Sample records for male same-sex behaviour

  1. Intimate Violence in Male Same-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. Stanley; Kim Bartholomew; Tracy Taylor; Doug Oram; Monica Landolt

    2006-01-01

    Despite findings suggesting a high prevalence of violence in male same-sex relationships, little is known about the characteristics of this violence. This study explored the general nature of male same-sex intimate violence. The sample consisted of 69 gay and bisexual men, chosen from a randomly selected community sample, who reported at least 1 violent episode in an interview exploring their

  2. Masculinity and Relationship Agreements among Male Same-Sex Couples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. Wheldon; Elizabeth B. Pathak

    2010-01-01

    Extradyadic sex is a significant source of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men in same-sex relationships. Nonmonogamous sexual agreements are common among male same-sex couples and may serve as effective targets for risk reduction interventions; however, there is a dearth of research reporting on the social and cultural determinants of explicit nonmonogamous agreements. In this study, it was

  3. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003–2007 estimates

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A considerable number of new studies with estimates of relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected. PMID:18647866

  4. A test of genetic models for the evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Ritchie, Michael G; Bailey, Nathan W

    2015-06-22

    The evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has received increasing attention because it is perceived to be an evolutionary paradox. The genetic basis of SSB is almost wholly unknown in non-human animals, though this is key to understanding its persistence. Recent theoretical work has yielded broadly applicable predictions centred on two genetic models for SSB: overdominance and sexual antagonism. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we assayed natural genetic variation for male SSB and empirically tested predictions about the mode of inheritance and fitness consequences of alleles influencing its expression. We screened 50 inbred lines derived from a wild population for male-male courtship and copulation behaviour, and examined crosses between the lines for evidence of overdominance and antagonistic fecundity selection. Consistent variation among lines revealed heritable genetic variation for SSB, but the nature of the genetic variation was complex. Phenotypic and fitness variation was consistent with expectations under overdominance, although predictions of the sexual antagonism model were also supported. We found an unexpected and strong paternal effect on the expression of SSB, suggesting possible Y-linkage of the trait. Our results inform evolutionary genetic mechanisms that might maintain low but persistently observed levels of male SSB in D. melanogaster, but highlight a need for broader taxonomic representation in studies of its evolutionary causes. PMID:26019160

  5. Relationship characteristics and HIV transmission risk in same-sex male couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004

  6. Relationship Characteristics and HIV Transmission Risk in Same-sex Male Couples in HIV Serodiscordant Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2014-01-01

    Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004

  7. Understanding same-sex male and female partners' restrained eating in the context of their relationships.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lindzee; Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M; August, Kristin J; Nave, Christopher S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined weight status and dietary restraint among same-sex couples using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models. Body mass indices and restrained eating behaviors (i.e., cognitive dietary restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating) were assessed for members of 144 same-sex couples (72 lesbian and 72 gay couples; mean age?=?33.74?years, standard deviation?=?11.27 years). Results indicated that both men and women who were relatively heavy and who had relatively thin partners were at particular risk of engaging in restrained eating. These findings extend our understanding of partner comparison processes within the context of same-sex relationships in determining men and women's eating behaviors. PMID:26032798

  8. “Working together to reach a goal”: MSM's Perceptions of Dyadic HIV Care for Same-Sex Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Clarke, Donato; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Same-sex serodiscordant male dyads represent a high priority risk group, with approximately one to two-thirds of new HIV infections among MSM attributable to main partnerships. Early initiation and adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a key factor in HIV prevention and treatment; however, adherence to HAART in the U.S. is low, with poor retention throughout the continuum of care. This study examines MSM's perceptions of dyadic HIV treatment across the continuum of care to understand preferences for how care may be sought with a partner. Methods We conducted five focus group discussions (FGDs) in Atlanta, GA with 35 men who report being in same-sex male partnerships. Participants discussed perceptions of care using scenarios of a hypothetical same-sex male couple who recently received serodiscordant or seroconcordant positive HIV results. Verbatim transcripts were segmented thematically and systematically analyzed to examine patterns in responses within and between participants and FGDs. Results Participants identified the need for comprehensive dyadic care and differences in care for seroconcordant positive versus serodiscordant couples. Participants described a reciprocal relationship between comprehensive dyadic care and positive relationship dynamics. This combination was described as reinforcing commitment, ultimately leading to increased accountability and treatment adherence. Discussion Results indicate that the act of same-sex male couples “working together to reach a goal” may increase retention to HIV care across the continuum if care is comprehensive, focuses on both individual and dyadic needs, and promotes positive relationship dynamics. PMID:24126448

  9. Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

    2012-11-01

    The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362

  10. On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin

    2012-03-01

    Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health. PMID:21816858

  11. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-23

    Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  12. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  13. Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

  14. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  15. Non-monogamy and sexual relationship quality among same-sex male couples.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Grov, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. PMID:22906124

  16. Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test.

    PubMed

    García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56?g/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation. PMID:26044966

  17. Adaptive value of same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Same-sex pairing is widespread among animals but is difficult to explain in an evolutionary context because it does not result in reproduction, and thus same-sex behaviour often is viewed as maladaptive. Here, we compare survival, fecundity and transition probabilities of female Laysan albatross in different pair types, and we show how female–female pairing could be an adaptive alternative mating strategy, albeit one that resulted in lower fitness than male–female pairing. Females in same-sex pairs produced 80% fewer chicks, had lower survival and skipped breeding more often than those in male–female pairs. Females in same-sex pairs that raised a chick sometimes acquired a male mate in the following year, but females in failed same-sex pairs never did, suggesting that males exert sexual selection by assessing female quality and relegating low-quality females into same-sex pairs. Sexual selection by males in a monomorphic, non-ornamented species is rare and suggests that reconsideration is needed of the circumstances in which alternative reproductive behaviour evolves. Given the lack of males and obligate biparental care in this species, this research demonstrates how same-sex pairing was better than not breeding and highlights how it could be an adaptive strategy under certain demographic conditions. PMID:24285198

  18. Personal or relational? Examining sexual health in the context of HIV serodiscordant same-sex male couples

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, K.E.; Starks, T.J; Dilworth, S.E.; Neilands, T.B.; Taylor, J.M.; Johnson, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Couples’ ability to adopt a “we” orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a “we” orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a “we” orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples. PMID:23636681

  19. Same-sex pair-bonds are equivalent to male–female bonds in a life-long socially monogamous songbird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Elie; Nicolas Mathevon; Clémentine Vignal

    Same-sex sexual behaviors are well documented in both captive and wild animals. In monogamous species, these behaviors are\\u000a often exclusive, each individual having only one same-sex partner. A bias in sex ratio has been proposed as a social context\\u000a yielding same-sex pair-bonding, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. Focusing on a life-long pair-bonding songbird,\\u000a the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata,

  20. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  1. Citizenship and Same Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE DONOVAN; BRIAN HEAPHY

    1999-01-01

    In the UK in recent years, a dramatic growth in media concern with same sex relationships has led to the suggestion that the resulting visibility is indicative of the extent to which the intimate lives of non-heterosexuals are becoming more acceptable. In this article we question this using data drawn from the Families of Choice Project, a qualitative research project

  2. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  3. An Argument for Same Sex Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire B Deason

    2006-01-01

    Does the fundamental right to marry obligate the state to make the institution of marriage available to same sex couples? I argue yes, it does. The right to marry is unique, composed of both negative and positive liberties. While the government has protected the privacy of same sex couples, this liberty is incomplete without affirmative recognition of the relationship in

  4. Children in Same-Sex Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

  5. Minority Stress Experiences in Committed Same-Sex Couple Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Scales Rostosky; Ellen D. B. Riggle; Barry E. Gray; Roxanna L. Hatton

    2007-01-01

    Providing culturally competent services to same-sex couples requires an understanding of the social context in which these relationships are formed and maintained. Using minority stress theory (I. H. Meyer, 2003) as an interpretive framework, the authors conducted a dyadic-level qualitative analysis of 40 (20 female; 20 male) couples' conversations about their committed partnerships. Findings indicate that couples experience minority stress

  6. Successful same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay C; Zaun, Brenda J; Vanderwerf, Eric A

    2008-08-23

    Unrelated same-sex individuals pairing together and cooperating to raise offspring over many years is a rare occurrence in the animal kingdom. Cooperative breeding, in which animals help raise offspring that are not their own, is often attributed to kin selection when individuals are related, or altruism when individuals are unrelated. Here we document long-term pairing of unrelated female Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and show how cooperation may have arisen as a result of a skewed sex ratio in this species. Thirty-one per cent of Laysan albatross pairs on Oahu were female-female, and the overall sex ratio was 59% females as a result of female-biased immigration. Female-female pairs fledged fewer offspring than male-female pairs, but this was a better alternative than not breeding. In most female-female pairs that raised a chick in more than 1 year, at least one offspring was genetically related to each female, indicating that both females had opportunities to reproduce. These results demonstrate how changes in the sex ratio of a population can shift the social structure and cause cooperative behaviour to arise in a monogamous species, and they also underscore the importance of genetically sexing monomorphic species. PMID:18505710

  7. The Influence of Same-Sex Marriage on the Understanding of Same-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela J. Lannutti

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage affects the understanding of same-sex romantic relationships for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. Participants (N= 288) responded to an open-ended Web-based survey asking them to describe how legally recognized same-sex marriage influenced their view of their own romantic relationship or romantic relationships in general. Results indicate that

  8. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  9. "Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

  10. MODERNIZING DIVORCE JURISDICTION: SAME-SEX COUPLES AND MINIMUM CONTACTS

    E-print Network

    Finzi, Adrien

    1669 MODERNIZING DIVORCE JURISDICTION: SAME-SEX COUPLES AND MINIMUM CONTACTS COURTNEY G. JOSLIN I. SAME-SEX COUPLES: MARRIED WITH NOWHERE TO DIVORCE........ 1678 II. WHY IT MATTERS ................................................................................ 1708 V. DIVORCE WITHOUT DOMICILE: SAME-SEX COUPLES RECONSIDERED

  11. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Merry, Michael S; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents' acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents' attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  12. Sex differences in same-sex friendship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayta A. Caldwell; Letitia Anne Peplau

    1982-01-01

    Two studies examined sex differences in the same-sex friendships of college men and women. In a questionnaire study, self-reports were obtained of number of friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions with friends, and emotional intimacy. A role-play study provided more direct information about conversations between friends. Men and women did not differ in quantitative aspects

  13. What same sex civil partnerships may mean for health

    PubMed Central

    King, Michael; Bartlett, Annie

    2006-01-01

    A growing number of countries have introduced a form of marriage or civil partnership registration for same sex couples. Marriage confers health benefits on heterosexual men and women and similar benefits could arise from same sex civil unions. The authors argue that legal and social recognition of same sex relationships may reduce discrimination, increase the stability of same sex relationships, and lead to better physical and mental health for gay and lesbian people. PMID:16476745

  14. What same sex civil partnerships may mean for health.

    PubMed

    King, Michael; Bartlett, Annie

    2006-03-01

    A growing number of countries have introduced a form of marriage or civil partnership registration for same sex couples. Marriage confers health benefits on heterosexual men and women and similar benefits could arise from same sex civil unions. The authors argue that legal and social recognition of same sex relationships may reduce discrimination, increase the stability of same sex relationships, and lead to better physical and mental health for gay and lesbian people. PMID:16476745

  15. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  16. Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child

    E-print Network

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    Arizona Department of Administration Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child Declaration of Tax Status, _________________________________________________, declare ______________________________________________ as my Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child. Print Name of Same-Sex Domestic Partner's Child I understand that my employer has a legitimate need to know

  17. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2014-11-20

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

  18. Three-year follow-up of same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples not in civil unions, and heterosexual married couples.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Rothblum, Esther D; Solomon, Sondra E

    2008-01-01

    This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a sibling to a member of a civil union couple). Despite the legalized nature of their relationships, civil union couples did not differ on any measure from same-sex couples who were not in civil unions. However, same-sex couples not in civil unions were more likely to have ended their relationships than same-sex civil union or heterosexual married couples. Compared with heterosexual married participants, both types of same-sex couples reported greater relationship quality, compatibility, and intimacy and lower levels of conflict. Longitudinal predictors of relationship quality at Time 2 included less conflict, greater level of outness, and a shorter relationship length for men in same-sex relationships and included less conflict and more frequent sex for women in same-sex relationships at Time 1. PMID:18194009

  19. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  20. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  1. Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

  2. Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…

  3. Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth J. Aries; Fern L. Johnson

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to examine ongoing close friendships among same-sex adults. An analysis of frequency and depth of conversational topics was undertaken. The self-reports of female participants showed that they converse more frequently than the male participants about intimate topics and daily and shared activities. Sex differences on depth of topic discussion also emerged, with females reporting greater depth

  4. Do Children in Single-Parent Households Fare Better Living with Same-Sex Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.; Powell, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…

  5. Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children.

    PubMed

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several states offer partner-benefit programs. Studying the effect of these various forms of unions on children could inform the debate over gay marriage to the benefit of all sides of the argument. PMID:16158732

  6. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:22167814

  7. LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC

    E-print Network

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    MARRIED SINGLE LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE YES NO MEMBER: SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC PARTNER=Same-Sex Domestic Partner C=Child G=Guardian P=Placed for adoption T=Stepchild MEDICARE A=Medicare A B=Medicare B C=Medicare A & B D=Medicare Unknown E=No Medicare #12;e $ $118.26 Retiree + Adult $8.99 $17.98 $17.51 $26

  8. Risk assessment of adolescents with same-sex relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Udry; Kim Chantala

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the risk status on health and behavior for those with same-sex partners and those without.Methods: Add Health data provide a sample of 20,745 adolescents in grades 7 through 12 interviewed at home. The risk statuses of respondents with no partners, same-sex-only partners, and partners of both sexes were compared to respondents with opposite-sex partners only. Respondents were

  9. Exposing Sex Stereotypes in Recent Same-Sex Marriage Jurisprudence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah A. Widiss; Elizabeth Rosenblatt; Douglas NeJaime

    2007-01-01

    This article examines sex discrimination arguments in recent same-sex marriage cases. Since 1993, when the Hawaii Supreme Court held in Baehr v. Lewin that denying same-sex couples the right to marry could state a claim of sex discrimination, every state high court to consider the issue has rejected the claim. But many recent decisions have in fact relied upon sex-based

  10. What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Kristin S

    2010-01-01

    While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage. PMID:20596244

  11. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-02-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170

  12. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations. PMID:26188455

  13. The Absolute Prohibition of Same-sex Marriages in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamil Ddamulira Mujuzi

    2009-01-01

    Before 2005, the Constitution of Uganda provided in Article 31(1) that ‘men and women of the age of eighteen years and above have the right to marry and to found a family ….’ In 2005, Article 31 was amended by inserting clause (2a) to the effect that ‘marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited’. The author gives a

  14. CALIFORNIA HIGH COURT VOIDS SAME-SEX MARRIAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur S. Leonard; Ian Chesir-Teran; Allen Drexel; Joseph Griffin; Alan J. Jacobs; Steven Kolodny; Sharon McGowan; Daniel R Schaffer; Audrey E. Weinberger; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong

    2004-01-01

    By unanimous vote, the seven justices of the California Supreme Court ruled on August 12 in Lockyer v. City and County of San Francisco, 95 P.3d 459, 17 Cal. Rptr. 3d 225, that local of- ficials in San Francisco could not unilaterally defy the state's marriage law and issue licenses to same-sex couples. Suggesting that \\

  15. Religion and Public Opinion about Same-Sex Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura R. Olson; Wendy Cadge; James T. Harrison

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this article is to analyze the relationship between religion, measured in terms of religious affiliation and religiosity, and public opinion about same-sex marriage, civil unions, and a federal constitutional amendment that would prohibit gay marriage. Copyright (c) 2006 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

  16. Divorce-Risk Patterns in Same-Sex \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Andersson; Turid Noack; Ane Seierstad; Harald Weedon-Fekjær

    The present study provides an investigation into patterns in divorce risks of partners in same-sex marriages, or registered partnerships, in Norway and Sweden. A comparison with patterns in divorce risks in heterosexual marriages is provided. Our study is based on longitudinal information from the population registers of the two countries, covering all persons in partnerships. Our demographic analyses involve information

  17. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  18. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2014-10-22

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. 'social connectedness') with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes--females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

  19. Financial affairs? Money management in same-sex relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maree Burns; Carole Burgoyne; Victoria Clarke

    2008-01-01

    The present paper offers a qualitative analysis of how 22 co-habiting same-sex couples manage and think about their finances. Results show that partial-pooling and independent management are the most popular systems with emphasis placed on egalitarianism and devising a fair money management strategy. Significant income disparities between most partners necessitated the adoption of a system of proportional contributions to joint

  20. Fertility services for same-sex couples: policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Wykes, Kerry Anne

    Access to safe and high-quality fertility services is essential for the health of both the woman requiring services and any resulting child. While having children is a human right and legislation and society have become more liberal, same-sex couples may have problems accessing fertility services for several reasons. There is still significant opposition to same-sex couples accessing fertility treatment services, which are already stretched and vary across the country. Some lesbian couples access private clinics, which involve a number of costs because they believe these are more willing to treat same-sex couples. Women may make informal self-fertilisation arrangements; this poses health risks in terms of sexually transmitted infections and a lack of prenatal and holistic advice and care. As patient advocates, nurses and nurse managers can identify areas where services could be more inclusive. Nurses could push for accessible, high-quality fertility services, using policy and evidence to support their development. On way forward may be to encourage more self-insemination at home in a safe way. This has the potential to increase patient empowerment and reduce costs to the NHS. However, any such innovation should always have the safety and equality of patients at its core. PMID:23252170

  1. The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex Marriage against same-sex marriage, organized a summer school near Paris to celebrate a year of mobilization in April 2013, legalizing same-sex marriage and the adoption of children by same-sex married couples

  2. Dimensions of Liking and Disliking Underlying the Same-Sex Preference in Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippola, Lorrie K.; Bukowski, William M.; Noll, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed preference for same-sex peers in 326 second through ninth graders. Found that same-sex preference occurred at all ages, decreased with age, was due more to a positive bias toward same-sex peers rather than negative bias against other-sex peers, and changed primarily as a function of liking for same-sex peers. Suggests that two processes…

  3. The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptot* *ically Normal

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptot* *ically Normal "* *Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n_(2_n_-_1 by Maple package SameSexMarriages downloadable from http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/SameSexMarriages

  4. Exploring the nature of same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Quam, Jean K; Whitford, Gary S; Dziengel, Lake E; Knochel, Kelly Abel

    2010-11-01

    This study explored the relationship structure and experiences of 145 people in the United States, aged 50 and above, in long-term, same-sex relationships. A survey assessed relationship satisfaction and roles, caregiving, shared assets, and relationship protection and support. The ENRICH couple scales revealed high scores in communication, conflict resolution, and couple satisfaction. Most participants had taken steps to protect shared assets and assign legal authority to their partners. Participants expressed differing views regarding marriage. This study reveals distinctions based on gender and age that will inform practice with this population. PMID:20972927

  5. Asthma Disparities and Within-Group Differences in a National, Probability Sample of Same-Sex Partnered Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G.?L.; Bossarte, Robert; Silenzio, Vincent M.?B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma among same-sex and opposite-sex partnered adults. Methods. Data were from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, in which same-sex partnership was a response option to a family planning item in the core questionnaire. Self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics and asthma-related confounding factors and stratified by both gender and same-sex partnership status. Results. Significantly higher proportions of same-sex partnered male and female respondents reported lifetime and current asthma compared with their opposite-sex partnered peers. In adjusted analyses, same-sex partnership status remained significantly associated with asthma outcomes among men and women, with odds ratios ranging from 1.57 to 2.34. Conclusions. Results corroborated past studies that indicated asthma disproportionately affects sexual minority populations. The addition of sexual minority status questions to federal survey projects is key to further exploring health disparities in this population. Future studies are needed to investigate the etiology of this disparity. PMID:23865655

  6. Public Health Implications of Same-Sex Marriage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as “minority stress,” with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934

  7. Public health implications of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Buffie, William C

    2011-06-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as "minority stress," with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934

  8. Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity Reviews & Critical Commentary, online review, posted on May 8, 2014, http://councilforeuropeanstudies.org/critcom/same-sex-unions-in-europe-some-observations-on- european-diversity/ Maks Banens CMW ­ CNRS, University of Lyon Same-sex unions gained considerable legal

  9. 77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...is amending its regulations to add same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

  10. 75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...2, 2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

  11. 3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

  12. 76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...amend its regulations to include same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

  13. Environmental Perceptions of Students in Same-Sex and Coeducational Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lirgg, Cathy D.

