior, which occurs when 1 partner makes a complaint or request for a change and the other partner avoids the request or withdraws from the discussion (Christensen, 1988), was observationally coded in the problem-solving interactions of 75 (20 unmarried lesbian, 15 unmarried gay male, 20 unmarried straight cohabiting, and 20 married straight) couples. Results revealed that same- and cross-sex couples engage in demanding and withdrawing behaviors in highly similar ways. For all couples, partners demanded at a higher level during their own issue than during their partner's issue, and withdrew at a higher level during their partner's issue than during their own issue. Women demanded at higher levels than men, and men withdrew at higher levels than women. All partners were more likely to be in a demanding role during their own topic than during their partner's topic. Polarization was greater in woman-selected than in man-selected topics. Demanding increased over the course of the interaction, whereas no time effect was found for withdrawing. Higher levels of each partner's demanding were associated with lower levels of their own withdrawing and higher levels of their partner's withdrawing. Finally, higher levels of total demand-withdraw behaviors were associated with lower levels of relationship satisfaction for all couple types. Implications of results for refinement of models of demand-withdraw behavior are discussed. PMID:20545396

Baucom, Brian R; McFarland, Pamela T; Christensen, Andrew

2010-06-01

284

White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

2014-01-01

285

White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

Tao, Li; Cao, Chengjun; Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J; Huang, Guanghua

2014-10-01

286

Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

2005-01-01

287

Male brooding behaviour of the giant water bug Lethocerus deyrollei vuillefroy (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male brooding behaviour ofLethocerus deyrollei was investigated. Eggs were laid as masses on sticks above the water surface. Males did not leave the sticks until the eggs\\u000a hatched. They mainly stayed at the bases of the sticks in water in the day, and frequently climbed up at night covering the\\u000a egg-masses with their bodies. Eggs with male brooding had

Noritaka Ichikawa; L Hyogo

1988-01-01

288

Male behavioural maturation rate responds to selection on pollen hoarding in honeybees  

PubMed Central

Division of labour in social insect colonies relies on behavioural functional differentiation (specialization) of individuals with similar genomes. However, individual behavioural traits do not evolve independently of each other (behavioural syndromes). A prime example is the suite of behavioural differences in honeybee workers that has evolved in response to bidirectional selection on pollen hoarding of honeybee colonies (pollen-hoarding syndrome). More generally, these differences reflect functional differentiation between nectar and pollen foragers. We demonstrate here that this pollen-hoarding syndrome extends to drones. Similar to what has been shown in workers, drones from the high-pollen-hoarding strain had a higher locomotion activity after emergence, and they initiated flight earlier than did males derived from the low-pollen-hoarding strain, with hybrids intermediate. However, these two behavioural traits were unlinked at the individual level. We also found that social environment (the colony) affects the age at which drones initiate flight. The indirect selection responses of male behaviour suggest that male and worker evolution are not independent and may constrain each other’s evolution. Furthermore, we identified three distinct peaks in the probability of flight initiation over the course of the experiment and a decreased phenotypic variability in the ‘hybrid’ males, contrary to quantitative genetic expectations. PMID:18846249

RUEPPELL, OLAV; PAGE, ROBERT E.; FONDRK, M. KIM

2008-01-01

289

Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites  

PubMed Central

The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2015-01-01

290

Use of female nest characteristics in the sexual behaviour of male sockeye salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On three island beaches in Iliamna Lake, Alaska, large numbers of male sockeye salmon gathered and spawned in artificial excavations that mimicked a female's nest immediately prior to spawning, while apparently ignoring the control site. The number of males attracted was correlated positively with changes in the operational sex ratio. In contrast, on the mainland beach examined, no reaction to the artificial nests was apparent. The results are discussed in terms of mate searching behaviour by males, the duration of the spawning period, and associated selection pressures on males to use characteristics of their environment that provide information on availability of females.

Hamon, T.R.; Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

1999-01-01

291

Sex and Gender Similarities and Differences in Communication Values in Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends research on sex differences and similarities in communication values by examining (a) the influence of sex of friend on ratings of functional communication skills in same-sex and cross-sex friendships, (b) the moderating role of friend's sex in sex differences in evaluations, and (c) the mediating role of psychological gender in sex differences in communication values. Participants (144

Amanda J. Holmstrom

2009-01-01

292

The mamas and the papas: the invisible diversity of families with same?sex parents in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same?sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families are formed, research exploring the emotional and legal dynamics of

Lucy Rimalower; Caren Caty

2009-01-01

293

JUST AMONG FRIENDS: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, FRIEND BEHAVIOR, AND FRIENDSHIP QUALITY IN EARLY ADOLESCENT SAME-SEX FRIEND DYADS  

E-print Network

To better understand emotional expression within the context of close same-sex friendships of young adolescents, this study examined emotional expressivity among 116 adolescents (58 friend dyads) in Grades 7-8 (12-14 years of age) utilizing a multi...

Legerski, John-Paul

2010-08-31

294

Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…

Ueno, Koji

2010-01-01

295

Comparing Institutional and Policy Explanations for the Adoption of State Constitutional Amendments: The Case of Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on state constitutional amendments remains undeveloped despite recent activity in the area of same-sex marriage policy. Previous studies have assumed that the adoption of state constitutional amendments is governed by routine policy considerations, but there are strong theoretical reasons for expecting attributes of state institutions also to affect adoption. In this study, I compare institutional and policy explanations

Robert J. Hume

2011-01-01

296

The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

2009-01-01

297

Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

Pope, Amber Leighann

2010-01-01

298

194 Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 9 Number 2 pp. 194197 Accurate determination of same-sex twin zygosity  

E-print Network

194 Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 9 Number 2 pp. 194­197 Accurate determination of same-sex twin zygosity is important for medical, scientific and personal reasons. Determination may be based proba- bilities of correctly concluding a twin pair is monozygotic, given they share the same genotypes

Nyholt, Dale R.

299

Relationship Satisfaction, Affectivity, and Gay-Specific Stressors in Same-Sex Couples Joined in Civil Unions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…

Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

2005-01-01

300

Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.  

PubMed

Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

2014-08-01

301

Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

2008-01-01

302

Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

2009-01-01

303

Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Among Individuals Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners in the National Comorbidity Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study examined the risk of psychiatric disorders among in- dividuals with same-sex sexual partners. Methods. Data are from the Na- tional Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative household survey. Re- spondents were asked the number of women and men with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 5 years. Psychiatric disorders according to Di- agnostic and Statistical Manual

Stephen E. Gilman; Susan D. Cochran; Vickie M. Mays; Michael Hughes; David Ostrow; Ronald C. Kessler

304

High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

2013-01-01

305

Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

Tang, Denise

2014-01-01

306

Matching for Attractiveness in Romantic Partners and Same-Sex Friends: A Meta-Analysis and Theoretical Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen studies of similarity in physical attractiveness between members of romantic couples or pairs of same-sex friends, employing 34 independent samples of dyads, were retrieved. Meta-analysis found the interpartner correlation for attractiveness to be higher for romantic couples than for pairs of friends. For couples, the correlations were homogeneous across 27 samples, with an average correlation of .39 (.49 after

Alan Feingold

1988-01-01

307

Sacrifices that Pay: Polity Membership, Political Opportunities and the Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Spanish gay and lesbian movement, and discusses its role in the legalization of same-sex marriages. The main focus is on the interplay between gay and lesbian rights organizations and leftist political parties during a time span that goes back to the late 1970s. In order to shed new light on the links between protest, interest representation

Kerman Calvo

2007-01-01

308

Women at a sexually transmitted disease clinic who reported same-sex contact: their HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. This study compares characteristics, behaviors, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women who reported same-sex contact and women who had sex only with men. METHODS. Participants were patients attending a New York City sexually transmitted disease clinic. Structured questionnaires were administered by interviewers. RESULTS. Overall, 9% (135/1518) of women reported same-sex contact; among these, 93% also reported contact with men. Women reporting same-sex contact were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to be HIV seropositive (17% vs 11%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 2.6), to exchange sex for money/drugs (48% vs 12%, OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 4.6, 9.8), to inject drugs (31% vs 7%, OR = 6.3, 95% CI = 4.1, 9.5), and to use crack cocaine (37% vs 15%, OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.2, 4.8). HIV in women reporting same-sex contact was associated with history of syphilis (OR = 8.8), sex for crack (OR = 5.7), and injection drug use (OR = 4.5). CONCLUSIONS. In this study, women who reported same-sex contact were predominantly bisexual. They had more HIV risk behaviors and were more often HIV seropositive than women who had sex only with men. Among these bisexual women, heterosexual contact and injection drug use were the most likely sources of HIV. There was no evidence of female-to-female transmission. PMID:7573619

Bevier, P J; Chiasson, M A; Heffernan, R T; Castro, K G

1995-01-01

309

Family relationships and adolescent well-being: are families equally protective for same-sex attracted youth?  