    1994-01-01

    Studying the perceptions of 199 middle school students and 190 high school students about class environment showed that same-sex and coeducational physical-education classes revealed quite different climates. Overall, girls' same-sex classes were perceived most favorably, and boys' same-sex classes were viewed least favorably. (SLD)

  14. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  15. Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

    2014-12-01

    Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

  16. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  17. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females

    PubMed Central

    Darden, Safi K.; Watts, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  18. Conspecific male chemical cues influence courtship behaviour in the male newt Lissotriton boscai

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Conspecific male chemical cues influence courtship behaviour in the male newt Lissotriton boscai of the newt Lissotriton boscai and other salamandrids showed that males modify their courtship in presence no evidence. Keywords: Bosca's newt, chemical cues, courtship display, audience effects, Lissotriton boscai

  19. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men. PMID:18689194

  20. Can Romantic Comedy Be Gay?: Hollywood Romance, Citizenship, and Same-Sex Marriage Panic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra A. Moddelmog

    2009-01-01

    This article links recent trends in romantic comedy to the debate about same-sex marriage. By comparing contemporary heterosexual romantic comedies to same-sex romantic comedies, it argues that Hollywood colludes with efforts by the state and the conservative Right to ensure that heterosexuality remains the privileged mode of desire and marriage, the sanctioned form of bonding. The unarticulated anxiety over same-sex

  1. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  2. Mental Health Implications of Same-Sex Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin M. Mathy; Shelly K. Kerr; Barbara A. Lehmann

    2004-01-01

    Marriage is a mental health protective factor and homosexuality is sometimes a risk factor. The combined effect of these factors on mental health was examined in this study. We conducted a secondary analysis of an international, cross-sectional survey completed in 2000 (N = 7,616). We examined risks of suicide ideations and attempts, behavioral problems, and treatment histories for male and

  3. Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

  4. Same-Sex Union Announcements: Whether Newspapers Must Publish Them, and Why We Should Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M Donovan

    2003-01-01

    The recent decision by the New York Times to publish same-sex union announcements brought to national attention the struggle of gay men and lesbians to gain access to this contested space. To date only about ten percent of newspapers allow same-sex couples to publish announcements on terms equal to heterosexual couples. Although some couples have sued to have their announcements

  5. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  6. Poaching, promiscuity, and deceit: Combatting mating rivalry in same-sex friendships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    APRIL L. BLESKE; TODD K. SHACKELFORD

    2001-01-01

    If humans faced recurrently over evolutionary history the adaptive problem of competition with same-sex friends for mates, they may have evolved psychological mechanisms designed to prevent and combat mating rivalry with same-sex friends. Four studies were conducted to test hypotheses about the design of these mechanisms. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 406 and N = 342, respectively) we

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  8. Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…

  9. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same- sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a

  10. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…

  11. Client Discourses on the Process of Seeking Same-Sex Couple Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…

  12. The Construction and Enactment of Same-Sex Marriage in Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn Schulenberg

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how same-sex partnership recognition (SSPR) was enacted into policy in Argentina. It begins by looking at the history and structure of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movements to explain why same-sex marriage, and not civil unions, became the primary goal. Next, it considers what the constitutional and statutory law was before the marriage bill passed

  13. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…

  14. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  15. Differences and Consistency between Same-Sex and Other-Sex Peer Relationships during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Found that individual differences in children's preference for same-sex peers were (1) derived from liking same-sex peers rather than disliking other-sex peers; (2) consistent over long intervals; and (3) related to children's preference for activities that required gross motor skills. (BC)

  16. Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits. PMID:23963426

  17. Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

    2002-01-01

    In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

  18. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  19. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

  20. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

  1. Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: a social science perspective.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M

    2006-09-01

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent's sexual orientation is unrelated to her or his ability to provide a healthy and nurturing family environment; and that marriage bestows substantial psychological, social, and health benefits. It is concluded that same-sex couples and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships. Trends in public opinion toward greater support for legal recognition of same-sex couples are discussed. PMID:16953748

  2. Differences and Consistency Between Same-Sex and Other-Sex Peer Relationships During Early Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Bukowski; Cyma Gauze; Betsy Hoza; Andrew F. Newcomb

    1993-01-01

    Children's and early adolescents' preference for same-sex peers and the consistency of individual differences in reputation and popularity across the same- and other-sex domains were studied with 3 samples. Findings indicated that individual differences in the same-sex preference (a) derived from children's liking of other-sex peers, (b) were consistent over relatively long intervals, and (c) were related to children's preferences

  3. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek

    2006-01-01

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent’s

  4. Care, Intimacy and Same-Sex Partnership in the 21st Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry D. Adam

    2004-01-01

    The article addresses the emergence of same-sex relationships as a public policy issue in contemporary society. Historical and cross-cultural evidence shows how same-sex relationships have been an integral part of the kinship system, household economies and iconography of many societies, and that desire and relationship are produced in diverse ways at the confluence of kinship, gender and life stage expectations

  5. Empirical Research About Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence: A Methodological Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine E. Murray; A. Keith Mobley

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of empirical research examining intimate partner violence among same-sex couples. Seventeen studies that met the inclusion criteria were rated using a 15-item evaluation questionnaire. The results indicated that the existing body of research examining same-sex intimate partner violence demonstrates some common methodological strengths and limitations. The authors conclude with a list of recommendations for

  6. Conflicts of Law and Policy Relating to Same-Sex Marriage Recognition in Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary Willenbrink

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Wisconsin courts will treat the marriages of same-sex couples who were validly married in other states; specifically focusing on recognition of the incidents—such as divorce, property ownership, and inheritance—stemming from those marriages. After examining Wisconsin conflict-of-laws jurisprudence, the article describes the public policy problems that may result if Wisconsin courts do not recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages.

  7. Development and preliminary validation of the MMPI2 scale for same-sex priest child molesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Rossetti; Patricia Anthony; Peter Cimbolic; Thomas L. Wright

    1996-01-01

    Priests with the disorder of same-sex ephebophilia were investigated, with the purpose of constructing and validating an MMPI-2 scale. The authors performed an item-level analysis, comparing priests in evaluation for same-sex ephebophilia (N = 100) to priests in evaluation for non-sexual psychiatric disorders (N = 100) and the MMPI-2 normative sample of men (N = 1138). The comparison resulted in

  8. The relationship assessment measure for same-sex couples (RAM-SSC): a standardized instrument for evaluating gay couple functioning.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, R W

    2001-01-01

    The utility of a standardized relationship assessment tool for same-sex couples is evaluated in this preliminary study. The RAM-SSC, adapted from the Waring Intimacy Questionnaire (WIQ, Waring & Reddon, 1983; Waring, 1984), was administered to a clinical sample of 32 gay male couples beginning conjoint therapy and to a nonclinical comparison group of similar size from the gay community. Clinical sample couples reported significantly lower mean scores (less positive perceptions of functioning) in most dimensions of the RAM-SSC, compared to the nonclinical group, whose scores were found to resemble those of WIQ reference values for nongay male partners in heterosexual marriages. The RAM-SSC, therefore, can be considered as a potentially viable relationship measure for use in clinical work with gay male couples, for assessment and treatment outcome evaluation purposes. Further investigation into the psychometric properties of the RAM-SSC in terms of reliability and validity is recommended. PMID:11354933

  9. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

  10. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  11. Same-sex Sexuality and Adolescent Psychological Well-being: The Influence of Sexual Orientation, Early Reports of Same-sex Attraction, and Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Jager; Pamela E. Davis-Kean

    2010-01-01

    Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth

  12. The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal Shalosh B. EKHAD1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal gets married. Then the expectation of the random variable "Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n (2 n - 1://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/pj.html . Accompanied by Maple package SameSexMarriages downloadable from http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/SameSexMarriages

  13. Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Brussels

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Excellence/European Studies Center. While same-sex marriage was long regarded as the privilege of a few activists. Given the diversity of countries where same-sex marriage is currently under discussion

  14. Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes

    PubMed Central

    Seeber, Peter A.; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André

    2013-01-01

    The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a ‘roving male’ tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833

  15. Inter-population variation in male mating behaviours in the sailfin mollie, Poecilia latipinna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET B. PTACEK; JOSEPH TRAVIS

    1996-01-01

    Abstract. Male sailfin mollies show size-dependent variation in sexual behaviour. The level of variation between six north Florida populations in rates of condition-dependent behaviours was estimated and whether behavioural variation is ordered with respect to male body size distributions was determined. In five of six populations, courtship display rates increased with male length, supporting previous evidence. Several results were not

  16. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    PubMed Central

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depended on both the sex of the judge and the sex of the face being judged: facial resemblance increased attractiveness judgements of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces, despite the use of identical procedures to manipulate resemblance. A control experiment indicated these effects were caused neither by lower resemblance of other-sex faces than same-sex faces, nor by an increased perception of averageness or familiarity of same-sex faces due to prototyping or mere exposure affecting only same-sex faces. The differential impact of self-resemblance on our perception of same-sex and other-sex faces supports the hypothesis that humans use facial resemblance as a cue of kinship. PMID:15451700

  17. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

  18. Individuals' beliefs about the etiology of same-sex sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sara J; Zanotti, Danielle C; Axelton, Amber M; Saucier, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationships between beliefs about the etiology of having a same-sex sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and support for gay-relevant legislation using the justification-suppression model of prejudice as our theoretical foundation. Results indicated that more belief that a same-sex sexual orientation was due to nurture factors predicted less support for gay-relevant legislation, and that this relationship was mediated by levels of sexual prejudice. The opposite pattern was found for belief that a same-sex sexual orientation was due to nature factors. This suggests that beliefs about the etiology of sexual orientation may serve as justification (or suppression) factors in the expression of prejudice toward gay men and lesbians. PMID:21902494

  19. Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

  20. Exploring the Possibility of Same-Sex Love in Late Ming China

    E-print Network

    Shernuk, Kyle

    2008-07-01

    tradition of same-sex love has emerged in di$erent places and times and refuses to manifest it- self uniformly across those spaces. Its practice has existed in China for more than two thousand years and the treat- ment of such performances has var- ied... widely. Same-sex love in dynastic China is subject to many perspectives and these views are mediated by legal, social, and literary forces. DISCURSIVE CHOICES AND THE CHINESE SEXUAL SUBJECT Modern notions and words used to describe instances of same...

  1. Correlates of Individual Versus Joint Participation in Online Survey Research with Same-Sex Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Millar, Brett M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based surveys are commonly utilized as a cost-effective mechanism for data collection in social and health psychology research. Little is known about the differences between partnered gay men who participate alone compared to those with partners who also agree to participate. A sample of 260 partnered gay/bisexual men from New York City completed an online survey covering demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, substance use, and relationship satisfaction. Upon completion, they had the option to send the study link to their partner. In total, 104 (40 %) participants successfully recruited their partners, 90 (34.6 %) were unsuccessful, and 66 (25.4 %) declined the option to refer their partners. Men who did not refer their partners were significantly older, in relationships longer, and reported higher personal income. Participants who successfully recruited partners reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction. While generalizability is limited given the diversity of methodological factors that influence research participation, these data provide an initial insight into the effects on sample composition imposed by the implementation of dyadic (vs. unpaired) designs in online studies. PMID:25432879

  2. Sexually selected behaviour: red squirrel males search for reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Gunn, Melissa R; Coltman, David W

    2009-03-01

    1. Differential male reproductive success is commonplace in mammals and frequently attributed to variation in morphological traits that provide individuals with a competitive advantage in female defence mating systems. Other mammalian mating systems, however, have received comparatively little attention and correlates of male reproductive success in them are less well understood. 2. We studied a free-ranging population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) exhibiting year-round individual territoriality. Males must temporarily vacate their territories to locate spatially dispersed receptive females, thereby setting the stage for a scramble competition mating system. 3. We predicted that both male annual mating success (measured as the number of females copulated with) and annual reproductive success (measured as the number of offspring sired) would be positively correlated with both search ability (measured as the number of oestrous females located over the mating season) and effort (measured as mating season home range size), generating directional sexual selection on these two metrics. 4. Mating season home ranges of males showed, on average, an almost 10-fold increase relative to those measured during the nonmating season, while those of females showed a more moderate twofold increase and both annual mating and reproductive success of males was positively correlated with search ability and search effort. 5. The spatial dispersion of females, resulting from the strict territorial social structure of red squirrels, gave rise to a predicted scramble competition mating system. Furthermore, the strength of sexual selection on behavioural traits in this mating system equalled previous estimates for morphological traits in female defence mating systems. PMID:19040682

  3. The Significance of Living Together and Importance of Marriage in Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-09-01

    Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships. PMID:25848857

  4. Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Terence A.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

  5. Sex-Role Orientation and Relationship Development in Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.; Bell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sex-role identity, behavioral interaction, and interpersonal attraction in an initial extended encounter. Female subjects (N=82) identified as either feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated participated in same-sex dyads. Results of the combined initial and final unstructured interactions indicated greater…

  6. Religion and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos. PMID:21523946

  7. LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC PARTNER

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    MARRIED SINGLE LAST DAY WORKED MEDICARE YES NO MEMBER: SPOUSE OR SAME-SEX DOMESTIC PARTNER=Stepchild MEDICARE A=Medicare A B=Medicare B C=Medicare A & B D=Medicare Unknown E=No Medicare DATE OF BIRTH RETIRED: ____________________________ PLAN OPTION CODE:______________________ **FOR MEMBERS WITH MEDICARE, MAKE MEDICAL ENROLLMENT SELECTIONS

  8. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  9. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  10. Structural and Moral Commitment Among Same-Sex Couples: Relationship Duration, Religiosity, and Parental Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona Faith Oswald; Abbie Goldberg; Kate Kuvalanka; Eric Clausell

    2008-01-01

    This study examined ecological predictors of structural and moral commitment among cohabiting same-sex couples. Structural commitment was operationalized as the execution of legal documents, and moral commitment was operationalized as having a commitment ceremony. The authors tested 2 logistic regression models using a subsample of Rainbow Illinois survey respondents. First, the execution of legal documents was examined using the entire

  11. Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2011-01-01

    Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

  12. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration Within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica H. Swahn; Thomas R. Simon; Ileana Arias; Robert M. Bossarte

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11 and 12 (N =

  13. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

  14. Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

  15. A Bisex-Queer Critique of Same-Sex Marriage Advocacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hameed Herukhuti S. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The essay positions current same-sex marriage advocacy as an assimilationist\\/conformist, reformist movement and articulates the need for a more radical argument for marriage equality, one based not merely in queer politics but also in queer forms of relationship structure. Drawing from the realm of the personal, the author fashions a queer image of relationships that challenges the boundaries of mainstream

  16. Adolescents' Acceptance of Same-Sex Peers Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Staccy S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…

  17. When Families Present with Concerns about an Adolescent's Experience of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)

  18. Overcoming Bias toward Same-Sex Couples: A Case Study from inside an MFT Ethics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Laurie L.; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From…

  19. Well-Being Among Same-Sex- and Opposite-Sex- Attracted Youth at School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Rivers; Nathalie Noret

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors, concerns and

  20. Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

  1. Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

  2. You are a family of four covering you, your spouse/same-sex domestic partner,

    E-print Network

    2 Scenario: You are a family of four covering you, your spouse/same-sex domestic partner, and two (No X-Rays or lab work) $150 $500 Two well-child visits with immunization $0 $0 Four sick child visits

  3. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail L. Patricelli; J. A. C. Uy; G. Borgia

    2003-01-01

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behav- iours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females.

  4. Violence against women and suicide risk: The neglected impact of same-sex sexual behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Lhomond; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles

    2006-01-01

    We used data from the National Survey on Violence against Women in France carried out in 2000 on a representative sample of 6970 women to compare the social characteristics of women who had sex with women (WSW) and women who had sex only with men (WSM). The WSW were more likely to be of a high socio-economic level and living

  5. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  6. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  7. [The relation of age, gender and sex-role identity to role expectation in same-sex friends].

    PubMed

    Wada, M

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of age, gender, and sex-role identity to role expectation in same-sex friends (SSF). Role expectation in SSF consisted of ten categories (Wada, 1993): Cooperation, information, similarity, self-enhancement, sensitivity, companionship, authenticity, self-disclosure, respect, and interdependence. Subjects were 129 (67 male and 62 female) junior high school, 243 (118 male and 125 female) senior high school, and 168 (88 male and 80 female) college students. Major findings were as follows: Senior high school and undergraduate students expected more self-enhancement from SSF than junior high students. Junior and senior high school students expected more companionship than undergraduates. Undergraduates expected more authenticity and less self-disclosure than junior high school students. And male students expected more companionship, information, and similarity, but less self-disclosure, self-enhancement, and respect from SSF than female. Clear results of the relationship between sex-role identity and role expectation in SSF weren't found. PMID:8981676

  8. A Comparison of Relationship Satisfaction, Social Support, and Stress Between Women with First and Prior Same-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Reeves; Sharon G. Horne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Internet-based study was to determine differences between women in their first same-sex relationships and women who have had same-sex relationships prior to their current relationship. Participants included 754 women within the United States and Canada who were at least 18 years of age and were in an ongoing same-sex relationship of at least six months. Women

  9. Eating behaviours in youths: A comparison between female and male athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Fortes, L de S; Kakeshita, I S; Almeida, S S; Gomes, A R; Ferreira, M E C

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the different factors associated with eating behaviors among young female and male athletes and non-athletes. A total of 580 female and male athletes and 362 female and male non-athletes between 10 and 19 years old participated. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to evaluate the factors associated with unhealthy eating behaviors. We found higher scores for females on the diet subscale compared with males, regardless of athletic group (P?male athletes (P?males were more likely to engage in binge eating compared with athletes of the same sex (P?males, regardless of athletic group (P?

  10. Sculpting the distress: easing or exacerbating the grief experience of same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Agnes; Glacken, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    The grief experience of same-sex couples is under researched when considering the large body of literature that exists on bereavement within the heterosexual community. In a previous article, the background to a study which sought to explore the grief experience of same-sex couples within an Irish context was presented and some of the findings relating to one of the themes (tacit acknowledgement) was presented (Glacken and Higgins, 2008). This article discusses other aspects of the findings under the theme titled sculpting the distress. This theme describes a number of critical incidents that sculpted the bereaveds distress and were perceived by the bereaved person as either being helpful in their bereavement journey or exacerbating their distress. The critical incidents related to communication issues, staff attitudes and treating the couple as a unit of care. The differing philosophies of hospital and hospice care in relation to the care of the dying were clearly evident within this theme. PMID:19430412

  11. Moving from ambivalence to certainty: older same-sex couples marry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humble, Áine M

    2013-06-01

    A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality). PMID:23701954

  12. Resilience, Ambiguous Loss, and Older Same-Sex Couples: The Resilience Constellation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lake Dziengel

    2011-01-01

    Secondary data analysis examined factors contributing to successful long-term same-sex relationships in older adults. An online survey of couple satisfaction and life factors provided data from 156 participants. Constructivist grounded theory methods were applied to analyze responses to open-ended questions regarding perceived supports and threats and ‘people or things’ contributing to relationship longevity. The resulting Resilience Constellation model identified concepts

  13. Resilience, Ambiguous Loss, and Older Same-Sex Couples: The Resilience Constellation Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lake Dziengel

    2012-01-01

    Secondary data analysis examined factors contributing to successful long-term same-sex relationships in older adults. An online survey of couple satisfaction and life factors provided data from 156 participants. Constructivist grounded theory methods were applied to analyze responses to open-ended questions regarding perceived supports and threats and ‘people or things’ contributing to relationship longevity. The resulting Resilience Constellation model identified concepts

  14. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22029563

  15. Trendlines: Court Decisions, Proposed Legislation, and Their Likely Impact on Binational Same-Sex Families

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Strozdas

    2011-01-01

    Family is a cornerstone of U.S. immigration policy. The United States grants green cards to every immigrant who is validly married to a U.S. citizen—unless the marriage is to someone of the same sex. The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) denies federal recognition of so-called samesex marriages. Recent social, political, judicial, and legislative trends suggest the eventual abrogation of DOMA.

  16. Psychological Distress, Well-Being, and Legal Recognition in Same-Sex Couple Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen D. B. Riggle; Sharon S. Rostosky; Sharon G. Horne

    2010-01-01

    Legal recognition of same-sex couple relationships provides at least some material benefits to couple members; however, few studies have examined the associations between legal recognition and psychological distress or well-being. Using an online survey sample of 2,677 lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) individuals, participants were placed in 4 groups: single, dating, in a committed relationship, and in a legally recognized relationship.

  17. Maintenance Behaviors in Same-Sex and Marital Relationships: A Matched Sample Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Haas; Laura Stafford

    2005-01-01

    This study is follow-up to Haas and Stafford's (1998) initial exploration of communi- cative relationship maintenance behaviors in gay and lesbian relationships. This in- vestigation is an attempt to explore relationship maintenance behaviors of ongoing, same-sex relationships through direct comparison with those used in heterosexual marriages. Using a community-based sample, 30 married heterosexuals from a larger study on maintenance were

  18. Same-sex marriage, sodomy laws, and the sexual lives of young people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Fields

    2004-01-01

    Gains for lesbian and gay adults demanding the rights to privacy and marriage that they consider their due as U.S. citizens\\u000a do not hold the same promise for young people. Both the 2003 Lawrence v. Texas Supreme Court decision and 2004 successes of the same-sex marriage movement in the United States fail to alter the oppressive\\u000a social conditions in which

  19. Litigating Same-Sex Marriage: Might the Courts Actually Be Bastions of Rationality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Gerstmann

    2005-01-01

    The great political philosopher John Stuart Mill once asked, “Was there any domination which did not appear natural to those that possessed it?” (Mill 1984, 269–270). For same-sex couples seeking access to the institution of marriage, the public sense that marriage is naturally and obviously meant only for opposite-sex couples has been a formidable barrier. The first state supreme courts

  20. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence. PMID:23999997

  1. Etiology of homosexuality and attitudes toward same-sex parenting: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Badenes-Ribera, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Attribution theory suggests the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual sexual orientation will be more negative when homosexuality is attributed to controllable causes. Our randomized study analyzed (a) whether beliefs about the genetic or environmental etiology of the homosexual sexual orientation can be immediately modified by reading a text and (b) the causal effect of attributions about the controllability (environmental etiology) or noncontrollability (genetic etiology) of homosexual sexual orientation on the rejection of same-sex parenting and their social rights. The sample was composed of 190 Spanish university students with a mean age of 22.07 years (SD = 8.46). The results show that beliefs about the etiology of the sexual orientation could be modified by means of a written text. Furthermore, participants who believed that sexual orientation had a genetic etiology showed greater support for social rights and less rejection of same-sex parenting. However, the effects were detected only when there was a traditional opposition to the family with same-sex parenting. When the opposition was normative, the effect was not statistically significant. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster tolerance toward and normality of sexual diversity. PMID:24024528

  2. 'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others. PMID:25317726

  3. ?AD? Hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: Evidence of Same-Sex Mating in Nature and Hybrid Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaorong; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Nielsen, Kirsten; Patel, Sweta; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, ? and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT) ? over a in C. neoformans populations limits ?–a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between ? isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural ?AD? hybrids that arose by fusion between two ? cells of different serotypes (A and D) were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1? was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed ?AD? strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population. PMID:17953489

  4. Attitudes Towards Same-Sex Marriage in Portugal: Predictors and Scale Validation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (? = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p < .001). Furthermore, analysis of the scale's predictors demonstrates how a left-wing orientation (? = .22, p < .001) and the level of denial of deservingness for lesbian/gay discrimination (? = .30, p < .001) prove to be the best predictors of attitudes towards same-sex marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject. PMID:26054409

  5. Heritable variation underlies behavioural types in the mating context in male bluefin killifish

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, Katie E.; Travis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In many species, consistent behavioural differences among individuals are linked to fitness variation. Determining the environmental and genetic factors that mould these behavioural types is crucial to understanding how behaviours might respond to selection. Male bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei, show extensive consistent behavioural variation in their levels of courtship, male-directed aggression and female-directed aggression, resulting in a range of fitness-related behavioural types coexisting within a population. To determine whether the behavioural components underlying a male’s stable behavioural type in the mating context are heritable and genetically correlated, we performed paternal half-sib crosses. Using animal models, we found that all three of these mating behaviours were moderately heritable (h2 = 0.17–0.29) and courtship behaviour was also heritable as a binomial trait (court yes/no: h2 = 0.50). Including effects of dam identity/common rearing environment experienced by full sibs decreased model fit, suggesting that early social interactions might contribute to behavioural types. In addition, we found evidence consistent with the possibility that the positive phenotypic correlations among mating behaviours are underlain by positive genetic correlations. Thus, it is possible that the seemingly maladaptive aggression that males direct towards females during social interactions persist due to genetic constraints and direct selection on both male-directed aggression and courtship behaviour. PMID:24187377

  6. Human exploitation of male fiddler crab claws: behavioural consequences and implications for conservation

    E-print Network

    Human exploitation of male fiddler crab claws: behavioural consequences and implications through an advantage in male­male competition over breeding burrows (intra- sexual selection) and during low tide and the major claw is pulled off and the male is then released on the mudflat. This human

  7. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex

  8. Negotiating Resistance\\/Resilience through the Nexus of Spirituality-Sexuality of Same-Sex Partnerships in Malaysia and Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Bong

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author explores the ways in which persons in same-sex partnerships experience “marriage” and how they negotiate the tension between this experience and their religiosity or spirituality. A qualitative analysis of narratives of same-sex partners shows how traditional notions of marriage and by extension, “family” as defined by cultures and religions are challenged by what is considered

  9. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  10. The Impact of the Print Media on the Timing and Direction of Government Action on Same Sex Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Barclay; Daniel Chomsky

    As public opinion has become more supportive of lesbian and gay rights some states have recognized same sex marriage. In this paper we seek to evaluate the relationship between mass media slant, public attitudes and state action. We measure newspaper opinion and state level public opinion on same sex marriage. And we employ statistical methods to determine whether state courts