PubMed

Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may make these relationships less protective for sexual minority youth. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore the links between same-sex attraction, family relationships, and adolescent well-being in a sample of over 13,000 7th-12th grade adolescents (51 % female, 52 % non-Latino/a white, 17 % Latino, 21 % African American, and 7 % Asian). Specifically, we examine whether lower levels of parental closeness, parental involvement, and family support among same-sex attracted youth explain in part why these youth experience increased depressive symptoms and risk behaviors, including binge drinking, illegal drug use, and running away from home, relative to other-sex attracted youth. Second, we ask whether family relationships are equally protective against depressive symptoms and risk behaviors for same-sex attracted and other-sex attracted youth. We find that same-sex attracted youth, particularly girls, report higher levels of depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and drug use in part because they perceive less closeness with parents and less support from their families. Results also suggest that parental closeness and parental involvement may be less protective against risk behaviors for same-sex attracted boys than for their other-sex attracted peers. Findings thus suggest that interventions targeting the families of sexual minority youth should educate parents about the potentially negative effects of heteronormative assumptions and attitudes on positive adolescent development. PMID:23196375

Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

2013-03-01

310

Comparison of Teenagers' Early Same-Sex and Heterosexual Behavior: UK Data From the SHARE and RIPPLE Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose North American research finds increased sexual risk-taking among teenagers with same-sex partners, but understanding of underlying processes is limited. The research carried out in the United Kingdom compares teenagers' early sexual experiences according to same- or opposite-sex partner, focusing on unwanted sex in addition to risk-taking, and exploring underlying psychosocial differences. Methods Multivariate analyses combined self-reported data from two randomized control trials of school sex education programs (N = 10,250). Outcomes from sexually experienced teenagers (N = 3,766) were partner pressure to have first sex and subsequent regret, and sexual risk measures including pregnancy. Covariates included self-esteem, future expectations, substance use, and communication with mother. Results By the time of follow-up (mean age, 16), same-sex genital contact (touching or oral or anal) was reported by 2.3% of teenagers, with the majority also reporting heterosexual intercourse. A total of 39% reported heterosexual intercourse and no same-sex genital contact. Boys were more likely to report partner pressure (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.29–5.08) and regret (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.39–3.86) in relation to first same-sex genital contact than first heterosexual intercourse, but girls showed no differences according to partner type. Teenagers with bisexual behavior reported greater pregnancy or partner pregnancy risk than teenagers with exclusively opposite-sex partners (girls, OR = 4.51, 95% CI = 2.35–8.64; boys, OR = 4.43, 95% CI = 2.41–8.14), partially reduced by attitudinal and behavioral differences. Conclusions This UK study confirms greater reporting of sexual risk-taking among teenagers with same-sex partners, and suggests that boys in this group are vulnerable to unwanted sex. It suggests limitations to the interpretation of differences, in terms of psychosocial risk factors common to all adolescents. PMID:21185521

Parkes, Alison; Strange, Vicki; Wight, Daniel; Bonell, Chris; Copas, Andrew; Henderson, Marion; Buston, Katie; Stephenson, Judith; Johnson, Anne; Allen, Elizabeth; Hart, Graham

2011-01-01

311

Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

Johnson, H. Durell

2012-01-01

312

Individual plastic responses by males to rivals reveal mismatches between behaviour and fitness outcomes  

PubMed Central

Plasticity in behaviour is of fundamental significance when environments are variable. Such plasticity is particularly important in the context of rapid changes in the socio-sexual environment. Males can exhibit adaptive plastic responses to variation in the overall level of reproductive competition. However, the extent of behavioural flexibility within individuals, and the degree to which rapidly changing plastic responses map onto fitness are unknown. We addressed this by determining the behaviour and fitness profiles of individual Drosophila melanogaster males subjected to up to three episodes of exposure to rivals or no rivals, in all combinations. Behaviour (mating duration) was remarkably sensitive to the level of competition and fully reversible, suggesting that substantial costs arise from the incorrect expression of even highly flexible behaviour. However, changes in mating duration matched fitness outcomes (offspring number) only in scenarios in which males experienced zero then high competition. Following the removal of competition, mating duration, but not offspring production, decreased to below control levels. This indicates that the benefit of increasing reproductive investment when encountering rivals may exceed that of decreasing investment when rivals disappear. Such asymmetric fitness benefits and mismatches with behavioural responses are expected to exert strong selection on the evolution of plasticity. PMID:22438501

Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Chapman, Tracey

2012-01-01

313

Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis  

PubMed Central

Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

2010-01-01

314

Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs of unlike-sexed twins. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:661-663) and replicated in the present study

Jacob F. Orlebeke; Baal van G. C. M; D. I. Boomsma; D. Neeleman

1993-01-01

315

Perceived Physical Competence, Enjoyment and Effort in Same-Sex and Coeducational Physical Education Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…

Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.

2011-01-01

316

Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters  

E-print Network

investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were increase in postdefeat cortisol levels (8). Could changes in stress hormone levels influence, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Key words: play fighting, stress, glucocorticoid receptor

Delville, Yvon

317

Victimisation and feelings of safety among male and female inmates with behavioural health problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with mental disorders are vulnerable to victimisation. This is particularly true in prisons, where violence and victimisation are common. This paper uses behavioural health and criminal and victimisation history data from a sample of approximately 8000 male and female inmates to explore patterns of victimisation and feelings of unsafety inside prison, and connections to community-based victimisation. We find that,

Nancy Wolff; Jing Shi

2009-01-01

318

Effects of male harassment on females' oviposition behaviour in Libellulidae (Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated whether the level of male harassment affects females' oviposition behaviour, such that females oviposit unguarded under suboptimal conditions and\\/or vary oviposition duration, dip number, dip frequency or number of oviposition site changes. The study species were the libellulids Crocothemis erythraea, Ortbetrum chrysostigma, Pantala flavescens, Sympetrum fonscolombii, Trithemis annulata and T. kirbyi ardens. Only a few ovipositions under suboptimal

Kamilla Koch

2006-01-01

319

Differences between males and females in anatomical, physiological and behavioural traits are characteris-  

E-print Network

, physiological, anatomical and even behavioural differences between boys and girls (in childhood) or between men males and females. Lastly, we discuss the importance of considering sex in the design and analysis in post-menopausal women compared with men6 ; asthma, which is more prevalent among boys in childhood

Das, Soma

320

How a romantic relationship can protect same-sex attracted youth and young adults from the impact of expected rejection.  

PubMed

Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress, psychological well-being, and its moderated relation by romantic relationship status among 309 Dutch same-sex attracted youth (16-24 years old, 52.9% female). The results showed that minority stress components (internalized homophobia, expected rejection, and meta-stereotyping) were negatively related to psychological well-being. Moderation analyses revealed that only the impact of "expected rejection" on psychological well-being was buffered for those involved in a romantic relationship. This shows the particular functional link of romantic support in rejection contexts. PMID:25291236

Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Jonas, Kai J

2014-12-01

321

Publication by men and women with same-sex and cross-sex PhD supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates at which men and women published during and after PhD training in psychology were compared for samples experiencing same-sex and cross-sex supervision. When allowance was made for the research productivity and impact of the supervisor, women supervised by women published at similar rates to women supervised by men. Similarly, men supervised by men did not publish on average

Ray Over; Jane Over; Ingrid Meuwissen; Sandra Lancaster

1990-01-01

322

Gender, Topic, and Time in Observed Demand–Withdraw Interaction in Cross and Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand–withdraw interaction pattern has been extensively studied and consistently linked to relationship quality in cross-sex relationships, but it has received little study using observational data in same-sex relationships. Demand–withdraw behavior, which occurs when 1 partner makes a complaint or request for a change and the other partner avoids the request or withdraws from the discussion (Christensen, 1988), was observationally

Brian R. Baucom; Pamela T. McFarland; Andrew Christensen

2010-01-01

323

Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

2010-01-01

324

Gender Role Self-Concept and Gender-Typed Communication Behavior in Mixed-Sex and Same-Sex Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was the relation between both gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes with gender-related behavior of interacting partners. We observed gender-typed communication behaviors of mixed-sex and same-sex dyads and measured gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes. Thirty mixed-sex dyads, 19 women dyads, and 15 men dyads participated in a behavior observation study. The results

Ursula Athenstaedt; Elisabeth Haas; Stephanie Schwab

2004-01-01

325

The Meaning of Marriage: Immigration Rules and Their Implications for Same-Sex Spouses in a World Without DOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 35,000 U.S. citizens are living in our country with same-sex foreign partners, but these couples have no right to stay here together on the basis of their relationship. Many of these Americans are faced with a choice between their partners and the country they love. This is true even if the couple is legally married in one of

Scott C. Titshaw

2010-01-01

326

The Association Between Same-Sex Romantic Attractions and Relationships and Running Away Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities are overrepresented among the runaway population, and sexual minority runaways are at greater risk for adverse\\u000a health outcomes than their heterosexual peers. Our knowledge of this vulnerable population has been restricted by methodological\\u000a limitations of existing studies. This study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents to explore the association\\u000a between same-sex romantic attractions and relationships and

Martha W. WallerRebecca; Rebecca P. Sanchez

327

Sexual Desire, Communication, Satisfaction, and Preferences of Men and Women in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more

Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair

2009-01-01

328

Equality Discrepancy Between Women in Same-Sex Relationships: The Mediating Role of Attachment in Relationship Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This internet study explored the mediating effects of anxious and avoidant attachment on the link between relationship equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction among 75 cohabitating U.S. and Canadian women’s same-sex couples. Multiple regression\\u000a results indicated that both anxious and avoidant attachment were found to mediate the relationship between dyadic equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction, suggesting that the more partners perceived

Sharon G. Horne; Wendy J. Biss

2009-01-01

329

Parent Practices and HomeSchool Partnerships: A Differential Effect for Children with Same-Sex Coupled Parents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents can profoundly influence the long-term academic success of their children. Parental involvement with their children's schools has consistently been associated with much better long-term academic and social outcomes. Unfortunately, same-sex parents often feel disconnected and unwelcome in schools. In order to extend the research supporting parent practices and strong family-school collaboration, the present study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal

Alicia L. Fedewa; Teresa P. Clark

2009-01-01

330

Perceptions of cross-sex and same-sex nonreciprocal touch: It is better to give than to receive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers' perceptions of actors engaged in cross-sex and same-sex nonreciprocal touch vs. no-touch interactions were assessed. Touchers were rated significantly higher than recipients on dimensions of status\\/dominance, instrumentality\\/assertiveness, and warmth\\/expressiveness. Furthermore, touchers were rated higher, and recipients were rated lower, on these dimensions than no-touch controls. Female observers rated actors involved in touch interactions as more attractive than those involved

Brenda Major; Richard Heslin

1982-01-01

331

Perceived social network support and well-being in same-sex versus mixed-sex romantic relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model was tested, in which better perceived social network support specifically for a romantic relationship was hypothesized to predict higher relationship well-being which, in turn, would predict more positive mental and phys- ical health outcomes for relationship partners. Furthermore, the model was tested on participants in both same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 183) and mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n

Karen L. Blair; Diane Holmberg

2008-01-01

332

Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).  

PubMed

The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

2014-11-01

333

Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).  