  11. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid

    2013-09-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body. PMID:23423424

  12. Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2011-01-01

    In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

  13. Behaviour, physiological states and thermal characteristics of aggregating male Hybomitra illota (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, P D; Smith, S M

    1990-07-01

    Male Hybomitra illota (Osten Sacken) were found aggregating in clearings in wooded areas in Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. At these sites they perched on a variety of substrates, and made frequent flights in pursuit of insects flying overhead. We know that these pursuit flights were part of the mating behaviour because some pursuits of female H. illota resulted in copulation. We call the aggregation sites 'mating arenas' and the behaviour exhibited by males 'perch-and-pursue'. Aggregation occurred only on sunny days, when ambient temperatures exceeded 18 degrees C. Males perched in sunny areas, except during hot afternoons, when some males were found in dappled shade. Some marked males remained at or returned to sites for up to 13 days, but most males did not remain at the same area within a site, even during the same day. The contents of the oesophageal diverticula of males were depleted daily. Concentration of diverticular carbohydrates changed through the season. Thoracic temperatures of males were high (c. 37 degrees C) and were regulated, probably both behaviourally and physiologically. The sites and behaviour of male H.illota at aggregation arenas bear some resemblance to lek sites and lekking in vertebrates. Males are aggregated in an arena but, within the perching component of the behaviour, we saw no evidence of male territoriality, display, or female choice. However, competition, display, or mate choice could occur within the pursuit-flight component. PMID:2133001

  14. Correlates of same-sex attractions and behaviors among self-identified heterosexual university students.

    PubMed

    Morales Knight, Luis F; Hope, Debra A

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development. PMID:22476518

  15. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy. PMID:21919272

  16. Commitment Without Marriage: Union Formation Among Long-Term Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2009-06-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298

  17. Reproductive behaviour of sneaker males of the peacock D. GONC ALVES*, T. FAGUNDES AND R. OLIVEIRA

    E-print Network

    Reproductive behaviour of sneaker males of the peacock blenny D. GONC¸ ALVES*, T. FAGUNDES AND R blenny Salaria pavo small sneaker males tried to steal `fertilizations' at most in two different nests with a particular nest. Sneakers did not associate with ripe females. As nesting males were the limiting

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms and Same-Sex Sexual Attraction and Behavior in Light of Childhood Gender Atypical Behavior and Parental Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Alanko; Pekka Santtila; Katarina Witting; Markus Varjonen; Patrik Jern; Ada Johansson; Bettina von der Pahlen; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with

  19. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n = 44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families. PMID:25911578

  20. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se. PMID:19343579

  1. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Lovari, S; Fattorini, N; Boesi, R; Bocci, A

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso-genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats. PMID:26105047

  2. The effects of unequal access to health insurance for same-sex couples in California.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Cochran, Susan D; Pizer, Jennifer C; Mays, Vickie M

    2010-08-01

    Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694

  3. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

  4. Ranging behaviour of little bustard males, Tetrax tetrax, in the lekking grounds.

    PubMed

    Ponjoan, Anna; Bota, Gerard; Mañosa, Santi

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the ranging behaviour during the breeding season of 18 radiotracked little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) males, a disperse-lekking species inhabiting the cereal pseudo-steppes. The average kernel 95% home range was 60±50 ha and the average cluster 85% area was 17±17 ha. Range structure was as relevant as home range size for explaining the variation in the ranging behaviour of males, which could be partially explained by age, habitat quality and site. Ranging behaviour varied from males defending small and concentrated home ranges with high habitat quality, to males holding larger home ranges composed by several arenas. Our results suggest that social dominance and resource availability may affect ranging behaviour of males during the breeding season. Also, mating systems constraints may play a role on the use of space of males within the lekking ground. The ranging behaviour of a given male may be determined by a tendency to reduce and concentrate the home range as age and social status increase, and several fine-tuning mechanisms adjusting the ranging behaviour to the prevailing environmental or social factors on a given site and year. PMID:22626823

  5. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  6. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. van Wijk; E. Rijntjes; Heijning van de B. J

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the present study, behavioural effects of perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism were assessed during development in both male and female offspring

  7. Indirect partner choice through manipulation of male behaviour by female fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed Central

    Pizzari, T

    2001-01-01

    The direct and indirect consequences of female copulatory behaviour for copulation success have seldom been quantified. In feral fowl, most copulations were forced by males and copulation success was determined by two factors. First, female differential resistance and solicitation directly affected copulation success and were displayed non-randomly with respect to male social status. Second, another female copulatory behaviour, the distress call, had an indirect effect on both copulation success and the quality of copulation partners. Distress calls triggered male attention to a copulation, which increased the probability of higher-ranking males than the copulating male disrupting the copulation and inseminating the calling female. Females preferentially uttered distress calls when mounted by low-ranking males. Both copulation resistance and distress calling influenced copulation success, but only distress calling increased the probability of copulation disruption by other males. Consistent with the effect of direct selection, differential distress calling indirectly biased copulation success in favour of dominant males. Female fowl may thus ameliorate the effect of male sexual coercion by manipulating male behaviour. PMID:11209889

  8. Physiological, psychological and behavioural responses of males to cues of sperm competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Pound

    2000-01-01

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should adjust the number of sperm they inseminate according to the risk of sperm competition. There is experimental evidence that adaptive sperm allocation occurs in many species. However, little attention has been paid to the physiological, psychological and behavioural mechanisms that may allow males to regulate the number of sperm they deliver from one

  9. Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia:Atelopus hoogmoedi)

    E-print Network

    Hödl, Walter

    Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia, neotropical harlequin toads (Atelopus spp.) have undergone drastic population de- clines. Captive breeding has and females occupy different habitats (i.e. streams versus forest).We studied male toads along a stream site

  10. Spawning behaviour and success of mature male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr of farmed and

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Spawning behaviour and success of mature male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr of farmed and wild genetic differences in the reproduction of an alternative maturation phenotype in Atlantic salmon (Salmo mature male parr raised in similar environments. Parr competed for spawning opportunities in the presence

  11. Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    of testosterone in paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), where males provide both sole defenceEffects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Chandra M. C. Rodgers*, Bryan D. Neff* & Rosemary Knapp * Department of Biology, Western

  12. Male reproductive success and its behavioural correlates in a polygynous mammal, the Galapagos sea lion

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Male reproductive success and its behavioural correlates in a polygynous mammal, the Gala´pagos sea of paternal success. Skew in reproductive success towards large, dominant males was weak and dominance status. Nevertheless, since molecular marker-based studies, paternity outside the expected mating patterns has

  13. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kasumovic, Michael M.; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn’t explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player’s attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when exploring the factors that affect male hostility towards women. PMID:26176699

  14. Same-Sex Legal Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allen J.; Lee Badgett, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Methods. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18–70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion?=?3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35?608 individuals (weighted proportion?=?96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36?774 individuals. Results. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P?same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Conclusions. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue. PMID:23237155

  15. Copper reduced mating behaviour in male shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)).

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara; Ekerholm, Mattias

    2006-10-25

    Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male shore crab Carcinus maenas was investigated, as well as differences in sensitivity between red and green colour morphs. The results show that copper exposure clearly altered the response of C. maenas males to a pheromone stimulus (pre-moult female urine) presented alone, together with a dummy female (a sponge injected with pre-moult female urine) or with a real female. Crabs exposed to the highest copper treatment took more than twice as long to initiate search activity after pheromone introduction and their search behaviour was less directed. When offered a dummy female, male crabs showed decreased pheromone discrimination in both copper treatments. Stroking was the only mating behaviour significantly affected, with a 90% reduction in red crabs in the highest copper treatment. Additionally, crabs of the highest copper treatment more often pinched the dummy female (non-mating behaviour). Finally, male crabs exposed to copper more often pinched pre-moult females and it took about three times longer to establish cradle-carrying. Thus, copper affects the ability of males to detect female pheromones, perform specific mating behaviours and to form pairs. PMID:16942808

  16. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Cao, Chengjun; Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J; Huang, Guanghua

    2014-10-01

    Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

  17. The relationship between hours worked and partner's disability in opposite- and same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Leppel, Karen

    2008-11-01

    When a partner is disabled and not in the labour force, the need for earnings provided by the non-disabled partner increases. However, the disabled partner's need for care raises the value of time spent at home by the non-disabled partner. The direction of the relation between partner disability and hours worked varies with couple type because connecting links are affected by couple type. Relevant issues include foregone earnings, amount of income lost by the disabled partner, accumulated savings and healthcare coverage. In order to determine whether there is a significant relation between hours worked and having a disabled partner, controlling for other characteristics, Tobit regression equations were estimated using the US 2000 Decennial Census 5% sample. Among same-sex partners, unmarried opposite-sex partners and married men, individuals with disabled partners worked fewer hours in the labour force than did those without disabled partners. Only among married women did those with a disabled partner work more hours. PMID:18975226

  18. The grief experience of same-sex couples within an Irish context: tacit acknowledgement.

    PubMed

    Glackin, Michelle; Higgins, Agnes

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to explore the grief experience of same sex couples. To date, the majority of research in this area has focused on the bereavement experience of individuals whose partner has died from an AIDS/HIV-related illness. The research design used was descriptive exploratory. A multi-pronged sampling strategy was employed to generate participants. Seven people underwent in-depth interviews once the study had received ethical approval. Data were analysed by coding, comparing, and merging codes into higher order themes. Five themes subsequently emerged that captured the essence of the bereavement experience, namely:'tacit acknowledgement'; 'sculpting the distress'; 'multiple losses'; 'seeking support'; and 'journeying anew.' While not all bereaved gay or lesbian partners experience 'disenfranchized grief', particularly if their relationship with the deceased was not hidden, it is clear from the findings of this study that many of the participants did (Doka, 1989;Wallbank, 1998). Health care professionals need to consider their approach to people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, if they are to provide support structures (formal and informal) to meet their unique needs. PMID:18928134

  19. Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

  20. White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

  1. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer. PMID:25331494

  2. Male alternative reproductive behaviours in a Mediterranean wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus: Evidence from otoliths for multiple life-history pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne H. Alonzo; Michael Taborsky; Peter Wirtz

    Although alternative reproductive behaviours have been studied extensively, it has only been possible in a few cases to document the underlying life-history pathways and factors that determine their expression. In Symphodus ocellatus, a Mediterranean wrasse, males adopt a variety of behaviours. Within a season, they may invest in territory defence, nest building and broodcare (nesting males); join nesting males in

  3. Male behavioural maturation rate responds to selection on pollen hoarding in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    RUEPPELL, OLAV; PAGE, ROBERT E.; FONDRK, M. KIM

    2008-01-01

    Division of labour in social insect colonies relies on behavioural functional differentiation (specialization) of individuals with similar genomes. However, individual behavioural traits do not evolve independently of each other (behavioural syndromes). A prime example is the suite of behavioural differences in honeybee workers that has evolved in response to bidirectional selection on pollen hoarding of honeybee colonies (pollen-hoarding syndrome). More generally, these differences reflect functional differentiation between nectar and pollen foragers. We demonstrate here that this pollen-hoarding syndrome extends to drones. Similar to what has been shown in workers, drones from the high-pollen-hoarding strain had a higher locomotion activity after emergence, and they initiated flight earlier than did males derived from the low-pollen-hoarding strain, with hybrids intermediate. However, these two behavioural traits were unlinked at the individual level. We also found that social environment (the colony) affects the age at which drones initiate flight. The indirect selection responses of male behaviour suggest that male and worker evolution are not independent and may constrain each other’s evolution. Furthermore, we identified three distinct peaks in the probability of flight initiation over the course of the experiment and a decreased phenotypic variability in the ‘hybrid’ males, contrary to quantitative genetic expectations. PMID:18846249

  4. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths' most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth's socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further. PMID:25709840

  5. Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

  6. The Rights of Divorced Lesbians: Interstate Recognition of Child Custody Judgments in the Context of Same-Sex Divorce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn J. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    This Note explores the issue of interstate recognition of child custody, which arises in the context of same-sex divorce. The Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA) requires states to grant full faith and credit to all child custody orders; on the other hand, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) allows states to deny full faith and credit to judgments “arising out

  7. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  8. Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…

  9. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  10. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  11. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  12. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  13. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  14. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  15. Influence Strategies in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    Some writers have suggested that males and females differ not only in influencibility, but also in the strategies which they use to influence others. Although general sex differences in friendships may affect influence strategies, there is little research comparing males' and females' friendships. To explore differences between same- and…

  16. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  17. Male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly: territoriality, nonterritoriality and switching behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Raihani; M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar

    2008-01-01

    Odonates exhibit a wide range of territorial and nonterritorial mating tactics and are ideal for investigating alternative reproductive behaviours. We studied male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly, Hetaerina americana, a species that exhibits red wing spots that have been suggested to have evolved as a consequence of maleemale contests. In this species mating success is enhanced by the

  18. A case study of a male sex offender with zoosexual interests and behaviours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Wilcox; C. M. Foss; M. L. Donathy

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews assessment, treatment and supervision issues in relation to a high-risk, borderline functioning, male sex offender with zoosexual interests and behaviours. Mr Z was convicted of multiple sexual offences including rape, indecent assault and indecent exposure as well as actual and threatened bodily harm. He was convicted for two counts of attempted buggery of horses and he received

  19. Sociodemographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviour patterns of male sex workers in Madrid, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Belza; A. Llácer; R. Mora; M. Morales; J. Castilla; L. de la Fuente

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the sociodemographic and work characteristics, prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviours among male sex workers (MSWs) in Madrid (Spain). Using an anonymous semi-structured questionnaire, educators attached to a mobile unit under a street-based prostitution programme surveyed 84 MSWs from several Madrid areas. Of the total surveyed: 35% were immigrants, mean age was 23 years, mean

  20. When Sexual and Religious Orientation Collide: Considerations in Working with Conflicted Same-Sex Attracted Male Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The debate among scholars and gay activists and religious/political activists about the appropriateness and efficacy of conversion therapy has left out a number of individuals for whom neither gay-affirmative nor conversion therapy may be indicated. The present discussion, through the use of case material, offers considerations for the…

  1. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

  2. Perceived Physical Competence, Enjoyment and Effort in Same-Sex and Coeducational Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…

  3. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour

    PubMed Central

    KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  4. Contact with gays and lesbians and same-sex marriage support: The moderating role of social context.

    PubMed

    Merino, Stephen M

    2013-07-01

    Empirical research on the contact hypothesis has paid inadequate attention to the broader social and normative context in which contact occurs. Using data from the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study, I test whether individuals' core networks moderate the effect of personal contact with gays and lesbians on same-sex marriage attitudes. OLS regression results demonstrate that, though contact is strongly associated with greater support for same-sex marriage, the effect is attenuated for individuals with a higher proportion of religious conservatives in their core network. This moderating effect holds even after controlling for respondents' religiosity and when the sample is limited to self-identified religious liberals and moderates. Future research on intergroup contact should be attentive to other influences within individuals' social contexts and examine how the outcomes of contact across a variety of social boundaries are moderated by these social influences. PMID:23721680

  5. Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

    2010-04-01

    The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

  6. PSYCHOLOGY AND THE POLITICS OF SAME-SEX DESIRE IN THE UNITED STATES: An Analysis of Three Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Hammack; Eric P. Windell

    2011-01-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence

  7. Sexual Desire, Communication, Satisfaction, and Preferences of Men and Women in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair

    2009-01-01

    In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more

  8. Women's Sexual Satisfaction as a Predictor of Well-Being in Same-Sex Versus Mixed-Sex Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Holmberg; Karen L. Blair; Maggie Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,

  9. The Association Between Same-Sex Romantic Attractions and Relationships and Running Away Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha W. WallerRebecca; Rebecca P. Sanchez

    Sexual minorities are overrepresented among the runaway population, and sexual minority runaways are at greater risk for adverse\\u000a health outcomes than their heterosexual peers. Our knowledge of this vulnerable population has been restricted by methodological\\u000a limitations of existing studies. This study used a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents to explore the association\\u000a between same-sex romantic attractions and relationships and

  10. Psychology and the politics of same-sex desire in the United States: an analysis of three cases.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Windell, Eric P

    2011-08-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion. PMID:21936232

  11. Coming Out to Dad: Young Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences Disclosing Same-Sex Attraction to Their Fathers.

    PubMed

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  12. Intimacy and structure: Sex differences in imagery of same-sex relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Mazur; Rose R. Olver

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-three female and 42 male undergraduates wrote stories in response to verbal Thematic Apperception Test cues of characters of the subject's sex in structured and unstructured situations. Significantly more men than women wrote stories with negative and defused imagery to the unstructured situation cue. In addition, men wrote stories with significantly more negative and defused imagery to the unstructured cue

  13. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  14. Attraction between sexes: male-female gametocyte behaviour within a Leucocytozoon toddi (Haemosporida).

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Rosemary K; Duval, Linda; Talman, Arthur M; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the breeding systems of Plasmodium, and the closely related Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida), is fundamental to virulence and transmission research. We report an unusual binding behaviour between gametocytes of Leucocytozoon toddi. This aggregative behaviour was notably characterised by a disparity in the likelihood of clustering by female and male gametocytes. Thus, indicating a possible difference in the 'stickiness' of gametocytes per sex. Overall, 12% of gametocytes in this high-parasitaemia infection (0.269 gametocytes per 100 red blood cells (RBCs)) were incorporated into aggregations involving substantial contact. The gametocyte sexual combinations within aggregations varied significantly from expected according to the background 0.49 sex ratio within this sample, with female-female contacts occurring more and male-male contacts occurring less frequently than expected. A second L. toddi (identical for 709 bp of the cyt b mitochondrial gene) with lower parasitemia (0.035 gametocytes per 100 RBCs) showed no significant binding. Interestingly, the ratios of male gametocytes in both of these parasites were greater than expected under sex-ratio theory and similar to the 50% observed in species with syzygy breeding strategies. We discuss the ramifications of this observation in terms of sex-ratio theory and breeding strategies and provide speculative explanations for this unusual gametocyte behaviour. PMID:18297311

  15. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

    2006-03-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

  16. Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

  17. "Because She Was My First Girlfriend, I Didn't Know Any Different": Making the Case for Mainstreaming Same-Sex Sex/Relationship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Catherine; Hester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…

  19. Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

    2008-01-01

    Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

  20. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  1. Sexual harassment between same-sex peers: intersection of mental health, homophobia, and sexual violence in schools.

    PubMed

    Fineran, Susan

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a historical and legal framework for defining peer sexual harassment from three different perspectives: sex discrimination, mental health, and sexual violence. Major court decisions that define sexual harassment in both education and the workplace are highlighted, and arguments regarding sexual harassment between peers of the same sex are profiled. This research also identifies sexism and heterosexism as a major social violence problem in U.S. education and argues that peer sexual harassment is sexual violence with considerable mental health implications for both boys and girls. Recommendations for social work practice regarding peer sexual harassment in schools are discussed. PMID:11829246

  2. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

  3. Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

  4. Effect of sublingual medication of sildenafil citrate/ apomorphine on sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Xiong, C; Zhou, J; Shen, J

    2009-04-01

    The study investigated the combined effect of sublingually administered sildenafil (SN) and apomorphine (APO SL) on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (50) were divided into five groups (10 rats per each group): blank control, sildenafil group and SN plus APO SL high dosage, medium dosage and low dosage group. After sublingual administration of the agents (control and SN plus APO SL) and a sole dosage of sildenafil (stomach irrigation), the rats were mated with female counterparts in pairs, and the latent period of chasing, the frequency of chasing in 60 min, the latent period of mounting and the frequency of mounting in 60 min were recorded. The lower dosage of SN plus APO SL exerted a stronger influence on the sexual activities in male rats than did the higher sole dosage of sildenafil. Identification of common neurochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of sexual responding between animals and humans suggests that the evolution of sexual behaviour has been highly conserved and indicates that animal models of human sexual response can be used successfully as pre-clinical tools. So sublingual medication of SN combined with APO SL may be at least a support inference about male sexual libido. PMID:19260841

  5. Stimulant Use and HIV Disease Management Among Men in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dilworth, Samantha E.; Johnson, Mallory O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research conducted to date has focused primarily on identifying individual-level, psychological determinants of stimulant use and HIV disease management. The present cross-sectional study examined relationship factors as correlates of stimulant use and HIV disease management among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods In total, 266 male couples completed a baseline assessment for a cohort study examining the role of relationship factors in HIV treatment. A computer-based assessment of relationship factors, self-reported alcohol and substance use, and self-reported anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence was administered. All HIV-positive participants also provided a blood sample to measure viral load. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and relationship factors, men in a primary relationship with a stimulant-using partner had more than six-fold greater odds of reporting any stimulant use in the past three months. Among HIV-positive participants on ART (n = 371), having a stimulant-using partner was independently associated with 67% lower odds of reporting perfect 30-day ART adherence and more than two-fold greater odds of displaying a detectable HIV viral load. In contrast, more partner-level alcohol use was independently associated with greater odds of reporting perfect 3-day ART adherence and lower odds of displaying a detectable HIV viral load. Conclusions Partner-level stimulant use is an important risk factor for individual-level stimulant use and difficulties with HIV disease management among MSM. To optimize the effectiveness of HIV treatment as prevention, clinical research is needed to develop couples–based interventions targeting stimulant use as a potential driver of detectable HIV viral load. PMID:24726318

  6. Behavioural consequences of IVC cages on male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

    2013-05-01

    Recent developments in the technology to breed and house laboratory rodents for medical research has produced individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems. These IVC systems produce a cage environment significantly different to conventional cages. As it is not known in detail whether housing mice in IVCs impacts on their baseline and drug-induced behaviours compared to mice of conventional filter-top cages a comprehensive multi-tiered phenotyping strategy was used to test the behavioural consequences of IVC housing in male and female C57BL/6JArc mice. IVC had anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze, which were more pronounced in female mice whereas cognition and locomotion of all test mice were not modified by IVC housing. Mice raised in IVC cage systems were socially more active than mice of filter-top systems. Furthermore, males raised in IVC exhibited an increased sensitivity to the locomotor-stimulating effects of acute MK-801 treatment compared to males in conventional cages. In summary, this is the first study revealing the longer-term effects of IVC housing on social behaviours and the locomotor response to an acute MK-801 challenge. In conclusion, researchers upgrading their holding facilities to IVC housing may encounter a shift in experimental outcomes (e.g. post pharmacological challenges) and the behavioural phenotype of test mice. Furthermore, differences between the housing conditions of breeding facilities and test facilities must carefully be considered. Finally, researchers should clarify in detail the type of housing test animals have been exposed to when publishing experimental animal research data. PMID:23415791

  7. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  8. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law. PMID:24190101

  9. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

  10. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    PubMed

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

  11. Male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective: A comment on "Sexual Deprivation Increases Ethanol Intake in Drosophila".