PubMed

Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

Horth, Lisa

2003-05-22

334

Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy  

PubMed Central

Unprotected anal sex has long been recognized as a risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In Africa, however, general denial of MSM existence and associated stigma discouraged research. To address this gap in the literature, partners conducted the first behavioral surveys of MSM in Kenya. The first study was to assess HIV risk among MSM in Nairobi, and the second study a pre-post intervention study of male sex workers in Mombasa. The 2004 behavioral survey of 500 men in Mombasa revealed that MSM were having multiple sexual partners and failed to access appropriate prevention counseling and care at Kenya clinics. A 2006 capture-recapture enumeration in Mombasa estimated that over 700 male sex workers were active, after which a pre-intervention baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted. Awareness of unprotected anal sex as an HIV risk behavior and consistent condom use with clients was low, and use of oil-based lubricants high. Based on this information, peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counseling skills, and distribution of condoms and lubricants. To assess impact of the interventions, a follow-up survey of 442 male sex workers was implemented in 2008. Exposure to peer educators was significantly associated with increased consistent condom use, improved HIV knowledge, and increased use of water-based lubricants. These results have provided needed information to the Government of Kenya and have informed HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24753921

Geibel, S.

2012-01-01

335

The Brain Reaction to Viewing Faces of Opposite and Same-Sex Romantic Partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual) and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual). We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when

Semir Zeki; John Paul Romaya

2010-01-01

336

Behavioural responses of Diana monkeys to male long-distance calls: changes in ranging, association patterns and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much is known about the relationship between vigilance, group size and predation risk, behavioural responses to predation risk and their resultant costs are less clear. We investigated the response of Diana monkeys to increased predation risk by looking at behavioural changes associated with male long-distance calls, which are reliably given to certain predators. After male long-distance calls, group spread

Susanne Shultz; Charlotte Faurie; Ronald Noë

2003-01-01

337

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour  

PubMed Central

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

2006-01-01

338

Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

2008-03-01

339

Advocacy Coalitions and Punctuated Equilibrium in the Same-Sex Marriage Debate: Learning from Pro-LGBT Policy Changes in Minneapolis and Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy change to actualize same-sex marriage requires planning and practices that can be most effective to advance marriage equality. This case study examines how building and maintaining strong coalitions aided in attainment and preservation of civil rights and protections for same-sex couples in Minnesota. As a historical policy analysis, it dissects collaborative strategies and events that led to a municipal

Lake Dziengel

2010-01-01

340

From media frame to social change? A comparative analysis of same-sex rights in the United States and New Zealand press  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract On 26 April 2005, The Civil Union Bill officially granted registered same-sex couples in New Zealand recognition and relationship rights that are equal to that of traditional marriage. In a relatively short time, the country was successful in its pursuit for same-sex

Linda Jean Kenix

341

Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

2012-01-01

342

"Because She Was My First Girlfriend, I Didn't Know Any Different": Making the Case for Mainstreaming Same-Sex Sex/Relationship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…

Donovan, Catherine; Hester, Marianne

2008-01-01

343

Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…

Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

2010-01-01

344

Money, Housework, Sex, and Conflict: Same-Sex Couples in Civil Unions, Those Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the division of finances, the division of household tasks, relationship maintenance behaviors, sexual activity, monogamy, and conflict among same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples who had not had civil unions recruited from their friendship circles, and married heterosexual couples recruited from among their siblings. Married heterosexuals had a more traditional,

Sondra E. Solomon; Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam

2005-01-01

345

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.  

PubMed

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

2006-03-01

346

Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

2005-01-01

347

Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

348

The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men  

PubMed Central

Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2015-01-01

349

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Massularia acuminata Stem on Sexual Behaviour of Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1?mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000?mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1?:?1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000?mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P < .05). The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P < .05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250?mg/kg body weight on days 1 and 3. Data from this study identified that the aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats at the doses of 500 and 1000?mg/kg body weight of Massularia acuminata stem may be attributed, at least in part, to the alkaloids, saponins, and/or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant properties. PMID:21253466

Yakubu, M. T.; Akanji, M. A.

2011-01-01

350

Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male\\/Female Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,

Dick F. Swaab

351

The role of ghrelin signalling for sexual behaviour in male mice.  

PubMed

Ghrelin, a gut-brain signal, is well known to regulate energy homeostasis, food intake and appetite foremost via hypothalamic ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A). In addition, ghrelin activates the reward systems in the brain, namely the mesolimbic dopamine system, and regulates thereby the rewarding properties of addictive drugs as well as of palatable foods. Given that the mesolimbic dopamine system mandates the reinforcing properties of addictive drugs and natural rewards, such as sexual behaviour, we hypothesize that ghrelin plays an important role for male sexual behaviour, a subject for the present studies. Herein we show that ghrelin treatment increases, whereas pharmacological suppression (using the GHSR-1A antagonist JMV2959) or genetic deletion of the GHS-R1A in male mice decreases the sexual motivation for as well as sexual behaviour with female mice in oestrus. Pre-treatment with L-dopa (a dopamine precursor) prior to treatment with JMV2959 significantly increased the preference for female mouse compared with vehicle treatment. On the contrary, treatment with 5-hydroxythyptohan (a precursor for serotonin) prior to treatment with JMV2959 decreased the sexual motivation compared to vehicle. In separate experiments, we show that ghrelin and GHS-R1A antagonism do not affect the time spent over female bedding as measured in the androgen-dependent bedding test. Collectively, these data show that the hunger hormone ghrelin and its receptor are required for normal sexual behaviour in male mice and that the effects of the ghrelin signalling system on sexual behaviour involve dopamine neurotransmission. PMID:25475101

Egecioglu, Emil; Prieto-Garcia, Luna; Studer, Erik; Westberg, Lars; Jerlhag, Elisabet

2014-12-01

352

Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection.  

PubMed

This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports. PMID:24329542

Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R

2014-01-01

353

Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

2014-01-01

354

Comparative effects of preoptic area infusions of opioid peptides, lesions and castration on sexual behaviour in male rats: studies of instrumental behaviour, conditioned place preference and partner preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on the sexual behaviour of male rats of excitotoxic amino acid-induced lesions of the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamic area (mPOA\\/AHA), infusions of ?-endorphin, ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone and naloxone into the mPOA\\/AHA, systemic naloxone and castration were compared using different behavioural paradigms. These included measures of unconditioned copulatory behaviour, instrumental responses for an oestrous female presented under a second-order

A. M. Hughes; B. J. Everitt; J. Herbert

1990-01-01

355

The inappropriateness of psycho-social models of risk behaviour for understanding HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow male prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male

M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard

1992-01-01

356

Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?  

PubMed

The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

357

The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.  

PubMed

It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law. PMID:24190101

Trandafir, Mircea

2014-02-01

358

Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.  

PubMed

Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others. PMID:25118098

de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

2014-01-01

359

Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to exposure to an infant in male prairie voles.  

PubMed

Paternal behaviour and pair-bond formation are defining characteristics of social monogamy. However, in comparison to pair-bonding, the endocrine factors associated with the male care of young are not well studied. In the present study, plasma concentrations of oxytocin, vasopressin and corticosterone (CORT) were measured in reproductively naïve male prairie voles as a function of exposure to an infant or control manipulations (i.e. handling or exposure to a wooden dowel). Plasma oxytocin concentrations were transiently elevated within 10 min of pup exposure. Although plasma CORT concentration typically increases after handling, after 10 min of pup exposure, the concentration of plasma CORT was not increased, suggesting an attenuation of CORT release by pup exposure. Group differences in the concentrations of plasma hormones were no longer detected at 20 or 60 min after treatment. These patterns of rapid change in the concentrations of plasma oxytocin and CORT were observed in both juvenile and adult males but not detected after control procedures. Plasma vasopressin, assessed only in adult males, did not vary as a function of pup exposure or other manipulations. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, pup exposure also increased activation (as assessed by the measurement of c-Fos) of neurones that stained for either oxytocin or vasopressin, whereas it decreased c-Fos expression in neurones stained for corticotrophin-releasing hormone. In addition, brief pup exposure (20 min) facilitated subsequent partner preference formation when alloparental males and pup attackers were considered as a group. In the context of other studies, these data support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine changes associated with male alloparental behaviour are related to those implicated in pair-bonding. PMID:22356098

Kenkel, W M; Paredes, J; Yee, J R; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, H; Bales, K L; Carter, C S

2012-06-01

360

Behavioural consequences of IVC cages on male and female C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Recent developments in the technology to breed and house laboratory rodents for medical research has produced individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems. These IVC systems produce a cage environment significantly different to conventional cages. As it is not known in detail whether housing mice in IVCs impacts on their baseline and drug-induced behaviours compared to mice of conventional filter-top cages a comprehensive multi-tiered phenotyping strategy was used to test the behavioural consequences of IVC housing in male and female C57BL/6JArc mice. IVC had anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze, which were more pronounced in female mice whereas cognition and locomotion of all test mice were not modified by IVC housing. Mice raised in IVC cage systems were socially more active than mice of filter-top systems. Furthermore, males raised in IVC exhibited an increased sensitivity to the locomotor-stimulating effects of acute MK-801 treatment compared to males in conventional cages. In summary, this is the first study revealing the longer-term effects of IVC housing on social behaviours and the locomotor response to an acute MK-801 challenge. In conclusion, researchers upgrading their holding facilities to IVC housing may encounter a shift in experimental outcomes (e.g. post pharmacological challenges) and the behavioural phenotype of test mice. Furthermore, differences between the housing conditions of breeding facilities and test facilities must carefully be considered. Finally, researchers should clarify in detail the type of housing test animals have been exposed to when publishing experimental animal research data. PMID:23415791

Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

2013-05-01

361

Size-dependent male mating behaviour and sexual harassment in a population of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana ) from a sulphur creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana inhabits a variety of habitats. In previous studies, small males from clear-water populations showed considerably more sexual behaviours than large males. Males from a sulphur creek, the El Azufre, or from a sulphur cave (cave molly) showed comparatively low sexual activity, and typical size-dependent mating behaviour was either absent or large males showed even more

Martin Plath; Anja Brümmer; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2006-01-01

362

Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.  

PubMed

The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

2012-06-01

363

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

2011-01-01

364

Genetic composition of social groups influences male aggressive behaviour and fitness in natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour—which is influenced by his or her genotype—can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the ‘focal interaction’ approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as ‘focal interactants’: the behavioural interaction between them was the ‘focal interaction’. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male—the ‘treatment male’. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359

Saltz, Julia B.

2013-01-01

365

Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.  