    PubMed

    Guevara-Fiore, Palestina; Endler, John A

    2014-10-01

    Shohat-Ophir et al. (1) demonstrate a connection between sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption in male Drosophila flies, and how the neuropeptide F system regulates ethanol preference. Their results are rightly discussed only in a physiological context, but this has facilitated erroneous anthropomorphic interpretations by the media. Here we discuss the link between male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective, providing a broader context to interpret their results. PMID:25970263

  12. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  13. Norm-Narrowing and Self- and Other-Perceived Aggression in Early-Adolescent Same-Sex and Mixed-Sex Cliques

    PubMed Central

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Malone, Patrick; Quinlan, Nicole Polanichka; Miller-Johnson, Shari

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relations between group context and self- and other-perceptions of aggressive behavior in an ethnically-diverse sample of 168 male and female grade 7 adolescents. We used self- and peer-reports of aggression in high- and average-aggressive mixed-sex and same-sex cliques to examine whether group members would assimilate their self-report of aggression to the aggression report of their peers by way of perceived homophily or, conversely, engage in contrast and see their level of aggression as comparatively low in the face of high-aggression peers. Among boys in mixed-sex groups, comparison with highly-aggressive others resulted in a self-perception of lower levels of aggression than those perceived by their peers. Conversely, girls in mixed-sex groups reported their own levels of aggression to be higher than those perceived by their peers. We interpret these findings in terms of the notion of “norm narrowing”: rather than being set by the larger social environment, such as the school, norms are more narrowly determined within one’s immediate peer group. PMID:18836510

  14. Sex differences in impaling behaviour of Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor: do males have better impaling skills than females?

    PubMed

    Antczak, Marcin; Hromada, Martin; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    Prey impaling in shrikes Laniidae is considered to be a feeding adaptation to dismember and consume large prey and is unique among food-storing animals. However, other exaptations of this behaviour were recorded, including signals in mate choice, where cache size is a sign of male quality. Thus, due to a strong sexual selection, male and female birds might differ in their behavioural patterns of impaling behaviour. We examined sex differences in impaling behaviour of the Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor - one of the species where caches are known to be sexual signals. Data were collected in western Poland during breeding seasons in the years 2006-2010. In the studied population, we recorded several sex-specific differences in impaling behaviour. Males impaled prey, invertebrates as well as vertebrates, faster and with fewer attempts per impaling event than females. Sexes differed in the location of impaled prey; males selected more visible places, especially during the mating and courtship phase, whereas females impaled prey in concealed locations. Males also had slightly better impaling success compared to females. We suggest that sex differences in impaling behaviour may be due to different uses of impaled prey, and the better impaling skills of males may be the result of better experience in impaling which is forced by sexual selection in this species. We also discuss other factors which might trigger sex-specific differences in food caching by shrikes. PMID:22659619

  15. Handling effects on body weight and behaviour of group-housed male rabbits in a laboratory setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia M. Verwer; Geert van Amerongen; Ruud van den Bos; Coenraad F. M. Hendriksen

    2009-01-01

    In the study described in this paper we focus on the behaviour of male rabbits under modified housing conditions. We investigated whether handling has an effect on the behavioural stress response and whether this response is related to the coping strategy of the rabbits. Furthermore we studied the effect of handling from birth onwards on body weight and dominance.To assess

  16. Behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio T. Moore; Michael P. Lemaster; Robert T. Mason

    2000-01-01

    We measured the behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in male red-sided garter snakes. Four hours of capture stress resulted in no suppression of mating behaviour relative to control individuals. In contrast, the same stress resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone and a significant decrease in plasma levels of testosterone. There was a significant negative

  17. Competing Social Movements and Local Political Culture: Voting on Ballot Propositions to Ban Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S. States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Fleischmann; Laura Moyer

    2009-01-01

    This article uses social movement theory to explain variation in local support for proposed constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage in 22 states during 2004 and 2006. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

  18. Employee Consent Form to Allow the University of California to Claim FICA Tax Refund Relating to Provision of Health Care Benefits to Employee's Same-Sex Spouse

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    to Provision of Health Care Benefits to Employee's Same-Sex Spouse Social Security Number of marriage, divorce, etc., enter the name used previously. Address code. Please do not abbreviate the country name. Date of Marriage: ________________State of Marriage

  19. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

  20. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

  1. The emergence of cetaceans: phylogenetic analysis of male social behaviour supports the Cetartiodactyla clade.

    PubMed

    Lusseau, D

    2003-05-01

    The phylogeny of cetaceans is still unresolved. Two hypotheses prevail for the position of cetaceans among ungulates. The first hypothesis shows that Artiodactyla is monophyletic and is sister taxon to a clade composed of cetaceans and mesonychians. The second one shows that Artiodactyla is paraphyletic and contains Cetacea that is sister taxon of Hippopotamida. These hypotheses are based on fossil records and molecular studies. The behaviour of extant species can provide as much phylogenetic information as other classical parameters. I considered the behaviour observed during male agonistic interactions in placental mammals in order to determine which of these hypotheses was supported by the behaviour of extant species. Headbutting was only observed in ruminants, hippopotamids and cetaceans, supporting the paraphyletic nature of Artiodactyla. Primitive ruminants (tragulids) and two genera of ruminants (Moschus and Oreamnos) were not observed headbutting. These secondary losses were only present in 6.25% of the 48 surveyed ruminant genera. Head-to-head attacks emerged in pigs, which have developed dermal protusions. Yet, these confrontations are not based on mutual blow delivery. The behavioural evidence supports the inclusion of cetaceans in Artiodactyla. PMID:14635854

  2. ‘Because she was my first girlfriend, I didn't know any different’: making the case for mainstreaming same?sex sex\\/relationship education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Donovan; Marianne Hester

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the case for those entering\\/considering same?sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same?sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils ‘whatever their developing sexuality’. Research on sex education and domestic

  3. Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Kennedy; S. Nolen; J. Applewhite; E. Waiters; J. Vanderhoff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the

  4. "Post-Gay" Yet? The Relevance of the Lesbian and Gay Scene to Same-Sex Attracted Young People in Contemporary Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the lesbian and gay "scene" of bars, nightclubs, and dance parties has been undergoing a structural decline in many Western cities. This article aimed to examine the relevance of the scene to same-sex attracted young adults amid these changes. An online survey was conducted with 572 same-sex attracted young women and men in Sydney. Only a minority of respondents participated in the scene at least weekly (16%), and the majority did not regard the scene as important to their leisure time (60%). However, respondents valued the scene as a space to connect with other same-sex attracted people and display same-sex affection without fear of hostility. Lesbian and gay identified respondents tended to be more socially engaged with the scene compared to other same-sex attracted respondents. The findings suggest that while the scene continues to be valued by many same-sex attracted young people, improved social attitudes have made participating in the scene less of an imperative. PMID:25927352

  5. Mental health differences between young adults with and without same-sex contact: A simultaneous examination of underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use than those without such contact, but that different processes explain the disparities in the two outcomes. A substantial portion of the gap in depressive symptoms is explained by sexual minorities' higher levels of stress exposure and their lower levels of family support and psychological resources. The gap in drug use is not explained by these processes, but is partially explained by self-exploratory attitudes and permissiveness of drug use in social networks. This study highlights the importance of using multiple outcome measures in research that examines mechanisms underlying mental health disparities across social groups. PMID:21131617

  6. Homosexual inclinations and the passions: A Thomistic theory of the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert Loyd

    2014-01-01

    The Catholic Church has held that every human being is a child of God, and every person deserves to be treated with dignity and love regardless of their actions. The phrase “love the sinner, hate the sin” is a simple summary of the approach the Church takes to loving all human beings. The Church has also held firmly that both homosexual acts and homosexual inclinations are disordered, although the origins or contributing factors of homosexual inclinations are not entirely understood. In this paper, I apply principles from St. Thomas Aquinas's treatise on the passions to show that habitual mis-identification of the cause of pleasure associated with the apprehension of beauty, or misjudgments, may be involved in the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder. PMID:24899749

  7. Aikane: accounts of Hawaiian same-sex relationships in the journals of Captain Cook's Third Voyage (1776-80).

    PubMed

    Morris, R J

    1990-01-01

    The journals recorded by Captain James Cook and his associates on Cook's Third Voyage of discovery (1776-1780) include extensive eyewitness accounts and analyses of the Hawaiian people and their culture-the first to be made by Europeans and Americans. Among these are several reports of young men called aikane, who were attached to the court or train of the ali'i (chiefs), and whose functions were sexual, social, and political. Among these aikane were several who acted as intermediaries between the sailors and the Hawaiians, and whose influence and conduct profoundly affected the course of events at Kealakekua Bay, where Cook was killed in February, 1779. The information contained in these materials suggests that such Hawaiian same-sex relationships are more important than currently accounted for in accepted theories of Hawaiian ethnohistory. PMID:2230108

  8. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  9. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    PubMed Central

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ages 18–24 were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants’ narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The young gay and bisexual men who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers’ responses commonly differed from sons’ expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers’ response, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of SSA, religious views, sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the young gay and bisexual men’s stories was particularly striking. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  10. Glutamine deficiency in the prefrontal cortex increases depressive-like behaviours in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Younghyurk; Son, Hyeonwi; Kim, Gyeongwha; Kim, Sujeong; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kim, Hyun Joon

    2013-01-01

    Background The brain levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) are partially regulated through the Glu–Gln cycle. Astrocytes play a role in regulating the Glu–Gln cycle, and loss of astrocytes has been associated with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that levels of Glu and Gln would be affected by astrocyte loss and dysregulation of the Glu–Gln cycle and that depressive-like behaviours would be closely related to the level of changes in Glu and Gln. Methods We used liquid chromatography to measure Glu and Gln concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of male mice infused with L-? aminoadipic acid (L-AAA), a specific astrocyte toxin, in the prelimbic cortex. Methionine sulfoximine, a Gln synthetase inhibitor, and ?-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid, a blocker of neuronal Gln transporters, were used to disturb the Glu–Gln cycle. We assessed the behavioural change by drug infusion using the forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Results The Glu and Gln levels were decreased on the fifth day after L-AAA infusion, and the infused mice showed longer durations of immobility in the FST and lower sucrose preference, indicative of depressive-like behaviour. Mice in which Gln synthetase or Gln transport were inhibited also exhibited increased immobility in the FST. Direct infusion of L-Gln reversed the increased immobility induced by astrocyte ablation and Glu–Gln cycle impairments. Limitations Genetically modified animal models and diverse behavioural assessments would have been helpful to solidify our conclusions. Conclusion Neuronal Gln deficiency in the pre-frontal cortex may cause depressive behaviours. PMID:23031251

  11. Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behaviour in male Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Wild, J Martin; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in Japanese quail has for many years been the focus of intensive investigations into its role in reproductive behaviour. The present paper delineates a sequence of descending pathways that finally reach sacral levels of the spinal cord housing motor neurons innervating cloacal muscles involved in reproductive behaviour. We first retrogradely labeled the motor neurons innervating the large cloacal sphincter muscle (mSC) that forms part of the foam gland complex (Seiwert and Adkins-Regan, 1998, Brain Behav Evol 52:61–80) and then putative premotor nuclei in the brainstem, one of which was nucleus retroambigualis (RAm) in the caudal medulla. Anterograde tracing from RAm defined a bulbospinal pathway, terminations of which overlapped the distribution of mSC motor neurons and their extensive dorsally directed dendrites. Descending input to RAm arose from an extensive dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM-ICo), electrical stimulation of which drove vocalizations. POM neurons were retrogradely labeled by injections of tracer into DM-ICo, but POM projections largely surrounded DM, rather than penetrated it. Thus, although a POM projection to ICo was shown, a POM projection to DM must be inferred. Nevertheless, the sequence of projections in the male quail from POM to cloacal motor neurons strongly resembles that in rats, cats and monkeys for the control of reproductive behaviour, as largely defined by Holstege and co-workers (e.g., Holstege et al., 1997, Neuroscience 80: 587–598). PMID:23225613

  12. Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect. PMID:22958428

  13. Reproductive and sexual behaviour development of dam or artificially reared male lambs.

    PubMed

    Damián, Juan Pablo; Beracochea, Florencia; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if artificially reared male lambs differ from those reared by their mothers in their reproductive development and sexual behaviour during the first breeding season and in their serum testosterone to a GnRH challenge at the end of the first breeding season. Lambs were assigned to two experimental groups: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36h after birth (Week 0) and fed sheep milk until 10weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Reproductive parameters and sexual behaviour were recorded from Weeks 9 to 39. The GnRH challenge was performed on Week 40. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentration and sperm parameters were unaffected by group, but increased with age (P<0.0001). Lambs reared by their mothers had greater values of gonado-somatic index on Weeks 9, 16 and 19 (P<0.05), and tended to reach puberty earlier than AR (22.9±0.7 vs. 25.1±1.1weeks, respectively, P=0.087). Lambs reared by their mothers presented more lateral approaches and mount attempts than AR (P<0.05), and DR lambs presented more mounts on Weeks 32 and 39 than AR (P<0.05). Blood testosterone concentrations 3.5 and 4h after the GnRH challenge were higher in AR than in DR lambs (P<0.05). In conclusion mother rearing promoted sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of male lambs. PMID:25846838

  14. Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Tarryne; Page, Bruce; Van Dyk, Gus; Millspaugh, Josh; Slotow, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations) responses (4 hunts) in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds) did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites) in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt) and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt). Conclusions/Significance As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies. PMID:18560517

  15. HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C and risk behaviours among commercial sex male clients in Sichuan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl; Luan, Rongsheng; Wang, Cunling; Nelson, Kenrad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Commercial sex male clients (CSMC) are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This study reports the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of STI and HIV-related risk behaviours in a sample of 600 CSMC in three urban areas in Sichuan province, China. The risk factors for prevalent syphilis infection are also examined. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 600 CSMC in Sichuan province, China. Finger stick blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and HCV tests. Risk factors for syphilis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression by accounting for variance within and between study sites. Results Western blot confirmatory test results indicated that HIV prevalence was 1.5% (n=9). 32 participants (5.3%) screened positive for syphilis and 52 (8.7%) positive for HCV. The overall prevalence of consistent condom use with female sex workers (FSW) was 30.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed local household registration (AOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.50), having snorted heroin in the past 6 months (AOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.18 to 4.74), always washing genitals after having sex with FSW (AOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.10 to 9.12) and consistent condom use with FSW (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.98) were significant correlates of syphilis infection. Conclusions There is a large burden of syphilis infection coupled with high-risk sexual and substance use behaviours among male clients in Sichuan province, China. The data suggest that effective and comprehensive prevention interventions to promote condom use and reduce substance use among male clients in Sichuan province are urgently needed. PMID:20826867

  16. Behavioural response of female dark-eyed juncos to the experimental removal of their mates: implications for the evolution of male parental care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LICIA WOLF; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; V NOLANJR

    1990-01-01

    Male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemah.s, are monogamous and normally help females leed nestlings. We removed males at hatching of their eggs and examined female parental behaviour in response to male removal. We compared parental behaviour of unaided females (experimentals) with that of (l) lemales aideci by their matcs (control females) and (2) females and their mates working together (control pairs).

  17. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

  18. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  19. Alpha male black howler monkey responses to loud calls: effect of numeric odds, male companion behaviour and reproductive investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAWN M. KITCHEN

    2004-01-01

    When fighting is costly, avoiding contests with superior opponents should confer fitness advantages. Black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, produce loud calls that reliably indicate the minimum number of male group members. Using playback recordings, I manipulated ‘numeric odds’ (number of defending to intruding males) to examine whether alpha males use loud calls to assess relative fighting ability, and whether they

  20. The role of male-male relationships in partner violence treatment groups: the effects of improving same sex relationships on attachment 

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Ashley D.

    2009-05-15

    , 1999). A batterer can be described as someone who uses not only physical abuse, but also emotional, sexual, economic, or other abusive behaviors to assert power and control over their partner (Peterman & Dixon, 2001). Batterers can originate from... with traditional characteristics of the masculine gender role, including engaging in committed relationships, expression of inner emotions, joining sexuality with monogamy, and reducing violence and aggression, are causing a masculinity crisis for many men...

  1. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day ?5, ?2, and ?1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day ?1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day ?1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  2. What difference does a civil union make? Changing public policies and the experiences of same-sex couples: comment on Solomon, Rothblum, and Balsam (2004).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Charlotte J

    2004-06-01

    When Vermont became the first state in the United States to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples, it marked an important milestone in lesbian and gay Americans' struggle for equal rights. Against this background, S. E. Solomon, E. D. Rothblum, and K. F. Balsam's (2004) study, the first to examine experiences of same-sex couples who have undertaken civil unions, is a significant effort. The study provides valuable data about these couples, yet much remains to be learned. Further study of the impact of changing legal landscapes on experiences of same-sex couples and their families has the potential to add significantly to knowledge about contemporary family lives. PMID:15222834

  3. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy. PMID:15932885

  4. The effect of breeding density and male quality on paternity-assurance behaviours in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Hoi; Hans Tost; Matteo Griggio

    2011-01-01

    Several factors can influence the risk of cuckoldry through extra-pair paternity for male birds. The number of neighbouring\\u000a males is thought to affect the chance of females engaging in extra-pair copulations, and species which breed both socially\\u000a (colonially) and solitarily provide an ideal opportunity to test the effect of close proximity on extra-pair behaviour and\\u000a paternity guards. In this study,

  5. Concurrent modulation of neuronal and behavioural olfactory responses to sex and host plant cues in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Sophie H; Saveer, Ahmed M; Binyameen, Muhammad; Bengtsson, Marie; Birgersson, Göran; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Becher, Paul G

    2015-01-22

    Mating has profound effects on animal physiology and behaviour, not only in females but also in males, which we show here for olfactory responses. In cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis, odour-mediated attraction to sex pheromone and plant volatiles are modulated after mating, producing a behavioural response that matches the physiological condition of the male insect. Unmated males are attracted by upwind flight to sex pheromone released by calling females, as well as to volatiles of lilac flowers and green leaves of the host plant cotton, signalling adult food and mating sites, respectively. Mating temporarily abolishes male attraction to females and host plant odour, but does not diminish attraction to flowers. This behavioural modulation is correlated with a response modulation in the olfactory system, as shown by electro-physiological recordings from antennae and by functional imaging of the antennal lobe, using natural odours and synthetic compounds. An effect of mating on the olfactory responses to pheromone and cotton plant volatiles but not to lilac flowers indicates the presence of functionally independent neural circuits within the olfactory system. Our results indicate that these circuits interconnect and weigh perception of social and habitat odour signals to generate appropriate behavioural responses according to mating state. PMID:25621329

  6. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points…

  7. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  8. A Clear Stand: Religious Schools Are Being Pressed to Spell Out Their Policies Regarding Gay Students and the Children of Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…

  9. Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

  10. The Effect of Requiring Private Employers to Extend Health Benefit Eligibility to Same-Sex Partners of Employees: Evidence from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmueller, Thomas C.; Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships in…

  11. ‘This has happened since ancient times…it's something that you are born with’: ancestral wives among same-sex sangomas in South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nkunzi Nkabinde; Ruth Morgan

    2006-01-01

    This article is an abbreviated form of chapter seven of Tommy Boys, Lesbian Men and Ancestral Wives: Female same-sex practices in Africa. The research consists of five life story interviews as part of a larger oral history project of the Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa. We demonstrate that there are traditional and institutionalised ways in which those African

  12. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between College Students with Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Experience: Results from a National Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marla Eisenberg

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify differences in the sexual health behaviors (condom use and number of sexual partners) between college students with same-sex sexual experiences and those with only opposite-sex partners. Data from a random sample of American university students were gathered as part of the 1997 College Alcohol Study. Odds ratios were estimated for consistent condom

  13. Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…

  14. "It Was as Useful as a Chocolate Kettle": Sex Education in the Lives of Same-Sex-Attracted Young People in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Lynne; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…

  15. I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic partnership is subject to filing of an Affidavit of Domestic Partnership.

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date

  16. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  17. Health-seeking behaviour of male foreign migrant workers living in a dormitory in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ?21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p?=?0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p?=?0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning?

  18. Understanding male sexual behaviour in planning HIV prevention programmes: lessons from Laos, a low prevalence country

    PubMed Central

    Toole, M J; Coghlan, B; Xeuatvongsa, A; Holmes, W R; Pheualavong, S; Chanlivong, N

    2006-01-01

    Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with a range of young men in Vientiane, Laos; interviews were conducted with male sex workers. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a purposive sample of 800 young men. Results Most young men initiate sex at an early age and have multiple sex partners. Married men are more likely to pay for sex and most sex for money is negotiated in non?brothel settings. Despite high reported condom use for last intercourse with a casual partner, decisions on condom use are subjective. Many men have extramarital sex when their partner is pregnant and post partum. 18.5% of men report having had sex with another man; most of these men also report having sex with women. Moreover, more men report having had anal sex with a woman than with a man. Conclusions Although not a probability sample survey, this study of a broad range of young men in Vientiane reveals sexual behaviours that could lead to accelerated HIV transmission. Education should emphasise the need to use condoms in all sexual encounters outside the primary relationship. This needs special emphasis when the partner is pregnant or post partum. Advice on safe sex with other men needs to be integrated into all sexual health education for young men. PMID:16581739

  19. Complex origins of variation in the sexual behaviour of male Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata: interactions between social environment, heredity, body size and age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. HELEN RODD; MARLA B. SOKOLOWSKI

    1995-01-01

    Field observations have shown that there are inter-population diVerences in the sexual behaviour of male guppies in Trinidad. The greatest diVerences are between guppies that co-exist with diVerent predators. Here, the sexual behaviour of male Trinidadian guppies was studied to determine to what extent these diVerences in behaviour evolved in response to selection pressure by the predators, to what extent

  20. Narratives of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont: The Impact of Legalizing Relationships on Couples and on Social Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam; Sondra E. Solomon

    Quantitative surveys often end with an item asking respondents to write in “additional comments,” and this study analyzed\\u000a these narrative comments of 659 women and men in same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of\\u000a that legislation. Our research question was to examine which novel themes not covered by the questionnaire subscales respondents\\u000a would bring

  1. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  2. Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Rivers; V. Paul Poteat; Nathalie Noret

    2008-01-01

    To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12–16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student sample. Comparisons were made on factors including victimization, social

  3. Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: a process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D

    2014-06-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over 2 school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PMID:24684714

  4. Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: A process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect

    PubMed Central

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children’s development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third-and fourth-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at three time points over two school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression, and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PMID:24684714

  5. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives. PMID:23034554

  6. Behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis.

    PubMed

    Moore; Lemaster; Mason

    2000-03-01

    We measured the behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in male red-sided garter snakes. Four hours of capture stress resulted in no suppression of mating behaviour relative to control individuals. In contrast, the same stress resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone and a significant decrease in plasma levels of testosterone. There was a significant negative correlation between plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone in both control and capture-stress groups, suggesting that the increase in corticosterone directly drives the decrease in testosterone. While there was no relation between body size and initial plasma levels of the two steroids, longer individuals had a significantly greater increase in corticosterone following capture stress than did shorter individuals. Snakes display indeterminate growth, suggesting that older individuals have decreased sensitivity to negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and thus hypersecrete glucocorticoids. These results suggest that male red-sided garter snakes have uncoupled their behavioural stress response from their hormonal stress response to maximize reproductive opportunities. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10715174

  7. Do parents play different roles in drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents? A longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Chia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated. Methods Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression. Results The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60). Conclusions The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender. PMID:25877273

  8. Patterns of sexual behaviour of male patients before testing HIV-positive in a Cambodian hospital, Phnom Penh

    PubMed Central

    Sok, Phan; Harwell, Joseph I.; Dansereau, Lynne; McGarvey, Stephen; Lurie, Mark; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviours among HIV-positive male patients in Cambodia have not been fully evaluated. Objectives The patterns of sexual behaviours and social factors were compared between married and single men. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional survey of 174 male HIV patients was undertaken during March 1999–June 2000 in Phnom Penh. Results Many participants (61%) reported that they were unaware that their sexual behaviours may have put them at risk of HIV infection. Sexual behaviours included having sex with a sex worker (90%), multiple sexual partners (41%), and both of these behaviours (37%). Two-thirds (69%) reported using a condom when having sex with a sex worker. Condom use with multiple sexual partners was low (24%). A history of condom use with a sex worker was less likely to be reported among married men than single men (P = 0.008). Always using condoms with a sex worker did not differ between married men and single men. Social factors that influenced visiting a sex worker included invitation by a friend (88%), alcohol consumption (74%), and having extra spending money (72%). Multivariate analysis suggests that alcohol consumption (P = 0.008) and having extra spending money (P = 0.02) were strongly associated with visiting a sex worker. Conclusions In Cambodia, HIV-infected men frequently reported a history of using sex workers. Having multiple sex partners or using a sex worker and multiple sexual partners were not rare. Interventions should target men in settings where alcohol is consumed and to encourage married men to use condoms. PMID:19061555

  9. Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

    2011-01-01

    Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

  10. Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001

  11. Mate choice in the grey partridge, Perdix perdix : role of physical and behavioural male traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA BEANI; FRANCESCO DESSÌ-FULGHERI

    1995-01-01

    The brown breast patch of the male grey partridge, the species' most conspicuous sexually dimorphic trait, was totally or partly bleached out, to test its influence on female preference. In mate-choice experiments, patch size (which was unaffected by early testosterone treatment) appeared to be unimportant: artificially and naturally bred females primarily selected males on the basis of their vocal performance.