PubMed

Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

2014-01-01

366

Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all

Amanda D. L. Roberts; Jeremy W. Coid

2010-01-01

367

“It's not just about marriage; it's about antidiscrimination”: The California Supreme Court Decision and the Future of Same-Sex Marriage in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equal right to marry for same-sex couples in the United States has garnered increasing public support over time, with a number of state-level laws passed and others currently in contention. Beyond being a couples’ issue, arguments in support of legally recognizing same-sex marriage strike at the heart of LGBT civil rights and antidiscrimination efforts. This interview with Matt Coles,

Peter A. Newman

2010-01-01

368

Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

Dennis, Jeffery P.

2010-01-01

369

Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters  

PubMed Central

The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

Stone, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

370

Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

2013-01-01

371

Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the

S. B. Kennedy; S. Nolen; J. Applewhite; E. Waiters; J. Vanderhoff

2007-01-01

372

Sexual harassment in a live-bearing fish ( Poecilia mexicana ): influence of population-specific male mating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated male sexual behaviour and the cost of sexual harassment, as measured by the reduction of female feeding time in the presence of a male, in a cave-dwelling population of Poecilia mexicana, in which sexual harassment does not occur naturally. We asked whether the lack of sexual harassment in this population is due to low sexual activity of the

Martin Plath; Anja Brümmer; Ingo Schlupp

2004-01-01

373

& Electrophysiological studies using event-related potentials Joe or not Joe. The critical stimulus conditions included the have demonstrated that face stimuli elicit a greater negative subject's own face, a same-sex Joe (Jane) face and a same-sex  

E-print Network

stimulus conditions included the have demonstrated that face stimuli elicit a greater negative subject's own face, a same-sex Joe (Jane) face and a same-sex brain potential in right posterior recording sites 170 msec ``other'' face. The main finding was that the subject's own after stimulus onset (N170

Curran, Tim

374

A nose that roars: anatomical specializations and behavioural features of rutting male saiga  

PubMed Central

The involvement of the unique saiga nose in vocal production has been neglected so far. Rutting male saigas produce loud nasal roars. Prior to roaring, they tense and extend their noses in a highly stereotypic manner. This change of nose configuration includes dorsal folding and convex curving of the nasal vestibulum and is maintained until the roar ends. Red and fallow deer males that orally roar achieve a temporary increase of vocal tract length (vtl) by larynx retraction. Saiga males attain a similar effect by pulling their flexible nasal vestibulum rostrally, allowing for a temporary elongation of the nasal vocal tract by about 20%. Decrease of formant frequencies and formant dispersion, as acoustic effects of an increase of vtl, are assumed to convey important information on the quality of a dominant male to conspecifics, e.g. on body size and fighting ability. Nasal roaring in saiga may equally serve to deter rival males and to attract females. Anatomical constraints might have set a limit to the rostral pulling of the nasal vestibulum. It seems likely that the sexual dimorphism of the saiga nose was induced by sexual selection. Adult males of many mammalian species, after sniffing or licking female urine or genital secretions, raise their head and strongly retract their upper lip and small nasal vestibulum while inhalating orally. This flehmen behaviour is assumed to promote transport of non-volatile substances via the incisive ducts into the vomeronasal organs for pheromone detection. The flehmen aspect in saiga involves the extensive flexible walls of the greatly enlarged nasal vestibulum and is characterized by a distinctly concave configuration of the nose region, the reverse of that observed in nasal roaring. A step-by-step model for the gradual evolution of the saiga nose is presented here. PMID:17971116

Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya; Volodina, Elena

2007-01-01

375

The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate.  

PubMed

Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture-mark-recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation-winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the 'risky male behaviour' hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism. PMID:18426751

Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

2008-07-22

376

The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate  

PubMed Central

Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture–mark–recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation—winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the ‘risky male behaviour’ hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism. PMID:18426751

Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

2008-01-01

377

Chelicerae as male grasping organs in scorpions: sexual dimorphism and associated behaviour.  

PubMed

Specialised structures that enable males to grasp females during sexual interactions are highly susceptible to selection and thus diverge relatively rapidly over evolutionary time. These structures are often used to test hypotheses regarding sexual selection such as sexually antagonistic co-evolution and sexual selection by female choice. In the present study, we determine whether there is a relationship between a novel record of scorpion sexual dimorphism, the sexual dimorphism of chelicerae (CSD), and the presence of the mating behaviour termed "cheliceral grip" (CG). The presence of both traits in the order Scorpiones is also reviewed from a phylogenetic perspective. The results confirm a strong relationship between CSD and the presence of CG. The morphological and behavioural patterns associated with "CSD-CG" are opposed to the predictions postulated by the hypothesis of sexually antagonistic co-evolution. However, if the female shows resistance after the deposition of the spermatophore, the possibility that the male exerts pressure as a "cryptic form" of coercion to prevent the interruption of mating cannot be ruled out completely. Female choice by "mechanical fit" could be another explanation for some aspects of the CG's contact zone. The possibility that the "CG-CSD" complex has evolved under natural selection in order to ensure sperm transfer is also considered. PMID:19660924

Carrera, Patricia C; Mattoni, Camilo I; Peretti, Alfredo V

2009-01-01

378

Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behaviour in male Japanese quail  

PubMed Central

The sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in Japanese quail has for many years been the focus of intensive investigations into its role in reproductive behaviour. The present paper delineates a sequence of descending pathways that finally reach sacral levels of the spinal cord housing motor neurons innervating cloacal muscles involved in reproductive behaviour. We first retrogradely labeled the motor neurons innervating the large cloacal sphincter muscle (mSC) that forms part of the foam gland complex (Seiwert and Adkins-Regan, 1998, Brain Behav Evol 52:61–80) and then putative premotor nuclei in the brainstem, one of which was nucleus retroambigualis (RAm) in the caudal medulla. Anterograde tracing from RAm defined a bulbospinal pathway, terminations of which overlapped the distribution of mSC motor neurons and their extensive dorsally directed dendrites. Descending input to RAm arose from an extensive dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM-ICo), electrical stimulation of which drove vocalizations. POM neurons were retrogradely labeled by injections of tracer into DM-ICo, but POM projections largely surrounded DM, rather than penetrated it. Thus, although a POM projection to ICo was shown, a POM projection to DM must be inferred. Nevertheless, the sequence of projections in the male quail from POM to cloacal motor neurons strongly resembles that in rats, cats and monkeys for the control of reproductive behaviour, as largely defined by Holstege and co-workers (e.g., Holstege et al., 1997, Neuroscience 80: 587–598). PMID:23225613

Wild, J Martin; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

379

Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants  

PubMed Central

Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

380

The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership and/or Sponsored Dependency Status Revised 10/15/09  

E-print Network

The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership and/or Sponsored Dependency Status Revised 10/15/09 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Employee ID Number (required) certify that I previously filed an Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership

381

Office of Human Resources, SDP003, rev. 3/14 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership and/or Sponsored Dependency Status, Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Termination  

E-print Network

Office of Human Resources, SDP003, rev. 3/14 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership and/or Sponsored Dependency Status, Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Termination of Same-Sex Domestic of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership or Sponsored Dependency for the individual named below with the Office

382

Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.  

PubMed

Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. PMID:23178457

Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

2013-02-01

383

Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.  

PubMed

In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

Baumle, Amanda K

2014-01-01

384

Back to the future: prohibiting surrogacy for singles, same-sex and shorter-term heterosexual couples in Queensland.  

PubMed

This article considers the regulatory position concerning altruistic surrogacy in Queensland, focusing on the intended changes to the current legal framework announced by the government in June 2012. The previous government had made significant progress by reforming surrogacy laws in 2010. However, that progress is at risk of being reversed. The proposed changes to the law would make it a criminal offence to enter into an altruistic surrogacy arrangement for certain individuals or couples. If enacted, the offence would only apply in altruistic surrogacy cases where the intended parent or parents are either single, in a same-sex relationship, or are in a heterosexual relationship of less than two years. Moreover, if enacted, the offence would apply extra-territorially. The authors argue that these changes represent a retrograde step for the law and urge the government to reconsider. This is based on the fact that they are out of step with current social attitudes, are contrary to the spirit of anti-discrimination laws, and that they are unjustified in terms of child welfare concerns. PMID:23600195

Smith, Malcolm K; Willmott, Lindy; Trowse, Pip; White, Ben

2013-03-01

385

The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions  

PubMed Central

Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day ?5, ?2, and ?1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day ?1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day ?1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

2015-01-01

386

The effect of mixing entire male pigs prior to transport to slaughter on behaviour, welfare and carcass lesions.  

PubMed

Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day -5, -2, and -1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day -1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day -1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

2015-01-01

387

First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.  

PubMed

Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes. PMID:25648446

Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

2015-04-01

388

Social context of HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders of colour.  

PubMed

To explore the social context of drug use and sexual behaviours that put male-to-female (MTF) transgenders at risk for HIV, focus groups were conducted consisting of African American, Latina and Asian and Pacific Islander MTF transgenders (N = 48) who reside or work in San Francisco, California. Participants were likely to report having unprotected sex with primary partners to signify love and emotional connection, as well as to receive gender validation from their partners. In contrast, viewing sex work with customers as a business encouraged intentious to use condoms. Safer sex intentions with customers were frequently undermined by urgent financial needs, which stemmed from transphobia, employment discrimination and costly procedures associated with gender transition. Participants reported using drugs as a way to cope with or escape life stresses associated with relationships, sex work, transphobia and financial hardship. Interventions with at-risk MTF transgenders should address the interpersonal and social context of unsafe sex and drug use, particularly the unique roles of relationship issues with male partners, stigma, discrimination and community norms regarding sex work and drug use. PMID:15370060

Nemoto, T; Operario, D; Keatley, J; Villegas, D

2004-08-01

389

Sexual behaviour and neuronal activation in the vomeronasal pathway and hypothalamus of food-deprived male rats.  