  12. Approach Strategy by which Male Mediterranean Tarantulas Adjust to the Cannibalistic Behaviour of Females

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    experiments, we offered a grasshopper (typical prey) or a male L. tarantula to females at night and during changes in the female's tendency to attack both the grasshopper and the male spider. These findings to mate when forced to approach females from the front, directly exposing them to her raptorial legs, than

  13. Effect of predation on male mating behaviour in a unisexual-bisexual mating system

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    , mate choice, Poecilia formosa, Poecilia latipinna, predation risk. Introduction Predation risk can occurs in the genus Poecilia. Poe- ciliid fish are livebearing and exhibit internal fertilization. Male sailfin mol- lies (P. latipinna) and male Atlantic mollies (P. mexicana mexicana and P. m. limantouri

  14. School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

    2011-01-01

    This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…

  15. Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour

    E-print Network

    Innes, David J.

    of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada SUMMARY 1. Mating behaviour in Daphnia appears to rely on random of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Newfoundland, AIB 3X9 Canada. E-mail: dinnes

  16. The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

    2009-01-01

    For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

  17. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the ?2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. PMID:22444623

  18. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S. PMID:22315695

  19. Effects of extreme variation in female morph frequencies on the mating behaviour of male damselflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice J. Ting; Jessica Bots; Felipe Pérez Jvostov; Hans van Gossum; Thomas N. Sherratt

    2009-01-01

    Female-limited polymorphism is often attributed to selection to avoid excessive male mating attempts. It is encountered in\\u000a various taxonomic groups, but is particularly common in damselflies, where one female morph (andromorph) typically resembles\\u000a the conspecific male in colour pattern, while the other(s) (gynomorph(s)) do not. Two sets of theories have been proposed\\u000a to explain the phenomenon in damselflies, which can

  20. Arrival timing in subadult and adult Black Redstart males: competition-dependent behaviour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schwarzová; P. Štros; D. Frynta; R. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    The different arrival times of 1-year-old and older males is a widely recognised phenomenon in most migrating passerines. The converse pattern, i.e. the yearlings arriving at the breeding grounds at the same time as adults, has been reported only exceptionally. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain the delayed arrival of yearling males: investment reduction, and energetic constraint hypotheses, respectively.

  1. Stress, social behaviour, and secondary sexual traits in a male primate.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    We examined variation in glucocorticoid levels in the mandrill, a brightly coloured primate species, to identify major social influences on stress hormones, and investigate relationships among glucocorticoid levels, testosterone and secondary sexual ornamentation. We collected a total of 317 fecal samples for 16 adult male mandrills over 13 months, including mating and non-mating periods and periods of both dominance rank stability and instability, and compared fecal glucocorticoid levels with dominance rank, rank stability, presence of receptive females, gastro-intestinal parasite infection, fecal testosterone and facial red coloration. Glucocorticoid levels did not vary systematically with dominance rank, but increased when the dominance hierarchy was unstable, and increased in the presence of receptive females. The relationship between dominance rank and glucocorticoid levels changed direction according to the stability of the dominance hierarchy: glucocorticoid levels were higher in subordinate males under stable conditions, but under conditions of instability higher ranking males had higher glucocorticoid levels. The influence of dominance rank also interacted with the presence of receptive females: glucocorticoids were higher in dominant males than in subordinates, but only during mating periods, suggesting that dominant males are more stressed than subordinates during such periods. These findings support previous studies showing that the relationship between glucocorticoids and dominance rank in male baboons is dependent on the social environment. We also found that males with higher glucocorticoids suffered a higher diversity of gastrointestinal parasite infection, in line with evidence that glucocorticoids suppress the immune system in other species. However, we found no support for the stress-mediated immunocompetence handicap hypothesis for the evolution of condition-dependent ornaments: glucocorticoid and testosterone levels were positively related, rather than the negative relationship predicted by the hypothesis, and we found no relationship between red colour and glucocorticoid levels, suggesting that glucocorticoids do not play a role in translating social conditions or physical health into ornament expression in this species. PMID:20688067

  2. Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Chaoran; Yu, Shaohua; Feng, Yan; Song, Julia; Eriksen, Michael; Redmon, Pam; Koplan, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Methods Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Results Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians’ own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). Conclusions The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China. PMID:23821489

  3. Effect of early life housing manipulation on baseline and drug-induced behavioural responses on neurochemistry in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joy; Bree, Dara; Kelly, John P

    2012-06-01

    Employing environmental enrichment (EE) provides continual sources of dynamic interaction for animals. Though an established discipline in behavioural science, the consequences of EE on behavioural pharmacological tests have not been extensively examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of EE (or isolation housing) on a range of behavioural pharmacological tests and brain monoamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat. Male rats were randomly assigned to IC (isolation), SC (standard group-housed) or EE conditions. IC and SC animals were housed singly or in groups of four in standard cages, whilst the EE group were housed in groups of four in larger cages enriched with a variety of wooden, cardboard and plastic objects. After 5weeks of housing, its impact on the effects of diazepam (DZP) in the elevated plus maze (EPM); desipramine (DMI) in the forced swim test (FST) and amphetamine (AMP) effects on homecage activity were assessed. Post-mortem monoamine and BDNF levels were analysed using HPLC and ELISA. EE rats displayed reduced activity in the OFT, however no other differences were found in baseline behaviours. DMI reduced immobility time in the FST, but only for rats housed in IC, while AMP effects were somewhat greater for socially-housed animals than those in IC. There were no housing effects on monoamine or BDNF levels in discreet brain regions. The results suggest that post-weaning enrichment had no significant effect on baseline behaviours or monoamine and BDNF levels, thus it is suitable to implement as a commonplace husbandry practice, however, caution must be taken when investigating responsiveness to psychotropic drugs. PMID:22391435

  4. Unsafe sexual behaviour in domestic and foreign migrant male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan: occupational-based and behavioural assessment survey

    PubMed Central

    Al Rifai, Rami; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Morita, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge, health and work-related conditions, and correlates of practising unsafe sex among domestic and foreign male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional behavioural assessment survey. Setting Multinational workplaces in Jordan. Participants 230 Jordanian and 480 foreign male workers aged ?18?years who had worked in a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) for 12?months or more. Outcomes The primary outcome was the prevalence of practising unsafe sex. ‘Unsafe sex’ was defined as sex with a non-regular sexual partner with inconsistent condom usage. Results Overall, 74.3% of workers reported lifetime sexual experience. The proportion of lifetime unsafe sex was similar among domestic (31.8%) and foreign (35.6%) workers. Of those, 59.2% of domestic and 68.1% of foreign workers started practising unsafe sex after joining the QIZ. Rates of lifetime unsafe sex were significantly higher among those who had their sexual debut after joining the QIZ in domestic (aOR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and foreign workers (aOR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1). Among the domestic workers, being 18–24?years old (aOR, 4.9), unmarried (aOR, 4.8), working in the QIZ for 5–8?years (aOR, 5.0), sometimes/frequently shopped with foreign workers (aOR, 2.1) or were current/ex-alcohol drinkers (aORs, 3.4) were independently significantly associated with higher odds of practising unsafe sex. Conclusions A significant proportion of domestic and foreign male workers had been practising unsafe sex. The findings indicated that not only foreigners but also domestic male workers associating with foreign workers are at high risk of unsafe sex. Tailored interventions to promote safer sex in multinational workplaces in Jordan are needed. PMID:26068511

  5. Pre-incarceration HIV risk behaviours of male and female inmates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Abiona; J. A. Balogun; A. S. Adefuye; P. E. Sloan

    2009-01-01

    In most countries, HIV and AIDS rates are higher among inmates than in the general population. As part of a series of studies aimed at examining the plausible links between HIV and incarceration in a State prison system in the United States (US), the present study examined pre-incarceration sexual and injection drug use behaviours of inmates and their demographic correlates.

  6. The effects of cage enrichment on agonistic behaviour and dominance in male laboratory rats ( Rattus norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usama A. Abou-Ismail

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of enriching laboratory cages on agonistic interaction and dominance of rats. In a series of three replicates, 48 rats were housed in groups of four in either ‘standard’ or ‘enriched’ cages for 6 weeks. Successful aggressive and defensive behaviour that ended up in a clear winner and loser were sampled in

  7. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  8. Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3?×?24?h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups. PMID:24080597

  9. Behaviour 149 (2012) 869879 brill.com/beh Male permissiveness in a unisexualbisexual mating

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    2012-01-01

    - erospecific females does not lead to fitness benefits for the males. Here, we focused on the Poecilia latipinna­P. formosa­P. mexicana mating complex, where P. formosa is a gynogenetic species of hybrid origin and P. latipinna and P. mexicana are its parent species and sexual hosts (sperm donors). We examined

  10. Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

  11. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

  12. The effects of isolated and enriched housing conditions on baseline and drug-induced behavioural responses in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joy; Kelly, John P

    2012-10-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) involves enhancing an animal's environment, with the goal of improving animal welfare. Though a well-established discipline, the consequences of EE on behavioural pharmacological tests have not been extensively examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of EE (or isolation) housing on a range of behavioural pharmacological tests in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the 3 housing conditions; IC (isolation) and SC (standard group-housed, 4/cage) were housed in standard cages (42 cm×25.5 cm×20 cm), while the EE group was housed in groups of 4 in larger cages (54 cm×38 cm×19 cm) enriched with a variety of wooden, cardboard and plastic toys/objects. After 4 weeks, housing effects were examined in the following pharmacological tests: diazepam (DZP) effects on anxiolytic behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM); desipramine (DMI) effects on immobility time in the forced swim test (FST) and amphetamine (AMP) effects on homecage activity. Dose-response assessments demonstrated that rats housed in EE showed reduced sensitivity to the behavioural effects of DZP and DMI but increased sensitivity to the locomotor-enhancing effects of AMP compared to SC and IC; while IC animals exhibited the clearest dose-response effects to increasing doses of DMI. It may be concluded that environmental manipulation can vary along a continuum and its intensity may be crucial to observable effects. Nonetheless, environmental factors can influence sensitivity to psychotropic drugs and should be considered when implementing EE protocols in such evaluations. PMID:22732260

  13. Male Moth Songs Tempt Females to Accept Mating: The Role of Acoustic and Pheromonal Communication in the Reproductive Behaviour of Aphomia sociella

    PubMed Central

    Kindl, Ji?í; Kalinová, Blanka; ?ervenka, Milan; Jílek, Milan; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae. PMID:22065997

  14. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male burying beetles' search time for females and their reproductive potential, we influenced their perceived costs of making an acceptance or rejection error. As predicted, when the costs of rejecting females increased, males exhibited more permissive discrimination decisions and showed high levels of SSB; when the costs of accepting males increased, males were more restrictive and showed low levels of SSB. Our results support the idea that in animal species, in which the recognition cues of females and males overlap to a certain degree, SSB is a consequence of an adaptive discrimination strategy to avoid the costs of making rejection errors. PMID:25631226

  15. Social context, sexual risk perceptions and stigma: HIV vulnerability among male sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okal, Jerry; Luchters, Stanley; Geibel, Scott; Chersich, Matthew F; Lango, Daniel; Temmerman, Marleen

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge about sexual practices and life experiences of men having sex with men in Kenya, and indeed in East Africa, is limited. Although the impact of male same-sex HIV transmission in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, HIV prevention initiatives remain focused largely on heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission. Using data from ten in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions (36 men), this analysis explores social and behavioural determinants of sexual risks among men who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. Analysis showed a range and variation of men by age and social class. First male same-sex experiences occurred for diverse reasons, including love and pleasure, as part of sexual exploration, economic exchange and coercion. Condom use is erratic and subject to common constraints, including notions of sexual interference and motivations of clients. Low knowledge compounds sexual risk taking, with a widespread belief that the risk of HIV transmission through anal sex is lower than vaginal sex. Traditional family values, stereotypes of abnormality, gender norms and cultural and religious influences underlie intense stigma and discrimination. This information is guiding development of peer education programmes and sensitisation of health providers, addressing unmet HIV prevention needs. Such changes are required throughout Eastern Africa. PMID:19484638

  16. The effects of cage enrichment on agonistic behaviour and dominance in male laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Abou-Ismail, Usama A

    2011-04-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of enriching laboratory cages on agonistic interaction and dominance of rats. In a series of three replicates, 48 rats were housed in groups of four in either 'standard' or 'enriched' cages for 6 weeks. Successful aggressive and defensive behaviour that ended up in a clear winner and loser were sampled in the first hour of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle every other week. Rats in the 'complex' cages showed lower levels of both successful aggressive and successful defensive bouts compared to rats in the 'standard' cages. Enriching cages of laboratory rat did not change the social order of the animals in the cage. Thus, enhancing the complexity of cages of laboratory rats by the particular cage modification regimen implemented in this experiment could be considered enrichment and could therefore result in an improvement of welfare in these animals. PMID:20594567

  17. Pheromonal inhibition of male courtship behaviour in the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis: a mechanism for the rejection of potential mates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Greene; Robert T. Mason

    2003-01-01

    Pheromones play a central role in coordinating the events leading up to copulation in snakes. We report here a novel pheromone system in the brown tree snake in which females release a pheromone that inhibits male courtship behaviour. In a previous study, we made observations of female brown tree snakes releasing cloacal secretions (CS) during courtship that appeared to cause

  18. The use and abuse of religious beliefs in dividing and conquering between socially marginalized groups: the same-sex marriage debate.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beverly

    2009-11-01

    This article discusses the use and abuse of religious beliefs and their role in divide-and-conquer strategies. Divide-and-conquer strategies are engaged to disrupt potential coalitions between and among marginalized group members, specifically sexual minority groups and people of color. Tensions between these groups have been exacerbated by the debate on same-sex marriage and comparisons between the discriminatory treatment of each group. A component of this discussion includes a brief exploration of one of the historical abuses of religious doctrine used to legitimize the marginalization of people of color and sexual minorities in the United States. For African Americans, one form of marginalization was reflected in criminalizing interracial marriage, and for members of sexual minority groups, a form of marginalization is denying group members the right to marry. The author also explores culturally competent and respectful disciplinary and clinical responses to religiously derived prejudice against sexual minority group members and people of color and discusses the implications for multicultural discourse. PMID:19899873

  19. Mortality Risks Among Persons Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners: Evidence From the 2008 General Social Survey—National Death Index Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation–associated health risks. Methods We used data from the 1988–2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer–related mortality. Results The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation–associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

  20. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939

  1. Risk behaviours of Hong Kong male residents travelling to mainland China: a potential bridge population for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lau, J T; Thomas, J

    2001-02-01

    The objective was to assess levels of high-risk sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and AIDS-related perceptions among Hong Kong men returning from China by land; 1,254 systematically sampled subjects were interviewed. Of respondents, 32.5% had sexual intercourse with a commercial sex worker (CSW) in China in the past six months; 11.2% have done so on this trip. A third of those who reported having sex with CSWs did so without a condom. A fifth had a history of STDs: seventy per cent of respondents who did not use a condom with a CSW would not use a condom with their regular sexual partner. Less educated respondents, 31-40-year-olds and non-business and frequent travellers were more likely to have sex with a CSW. Those who practice high-risk sex fear AIDS more, are aware that their own risk of HIV infection is not negligible, but think that chances of HIV infection from CSWs in China are small. Although Hong Kong's estimated HIV prevalence among adults is low (0.06%), the huge volume of cross-border travel between Hong Kong and China and the common practice of high-risk sex by Hong Kong male travellers provide a bridge for emerging epidemics to spread. PMID:11177466

  2. As compared to isolated males, the growths of castrated males kept in mixed pens were faster. It may therefore be assumed that the domination behaviour of males resulted in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    As compared to isolated males, the growths of castrated males kept in mixed pens were faster and castrated males. Results of an inquiry about the quality of pig feeds in Brittany L. HOUEIX P. LATIMIER* J

  3. "They Didn't Have 'Out There' Gay Parents--They Just Looked Like "Normal" Regular Parents": Investigating Teachers' Approaches to Addressing Same-Sex Parenting and Non-Normative Sexuality in the Elementary School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Cumming-Potvin, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In this article we draw on queer theoretical and critical literacy perspectives to investigate elementary school teachers' pedagogical approaches to addressing same-sex parenting and non-normative sexuality in the elementary classroom. Through undertaking case study research, we examine two Australian elementary school teachers' reflections on…

  4. Males call more from wetter nests: effects of substrate water potential on reproductive behaviours of terrestrial toadlets.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, N J

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory studies of terrestrial-breeding frogs have demonstrated that wetter substrates produce fitter offspring but the relevance of substrate wetness to adult reproductive strategies is unknown. I hypothesized that male toadlets (Pseudophryne bibronii) would select wetter areas for nesting and would advertise wet nests strongly, and tested these predictions by manipulating water potentials at a breeding site. Males preferred to nest in the wettest areas, and called at greater rates on almost twice as many nights as males occupying drier nests. Overall, males that mated called on significantly more nights than unmated males. Hence, because males occupying wet nests called more, they also mated more and in 19 out of 20 cases, oviposition occurred in wet nests that were suitable for embryonic development. Males occupying drier nests may have risked dehydration by calling, and so were less able to signal to females. Hydration states therefore have the potential to influence the reproductive success of terrestrial male frogs. PMID:12123303

  5. Dose-dependent effects of ethanol extract of Salvia haematodes Wall roots on reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansode, F W; Rajendran, S M; Singh, R K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effects of Salvia haematodes Wall roots (SHW) extract on male reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control and treated (5, 50 and 300 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) for 30 days). At the end of treatment regimes, the reproductive activity viz. body/organ weights, testicular spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP) and epididymal sperm counts, and sexual behaviour including mounting latency (ML), mounting frequency (MF), intromission latency (IL), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) and penile reflexes (PE) were assessed. Results showed significant increase in body weight (at 300 mg kg(-1) ), testis/epididymis weights (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) ), testicular spermatids, DSP, tubular diameter and epididymal sperm counts (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) doses) in treated compared with control rats. It also produced dose-dependant changes in sexual behaviour. The 5 mg kg(-1) dose of extract increased MF and PE, whereas 50 and 300 kg(-1) doses caused significant increase in MF, IF, PE, EL (but less than sildenafil citrate treatment), hit rate and seminal plug weight. It is concluded that SHW extract enhances anabolic activity, testicular function and sexual behavioural performance in a dose-dependant manner. PMID:24621398

  6. Expectancy effects in tennis: The impact of opponents' pre-match non-verbal behaviour on male tennis players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Buscombe; Iain Greenlees; Tim Holder; Richard Thelwell; Matt Rimmer

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of a male opponent's pre-match body language and clothing (general vs. sports-specific) on how his performances were judged by an observer. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a male target tennis player warming up and then observed playing footage of the target. Each participant viewed the target player warming up displaying one

  7. Repertoire of male-male agonistic behaviour in tusked weta (Motuweta riparia Gibbs) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) compared to tree weta (Hemideina Walker) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip I. Burge

    2005-01-01

    Agonistic interactions were observed between captive male Raukumara Tusked Weta, Motuweta riparia Gibbs. The repertoire of actions observed was ranked in order of increasing risk of injury and encounters were ranked in four levels of increasing aggression based on these actions. The repertoire of actions and level of aggression displayed was then compared with previously reported agonistic interactions in Hemideina

  8. Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Results Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25–29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7–4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7–3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8) than their counterparts. Conclusions The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours. PMID:25423311

  9. Dynamics of the HIV epidemic in southern China: sexual and drug-using behaviours among female sex workers and male clients in Yunnan

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J J; Smith, M K; Chu, J; Ding, G W; Chang, D F; Sharp, G B; Qian, H Z; Lu, L; Bi, A M; Wang, N

    2015-01-01

    Summary To examine the HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related risk behaviours among community-based female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients in Yunnan Province, China, we performed a cross-sectional study of 705 FSWs and 100 male clients. We found that HIV seroprevalence among FSWs was 13.0% and the most prevalent STI was herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (71.1%), followed by Chlamydia trachomatis (18.1%) and syphilis (8.8%). The 20% of FSWs who reported injection drug use also reported needle-sharing behaviours in the last three months. Drug-using FSWs had substantially higher HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, serviced more clients and had a longer history of sex work than non-using FSWs. In total, 57.0% of male clients did not consistently use condoms with FSWs, 2.0% reported illicit drug use and 17.0% had STI symptoms in the last year. The dual risk behaviours of drug-using FSWs and clients place them at greater risk of HIV infection. Intervention programmes must adopt comprehensive methods. PMID:23033525

  10. Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    -history signature of male mate choice in a system of coexisting bisexual sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) and gynogenetic Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa). Specifically, we gave P. latipinna males an opportunity) females with sperm in their genital tract and (2) pregnant females. A higher proportion of P. latipinna

  11. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  12. Male More than Female Infants Imitate Propulsive Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Tennyson, Robert; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male

  13. The relationship between social status, behaviour, growth and steroids in male helpers and breeders of a cooperatively breeding cichlid

    E-print Network

    2006 Available online 19 April 2006 Abstract We tested whether subordinate helper males of the Lake Tanganyika cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher show elevated excretion levels of the stress

  14. Indirect evidence indicates female semiochemicals release male precopulatory behaviour in the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio (Brachyura: Majidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Bouchard; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Jeremy N. McNeil

    1996-01-01

    Summary Experiments were conducted in aquaria to test the hypothesis that females of the snow crab,Chionoecetes opilio, release a sex pheromone to attract mates. Males exhibited significantly increased activity to water from a source aquarium containing recently-moulted pubescent females, egg-stripped multiparous females and recently-moulted immature females than to water from an aquarium containing berried multiparous females, eggs alone, adolescent males

  15. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Hamer; S. Hu; V. L. Magnuson; N. Hu; A. M. L. Pattatucci

    1993-01-01

    The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage

  16. Between harm and dangers. Oral snuff use, cigarette smoking and problem behaviours in a survey of Swedish male adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. ROSARIA GALANTI; SEPPO WICKHOLM; HANS GILLJAM

    2001-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (moist snuff) in Sweden is among the highest world-wide, and snuff is gaining popularity as a less harmful alternative to cigarettes. Methods: Patterns of current tobacco use and indicators of behavioural problems were analysed in a sample of 6287 boys participating in a census survey among 9th graders in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results:

  17. Twice daily long maternal separations in Wistar rats decreases anxiety-like behaviour in females but does not affect males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin B. Eklund; Lotta Arborelius

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged daily separations of rat pups from their mother have been reported to increase anxiety-like behaviour in adult offspring. However, there are an increasing number of studies not showing this. It has been proposed that the effect of long maternal separation (LMS) is partly due to the disruption of maternal care caused by the separations. The aim of the present

  18. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Hinde, Camilla A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2014-01-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-evolution between traits involved in mating and parental care as a result of costs associated with these social interactions (i.e. sexual conflict). In burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides), we use artificial selection on a paternity assurance trait, and crosses within and between selection lines, to show that selection acting on females, not males, can drive the co-evolution of paternity assurance traits and parental care. Males do not care more in response to selection on mating rate. Instead, patterns of parental care change as an indirect response to costs of mating for females. PMID:24766255

  19. Rethinking sexual initiation: pathways to identity formation among gay and bisexual Mexican male youth.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

  20. HIV risk among MSM in Senegal: a qualitative rapid assessment of the impact of enforcing laws that criminalize same sex practices.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for "acts against nature" prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July-August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

  1. HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

  2. DERMATOGLYPHICS IN MALE CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Jhingan, H.P.; Munjal, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Dermatoglyphic features, qualitative as well as quantitative, of finger and palm prints of 50 male I. C. D.-9 diagnosed catatonic schizophrenics and as many ethnically matched normal controls of the same sex were examined. Patients were found to differ from the control group in qualitative as well as quantitative features quite similar to the findings of the past three investigators. These differences in the dermatoglyphic features of catatonic schizophrenics and normal controls might be a genetic marker for catatonic schizophrenia. A larger sample study is required to put this hypothesis on strong footing. PMID:21927452

  3. Conditioned ultrasonic distress vocalizations in adult male rats as a behavioural paradigm for screening anti-panic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Molewijk; A. M. van der Poel; J. Mos; J. A. M. Heyden; B. Olivier

    1995-01-01

    Rats may produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in threatening situations. USV of adult male rats in association with aversive stimulation was evaluated as a screening method for anxiolytic drugs. The triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam, the 5-HT uptake inhibitors fluvoxamine and clomipramine, the mixed 5-HT\\/NA uptake inhibitor imipramine, the full 5-HT1A receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan, the partial 5-HT1A receptor agonists buspirone, ipsapirone and

  4. Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID:24392104

  5. Heritability of Antisocial Behaviour at 9: Do Callous-Unemotional Traits Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Jones, Alice P.; Paul, J. Frick; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A previous finding from our group indicated that teacher-rated antisocial behaviour (AB) among 7-year-olds is particularly heritable in the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Using a sample of 1865 same-sex twin pairs, we employed DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis to investigate whether teacher-rated AB with/without CU traits also shows…

  6. Effects of sex of judge and sex of victim on recommended punishment of a male murderer in a mock scenario.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Stuart J

    2002-10-01

    Two samples of undergraduates (36 women, 7 men; 44 women, 45 men) read a mock transcript in which a murderer's victim was a man or a woman, after which they made prison sentence and death penalty judgments. Female judges gave longer sentences for the female victim than for the male victim, whereas male judges gave longer sentences for the male victim than for the female victim. This same-sex bias suggests that extralegal factors can affect judgments about sentencing. PMID:12416848

  7. A comparison of pectoral fin contact behaviour for three distinct dolphin populations.

    PubMed

    Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Gregg, Justin D; Paulos, Robin D; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2010-06-01

    Tactile exchanges involving the pectoral fin have been documented in a variety of dolphin species. Several functions (e.g., social, hygienic) have been offered as possible explanations for when and why dolphins exchange pectoral fin contacts. In this study, we compared pectoral fin contact between dolphin dyads from three distinct dolphin populations: two groups of wild dolphins; Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan; and one group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Anthony's Key Resort. A number of similarities were observed between the captive and wild groups, including; rates of pectoral fin contact, which dolphin initiated contact, posture preference, and same-sex rubbing partner preference. Unlike their wild counterparts, however, dolphins in the captive study group engaged in petting and rubbing at equal rates, females were more likely to contact males, males assumed the various rubbing roles more frequently than females, and calves and juveniles were more likely to be involved in pectoral fin contact exchanges. These results suggest that some aspects of pectoral fin contact behaviour might be common to many dolphin species, whereas other aspects could be species specific, or could be the result of differing environmental and social conditions. PMID:20176094

  8. The effects of two situational variables on the self-confidence of males and females in achievement settings 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Susan Marilyn Hartman

    1977-01-01

    - peting with opposite-sex opponents, one group competing with same- sex opponents, and one group not competing. Results indicated. that males and females performed equally well on the actual task and were ewiually affected by both availability... of feedback and type of . eoapetit1on. There was a signii'icant interact1on between availa- bility of feedback and. type of competition on ths self-confid. ence measure, with subjects who received clear feedback showing sore self-confidence in same-sex...

  9. The contribution of hypothalamic neuroendocrine, neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory processes to lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in female and male rats: Involvement of glucocorticoid receptor and C/EBP-?.

    PubMed

    Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Mitic, Milos; Brkic, Zeljka; Lukic, Iva; Radojcic, Marija

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes behavioural changes indicative for depression. The possible mechanisms involve the interference with neuroinflammatory, neuroendocrine, and neurotrophic processes. Apart from heterogeneity in the molecular background, sexual context may be another factor relevant to the manifestation of mood disturbances upon an immune challenge. We investigated sex-dependent effects of a 7-day LPS treatment of adult Wistar rats on depressive-like behaviour and their relation with hypothalamic neuroendocrine factor, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), proplastic brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB). Also, their regulators, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? were followed. LPS induced depressive-like behaviour in females was associated with the increased hypothalamic CRH and decreased BDNF, but not with COX-2. These changes were paralleled by an increase in nuclear GR, NFkB and 20kDa C/EBP?. LPS also altered behaviour in males and increased CRH expression, but in contrast to females, this was accompanied with the elevated COX-2, accumulation of cytosolic GR and elevated nuclear 38kDa C/EBP? and NFkB. In conclusion, depressive-like phenotype induced by LPS in both sexes emerges from similar HPA axis activation and sex-specific alterations of hypothalamic molecular signalling: in males it is related to compromised control of neuroinflamation connected with cytoplasmic GR retention, while in females it is related to diminished proplastic capacity of BDNF. Sex-dependent mechanisms by which inflammation alters hypothalamic processes and cause pathological behaviour in animals, could be operative in the treatment of depression-related brain inflammation. PMID:26024764

  10. Operational sex ratio influences female preference and male–male competition in guppies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mullica Jirotkul

    1999-01-01

    Manipulation of the operational sex ratio (OSR) in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, causes changes in male–male competition and female mate choice. In this study OSR is defined as the number of sexually active males divided by the total number of sexually active adults of both sexes. The rate of male courtship displays decreased, and interference behaviours between males increased, at male-biased

  11. Alternative reproductive tactics in male common shrews: relationships between mate-searching behaviour, sperm production, and reproductive success as revealed by DNA fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stockley; J. B. Searle; D. W. Macdonald; C. S. Jones

    1994-01-01

    The common shrew (Sorex araneus) is a solitary small mammal with a promiscuous mating system. Previous studies of this species suggest that females typically mate multiply, and that males may adopt alternative mate-searching tactics. We studied two generations of common shrews in a population near Oxford, England. Males were found to adopt two different mate-searching tactics. Those classed as type

  12. Male homosexual behavior in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques at minoo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-07-01

    We documented nine male homosexual consortships within three different male-male dyads in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), at Minoo, Japan. A total of 63 male-male mounts were observed during these consortships. Male homosexual interactions shared most of the behavioral components that have been reported to characterize heterosexual and female homosexual consortships in this species. Convergent behavioral data, including analysis of male-male solicitations, mounting postures, body orientations, inter-mount activities, and third-party male intrusions supported the conclusion that male-male consortships are a sexual phenomenon. We discussed a series of proximate and ultimate hypotheses that purport to account for the occurrence of male homosexual behavior in all-male groups of primates, including humans. This first report of male homosexual interactions in an all-male group of Japanese macaques contributes to the growing database used to provide insights into the developmental processes, causal mechanisms, adaptive significance, and phylogenetic pathways of same-sex sexual behavior. PMID:24867180

  13. Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Saino; D. Rubolini; M. Romano; G. Boncoraglio

    2007-01-01

    The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird\\u000a species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure\\u000a to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations\\u000a between digit ratios and diverse

  14. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  15. CCNP Heinz Lehmann Award Paper: Interference with AMPA receptor endocytosis: effects on behavioural and neurochemical correlates of amphetamine sensitization in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Fiona Y.; Ahn, Soyon; Wang, Yu Tian; Phillips, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioural sensitization has been linked to drug craving in both clinical and preclinical studies of addiction. Increased motor activity is accompanied by enhanced dopamine (DA) release, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The neural bases of sensitization are linked to alterations in synaptic connections that also underlie learning and memory. The present study uses an “interference” peptide, Tat-GluA23Y, that blocks long-term depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses by disrupting the endocytosis of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs), to explore the role of this form of synaptic plasticity in the induction and maintenance of sensitization. Methods Rats were given 5 injections of d-amphetamine (d-AMPH, 1.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) every second day. Tat-GluA23Y, was administered by 2 different routes (intravenously and intracerebrally to the ventral tegmental area [VTA] or to the NAcc) before each injection of d-AMPH. After a 14-day drug-free period, expression of behavioural sensitization was evoked by a challenge injection of d-AMPH (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Dopamine efflux in the NAcc was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection analyses of brain dialysates on days 1, 9 and 24 of the intravenous peptide experiment. Results Systemic administration of Tat-GluA23Y during the induction phase blocked maintenance of behavioural sensitization and attenuated the maintenance of neurochemical sensitization. Intra-VTA infusion of Tat-GluA23Y before each administration of d-AMPH did not affect induction, but inhibited maintenance and subsequent expression of sensitization, whereas intra-NAcc infusion of the peptide did not affect induction or maintenance of sensitization. Limitations The relevance of behavioural sensitization in rodents is related to the development of craving and does not provide direct measures of drug reinforcement. Conclusion These findings confirm that drug-induced neuroplasticity is labile and may be subject to disruption at a time when long-lasting associations between drug reward and contextual stimuli are formed. Furthermore, the unique ability of Tat-GluA23Y to block maintenance of behavioural sensitization implicates LTD in the consolidation of essential associative memories. Tat-GluA23Y has the unique ability to disrupt functional neuroadaptations triggered by repeated psychostimulant exposure and therefore may protect against the development of craving and drug seeking behaviours. PMID:24290077

  16. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N?=?1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  17. Short-term social isolation induces depressive-like behaviour and reinstates the retrieval of an aversive task: Mood-congruent memory in male mice?

    PubMed Central

    Takatsu-Coleman, André L.; Patti, Camilla L.; Zanin, Karina A.; Zager, Adriano; Carvalho, Rita C.; Borçoi, Aline R.; Ceccon, Liliane M.B.; Berro, Laís F.; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L.; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background Although mood-congruent memory (MCM), or the tendency to recall information consistent with one’s mood, is a robust phenomenon in human depression, to our knowledge, it has never been demonstrated in animals. Methods Mice were subjected to social isolation (SI) or crowding for 12 hours and had their depressive-like behaviour (evaluated by the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference and splash tests) or their serum corticosterone concentrations evaluated. In addition, we determined the temporal forgetting curve of the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and examined the effects of SI or crowding on memory retrieval in the PM-DAT. Finally, we verified the effects of metyrapone pretreatment on reinstatement of memory retrieval or on the increase of corticosterone levels induced by SI. Results Twelve hours of SI produced depressive-like behaviour, enhanced corticosterone concentration and reinstated retrieval of a forgotten discriminative aversive (i.e., negatively valenced) task. Depressive-like behaviour was critical for this facilitative effect of SI because 12 hours of crowding neither induced depressive-like behaviour nor enhanced retrieval, although it increased corticosterone levels at the same magnitude as SI. However, corticosterone increase was a necessary condition for MCM in mice, in that the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone abolished SI-induced retrieval reinstatement. Limitations Our study did not investigate the effects of the social manipulations proposed here in a positively valenced task. Conclusion To our knowledge, the present paper provides the first evidence of MCM in animal models. PMID:23182303

  18. Cohabitation between male rats after ejaculation: effects on conditioned partner preference.

    PubMed

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge; García, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2014-04-10

    Male rats display a conditioned ejaculatory preference for females that bear olfactory cues associated with ejaculation+the postejaculatory interval (PEI), or with the PEI alone. This indicates that exposure to a partner during the PEI is necessary and sufficient 'for the development of conditioned sexual partner preference. In the present study we examined the effect of cohabitation between two males during the PEI on the possible development of same-sex partner preference. Males first copulated with an ovariectomized, E+P primed female to one ejaculation and were immediately removed from the female's chamber and placed in another chamber with a conspecific male scented with almond odor as a conditioned stimulus (CS+). Cohabitation lasted for 1 h and started immediately after ejaculation in the PEI group and 7h later in the control group. Conditioning occurred daily for a total of ten trials with different females, but cohabitation during the PEI occurred always with the same stimulus male partner. On trial 11, males were tested for social partner preference with two stimulus male partners. One was the familiar scented male and the other an unfamiliar unscented male. Results indicated that males did not develop any social or sexual preference for the male associated with the PEI. In fact, rats from the PEI group interacted significantly less with the scented male as compared to the unscented male, and displayed more agonistic behaviors towards the scented male than towards the unscented male. These data show that conditioned same-sex preference does not develop as a result of cohabitation during the PEI. We discuss the implications for conditioned hostility in intrasexual competition. PMID:24548684

  19. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

  20. Behaviour of dispersing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daphne J. Fairbairn

    1978-01-01

    1.The behaviour of dispersing and resident deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was compared in three laboratory tests to determine if dispersers differed behaviourally from residents.2.The hypothesis that behavioural differences have a genetic basis was examined by correlating genotype at three electrophoretically detectable blood protein loci with scores on the behaviour tests. Among resident males, level of aggression (as measured in neutral

  1. Mating tactics and male-male courtship in the lek-breeding cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Oliveira; V. C. Almada

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the breeding behaviour of Oreochromis mossambicus under captive conditions. Males tended to synchronize their occupation of territories and breeding activities. DiVerent male mating tactics were observed, namely establishing a breeding territory, acting as a floater, or behaving as a sneaker. The majority of spawnings observed involved dominant males and were subjected to interference from other males.

  2. Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species

    E-print Network

    Jones, Adam

    Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse mating behaviour reveals that male pregnancy in seahorses and their relatives has had profound effects to appreciate the evolutionary implications of male pregnancy. The pregnant male and his devoted wife Mating

  3. Sensation seeking and males' sexual strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumière; Vernon L. Quinsey

    1995-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sensation seeking and the self-reports of both sexual interests and behaviours of 162 heterosexual male students and 60 heterosexual males recruited from the community. Because parental investment theory and previous research suggest that males' interest in sexual partner variety is constrained by females' preference for committed sexual relationships, we predicted that participants would desire to

  4. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  5. Impact of Brain Evolution on Hormones and Social Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Keverne

    In mammals, the social behaviour of males and females reflects their different lifetime reproductive strategies. Reproductive\\u000a success in males is determined by the outcome of competition with other males, the dominant males mating with as many females\\u000a as possible. Hence, males rarely form strong social relationships and male coalitions are typically hierarchical, with emphasis\\u000a upon aggressive rather than affiliative behaviour.

  6. Decreased prevalence of left-handedness among females with male co-twins: Evidence suggesting prenatal testosterone transfer in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Peter Eriksson, C. J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies of singletons suggest that right-handed individuals may have higher levels of testosterone than do left-handed individuals. Prenatal testosterone levels are hypothesised to be especially related to handedness formation. In humans, female members from opposite-sex twin pairs may experience elevated level of prenatal exposure to testosterone in their intra-uterine environment shared with a male. We tested for differences in rates of left-handedness/right-handedness in female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs. Our sample consisted of 4736 subjects, about 70% of all Finnish twins born in 1983–1987, with information on measured pregnancy and birth related factors. Circulating testosterone and estradiol levels at age 14 were available on 771 and 744 of these twins, respectively. We found significantly (p<.006) lower prevalence of left-handedness in females from opposite-sex pairs (5.3%) compared to females from same-sex pairs (8.6%). The circulating levels of neither testosterone nor estradiol related to handedness in either females or males. Nor were there differences in circulating testosterone or estradiol levels between females from opposite-sex and same-sex twin pairs. Birth and pregnancy related factors for which we had information were unrelated to handedness. Our results are difficult to fully explain by postnatal factors, but they offer support to theory that relates testosterone to formation of handedness, and in a population-based sample, are suggestive of effects of prenatal testosterone transfer. PMID:20570052

  7. Sexual selection by male-male competition in natterjack toad choruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Arak

    1983-01-01

    A major controversy of sexual selection theory is whether sexually dimorphic characters used in display by males have arisen through male-male competition, female choice, or both1-4. Here I describe the chorusing behaviour of male natterjack toads (Bufo calamita) and show that the pitch of the advertisement call is an important determinant of male mating success. Playback experiments using synthetic calls

  8. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity. PMID:19197645

  9. Same-sex marriage and context-specific kinship terms.

    PubMed

    Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude. PMID:21902493

  10. Same-Sex Relationships and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Jan; Davies, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited existing research looking at homosexuality and people with intellectual disabilities has identified a low level of knowledge, homophobic attitudes and negative experiences for gay men. Mainstream research has identified traditional gender role beliefs to be highly associated with negative attitudes towards homosexuality. This…

  11. SRC fight for Same Sex Marriage Crafty tips

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    : a program of forums, talks and workshops for artists, designers and arts workers. 4x7 page 14 A The Queer to express ourselves as individuals and accepting that identifying as a woman biologically or psychologically to keep us locked in a constant cycle of self referencing which can be limiting, alienating

  12. First Same-Sex Partner and the Internet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Franssens; Harm J. Hospers; Gerjo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the first episode of anal intercourse of young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) who were in the midst\\u000a of their coming-out. Cross-sectional data regarding the first episode of anal intercourse were extracted from Outcomes, a\\u000a longitudinal study on coming-out and sexual behavior of YGBM in the Netherlands. Overall, 45% of respondents reported unprotected\\u000a anal intercourse (UAI)

  13. Social Exclusion: More Important to Human Females Than Males

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Hultgren, Brittney; Nguyen, Tuyet; Bullock, Grace; Wrangham, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical models based on primate evidence suggest that social structure determines the costs and benefits of particular aggressive strategies. In humans, males more than females interact in groups of unrelated same-sex peers, and larger group size predicts success in inter-group contests. In marked contrast, human females form isolated one-on-one relationships with fewer instrumental benefits, so social exclusion constitutes a more useful strategy. If this model is accurate, then human social exclusion should be utilized by females more than males and females should be more sensitive to its occurrence. Here we present four studies supporting this model. In Study 1, using a computerized game with fictitious opponents, we demonstrate that females are more willing than males to socially exclude a temporary ally. In Study 2, females report more actual incidents of social exclusion than males do. In Study 3, females perceive cues revealing social exclusion more rapidly than males do. Finally, in Study 4, females’ heart rate increases more than males’ in response to social exclusion. Together, results indicate that social exclusion is a strategy well-tailored to human females’ social structure. PMID:23405221

  14. Constructing Family Among Same-sex Couples: A Comparative Study of Same-sex Latino and White Couples

    E-print Network

    Loughrin, Sandra Marie

    2011-01-01

    classes; my cute little gay boys that want to be a stylist.14-year-old Boy, Commits Suicide After Gay Bullying, Parent’gays and lesbians, even going so far as to use the term “faggot” as a means to reprimand boys

  15. Condoms - male

    MedlinePLUS

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive-condom; Contraception-condom; Barrier method-condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  16. Male hypogonadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea M. Isidori; Elisa Giannetta; Andrea Lenzi

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads\\u000a throughout all phases of life. Male hypogonadism is defined an inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiency in\\u000a gametogenesis and\\/or secretion of gonadal hormones. In most cases, male hypogonadism is diagnosed through detailed history,\\u000a physical examination and a few basic hormonal evaluations. In selected cases, however,

  17. Ploughing behaviour of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) suggests a scent marking function 

    E-print Network

    Leus, Kristin; Bland, K P; Dhondt, A A; Macdonald, Alastair A

    1996-01-01

    A unique form of behaviour, 'ploughing behaviour', was studied in experiments carried out on 13 babirusa, three adult males, two sub-adult males, five adult females and three sub-adult females. Ploughingbehaviour was ...

  18. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  19. Mouse females devoid of exposure to males during fetal development exhibit increased maternal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Atsushi; Pearson, Brandon L.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Ward, Monika A.