PubMed

As feeding and mating are mutually-exclusive goal-orientated behaviours, we investigated whether brief food deprivation would impair the display of sexual behaviour of male rats. Analysis of performance in a sexual incentive motivation test revealed that, similar to fed males, food-deprived males preferred spending time in the vicinity of receptive females rather than nonreceptive females. Despite this, food-deprived males were more likely to be slow to mate than normally-fed males, and a low dose of the satiety peptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone attenuated the effect of hunger. Using Fos immunocytochemistry, we compared neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway in response to oestrous cues from receptive females between food-deprived and fed males. As in fed males, more Fos expression was seen in the rostral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the medial preoptic area in food-deprived males, confirming that food-deprived males can recognise and respond to female oestrous cues. However, although there was also an increase in Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the accessory tract and in the posteromedial amygdala in fed males, no increases were seen in these areas in food-deprived rats. We also found selective attenuation in the activation of lateral posterior paraventricular nucleus (lpPVN) oxytocin neurones in food-deprived males. Taken together, the data show that, although food-deprived males can still become sexually motivated, copulation is delayed, and this is accompanied by variations in neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway. We propose that, in hungry rats, the lpPVN oxytocin neurones (which project to the spinal cord and are involved in maintaining penile erection) facilitate the transition from motivation to intromission, and their lack of activation impairs intromission, and thus delays mating. PMID:22309296

Caquineau, C; Leng, G; Douglas, A J

2012-04-01

390

Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…

Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.

2008-01-01

391

A Window Illuminating the Reservations of Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in Fully Embracing the Institution of Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this discussion is to examine some of the variables that impact black men who have sex with men (MSM) embracing the institution of same-sex marriage. At the cornerstone of this discussion is the notion that one must embark upon a contextual analysis if one hopes to understand human behavior and attitudes. This contextual analysis explores socio-cultural influences,

Carlton W. Parks JR

2010-01-01

392

The Effect of Requiring Private Employers to Extend Health Benefit Eligibility to Same-Sex Partners of Employees: Evidence from California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships in…

Buchmueller, Thomas C.; Carpenter, Christopher S.

2012-01-01

393

Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points…

Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

2014-01-01

394

I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic partnership is subject to filing of an Affidavit of Domestic Partnership.  

E-print Network

I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date

Shepherd, Simon

395

Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households. A Preliminary Analysis of 2000 United States Census Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information from the 2000 United States Census on gay and lesbian families. It notes that the 2000 numbers for same-sex unmarried partner households are a dramatic increase from 1990, but the total number still represents an undercount of the actual number of gay or lesbian coupled households in the country. The Human Rights…

Smith, David M.; Gates, Gary J.

396

A Clear Stand: Religious Schools Are Being Pressed to Spell Out Their Policies Regarding Gay Students and the Children of Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

397

Exploring the “Bisexual Bridge”: A Qualitative Study of Risk Behavior and Disclosure of Same-Sex Behavior Among Black Bisexual Men  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We explored factors influencing sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices among Black bisexual men. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 Black men in Atlanta, Georgia, who reported having had oral, vaginal, or anal sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months. Results. Participants described approaches to disclosure of same-sex behavior as part of a complex decisional balance influenced by both situational and individual factors and ranging from full disclosure to total secrecy. Influences on sexual behavior and condom-use practices included: (1) type of relationship, (2) gender-specific considerations, (3) perceptions of comfort or trust, and (4) fear of disease or pregnancy. Conclusions. Disclosure of same-sex behavior was not a major influence on the sexual behavior and condom-use practices of the Black bisexual men in our study, who demonstrated heterogeneity in approaches to sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices. Additional research is needed to assess the social determinants of sexual risk for this population. Future HIV-prevention efforts should include initiatives to encourage accuracy in risk assessment and in taking sexual histories in clinical settings. PMID:19910348

Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jenkins, Tyrrell R.; Dauria, Emily; Patel, Shilpa N.

2010-01-01

398

Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

2008-01-01

399

Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

2011-01-01

400

"It Was as Useful as a Chocolate Kettle": Sex Education in the Lives of Same-Sex-Attracted Young People in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…

Hillier, Lynne; Mitchell, Anne

2008-01-01

401

Health-seeking behaviour of male foreign migrant workers living in a dormitory in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ?21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p?=?0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p?=?0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning?

2014-01-01

402

Sexual behaviour and knowledge of adolescent males in the Molopo Region of Bophuthatswana.  

PubMed

Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas. Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent's sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12 years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24.5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives was confirmed when 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would 'flog' them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalized sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents. PMID:1845614

Kau, M

1991-07-01

403

Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

2010-01-01

404

Viewing attractive or unattractive same-sex individuals changes self-rated attractiveness and face preferences in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition-dependent mate choice in females, whereby condition or attractiveness influences preferences for markers of male quality, is seen in both fish and humans. Such effects may be explained by (1) genetic linkage between trait and preference, (2) poor-condition females having energetic constraints limiting their choosiness, and (3) females of low mate value benefiting from avoiding high-quality males, based on the

Anthony C. Little; Helena Mannion

2006-01-01

405

Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of tropical butterflies: taxonomic and site associations and distinctions.  

PubMed

Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host planttrack distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species' habitats. PMID:21289445

Tiple, Ashish D; Padwad, Sonali V; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dennis, Roger L H

2010-12-01

406

The Impact of Adult Vitamin D Deficiency on Behaviour and Brain Function in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D deficiency is common in the adult population, and this has been linked to depression and cognitive outcomes in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency on behavioural tasks of relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods Ten-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control or vitamin D deficient diet for 6 weeks prior to, and during behavioural testing. We first examined a range of behavioural domains including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, social behaviour, learned helplessness, sensorimotor gating, and nociception. We then assessed locomotor response to the psychomimetic drugs, amphetamine and MK-801. Attention and vigilance were assessed using the 5 choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRT) and the 5 choice continuous performance task (5C-CPT) and, in a separate cohort, working memory was assessed using the delay match to sample (DMTS) task. We also examined excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Results AVD-deficient rats were deficient in vitamin D3 (<10 nM) and had normal calcium and phosphate levels after 8–10 weeks on the diet. Overall, AVD deficiency was not associated with an altered phenotype across the range of behavioural domains tested. On the 5C-SRT AVD-deficient rats made more premature responses and more head entries during longer inter-trial intervals (ITI) than control rats. On the 5C-CPT AVD-deficient rats took longer to make false alarm (FA) responses than control rats. AVD-deficient rats had increases in baseline GABA levels and the ratio of DOPAC/HVA within the striatum. Conclusions AVD-deficient rats exhibited no major impairments in any of the behavioural domains tested. Impairments in premature responses in AVD-deficient rats may indicate that these animals have specific alterations in striatal systems governing compulsive or reward-seeking behaviour. PMID:23951200

Turner, Karly M.; Eyles, Darryl W.; McGrath, John J.; Burne, Thomas H. J.

2013-01-01

407

Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1  

PubMed Central

This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

2009-01-01

408

The effects of nongender-role stereotyped, same-sex role models in storybooks on the self-esteem of children in grade three  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of nonstereotyped, same-sex role models on the self-esteem of children in Grade Three. There were 346 subjects: 315 white Australian, 15 Asian, 3 Aboriginal, 2 African, 5 Middle Eastern, and 6 European. Five groups were formed from these 346 children. Four of the groups were exposed to 12 nongender-role stereotyped stories over 4 weeks that

Jan M. Ochman

1996-01-01

409

Perceptions of Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Touching: It's Better to Give Than to Receive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nonverbal behavior patterns and perceptions of males and females were investigated. Undergraduate students (N=36 men and N=30 women) viewed a series of high-contrast slides portraying two actors standing side by side. Half of the subjects saw slides depicting the person on the left touching the shoulder of the person on the right, while…

Major, Brenda; Heslin, Richard

410

Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: A process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect  

PubMed Central

Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children’s development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third-and fourth-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at three time points over two school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression, and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PMID:24684714

Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

2014-01-01

411

Victimization, social support, and psychosocial functioning among children of same-sex and opposite-sex couples in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student sample. Comparisons were made on factors including victimization, social support, and psychological functioning. Results indicate that those students raised by female same-sex couples did not differ significantly from those raised by opposite-sex couples or the general student sample in terms of reports of victimization, psychological functioning, experience of common adolescent concerns, or prospective use of support outlets provided by family and peers. However, children of same-sex couples reported significantly less likelihood of using school-based support than did children of opposite-sex couples or the general student sample. Findings indicate the need for school administrators, teachers, and psychologists to be knowledgeable of and provide appropriate support and resources for these children. Additional implications for research and application are discussed. PMID:18194011

Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V Paul; Noret, Nathalie

2008-01-01

412

[Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].  

PubMed

Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives. PMID:23034554

Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

2012-10-01

413

5. Hidden Patterns of Male Sex Hormones and Behaviour Vary with Life History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androgens regulate sperm production, the expression of secondary sex characters and behavior in males and also vice versa, androgens are modulated by the male's interactions with his social environment. In search for a regular internal \\

Katharina HIRSCHENHAUSER; Didone FRIGERIO

414

The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63?±?4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18?±?1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39?±?3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20?±?2 s) or male's rejection (22?±?2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7?±?0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID:25487029

Benelli, Giovanni

2015-03-01

415

Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

2011-01-01

416

Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001

KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.

2007-01-01

417

Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

1992-01-01

418

The effect of neighbours and females on dawn and daytime singing behaviours by male chipping sparrows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird song may play an important role for communication among territorial neighbours, but the effect of neighbours on song use is still not well known. My previous field observations suggested that male chipping sparrows, Spizella passerina, use the dawn chorus for interactions among neighbouring males, and use day song for female attraction. To determine how these social factors may influence

Wan-Chun Liu

2004-01-01

419

School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…

Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

2011-01-01

420

Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix : role of physical and behavioural male traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brown breast patch of the male grey partridge, the species' most conspicuous sexually dimorphic trait, was totally or partly bleached out, to test its influence on female preference. In mate-choice experiments, patch size (which was unaffected by early testosterone treatment) appeared to be unimportant: artificially and naturally bred females primarily selected males on the basis of their vocal performance.