    2011-01-01

    Many sex differences can be found in the expression of aggression and parental nurturing behaviors. It is important to determine if these are modulated by prenatal conditions. Here, using assisted reproduction technologies, we generated females that were (mixed-sex) or were not (same-sex) exposed to males during fetal development, raised them by cross fostering among fosters’ own female only pups to control for effects of postnatal environment, and compared their reproductive abilities and behavior. There were no differences between females from the two prenatal conditions in estrus cycle length and length of time spent at individual estrus cycle stages. Both types of females had similar ovulation efficiency and bred equally well yielding comparable litter size and progeny sex ratio. Females from the two prenatal conditions were also indistinguishable in social behavior and exhibited normal social responses towards unfamiliar females in the three-chamber social approach and social proximity tests. When urine was collected from both types of females and used as a point source in a scent-marking paradigm, exposed males showed a similar distribution and extent of urinary scent marking to urine from each type of female but tended to engage in higher durations of sniffing the urine from same-sex females. When females were tested in a resident-intruder paradigm three days after giving birth, same-sex females exhibited enhancement of pup grooming and an overall decrease of non-pup activity prior to male intruder introduction, and after introduction were more defensive as evidenced by higher rates of burying, open-mouth threat/lunges, and attacks towards the male, and decreased latencies to display these defensive behaviors. Our results suggest that females devoid of male exposure during fetal development have reproductive abilities similar to those of females from mixed-sex pregnancies, and have normal social interactions with other females. However, they exhibit hyper-maternal behavior both in terms of the care and defense of pups in front of a male intruder, and potentially produce a pheromonal milieu that renders them more attractive to males during olfactory investigations. PMID:21803500

  20. Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Saino, N; Rubolini, D; Romano, M; Boncoraglio, G

    2007-03-01

    The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations between digit ratios and diverse phenotypic traits in humans. However, no study has investigated experimentally the effect of prenatal estrogens on digit ratios. We analyzed the effect of estradiol injection in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs on digit ratios. Males from control eggs had higher ratios between the second or third and the fourth digit of the right foot compared to females. Estradiol-treated eggs produced males with lower (feminized) right foot second to fourth digit ratio. Thus, we provided the first experimental evidence that prenatal exposure to physiologically high estrogen levels affects bird digit ratios. PMID:17136513

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male

    E-print Network

    reflectance, showed less aggressive behaviour towards the UV-reduced one. In male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), UV chroma was positively correlated with success in acquiring nestboxes (Siefferman and Hill

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK STEROID TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra) TERHADAP PERILAKU SEKSUAL DAN KADAR TESTOSTERON DARAH MENCIT (Mus musculus) Effect of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) steroid extract on the sexual behaviour and the blood testosterone level of the male mouse (Mus musculus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarifah Nurjanah; E Gumbira-Sa; Khaswar Syamsu

    Sea cucumber contains various useful active compounds. People around beach believe that sea cucumber can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of sandfish steroid extract on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Mature male mice were treated with administration of steroid extract with three

  3. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  4. Path analysis and the relative importance of male–female conflict, female choice and male–male competition in water striders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Sih; Michael Lauer; James J. Krupa

    2002-01-01

    Three major behavioural mechanisms underlying sexual selection in many systems are male–male competition, female choice and male–female conflict. We used path analysis to evaluate the relative importance of these mechanisms in generating sexual selection on a suite of male traits in the stream-dwelling water strider, Aquarius remigis. To gather data for the analysis, we quantified the morphology (total length, limb

  5. Relationships between vocal characteristics and body size and shape in human males: An evolutionary explanation for a deep male voice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Evans; Nick Neave; Delia Wakelin

    2006-01-01

    A deep male voice may play a role in courtship and competitive behaviours in humans by attracting female mates and indicating body size to male competitors. The current correlational study investigated the relationship between vocal measures (fundamental and formant frequencies) and both body size and shape. Vocal samples and physical measures were obtained from 50 heterosexual male volunteers. A significant

  6. The transvestite serpent: why do male garter snakes court (some) other males?

    PubMed

    Shine; Harlow; LeMaster; Moore; Mason

    2000-02-01

    In large mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, in Manitoba, male courtship is directed not only to females, but also to other males with female-like skin lipids ('she-males'). We show that 'she-maleness' is an intrinsic property of a male rather than an artefact of lipid transfer from females, and that male-male courtship is very common in the field. She-males were distinctive in terms of appearance (they were heavier than other males and more often covered with mud), behaviour (they were inactive and rarely courted females) and performance (they were slow crawlers, ineffective courters and easily outcompeted by other males in mating trials). 'She-maleness' was not a characteristic of a particular subset of males, as envisaged in previous work; instead, it was a transitory phase that most (perhaps all) male snakes passed through soon after they first emerged from the winter den. Recently emerged males spent their first day or two relatively inactive, while restoring physiological functions (including locomotor performance and courtship ability). Experimental application of female skin lipids on to males dramatically decreased courtship levels of the recipient snakes. Thus, recently emerged males may derive two kinds of benefit from mimicking female skin lipids. First, female mimicry 'switches off' the male's own (energetically expensive) courtship at a time when that courtship would be unproductive. Second, it may disadvantage his rivals by distracting them from females, and increasing their energy expenditure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675257

  7. Activity Predicts Male Reproductive Success in a Polygynous Lizard

    PubMed Central

    Keogh, J. Scott; Noble, Daniel W. A.; Wilson, Eleanor E.; Whiting, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Activity patterns and social interactions play a key role in determining reproductive success, although this is poorly understood for species that lack overt social behaviour. We used genetic paternity analysis to quantify both multiple paternity and the relative roles of activity and social behaviour in determining reproductive success in a nondescript Australian lizard. During the breeding season we intensively followed and recorded the behaviour of a group of seven males and 13 females in a naturalistic outdoor enclosure to examine the relative roles of body size, activity and social interactions in determining male fertilization success. We found multiple paternity in 42% of clutches. No single behaviour was a significant predictor of male fertilization success in isolation, but male-female association, interactions and courtship explained 41% of the variation in male fertilization success. Males with the highest number of offspring sired invested heavily in interacting with females but spent very little time in interactions with males. These same males also sired offspring from more clutches. When taken collectively, an index of overall male activity, including locomotion and all social interactions, significantly explained 81% of the variation in the total number of offspring sired and 90% of the variation in the number of clutches in which males sired offspring. We suggest that the most successful male strategy is a form of endurance rivalry in which active mate searching and interactions with females have the greatest fitness benefits. PMID:22808016

  8. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  9. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  10. Mating behaviour in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yano; R. A. Kanna; R. N. Oyama; J. A. Wyban

    1988-01-01

    Mating behaviour of Penaeus vannamei was observed during January, 1986. Mating behaviour was divided into four phases: (1) approach, (2) crawling, (3) chasing, and (4) mating. Male mating and spermatophore transfer to the mature female take place at intermolt stage C4. The glutinous spermatophore emitted from the male can be transferred onto the female open thelycum during the ventralto-ventral position

  11. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  12. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  13. Is reduced female survival after mating a by-product of male-male competition in the dung fly Sepsis cynipsea?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Teuschl; DJ Hosken; WU Blanckenhorn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a number of species males damage females during copulation, but the reasons for this remain unclear. It may be that males are trying to manipulate female mating behaviour or their life histories. Alternatively, damage may be a side-effect of male-male competition. In the black scavenger or dung fly Sepsis cynipsea (Diptera: Sepsidae) mating reduces female survival, apparently because

  14. Being male or living with a female: fear for partners by sex and sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Drakulich, Kevin M; Rose, Kristin

    2013-06-01

    While substantial research attention has been paid to the disproportionately high levels of fear of crime among women relative to men, less attention has been paid to the apparent mirror of this: that men have disproportionately more concern for female partners than women do for male partners. The work that does exist on fear for partners has focused exclusively on different-sex partnerships. The present article proposes and explores several explanations for sex differences in fear for partners among different-sex as well as same-sex partnerships. The analysis uses a sample of persons who live with a partner (155 in same-sex and 2,817 in different-sex partnerships) from a Seattle survey that includes measures of altruistic fear, as well as measures of personal, familial, sexual assault, and sexual identity bias victimizations. Results suggest that female partners inspire more fear regardless of the sex of the respondents, that sex differences persist even after perceptions of danger are accounted for, and that personal fears and fears for children are positively associated with fears for partners and do not explain sex differences in such fears. These results are more consistent with explanations rooted in gendered perceptions of vulnerability and the shadow of sexual assault than explanations rooted in the differential gender socialization of men as protectors or of a limited capacity for fear. PMID:23277470

  15. Marriage and the Civilizing of Male Sexual Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosik, Christopher H.; Byrd, A. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. M. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States." There are many arguable contentions Herek made in his defense of same-sex marriage. We have chosen to focus on only one in this commentary: What is the active ingredient in marriage that serves the socially advantageous goal of civilizing…

  16. Monoamine Oxidase Activity and TriIodothyronine Level in Violent Offenders with Early Behavioural Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny Eklund; Per Olof Alm; Britt af Klinteberg

    2005-01-01

    The focus is on evaluating the relationships between early behavioural problems and biochemical variables at adult age and their significance for early criminality and violent behaviour in a life perspective. In the present study, using prospective longitudinal data, a sample of males with a history of early criminal behaviour and male controls (n = 103) were investigated concerning (1) teacher-rated

  17. Female fitness declines with increasing female density but not male harassment in the western mosquitofish,

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Robert Craig

    mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis CHAD C. SMITH & R. CRAIG SARGENT T. H. Morgan School of Biological Sciences on male behaviour, female fitness and male body condition in the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis

  18. The male fight-flight response: a result of SRY regulation of catecholamines?

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohyung; Harley, Vincent R

    2012-06-01

    The SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome and directs male development, may promote aggression and other traditionally male behavioural traits, resulting in the fight-or-flight reaction to stress. PMID:22408002

  19. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps. 

    E-print Network

    Cook, James M; Compton, Steven G; Herre, E Allen; West, Stuart A

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent oppotunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models....

  20. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Goncalves; Ricardo Matos; Teresa Fagundes; Rui Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize fertilizations. These two alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers develop into bourgeois males. We investigated

  1. Reproductive Success Associated with Territoriality, Sneaking, and Grouping in Male Rose Bitterlings, Rhodeus ocellatus (Pisces: Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiko Kanoh

    2000-01-01

    The spawning success of male rose bitterlings, Rhodeus ocellatus, adopting an alternative reproductive style, was estimated through behavioural data and electrophoretic paternal analyses in field observations and experiments. Three mating patterns were observed: territoriality, sneaking, and grouping. Mating patterns depended on a male's relative size and on local male density (the number of males around a spawning spot: a mussel).

  2. “What do You Mean I’ve Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!” Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape

    PubMed Central

    Toefy, Yoesrie; Skinner, Donald; Thomsen, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually. Results The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling. Conclusions There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested. PMID:26176946

  3. Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2013-01-01

    When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

  4. INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-

    E-print Network

    (Linnaeus). The two-spot ladybird is a naturally pro- miscuous beetle, with both males and females mating consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata; Haddrill et al., 2008). Two-spot ladybird populations are known to Eur. J. Entomol. 110(1): 87­93, 2013

  5. Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kevin P.

    Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks Kevin P. Johnson1 {, Frank Mc changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere

  6. Social correlates of testosterone and ornamentation in male mandrills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna M. Setchell; Tessa Smith; E. Jean Wickings; Leslie A. Knapp

    2008-01-01

    We investigated relationships between fecal androgen concentrations, facial coloration and behaviour in semi-free-ranging male mandrills. We found that fecal androgen levels were significantly positively related to dominance rank, independent of rank stability and the mating period, suggesting that male mandrills live in a permanently aggressive context in which they must actively maintain their dominance status. Facial red coloration was also

  7. Degree of male ornamentation affects female preference for conspecific versus heterospecific males.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sarah A; Luddem, S T

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown female preference for conspecific males with the attached artificial ornaments of more elaborate heterospecifics. However, preference for heterospecifics under natural conditions is relatively rare. We tested what factors affect behavioural mechanisms of species isolation using three species of estrildid finch (genus Uraeginthus) that occur in both sympatry and allopatry. These finches differ in degree of sexual dimorphism; male ornamentation; behavioural and morphological similarity; and phylogenetic distance. Paired mate-choice trials were used in which females were presented with a conspecific and heterospecific male to test which of the above between-species differences best predicted the degree of premating isolation. The three species differed in the degree of species-specific mate preference shown. Females from the brighter two species discriminated against dull males, independently of sympatry-allopatry, similarity and phylogenetic distance. Females from the dull species reacted to conspecific males and brighter heterospecific males equally strongly, independently of similarity and phylogenetic distance. In contrast to previous studies, an equal preference for heterospecific and conspecific males was found under natural conditions. It is suggested that differences between closely related species in male ornamentation affect the likelihood that premating isolation will occur due to the fact that sexual selection tends to drive preferences for exaggerated ornamentation. PMID:11798425

  8. Foraging Behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Fellowes; Jacques Alphen; Mark Jervis

    In this chapter, we consider practical aspects of the foraging behaviour of insect natural enemies in its widest sense. Initially,\\u000a most insect natural enemies must locate the habitat where potential victims may be found. Within that habitat, the victims\\u000a themselves must be discovered. Once a patch of potential targets is identified, the predator or parasitoid must choose its\\u000a victim. Furthermore,

  9. Eur J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Occupational and behavioural factors in the explanation of social

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contract, psychological demands, and social support, and behavioural factors, smoking, alcohol abuse Disparities ; Humans ; Life Style ; Longevity ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Occupational Exposure

  10. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  11. Males in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomer, Jerry E.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the male sex role upon male behavior in psychotherapy, showing research results for both therapist and client behavior. The research suggested that male clients tended not to disclose as freely, and that male therapists were perceived as less expressive than females. (LPG)

  12. Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K. P.; McKinney, F.; Sorenson, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic constraint and inertia, i.e. limitations on future evolutionary trajectories imposed by previous adaptation, are often invoked to explain behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that defy explanation in an adaptive context. We reconstructed historical changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using a phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Male parental care is observed in many tropical and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere species that are very recently derived from Northern hemisphere ancestors, however, are exceptions to this general pattern. Lack of male parental care in these species can be attributed to phylogenetic constraint.

  13. Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sánchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

    2010-01-01

    Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality. PMID:18410986

  14. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    PubMed

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. PMID:24932897

  15. Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

  16. Aggressive Transition between Alternative Male Social Tactics in a Long-Lived Australian Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) Living at High Density

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Troy A.; Baird, Teresa D.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N?=?14) defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually) by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high energetic costs of defense may select for males to cycle between territorial and non-territorial social tactics depending upon their changing energetic status and their current capacity for competition with rivals. PMID:22905109

  17. Aggressive transition between alternative male social tactics in a long-lived Australian dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) living at high density.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Baird, Teresa D; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N = 14) defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually) by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high energetic costs of defense may select for males to cycle between territorial and non-territorial social tactics depending upon their changing energetic status and their current capacity for competition with rivals. PMID:22905109

  18. Reproductive behaviour of captive Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    PubMed

    Zainal Zahari, Z; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Yap, K C; Jainudeen, M R

    2005-02-01

    The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is on the verge of extinction in Malaysia. At the Sumatran rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Sungai Dusun, the reproductive behaviour of two female and two male rhinoceroses were studied for 8-10 months during attempts to breed them in captivity. Due to the paucity of scientific information on the reproductive biology of the Sumatran rhinoceros, this study was conducted to obtain information on the reproductive behaviour of this species. The male rhino was introduced to a female rhino in the morning for 1-2 h daily in order to observe for behavioural oestrus. Observations were made on the signs of oestrus and mating behaviour. Oestrus was determined by receptivity towards the male and lasted about 24 h. Common signs of oestrus were an increase in frequency of urine spraying, tail raising or swinging, anogenital and other contacts. Although the males exhibited mounting, the inability of the male to achieve intromission was poor. The study demonstrated that the pattern of courtship and copulation of the captive Sumatran rhinos were comparable with those of other rhino species, reported previously by other scientists and flehmen reflex was also exhibited by the male Sumatran rhinos. In a captive breeding programme, it is recommended that only an oestral female is introduced into a male enclosure due to the male solitary behaviour and to avoid serious injuries inflicted onto the females. PMID:15581515

  19. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G

    2013-11-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal's territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  20. Associations between personality, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the associations between personality traits, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of 196 male and female undergraduate ...

  1. Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants.

    PubMed

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Hollister-Smith, Julie A; Poole, Joyce H; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J; Maldonado, Jésus E; Fleischer, Robert C; Alberts, Susan C

    2007-10-01

    The costs of inbreeding depression, as well as the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance, determine whether and which mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance evolve. In African elephants, sex-biased dispersal does not lead to the complete separation of male and female relatives, and so individuals may experience selection to recognize kin and avoid inbreeding. However, because estrous females are rare and male-male competition for mates is intense, the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance may be high, particularly for males. Here we combine 28 years of behavioural and demographic data on wild elephants with genotypes from 545 adult females, adult males, and calves in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, to test the hypothesis that elephants engage in sexual behaviour and reproduction with relatives less often than expected by chance. We found support for this hypothesis: males engaged in proportionally fewer sexual behaviours and sired proportionally fewer offspring with females that were natal family members or close genetic relatives (both maternal and paternal) than they did with nonkin. We discuss the relevance of these results for understanding the evolution of inbreeding avoidance and for elephant conservation. PMID:17784925

  2. Genetic Evidence for Male and Female Dispersal in Wild Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Parga, Joyce A; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho; Gould, Lisa; Sussman, Robert W; Lawler, Richard R; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Lemur catta has traditionally been considered a species with male-biased dispersal; however, occasional female dispersal occurs. Using molecular data, we evaluated dispersal patterns in 2 L. catta populations in southwestern Madagascar: Tsimanampesotse National Park (TNP) and Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR). We also investigated the genetic differentiation between the populations and dispersal partner relatedness. Results showed minor genetic differentiation between the populations (?ST = 0.039), which may indicate gene flow historically occurring in this region, made possible by the presence of L. catta groups between the sites. Different patterns of sex-biased dispersal were found between the sites using corrected assignment indices: male-biased dispersal in TNP, and a lack of sex-biased dispersal in BMSR. Observational evidence of female dispersal in BMSR supports these results and may imply intense female resource competition in and around BMSR, because small groups of 2-3 females have been observed dispersing within BMSR and entering the reserve from outside. These dispersing groups largely consisted of mothers transferring with daughters, although we have an aunt-niece pair transferring together. Genetic data suggest that males also transfer with relatives. Our data demonstrate that dispersal partners consist of same-sexed kin for L. catta males and females, highlighting the importance of kin selection. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022302

  3. Moult speed predicts pairing success in male harlequin ducks.

    PubMed

    Robertson; Cooke; Goudie; Boyd

    1998-06-01

    The bright plumage of male ducks in sexually dichromatic species is thought to have evolved through intense sexual selection. This study examined the relationship between the timing and speed of moult into this bright plumage and subsequent mating success of male harlequin ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus. Males that moulted relatively slowly had a lower chance of establishing a pair bond than others. The timing of moult was unrelated to whether a male obtained a mate. Moult speed and timing were not correlated within individual males, but were significantly repeatable in individual males over 2 years. Moult speed probably reflects the condition of males, whereas timing of moult is more likely to be related to the distance to an individual's breeding area, which determines the timing of arrival to the moulting grounds. In waterfowl species that have been studied, males usually form dominance hierarchies before pairing and females tend to choose dominant males. We suggest that male harlequin ducks that moult slowly are poor-quality individuals, which are relegated to subordinate status and are unlikely to attract a mate the following autumn. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9642011

  4. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  5. Female social networks influence male vocal development in brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Miller; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

    2008-01-01

    Previous work has found that adult female brown-headed cowbirds, who do not sing, shape male vocal structure when in restricted housing. The present work extends this finding to a flock setting to examine the role of social behaviour in shaping male vocal development. We housed juvenile males with either adult or juvenile females in large flocks. Over the course of

  6. Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Hollister-Smith; Joyce H. Poole; Elizabeth A. Archie; Eric A. Vance; Nicholas J. Georgiadis; Cynthia J. Moss; Susan C. Alberts

    2007-01-01

    Male African elephants experience intense intrasexual selection in gaining access to oestrous females, who represent a very scarce and highly mobile resource. An unusual combination of behavioural and physio- logical traits in males probably reflects this intense selection pressure. Males show prolonged growth, grow- ing throughout much or perhaps all of their long life span (ca. 60e65 years), and they

  7. Identifying predictors of persistent non-alcohol or drug-related risky driving behaviours among a cohort of young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy J. Begg; John D. Langley

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to identify adolescent risk factors that predicted persistent risky driving behaviours among young adults. It was part of a longitudinal study of a birth cohort (474 males and 459 females). The potential predictors were self-reported data obtained at ages 15, 18, 21 years (academic qualifications, personality, mental health, anti-social behaviour and driving behaviour). The risky driving behaviour

  8. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph

  9. Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

    2001-01-01

    We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

  10. Behavioural dynamics of biparental care in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Hunt; Leigh W. Simmons

    2002-01-01

    In the dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus taurus major males provide assistance during offspring provisioning. We examined the behavioural dynamics of biparental care to quantify directly how males and females allocate time to parental and nonparental behaviours and to determine whether parents adjust their level of investment relative to their partner's contribution. Females allocated more of their time budget to parental

  11. Morphological and Behavioural Sex Reversal in Mermithid-Infected Mayflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Vance

    1996-01-01

    This study reports the impact of infection by the mermithid nematode Gasteromermis sp. on the secondary sexual morphology and behaviour of its adult mayfly host Baetis bicaudatus. By applying the technique of flow cytometry I show that both male and female mayflies are infected by the parasite. The external secondary sexual characters of infected male hosts are feminized resulting in

  12. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  13. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level. PMID:18330537

  14. Social housing and alcohol drinking in male-female pairs of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Caroline M.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Social environment influences alcohol consumption in humans, however, animal models have only begun to address biological underpinnings of these effects. Objectives We investigated whether social influences on alcohol drinking in the prairie vole are specific to the sex of the social partner. Methods In Experiment 1, control, sham, and gonadectomized voles were placed either in mesh-divided housing with a same-sex sibling or isolation with access to ethanol. In Experiment 2 animals were given an elevated plus maze test (EPM) and then females were paired with a castrated male followed by isolation or mesh-divided housing with access to ethanol. In Experiment 3, subjects categorized as low or high drinkers based on initial ethanol intake were placed in mesh-divided housing with an opposite-sex partner of the same or opposite drinking group and ethanol access. Subjects were then moved back to isolation for a final ethanol access period. Results Same-sex pairs showed social facilitation of drinking similar to previous reports. Gonadectomy did not affect alcohol drinking. Opposite-sex paired animals in Experiment 2 did not differ in alcohol drinking based on social housing. EPM measures suggested a relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and drinking that depended on social environment. Experiment 3 identified moderate changes in alcohol preference based on social housing, but these effects were influenced by the animal’s own drinking behavior and were independent of their partner’s drinking. Conclusions Social influences on alcohol self-administration in prairie voles differ based on the sex of a social partner, consistent with human drinking behavior. PMID:22903359

  15. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamer, D.H.; Hu, S.; Magnuson, V.L.; Hu, N.; Pattatucci, A.M.L.

    1993-07-16

    The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage analysis of a selected group of 40 families in which there were two gay brothers and no indication of nonmaternal transmission revealed a correlation between homosexual orientation and the inheritance of polymorphic markers on the X chromosome in approximately 64 percent of the sib-pairs tested. The linkage to markers on Xq28, the subtelomeric region of the long arm of the sex chromosome, had a multipoint lod score of 4.0(P = 10[sup [minus]5]), indicating a statistical confidence level of more than 99 percent that at least one subtype of male sexual orientation is genetically influenced.

  16. Substance use and HIV risks among male heterosexual and 'money boy' migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    He, N; Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; Thompson, E E; Fu, C

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing awareness that internal migration in China might shift the HIV epidemic by broadening the social and sexual mixing of its population. However, little is known about how drug use/abuse might contribute to the spread of HIV. This qualitative study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of male migrants living in the Shanghai metropolitan area; the general migrant population and so-called 'money boys' (those who engaged in same-sex activities for money). Compared to most male migrants, the 'money boys' had a slightly better economic situation; rarely visited their hometowns; used alcohol less but drugs more; had more knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases; higher HIV/ STD testing rates and fewer HIV risk behaviors. The general male migrants had more misconceptions about HIV (e.g. the need to pay for HIV testing) than the 'money boys'. However, it was noted that 'money boys' who were new to the enterprise and men who have sex with men but did not engage in commercial sex often lacked HIV knowledge and protective skills. Given the needs of various sub-types of 'migrants', differential approaches to HIV prevention are needed. PMID:17129865

  17. Context consistency and seasonal variation in boldness of male two-spotted gobies.

    PubMed

    Magnhagen, Carin; Wacker, Sebastian; Forsgren, Elisabet; Myhre, Lise Cats; Espy, Elizabeth; Amundsen, Trond

    2014-01-01

    In order to attribute the behaviour of an animal to its personality it is important to study whether certain behavioural traits show up consistently across a variety of contexts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether breeding state males of the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, showed consistent degree of boldness when tested in four different behaviour assays. We also wanted to investigate whether boldness varied over the breeding season in accordance with changes in male-male competition for matings. We used two standard assays (the emergence test and the open field test), and two simple assays related to threat response. Repeated runs of each of the tests were highly correlated, and we found significant correlations between all four assays. Thus, we have documented both a within and a between-context consistency in risk-taking behaviour. Furthermore, we found that goby males studied during the middle of the breeding season were bolder than males studied at the end of the season. Since male two-spotted gobies face strongly decreasing male-male competition as the season progresses, the benefit of being bold for the mating success of the males may differ over the time of the breeding season. The difference in behaviour found over the season thus corresponds well with the sexual dynamics of this model species. PMID:24671255

  18. Population density influences male–male competition in guppies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mullica Jirotkul

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male–male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male–male competition and mate

  19. A mechanism for rapid neurosteroidal regulation of parenting behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    While systemic steroid hormones are known to regulate reproductive behaviour, the actual mechanisms of steroidal regulation remain largely unknown. Steroidogenic enzyme activity can rapidly modulate social behaviour by influencing neurosteroid production. In fish, the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) synthesizes 11-ketotestosterone (KT, a potent teleost androgen) and deactivates cortisol (the primary teleost glucocorticoid), and both of these steroid hormones can regulate behaviour. Here, we investigated the role of neurosteroidogenesis in regulating parenting in a haremic bidirectionally hermaphroditic fish, Lythrypnus dalli, where males provide all requisite parental care. Using an in vitro assay, we found that an 11?-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX), reduced brain and testicular KT synthesis by 90% or more. We modulated neurosteroid levels in parenting males via intracerebroventricular injection of CBX. Within only 20 min, CBX transiently eliminated parenting behaviour, but not other social behaviour, suggesting an enzymatic mechanism for rapid neurosteroidal regulation of parenting. Consistent with our proposed mechanism, elevating KT levels rescued parenting when paired with CBX, while cortisol alone did not affect parenting. Females paired with the experimental males opportunistically consumed unattended eggs, which reduced male reproductive success by 15%, but some females also exhibited parenting behaviour and these females had elevated brain KT. Brain KT levels appear to regulate the expression of parenting behaviour as a result of changes in neural 11?-HSD activity. PMID:24827441

  20. Comparing performance among male and female candidates in sex-specific clinical knowledge in the MRCGP

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Irish, Bill; Asghar, Zahid B; Dixon, Hilton; Milne, Paul; Neden, Catherine; Richardson, Jo; Blow, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients often seek doctors of the same sex, particularly for sex-specific complaints and also because of a perception that doctors have greater knowledge of complaints relating to their own sex. Few studies have investigated differences in knowledge by sex of candidate on sex-specific questions in medical examinations. Aim The aim was to compare the performance of males and females in sex-specific questions in a 200-item computer-based applied knowledge test for licensing UK GPs. Design and setting A cross-sectional design using routinely collected performance and demographic data from the first three versions of the Applied Knowledge Test, MRCGP, UK. Method Questions were classified as female specific, male specific, or sex neutral. The performance of males and females was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance after adjusting for sex-neutral score and demographic confounders. Results Data were included from 3627 candidates. After adjusting for sex-neutral score, age, time since qualification, year of speciality training, ethnicity, and country of primary medical qualification, there were differences in performance in sex-specific questions. Males performed worse than females on female-specific questions (–4.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = –5.7 to –2.6) but did not perform significantly better than females on male-specific questions (0.3%, 95% CI = –2.6 to 3.2%. Conclusion There was evidence of better performance by females in female-specific questions but this was small relative to the size of the test. Differential performance of males and females in sex-specific questions in a licensing examination may have implications for vocational and post-qualification general practice training. PMID:22687238

  1. Paternal care enhances male reproductive success in pine engraver beetles.

    PubMed

    Robertson

    1998-09-01

    Male pine engravers, Ips pini, assist their mates during reproduction by clearing debris from breeding galleries constructed beneath the bark of host trees. I measured duration of parental care provided by individual male pine engravers in the field, as well as the reproductive success of these males as indicated by the total number of eggs laid in their galleries and the mean distance between the eggs. Males remained in their galleries for 13-54 days (N=78, X+/-SE=33.0+/-0.9 days). Male residence time was positively correlated with the mean distance between eggs in a gallery, as well as the total number of eggs laid in a gallery when the effect of male length was controlled statistically. Male-removal experiments corroborated these effects of male care on reproductive success, and showed that female mortality was higher in galleries from which the male had been removed than in controls. Duration of male care was inversely related to breeding density and male length. Despite remaining for less time in their galleries, larger males acquired the biggest harems. There was a positive correlation between the length of a male and the number of eggs laid per female, but this was not due to size-assortative mating. Because large male size is associated with a number of traits that are advantageous for securing mating opportunities, earlier departure from the gallery by larger males may be a consequence of those males having greater opportunities for future reproduction. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784207

  2. Autonomic Responses of Male Adolescents Exhibiting Refractory Behaviour in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John G. V.; Maliphant, Rodney

    1971-01-01

    Adolescent boys, judged by the majority of their teachers to be refractory (unmanagable in behavior), were found to have significantly lower base heart-rates than their matched controls in three experimental situations. (Author/WY)

  3. Risk behaviours among male clients of female prostitutes.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M A; McKeganey, N P; Leyland, A H

    1993-08-01

    143 clients of prostitutes were recruited and asked to complete a short questionnaire. 68 were recruited in 2 genitourinary clinics in Glasgow, 66 were interviewed by telephone after answering an advertisement and 9 were contacted in Glasgow's red light area. The last 2 methods yielded a non clinic group. The men reported having paid for sexual services a median of 7 times (range 1-2000) since 1980. Higher numbers of contacts were reported by the non-clinic group: 28 (37%) if these men reported having had 21-50 contacts, significantly more than the clinic group, 28 (41%) of whom reported having had 1-10 contacts. The medial time of the men's last contact with a prostitute was 60 days. 103 men reported having paid for vaginal intercourse during this contact; 89 paid for masturbation or other non-penetrative sex; 87 paid for oral sex; and 11 paid for anal intercourse. Clearly, some men, engaged in more than one sexual activity. 17 men did not use condoms during the last paid vaginal intercourse nor did 31 men when they last had oral sex, but all anal intercourse was reportedly protected. 14% (19/133) of those who had used a condom reported condom failure during the last purchased sexual service. 32% (10/31) of men who contacted prostitutes working on the streets had not used a condom during their last contact. 121 men reported having private, noncommercial sexual contacts; 79 reported having one sexual partner, and 42 reported having 2 or more concurrent sexual partners (range 2-20), 2 of whom reported sexual contacts with other men. 117 men reported having had vaginal intercourse while 85 had had oral sex, 82 had had other non-penetrative sex, and 16 had had anal intercourse. A minority of these men reported always using condoms with their partners: 24% (27/114) of those having vaginal intercourse, 5% (4/80) of those having oral sex, and 33% (5/15) of those having anal intercourse. PMID:8374419

  4. Alternative reproductive tactics in the territorial damselfly Calopteryx maculata : sneaking by older males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Forsyth; Robert D. Montgomerie

    1987-01-01

    Summary  We conducted daily censuses on a marked population of the damselflyCalopteryx maculata for two complete breeding seasons to document the reproductive tactics of individual males. Overall, 78% of the 600 males\\u000a studied defended territories and 14% of those territorial males were also observed engaged in sneaking behaviour on some days.\\u000a When sneaking, males did not defend territories but attempted to

  5. Behavioural Repertoire of Working Donkeys and Consistency of Behaviour over Time, as a Preliminary Step towards Identifying Pain-Related Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Fran H.; Hockenhull, Jo; Pritchard, Joy C.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Whay, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males). Instantaneous (scan) and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001). Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001). Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001). However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001). Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001) and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies. Conclusions/Significance All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys. PMID:25076209

  6. Sexual selection for small size in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

    PubMed Central

    Pilastro, A.; Giacomello, E.; Bisazza, A.

    1997-01-01

    In many poeciliid fishes, large males which court females coexist with small males which sneak-copulate. It is unclear whether these two tactics represent two evolutionarily stable strategies or if sneaking is a conditional strategy adopted by small, unattractive males. We studied the success of sneaky copulation by looking for sperm in the gonoduct of females after they were kept for 48 h with a male. A logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of a female being inseminated increased with female length and decreased with male length. The length of the male relative to that of the female was the best predictor of success. This result was confirmed using virgin females, thereby excluding any possible confounding effect due to the release of sperm from previous copulations. Sperm counts suggested that large males do not compensate for their reduced copulatory success by releasing larger sperm numbers. Behavioural data indicate that the advantages to small males are twofold: they have a greater chance to approach females from behind without being detected, and manoeuvre better when inserting the gonopodium into the female's gonoduct. The selective advantage of small size might explain male dwarfism in poeciliids. Our results also suggest that small males adopting the sneaky tactic may be as successful as large males adopting courtship, and that alternative mating strategies may be maintained by negative density-dependent selection.

  7. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23853554

  8. Male dispersal patterns in white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHARINE M. JACK; Linda Fedigan

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two papers examining male dispersal patterns in white-faced capuchins. Our study was based on behavioural and demographic data collected on multiple groups of white-faced capuchins in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica since 1985. Here we examine the patterns and proximate causation of male natal dispersal. Natal dispersal in white-faced capuchins occurred at a median

  9. High Proportion of Male Faeces in Jaguar Populations

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n?=?493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n?=?68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species. PMID:23285226

  10. Clinical Models for the Treatment of Gay Male Perpetrators of Domestic Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Byrne

    1996-01-01

    Violence and abuse within same sex relationships have not received the attention they merit as significat psychosocial health issues. The lesbian and gay community has reached a developmental milestone which allows critical examination of same sex relationships and the identification of problems which include physical, emotional, and psychological violence. A literature review reveals a dearth of articles on violence within

  11. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  12. Bromocriptine for Subfertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Bromocriptine (Parlodel) was prescribed for the treatment of 15 oligospermic and five azoospermic males. Six of the oligospermic males had improvement of their sperm density and four achieved a successful pregnancy. No improvement was observed in the azoospermic patients. PMID:7392074

  13. Male butterflies bounce back

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2007-07-12

    About five years ago, on the islands of Samoa, most of the male Hypolimnas bolina butterflies, also known as the Eggfly or Blue Moon butterfly, disappeared. Now, scientists report that the males have made a comeback and are almost as common as females.

  14. Mother?offspring interactions in feral goats—a behavioural perspective of maternal investment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Alley; R. A. Fordham; E. O. Minot

    1995-01-01

    In a herd of captive feral goats, suckling behaviour, mother?offspring distance, kid activity, and kid growth were measured during the first 3 months of life to investigate whether male kids gained greater maternal investment than female kids. Male kids were born heavier and grew faster than female kids. Single male kids suckled more frequently than their female counterparts. Other measurements

  15. Breeding cycle and mating behaviour of the tropical ocypodid Ilyoplax gangetica (Kemp 1919) (Crustacea Brachyura)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kosuge; M. Murai; S. Poovachiranon

    1994-01-01

    The population structure, female breeding cycle, male courting activity and the mating behaviour of the tropical ocypodid crab, Ilyoplax gangetica (Kemp 1919) were studied on the mud flat of Phuket Island, southern Thailand. The smallest sized female carrying eggs and male performing the waving display were 3.70 and 3.55 mm in carapace width, respectively. Both the male courting activity and

  16. Frequency matching, overlapping and movement behaviour in diurnal countersinging interactions of black-capped chickadees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Jennifer R. Foote; Laurene M. Ratcliffe; Daniel J. Mennill

    2008-01-01

    Animal signalling contests are used by males to advertise to choosy females and to repel male competitors. During countersinging interactions in songbirds, males vary the type and timing of songs with respect to their opponent's behaviour. In black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, frequency matching and song overlapping appear to be important in territory defence and mate attraction. We studied frequency matching

  17. The Genetic Relatedness in Groups of Joint-Nesting Taiwan Yuhinas: Low Genetic Relatedness with Preferences for Male Kin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas. PMID:26086267

  18. Central vasopressin and oxytocin release: regulation of complex social behaviours.

    PubMed

    Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2008-01-01

    The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are acknowledged as important modulators of diverse social behaviours. Here we discuss recent studies using intracerebral microdialysis to investigate the dynamics of AVP and OXT release patterns within distinct brain regions during the display of social behaviours in rats. Manipulation of local receptor-mediated actions of AVP and OXT via retrodialysis of either agonists or antagonists revealed the behavioural significance of changes in local neuropeptide release. Alterations in local AVP and OXT within, e.g. the medio-lateral septum, the central amygdala or the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were associated with intermale and maternal aggression, respectively. Moreover, increased OXT release within the PVN was associated with male sexual behaviour and successful mating. Using retrodialysis, we found that AVP released within the lateral septum during the resident-intruder test was associated with anxiety-related behaviour and with non-aggressive social behaviour rather than intermale aggressive behaviour. In contrast, OXT release within the PVN and the central amygdala correlated positively with the level of maternal aggression. Interestingly, OXT released within the PVN during sexual activity in male rats was found to be associated with a robust decrease in anxiety-related behaviour up to 4h after mating. These data illustrate distinct modes of behavioural actions of AVP and OXT, reaching from acute regulation of the respective social behaviour to the long-term modulation of related behaviours including anxiety and social cognition. In conclusion, measuring the in vivo release patterns of AVP and OXT within distinct brain regions during the display of diverse social behaviours and manipulation of local AVP and OXT activity has yielded new insights into the specific roles of these neuropeptides in the regulation of complex social behaviours. PMID:18655888

  19. Parasites reduce attractiveness and reproductive success in male grain beetles.

    PubMed

    Worden; Parker; Pappas

    2000-03-01

    Sexual characters may reveal the quality of a potential mate, including the mate's level of infection with parasites. Females that prefer males with low levels of infection or no infection may benefit in several ways. Direct benefits may include avoidance of infection, acquistition of larger nuptial gifts or enhancement in fecundity due to differences in male fertility. Females may also benefit indirectly by producing offspring that are more resistant to infections. We measured female preference for odours produced by male grain beetles, Tenebrio molitor, that were either infected by a tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, or uninfected. This parasite is not transmitted directly between conspecifics. Females were attracted to odours of all males, but they were less attracted to those from parasitized males. To the contrary, females were preferentially attracted to infected females. Males did not show any biased attraction to odours from infected and uninfected male beetles. Females that mated with highly infected males produced fewer offspring than females mated to uninfected males, indicating parasitic infection inflicts multiple costs to males. These results are consistent with models of parasite-mediated sexual selection. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10715176

  20. Subordinate male cichlids retain reproductive competence during social suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kustan, Jacqueline M.; Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Subordinate males, which are excluded from reproduction often save energy by reducing their investment in sperm production. However, if their position in a dominance hierarchy changes suddenly they should also rapidly attain fertilization capability. Here, we asked how social suppression and ascension to dominance influences sperm quality, spermatogenesis and reproductive competence in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, where reproduction is tightly coupled to social status. Dominant territorial (T) males are reproductively active while subordinate non-territorial (NT) males are suppressed, but given the opportunity, NT males will perform dominance behaviours within minutes and attain T male testes size within days. Using the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label germ cell proliferation, we found that the spermatogenic cycle takes approximately 11–12 days, and social status had no effect on proliferation, suggesting that spermatogenesis continues during reproductive suppression. Although sperm velocity did not differ among social states, NT males had reduced sperm motility. Remarkably, males ascending in status showed sperm motility equivalent to T males within 24 h. Males also successfully reproduced within hours of social opportunity, despite four to five weeks of suppression and reduced testis size. Our data suggest that NT males maintain reproductive potential during suppression possibly as a strategy to rapidly improve reproductive fitness upon social opportunity. PMID:21733892

  1. Behavioural ecology: transient sexual mimicry leads to fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Roger T; Naud, Marié-Jose; Shaw, Paul W; Havenhand, Jon N

    2005-01-20

    Sexual mimicry among animals is widespread, but does it impart a fertilization advantage in the widely accepted 'sneak-guard' model of sperm competition? Here we describe field results in which a dramatic facultative switch in sexual phenotype by sneaker-male cuttlefish leads to immediate fertilization success, even in the presence of the consort male. These results are surprising, given the high rate at which females reject copulation attempts by males, the strong mate-guarding behaviour of consort males, and the high level of sperm competition in this complex mating system. PMID:15662403

  2. Gender and binegativity: men's and women's attitudes toward male and female bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Megan R; Thomas, Genéa D

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater's sex and target's sex: women equally accepted bisexual men and bisexual women, but men were less accepting of bisexual men than bisexual women. A mediation analysis indicated the relationship between rater's sex and greater acceptance of bisexual women was partially explained by eroticization of female same-sex sexuality. Finally, participants also responded to two open-ended items, which provided additional information about the content of binegativity: participants described male bisexuals negatively, as gender-nonconforming, and labeled them "really gay," whereas participants described female bisexuals positively, as sexy, and labeled them "really heterosexual." These findings suggest multiple underlying beliefs about bisexuals that contribute to binegativity, particularly against bisexual men. Results also confirm the importance of considering gender (of both the target and the rater) when assessing sexual prejudice. PMID:21597943

  3. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  4. Early maternal investment in male and female African elephant calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis C. Lee; Cynthia J. Moss

    1986-01-01

    The suckling behaviour of 130 freeranging elephant calves aged between birth and 4.5 years old was examined in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Analyses of frequencies of suckling and durations of suckling bouts showed that males attempted to suckle more often, were more successful at their attempts, and as a result were estimated to have a higher milk intake than did

  5. Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. REICHARD; J. BRYJA; M. ONDRACKOVA; M. DAVIDOVA; P. KANIEWSKA; C. SMITH

    2005-01-01

    Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus ). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual com- petition,

  6. Trends in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2003-01-01

    Methods that are available for male contraception, namely coitus interruptus, condoms, and vasectomy, have been used since the 19th century. With the exceptions of a few improvements of these methods, no major progress has been made with respect to introducing new male contraceptives since then. It is extremely urgent to develop new, safe, effective, and reversible male contraceptive methods. Among all male contraceptive methods that are being investigated, the hormonal approach is the closest to clinical application. Hormonal contraception provides pregnancy protection by means of spermatogenic suppression. Androgen-progestin regimens currently represent the best available hormonal combination for induction of a profound suppression of spermatogenesis. Further development of new steroids is mandatory for increasing the choices of available contraceptive formulations and to optimize long-term safety of these regimens. PMID:14666325

  7. [Obesity and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Herá?ek, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility. PMID:23116351

  8. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  9. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a ...

  10. Thyroid and male reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

  11. Cultivating male allies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Lori Hooks; Penny Anthon Green

    1993-01-01

    Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships\\u000a with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies”\\u000a and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality,\\u000a producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests,

  12. Changes in the reproductive behaviour of the endangered Newfoundland marten ( Martes americana atrata ): implications for captive breeding programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel P. Heath; Donald W. McKay; Mac O. Pitcher; Anne E. Storey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioural changes associated with reproduction were studied in captive Newfoundland martens (Martes americana atrata), an endangered species. Patterns of scent-marking and behavioural interactions were recorded before and after a male was introduced to two females. After introduction of the male, marking by the receptive female in- creased, whereas the nonreceptive female marked less and became less active. Activity and marking

  13. Faecal corticosterone concentrations indicate that separately housed male mice are not more stressed than group housed males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hunt; C. Hambly

    2006-01-01

    Mice account for over 80% of all animals used in experimentation. This study investigated how different housing conditions affected stress levels by measuring both corticosterone levels, using non-invasive faecal collection, and behaviour. Sixty outbred MF1 male mice were used which were separated into five different housing conditions at the beginning of the study, (A) individually housed, floor area 490 cm2

  14. Equine learning behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Murphy; Sean Arkins

    2007-01-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has

  15. Mating behaviour of Macrophthalmus hirtipes (Brachyura: Ocypodidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Jennings; C. L. McLay; A. M. Brockerhoff

    2000-01-01

    We examined the mating behaviour of the New Zealand ocypodid crab Macrophthalmus hirtipes in the laboratory between February and June 1998. This species has a discrete breeding season. Mating and moulting were not\\u000a linked and only intermoult females with mobile gonopore opercula were attractive to males. Allometry and compatibility of\\u000a gonopods and gonopores of different-sized crabs was investigated. Under laboratory

  16. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  17. Male–Male Dimensions of Male–Female Battering: A New Look at Domestic Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry L. Jennings; Christopher M. Murphy

    2000-01-01

    The field of domestic violence has concentrated its theories, research, and treatment methods on the male–female dimensions of the problem. However, male–male issues also play a crucial role. The authors explain how traditional male socialization and rigid sex role stereotyping can have emotional and behavioral consequences that are displaced onto male–female relationships. In particular, \\

  18. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  19. Copulatory courtship signals male genetic quality in cucumber beetles.

    PubMed

    Tallamy, Douglas W; Darlington, Mark Burton; Pesek, John D; Powell, Bradford E

    2003-01-01

    In the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), males court females during copulation by stroking them with their antennae. Stroking occurs exclusively during the first stages of copulation, after a male has penetrated a female's vaginal duct but before he is allowed access to her bursa copulatrix. Females accept the spermatophore of fast-stroking males and reject those of slow-stroking males by relaxing or constricting muscles distorting the vaginal duct. Here, we measure the repeatability of stroking behaviour within males, examine the effect of losing one antenna on male attractiveness and test whether such female control results in direct phenotypic benefits for the discriminating female or indirect genetic benefits that appear in her offspring. We also use a half-sibling design to quantify the variance and heritability of stroking speed and endurance. Female beetles were paired with a male that was known to stroke either quickly or slowly. No difference was found in the resulting fecundity or egg-hatching rate of the females, or in the survivorship, development rate, size, age at first reproduction or fecundity of their offspring indicating that no direct benefits are gained by discriminating among males on the basis of stroking speed. There were, however, good-genes benefits for the mates of fast-stroking males. Offspring of fast-stroking fathers were also fast strokers and were more likely to be accepted as mates than offspring of slow-stroking fathers. There was substantial variance among sires in stroking speed and endurance and the heritability of each trait was high. The antennal stroking rate was highly repeatable in successive mating attempts and males with only one antenna were not accepted as mates. The repeatability within males, variability between males and heritability between generations of copulatory stroking combine to provide females with a reliable and honest signal of the genetic quality of courting males. PMID:12590774

  20. The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the behaviour of cats

    PubMed Central

    Hoyland, Valerie J.; Shillito, Elizabeth E.; Vogt, Marthe

    1970-01-01

    1. Male and female kittens and adult cats were given p-chlorophenylalanine orally. 2. After treatment, some of the male cats showed mounting behaviour and the kittens and non-oestrous females showed an increase in treading and rubbing which was similar to one aspect of pro-oestrus behaviour. 3. The treated animals also appeared to suffer from skin irritation and showed increased restlessness which accompanied sleep deprivation. 4. Injection of 5-hydroxytryptophan stopped abnormal sexual activity and restored normal sleep for about 5 hours. 5. It is concluded that 5-hydroxytryptamine-containing neurones inhibit sexual behaviour in cats and that this role can be seen in male and, to some extent, also in female animals. PMID:5312896