LAURA BEANI; FRANCESCO DESSÌ-FULGHERI

1995-01-01

421

Effect of predation on male mating behaviour in a unisexual-bisexual mating system  

E-print Network

, mate choice, Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, predation risk. Introduction Predation risk can occurs in the genus Poecilia. Poe- ciliid fish are livebearing and exhibit internal fertilization. Male sailfin mol- lies (P. latipinna) and male Atlantic mollies (P. mexicana mexicana and P. m. limantouri

Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

422

Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The male-to-female transgender (waria) is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviours (getting, carrying, and offering a condom) and two condom use behaviours (during receptive and insertive anal sex) were assessed. Methods The study involved 209 waria, recruited from five districts in Jakarta and interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Specific measures were developed to study attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in order to predict intentions and behaviours. Results The explained variance between intentions with regard to three preparatory behaviours and two condom uses ranged between 30 and 57%, and the variance between the actual preparatory behaviours of three preparatory and two condom uses ranged between 21 and 42%. In our study, as with several previous studies of the TPB on HIV protection behaviours, the TPB variables differed in their predictive power. With regard to intention, attitude and PBC were consistently significant predictors; attitude was the strongest predictor of intention for all three preparatory behaviours, and PBC was the strongest predictor of intention for condom use, both during receptive and insertive anal sex. TPB variables were also significantly related to the second parameter of future behaviour: actual (past) behaviour. TPB variables were differentially related to the five behaviours. Attitude was predictive in three behaviours, PBC in three behaviours and subjective norms in two behaviours. Conclusions Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted. PMID:25529498

Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Hartana Tb, Gagan

2014-01-01

423

The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

2009-01-01

424

Male sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) coda production and coda-type usage depend on the presence of conspecifics and the behavioural context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalusL., 1758 (= Physeter catodon L., 1758)) codas serve a communication function, but the message they carry remains unknown. Very few codas and extremely few coda types are available from males. For 7 years we studied the coda occurrence and the coda types produced by 15 males in different behavioural and encounter contexts. Of the 67 encounters,

Alexandros Frantzis; Paraskevi Alexiadou

2008-01-01

425

Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?  

PubMed Central

Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

2012-01-01

426

Men and women as perpetrators and victims of sexual aggression in heterosexual and same-sex encounters: a study of first-year college students in Germany.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N?=?2,149 first-year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same-sex and heterosexual victim-perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim-perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite-sex and same-sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. PMID:23629691

Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

2013-01-01

427

Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.  

PubMed

Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling. PMID:24481497

Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

2014-04-01

428

Arrival timing in subadult and adult Black Redstart males: competition-dependent behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different arrival times of 1-year-old and older males is a widely recognised phenomenon in most migrating passerines. The converse pattern, i.e. the yearlings arriving at the breeding grounds at the same time as adults, has been reported only exceptionally. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain the delayed arrival of yearling males: investment reduction, and energetic constraint hypotheses, respectively.

L. Schwarzová; P. Štros; D. Frynta; R. Fuchs

2010-01-01

429

The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

2009-01-01

430

Female pigeons, Columba livia, respond to multisensory audio\\/video playbacks of male courtship behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple signals from different sensory channels can enhance, diminish, or have no effect on one another when they are combined into a multisensory signal. Simultaneous auditory and visual signals are known to be important in avian courtship behaviour, but less is known about how the signal components from the two sensory channels interact and which channel is relied upon more.

Sarah Partan; Sylvana Yelda; Virginia Price; Toru Shimizu

2005-01-01

431

Young Male Prisoners in a Young Offenders' Institution: Their Contact with Suicidal Behaviour by Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prison suicide rates are increasing. The impact of witnessing a suicide or how many people do so is unknown. The aim of this study was to find how many young people detained in a Young Offenders' Institution (YOI) have had contact with another's suicide attempt and to test for association between this and own self-harming behaviour. A…

Hales, H.; Davison, S.; Misch, P.; Taylor, P. J.

2003-01-01

432

Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on the Nesting Behaviour of Male Pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRESENT-DAY advances in psychotherapy have added impetus to investigations into the actions of drugs which affect the central nervous system and thus cause changes in behaviour patterns. One such psychomimetic agent, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), exerts both peripheral and central actions1. Some of these effects in various animals and humans are nausea, vertigo, hyperhydrosis, hypersalivation, mydriasis, vasodilation or vasospasm, hypotension

Efrem Rosen; Anthony Iovino

1963-01-01

433

Female puberty acceleration by male odour in mice: neural pathway and behavioural consequences.  

PubMed

In female mice, exposure to male chemosignals results in early puberty onset characterized by advanced vaginal opening and higher uterine weight. Evidence suggests that the male chemosignals responsible for acceleration of female puberty are androgen-dependent, but not all of the compounds that contribute to puberty acceleration have been identified. The male chemosignals are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system including the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory bulb and the medial amygdala. By contrast, the mechanism by which this olfactory information is integrated in the hypothalamus is poorly understood. In this context, the recent identification of the neuropeptide kisspeptin as a gatekeeper of puberty onset may provide a good candidate neuropeptide system for the transmission of chemosensory information to the gonadotrope axis. PMID:25109972

Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Szymanski, Laura A; Keller, Matthieu

2014-08-01

434

Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus  

E-print Network

Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

Demas, Greg

435

Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters  

E-print Network

Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

Delville, Yvon

436

Behaviour 149 (2012) 869879 brill.com/beh Male permissiveness in a unisexualbisexual mating  

E-print Network

- erospecific females does not lead to fitness benefits for the males. Here, we focused on the Poecilia latipinna­P. formosa­P. mexicana mating complex, where P. formosa is a gynogenetic species of hybrid origin and P. latipinna and P. mexicana are its parent species and sexual hosts (sperm donors). We examined

Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

2012-01-01

437

Plasticity in male courtship behaviour as a function of light intensity in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environment is profoundly important in shaping many aspects of animal phenotype, including courtship and mating behaviours.\\u000a Courtship displays rely upon the transmission of visual information from the signaller to the receiver, which means they are\\u000a likely to be less effective in visually poor conditions such as at low light or in turbid ecosystems. One might therefore\\u000a predict that in

Ben B. Chapman; Lesley J. Morrell; Jens Krause

2009-01-01

438

Same-Sex Relationship Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... your partner stay away from you and any children. Learn more about how to get a court order of protection . Look for an antiviolence program . These programs work specifically with LGBT survivors of domestic abuse and hate violence. You can ask shelter staff for help finding ...

439

Fine structure and meiotic behaviour of the male multiple sex chromosomes in the genus Alouatta.  

PubMed

The meiotic cytology and fine structure of the sex multiples in males from two species of the genus Alouatta are presented and compared with descriptions from other species of this genus. As shown in pachytene by synaptonemal complex analysis and in metaphase I by spreading, there is a quadrivalent in male meiosis in A. caraya, which is formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1)Y(2) complex, while in A. palliata there is a trivalent formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1) complex. Chromosome painting with human probes shows that A. caraya sex multiples share the same components as those of A. seniculus sara and A. seniculus arctoidea. However, as shown here for A. palliata and by others in A. fusca, there are differences among the multiples of some species. It is shown that in this genus there are several varieties of sex multiples that share some features, and that the origin of these multiples is most probably a primitive development in the genus Alouatta. PMID:15545739

Solari, A J; Rahn, M I

2005-01-01

440

The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter, family relations and maltreatment\\/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among male adolescents. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of a randomized sample of 66 male individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county. Boys, who volunteered

Kent W. Nilsson; Rickard L. Sjöberg; Hanna-Linn Wargelius; Jerzy Leppert; Leif Lindström; Lars Oreland

2007-01-01

441

Mortality Risks Among Persons Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners: Evidence From the 2008 General Social Survey—National Death Index Data Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation–associated health risks. Methods We used data from the 1988–2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer–related mortality. Results The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation–associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

2014-01-01

442

Provisioning behaviour at the nest in single-parent versus biparental nests and male versus female parents in the common redstart ( Phoenicurus phoenicurus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed video-sequences of undisturbed parental provisioning behaviour on 12 nests of common redstart ( Phoenicurus phoenicurus). In 4 of the 12 nests, chicks were fed by a single parent only. We compared provisioning rate of chicks, time spent on the nest and food allocation rules between nests with uniparental and biparental care and between male and female parents in

Ji?í Porkert; Marek Špinka

2004-01-01

443

Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity.  

PubMed

Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed properties to improve energy and fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic Maca pulverised root oral administration on rat sexual behaviour. Sixty male sexually experienced rats (20 group) were daily treated for 15 days with Maca 15 mg kg(-1), Maca 75 mg kg(-1) or saline 0.5 ml kg(-1). The following sexual performance parameters were evaluated at first and last day of treatment: 1st mount (ML), 1st intromission (IL), ejaculation (EL) and postejaculatory (PEL) latencies, intercopulatory interval (ICI) and copulatory efficacy (CE). An activity cage test was carried out to evaluate if Maca-induced locomotion changes could indirectly improve rat sexual performances. It was observed that both lower and higher Maca doses acutely decreased ML, IL and ICI in a significant way (P < 0.05), while only the 75 mg kg(-1) dose decreased the PEL (T = 29, P < 0.05). This effect seems to be the only one dose-dependent. After 15 days of treatment, both doses are able to significantly decrease ML, IL, EL and PEL, while the 75 mg kg(-1) dose decreased the ICI (T = 40, P < 0.05) too. IL, EL and PEL variations seem to be dose-related after chronic treatment. Moreover, chronic Maca treatment induced an apparently not dose-related increase in rat locomotion, during the second 10-min period of observation in the activity cage. The late in Maca-induced locomotion modification excludes that improvement of tested sexual performance parameters is related to an increase in rat aspecific activity. Thus, it was concluded that both acute and chronic Maca oral administration significantly improve sexual performance parameters in male rats. PMID:11297856

Cicero, A F; Bandieri, E; Arletti, R

2001-05-01

444

Social Distance regarding Male and Female Homosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hypotheses were tested by having American undergraduates respond to a Guttman scale of social distance toward male and female homosexuals. Respondents had higher degrees of discomfort toward same-sex homosexuals than toward opposite-sex homosexuals. Results indicated comfort around homosexuals to be negatively associated with the frequency of religious participation and positively associated with having had a friend who was believed

Cynthia S. Gentry

1987-01-01

445

Risk behaviours of Hong Kong male residents travelling to mainland China: a potential bridge population for HIV infection.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess levels of high-risk sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and AIDS-related perceptions among Hong Kong men returning from China by land; 1,254 systematically sampled subjects were interviewed. Of respondents, 32.5% had sexual intercourse with a commercial sex worker (CSW) in China in the past six months; 11.2% have done so on this trip. A third of those who reported having sex with CSWs did so without a condom. A fifth had a history of STDs: seventy per cent of respondents who did not use a condom with a CSW would not use a condom with their regular sexual partner. Less educated respondents, 31-40-year-olds and non-business and frequent travellers were more likely to have sex with a CSW. Those who practice high-risk sex fear AIDS more, are aware that their own risk of HIV infection is not negligible, but think that chances of HIV infection from CSWs in China are small. Although Hong Kong's estimated HIV prevalence among adults is low (0.06%), the huge volume of cross-border travel between Hong Kong and China and the common practice of high-risk sex by Hong Kong male travellers provide a bridge for emerging epidemics to spread. PMID:11177466

Lau, J T; Thomas, J

2001-02-01

446

A Comparison of Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Women from Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twin Pairs  

PubMed Central

Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive parameters using a twin design. Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and 1983–1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16) and FinnTwin12 (FT12) studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status, and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS) and 789 opposite-sex (OS) female twins (mean age?±?SD: 34?±?1.1) from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age?±?SD: 24?±?2.1) from the wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile, or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with these phenotypes later in life. PMID:24639667

Korsoff, Pirkko; Bogl, Leonie H.; Korhonen, Päivi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Rose, Richard J.; Kaaja, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko

2014-01-01

447

Body Build Perceptions in Male and Female College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from scores on the Somatotype Rating Scale (SRS) indicated that, while there was close agreement between males and females on the measures, females exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body build and greater congruency between their self-concept and their same-sex stereotype than did males. (Author)

Bailey, Roger C.; Hankins, Norman E.

1979-01-01

448

Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.  

PubMed

Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939

Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

2015-01-17

449

"They Didn't Have 'Out There' Gay Parents--They Just Looked Like "Normal" Regular Parents": Investigating Teachers' Approaches to Addressing Same-Sex Parenting and Non-Normative Sexuality in the Elementary School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we draw on queer theoretical and critical literacy perspectives to investigate elementary school teachers' pedagogical approaches to addressing same-sex parenting and non-normative sexuality in the elementary classroom. Through undertaking case study research, we examine two Australian elementary school teachers' reflections on…

Martino, Wayne; Cumming-Potvin, Wendy

2011-01-01

450

Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly  

PubMed Central

Protandry (prior emergence of males) in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once), males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip) in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males) consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (?44%) of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (?3%) emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source) populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects). PMID:25648908

Saccheri, Ilik J.

2015-01-01

451

Male and female rats differ in brain cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function and in behavioural traits predisposing to drug addiction: effect of ovarian hormones.  

PubMed

Sex-dependent differences are frequently observed in the biological and behavioural effects of substances of abuse, including cannabis. We recently demonstrated a modulating effect of sex and oestrous cycle on cannabinoid-taking and seeking behaviours. Here, we investigated the influence of sex and oestrogen in the regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor density and function, measured by [(3)H]CP55940 and CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding autoradiography, respectively, in the prefrontal cortex (Cg1 and Cg3), caudate- putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus of male and cycling female rats, as well as ovariectomised (OVX) rats and OVX rats primed with oestradiol (10 µg/rat) (OVX+E). CB1 receptor density was significantly lower in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of cycling females than in males and in OVX females, a difference that appeared to be oestradiol-dependent, because it was no more evident in the OVX+E group. CP55940-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding was significantly higher in the Cg3 of OVX rats relative to cycling and OVX+E rats. No difference was observed in CB1 receptor density or function in any of the other brain areas analysed. Finally, sex and oestradiol were also found to affect motor activity, social behaviour and sensorimotor gating in rats tested in locomotor activity boxes, social interaction and prepulse inhibition tasks, respectively. Our findings provide biochemical evidence for sex- and hormone- dependent differences in the density and function of CB1 receptors in selected brain regions, and in behaviours associated with greater vulnerability to drug addiction, revealing a more vulnerable behavioural phenotype in female than in male rats. PMID:23829370

Castelli, Maria Paola; Fadda, Paola; Casu, Angelo; Spano, Maria Sabrina; Casti, Alberto; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

2014-01-01

452

Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems  

PubMed Central

Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

2014-01-01

453

Evolution of mate-harm, longevity and behaviour in male fruit flies subjected to different levels of interlocus conflict  

PubMed Central

Background Interlocus conflict predicts (a) evolution of traits, beneficial to males but detrimental to females and (b) evolution of aging and life-span under the influence of the cost of bearing these traits. However, there are very few empirical investigations shedding light on these predictions. Those that do address these issues, mostly reported response of male reproductive traits or the lack of it and do not address the life-history consequence of such evolution. Here, we test both the above mentioned predictions using experimental evolution on replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. We present responses observed after >45 generations of altered levels of interlocus conflict (generated by varying the operational sex ratio). Results Males from the male biased (high conflict, M-regime) regime evolved higher spontaneous locomotor activity and courtship frequency. Females exposed to these males were found to have higher mortality rate. Males from the female biased regime (low conflict, F-regime) did not evolve altered courtship frequency and activity. However, progeny production of females continuously exposed to F-males was significantly higher than the progeny production of females exposed to M-males indicating that the F-males are relatively benign towards their mates. We found that males from male biased regime lived shorter compared to males from the female biased regime. Conclusion F-males (evolving under lower levels of sexual conflict) evolved decreased mate harming ability indicating the cost of maintenance of the suit of traits that cause mate-harm. The M-males (evolving under higher levels sexual conflict) caused higher female mortality indicating that they had evolved increased mate harming ability, possibly as a by product of increased reproduction related activity. There was a correlated evolution of life-history of the M and F-males. M-regime males lived shorter compared to the males from F-regime, possibly due to the cost of investing more in reproductive traits. In combination, these results suggest that male reproductive traits and life-history traits can evolve in response to the altered levels of interlocus sexual conflict. PMID:24073883

2013-01-01

454

Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Results Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25–29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7–4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7–3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8) than their counterparts. Conclusions The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours. PMID:25423311

Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

2014-01-01

455

Repertoire of male-male agonistic behaviour in tusked weta (Motuweta riparia Gibbs) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) compared to tree weta (Hemideina Walker) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agonistic interactions were observed between captive male Raukumara Tusked Weta, Motuweta riparia Gibbs. The repertoire of actions observed was ranked in order of increasing risk of injury and encounters were ranked in four levels of increasing aggression based on these actions. The repertoire of actions and level of aggression displayed was then compared with previously reported agonistic interactions in Hemideina

Philip I. Burge

2005-01-01

456

Children and Parents as Informants of Emotional and Behavioural Problems Predicting Female and Male Adolescent Risk Behaviour: A Longitudinal Cross-Informant Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4…

Vierhaus, Marc; Lohaus, Arnold

2008-01-01

457

Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in southern China: sexual and drug-using behaviours among female sex workers and male clients in Yunnan  

PubMed Central

Summary To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods. PMID:23033525

Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N

2015-01-01

458

HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of

Tonia Poteat; Daouda Diouf; Fatou Maria Drame; Marieme Ndaw; Cheikh Traore; Mandeep Dhaliwal; Chris Beyrer; Stefan Baral

2011-01-01

459

Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

2008-01-01

460

Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect  

E-print Network

-history signature of male mate choice in a system of coexisting bisexual sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) and gynogenetic Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa). Specifically, we gave P. latipinna males an opportunity) females with sperm in their genital tract and (2) pregnant females. A higher proportion of P. latipinna

Schlupp, Ingo

461

Children and Parents as Informants of Emotional and Behavioural Problems Predicting Female and Male Adolescent Risk Behaviour: A Longitudinal Cross-Informant Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology\\u000a (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated\\u000a in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4 and 6 the children completed the

Marc Vierhaus; Arnold Lohaus

2008-01-01

462

The relationship between social status, behaviour, growth and steroids in male helpers and breeders of a cooperatively breeding cichlid  

E-print Network

2006 Available online 19 April 2006 Abstract We tested whether subordinate helper males of the Lake Tanganyika cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher show elevated excretion levels of the stress

463

Male More than Female Infants Imitate Propulsive Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male

Benenson, Joyce F.; Tennyson, Robert; Wrangham, Richard W.

2011-01-01

464

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and

JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman

2011-01-01

465

Heavy Episodic Drinking and Its Consequences: The Protective Effects of Same-Sex, Residential Living-Learning Communities for Undergraduate Women  

PubMed Central

Gender and living environment are two of the most consistent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking on college campuses. This study aimed to determine group differences in alcohol misuse and its attendant consequences between undergraduate women living in four distinct on-campus residential environments. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of full-time students attending a large Midwestern University, and living in four distinct on-campus residential environments: 1) single-sex (all female) Residential Learning Communities (RLCs), 2) mixed-sex (male and female) RLCs, 3) single-sex (all female) non-RLCs and 4) mixed-sex (male and female) non-RLCs. Respondents living in single-sex and mixed-sex RLCs had significantly lower rates of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and related primary alcohol-related consequences when compared to respondents living in non-RLCs; however, women in single-sex RLCs had the lowest rates. RLCs – particularly single-sex learning communities – appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:18485609

Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Morales, Michele; Lange, James E.; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie, Julie M.; Scott, Marcia S.

2008-01-01

466

Between harm and dangers. Oral snuff use, cigarette smoking and problem behaviours in a survey of Swedish male adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (moist snuff) in Sweden is among the highest world-wide, and snuff is gaining popularity as a less harmful alternative to cigarettes. Methods: Patterns of current tobacco use and indicators of behavioural problems were analysed in a sample of 6287 boys participating in a census survey among 9th graders in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results:

M. ROSARIA GALANTI; SEPPO WICKHOLM; HANS GILLJAM

2001-01-01

467

HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices  

PubMed Central

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

2011-01-01

468

Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour  

PubMed Central

According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-evolution between traits involved in mating and parental care as a result of costs associated with these social interactions (i.e. sexual conflict). In burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides), we use artificial selection on a paternity assurance trait, and crosses within and between selection lines, to show that selection acting on females, not males, can drive the co-evolution of paternity assurance traits and parental care. Males do not care more in response to selection on mating rate. Instead, patterns of parental care change as an indirect response to costs of mating for females. PMID:24766255

Head, Megan L; Hinde, Camilla A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

2014-01-01

469

A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage

D. H. Hamer; S. Hu; V. L. Magnuson; N. Hu; A. M. L. Pattatucci

1993-01-01

470

Song Amplitude of Rival Males Modulates the Territorial Behaviour of Great Tits During the Fertile Period of Their Mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird song is a widely used model in the study of sexual selection. Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits is thought to reflect variation in male genetic and\\/or phenotypic quality. Vocal amplitude is a song parameter that has received little attention in the context of sexual selection, but there is some evidence that the intensity of bird song

M. Ritschard; Oers van K; M. Naguib; H. Brumm

2012-01-01

471

Song amplitude of rival males modulates the territorial behaviour of great tits during the fertile period of their mates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird song is a widely used model in the study of sexual selection. Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits is thought to reflect variation in male genetic and\\/or phenotypic quality. Vocal amplitude is a song parameter that has received little attention in the context of sexual selection, but there is some evidence that the intensity of bird song

M. Ritschard; K. Van Oers; M. Naguib; H. Brumm

2012-01-01

472

HIV vulnerabilities and coercive sex at same-sex sexual debut among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined coercive sex and HIV vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The present study seeks to compare individual characteristics between MSM who did and did not experience coercive sex at their MSM sexual debut and to identify HIV risk factors correlated with coercive sex at MSM sexual debut. In 2007, we recruited 167 MSM in Beijing, China by peer-referred social network sampling. Each participant then completed self-administered questionnaires regarding their sexual experiences and practices. Results show that 14% of participants reported coercive sex at MSM sexual debut, of whom 48% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Coercive sex at MSM sexual debut was significantly associated with UAI [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.95-14.87] and lifetime number of male sex partners (AOR: 7.25, 95% CI: 2.39-22.01). Coercive sex is harming MSM in China and should be immediately addressed by researchers, public health officials, and MSM community stakeholders. PMID:24099311

Pan, Stephen W; Ruan, Yuhua; Spittal, Patricia M; Pearce, Margo E; Qian, Han-Zhu; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Zheng; Shao, Yiming

2014-01-01

473

Expectancy effects in tennis: the impact of opponents' pre-match non-verbal behaviour on male tennis players.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the impact of a male opponent's pre-match body language and clothing (general vs. sports-specific) on how his performances were judged by an observer. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a male target tennis player warming up and then observed playing footage of the target. Each participant viewed the target player warming up displaying one of four combinations of body language and clothing (positive body language/tennis-specific clothing; positive body language/general sportswear; negative body language/tennis-specific clothing; negative body language/general sportswear). Participants rated the performance of the tennis player and gave their perceptions of the likely outcome of a tennis match with the target player. Analyses of variance indicated that clothing and body language had an interactive effect on both outcome expectations and ratings of performance. The findings support the contention that the initial impressions athletes form of their opponents can influence the way in which they judge the performances of opponents and their perceived likelihood of success against the same opponents. PMID:17101528

Buscombe, Richard; Greenlees, Iain; Holder, Tim; Thelwell, Richard; Rimmer, Matt

2006-12-01

474

Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID:24392104

Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

2014-01-01

475

Differential effects of CB1 receptor agonism in behavioural tests of unconditioned and conditioned fear in adult male rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the highly selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA and the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 on two behavioural tests of unconditioned fear, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), as well as on the recall and extinction of a conditioned auditory fear. Both ACEA and AM251 increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM and OFT. There was no effect of either drug on recall of the conditioned fear, and ACEA enhanced and AM251 impaired fear extinction. Further, though both the low (0.1 mg/kg) and high (0.5 mg/kg) dose of ACEA facilitated fear extinction, the low dose attenuated, and the high dose potentiated, fear induced corticosterone release suggesting independent effects of the drug on fear and stress responses. Although the extent to which cannabinoids are anxiogenic or anxiolytic has been proposed to be dose-dependent, these results indicate that the same dose has differential effects across tasks, likely based in differences in sensitivities of CB1 receptors to the agonist in the neural regions subserving unconditioned and conditioned fear. PMID:25446756

Simone, Jonathan J; Green, Matthew R; Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

2015-02-15

476

Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Family psychosocial characteristics in childhood have been associated with children's development into criminal behaviour and mortality. This study explored these possible relationships and examined alcohol and/or drug use and mental problems as possible mediating factors, highlighting gender-specific patterns. Methods Data from Swedish subjects born in 1953 (n = 14,294) from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were examined. Several indicators of adverse family factors and individual problems were included in the present study. The information was derived from various data sources, covering different periods. Gender-specific associations with incidence of criminality (1966-1980) and mortality (1981-2009) were analysed using logistic regression. Furthermore, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for all variables in the fully adjusted models which were positively related to the outcome. Results Overall incidence of criminality and mortality was (m/f 32.3/6.6) and (m/f 6.1/3.5), respectively. The results showed that all aspects of family psychosocial and individual problems studied were associated with criminality for both genders. Among males, individual problems seemed to partly mediate these relations, but the associations remained statistically significant. Interestingly, the PAF analysis revealed a reduction in criminality of 17.5% when individual problems with alcohol and/or drug use were considered. Among females, a significant impact of alcohol and/or drug use on the association between family psychosocial characteristics and subsequent criminality was obtained. Inclusion of father's occupational class only somewhat reduced the estimates for the genders. Concerning male mortality, father's alcohol abuse was significantly related to an increased risk. When individual criminality was accounted for, the association was substantially reduced but remained statistically significant. Among females, when adjusting for family psychosocial factors, only the association between parents' mental problems and females' mortality was significant. None of the individual problem variables managed to explain this association. Conclusions Family psychosocial characteristics were associated with both subsequent criminal behaviour and mortality. These connections were partly explained by individual risk factors, especially by alcohol and/or drug use. The practical implications of the findings point to the importance of addressing the individual's alcohol and/or drug use in reducing criminal behaviour, which would also lower the mortality rates. PMID:21962152

2011-01-01

477

Effects of inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion on the response to novel objects in young male and female sheep.  

PubMed

This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific). To determine the effects of agonist treatment on the reproductive axis blood samples were collected for measurement of testosterone in the males and progesterone in the females. In addition the volume of the scrotum was determined. The present study aimed to determine whether there are sexually differentiated behavioural responses to a novel object at different stages of brain development (8, 28 and 48 weeks of age) and whether these responses are altered by GnRHa treatment. Approach behaviour towards and interactions with the novel object were monitored as was the number of vocalisations per unit time during the test period. GnRHa treatment suppressed testosterone concentrations and testicular growth in the males and progesterone release in the females. Sheep vocalised significantly more prior to weaning (8 weeks of age) than post weaning (28 and 48 weeks of age) suggesting stress on separation from their dams. Our current study shows that males are more likely to leave their conspecifics to approach a novel object than females. As this behaviour was not altered by suppression of the reproductive axis we suggest that, although sex differences are more obviously expressed in the phenotype after puberty, these may be developed during adolescence but not primarily altered during puberty by sex hormones. PMID:24485485

Robinson, Jane E; Evans, Neil P; Dumbell, Rebecca; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ropstad, Erik; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2014-02-01

478

Behavioural vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: the role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duck.  

PubMed

Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from apparent panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet, these studies often found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure, which was often attributed to male-biased gene flow, a common behaviour within this family. An alternative explanation for this 'conflict' is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative to nuDNA lead to different signals of population structure. We tested these alternatives by sequencing 12 nuDNA introns for a Holarctic pair of waterfowl subspecies, the European goosander (Mergus merganser merganser) and the North American common merganser (M. m. americanus), which exhibit strong population structure in mtDNA. We inferred effective population sizes, gene flow and divergence times from published mtDNA sequences and simulated expected differentiation for nuDNA based on those histories. Between Europe and North America, nuDNA ?(ST) was 3.4-fold lower than mtDNA ?(ST) , a result consistent with differences in sorting rates. However, despite geographically structured and monophyletic mtDNA lineages within continents, nuDNA ?(ST) values were generally zero and significantly lower than predicted. This between- and within-continent contrast held when comparing mtDNA and nuDNA among published studies of ducks. Thus, male-mediated gene flow is a better explanation than slower sorting rates for limited nuDNA differentiation within continents, which is also supported by nonmolecular data. This study illustrates the value of quantitatively testing discrepancies between mtDNA and nuDNA to reject the null hypothesis that conflict simply reflects different sorting rates. PMID:22582867

Peters, Jeffrey L; Bolender, Kimberly A; Pearce, John M

2012-07-01

479

Intersexual contests in the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus : females fight harder but males win more encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contests often occur between members of the same sex when they compete for access to mates, but inter-sexual contests may\\u000a occur over access to other essential resources such as food or shelter. Despite the possibility that such contests are common,\\u000a most studies focus on male fighting, and very few have analysed fights between males and females. Because males and females

Mark Briffa; Dale Dallaway

2007-01-01

480

The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams  

PubMed Central

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine

2011-01-01

481

Effects of a cognitive-behavioural internet program on depression, vulnerability to depression and stigma in adolescent males: a school-based controlled trial.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive behaviour therapy Internet program (MoodGYM) for depressive symptoms, attributional style, self-esteem and beliefs about depression, and on depression and depression-vulnerable status in male youth. A total of 78 boys age 15 and 16 years were allocated to either undertake MoodGYM or to standard personal development activities. Outcomes were measured before commencement, post-program and 16 weeks post-program. There were no significant between-group differences in change scores pre- to post- or pre- to follow-up using the intention to treat sample or for participants with post- and/or follow-up data. For boys completing 3 or more modules there were small relative benefits of MoodGYM for depressive symptoms (Effect Size, ES = 0.34), attributional style (ES = 0.17) and self-esteem (ES = 0.16) at post-program, although only the effect for self-esteem was sustained at follow-up. Both groups showed improvement in their beliefs about depression at follow-up, with the control group showing a moderate relative benefit (ES = 0.40). While the numbers are small, there was a reduction in the risk of being depressed in the MoodGYM group of 9% at post-treatment compared with a slightly increased risk for the control group. The risk of being classified as vulnerable to depression reduced by 17% in the MoodGYM group at post-treatment compared with no change in risk for the control group. These reductions in risk for the MoodGYM group were not sustained at follow-up. The limitations of the study highlight several important challenges for MoodGYM and other self-directed Internet cognitive behaviour therapy programs. These include how to ensure enough of the program is received and that people who could potentially benefit access the program and continue to remain engaged with it, and how to enhance the sustainability of any benefits. PMID:16500776

O'Kearney, Richard; Gibson, Mal; Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathy M