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Sample records for male same-sex behaviour

  1. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003–2007 estimates

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A considerable number of new studies with estimates of relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected. PMID:18647866

  2. A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Bush, Stephanie L.; Robison, Bruce H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

  3. A test of genetic models for the evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Ritchie, Michael G; Bailey, Nathan W

    2015-06-22

    The evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has received increasing attention because it is perceived to be an evolutionary paradox. The genetic basis of SSB is almost wholly unknown in non-human animals, though this is key to understanding its persistence. Recent theoretical work has yielded broadly applicable predictions centred on two genetic models for SSB: overdominance and sexual antagonism. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we assayed natural genetic variation for male SSB and empirically tested predictions about the mode of inheritance and fitness consequences of alleles influencing its expression. We screened 50 inbred lines derived from a wild population for male-male courtship and copulation behaviour, and examined crosses between the lines for evidence of overdominance and antagonistic fecundity selection. Consistent variation among lines revealed heritable genetic variation for SSB, but the nature of the genetic variation was complex. Phenotypic and fitness variation was consistent with expectations under overdominance, although predictions of the sexual antagonism model were also supported. We found an unexpected and strong paternal effect on the expression of SSB, suggesting possible Y-linkage of the trait. Our results inform evolutionary genetic mechanisms that might maintain low but persistently observed levels of male SSB in D. melanogaster, but highlight a need for broader taxonomic representation in studies of its evolutionary causes. PMID:26019160

  4. Relationship characteristics and HIV transmission risk in same-sex male couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004

  5. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-23

    Male homosexual behaviour-although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom-remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  6. Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480

  7. The role of sexually explicit material in the sexual development of same-sex-attracted Black adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  8. Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test.

    PubMed

    García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56?g/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation. PMID:26044966

  9. Adaptive value of same-sex pairing in Laysan albatross.

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2014-01-22

    Same-sex pairing is widespread among animals but is difficult to explain in an evolutionary context because it does not result in reproduction, and thus same-sex behaviour often is viewed as maladaptive. Here, we compare survival, fecundity and transition probabilities of female Laysan albatross in different pair types, and we show how female-female pairing could be an adaptive alternative mating strategy, albeit one that resulted in lower fitness than male-female pairing. Females in same-sex pairs produced 80% fewer chicks, had lower survival and skipped breeding more often than those in male-female pairs. Females in same-sex pairs that raised a chick sometimes acquired a male mate in the following year, but females in failed same-sex pairs never did, suggesting that males exert sexual selection by assessing female quality and relegating low-quality females into same-sex pairs. Sexual selection by males in a monomorphic, non-ornamented species is rare and suggests that reconsideration is needed of the circumstances in which alternative reproductive behaviour evolves. Given the lack of males and obligate biparental care in this species, this research demonstrates how same-sex pairing was better than not breeding and highlights how it could be an adaptive strategy under certain demographic conditions. PMID:24285198

  10. Health, Trust, or “Just Understood”: Explicit and Implicit Condom Decision-Making Processes Among Black, White, and Interracial Same-Sex Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

  11. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 ?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 ?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 ?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

  12. Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

  13. Same-Sex Relationship Violence

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of violence against women Violence Against Women Same-sex relationship violence Click the red escape button above ... punishments. Return to top More information on Same-sex relationship violence Explore other publications and websites Dating ...

  14. In Peru, reporting male sex partners imparts significant risk of incident HIV/STI infection: all men engaging in same-sex behavior need prevention services

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Kelika A.; Lescano, Andres G.; Celentano, David D.; Hall, Eric; Montano, Silvia M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Coates, Thomas J.; Cáceres, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Detailed information on the sexual behavior of bisexual, non-gay identified men and the relationship between same-sex behavior and HIV/STI incidence are limited. This study provides information on the sexual behavior with male partners of non-gay identified men in urban, coastal Peru and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence. Methods We analyzed data from 2146 non-gay identified men with a baseline and then two years of annual follow-up, including detailed information on sexual behavior with up to 5 sex partners, to determine characteristics associated with bisexual behavior. Discrete time proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of self-reported sex with men on subsequent HIV/STI incidence. Results Over the three study visits, sex with a man was reported by 18.9% of men, 90% of whom also reported sex with a female partner. At baseline, reported bisexual behavior was associated with other sexual risk behaviors such as exchanging sex for money and increased risk of HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. The number of study visits in which recent sex with men was reported was positively correlated with risk of other sexual risk behaviors and incident HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. Recent sex with a man was associated with increased HIV/STI incidence, HR 1.79 (95% CI 1.19 – 2.70), after adjusting for socio-demographics and other sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Given the prevalence of recent sex with men and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence, interventions with non-gay identified men who have sex with men and their partners are warranted. PMID:23965772

  15. The role of male-male relationships in partner violence treatment groups: the effects of improving same sex relationships on attachment 

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Ashley D.

    2009-05-15

    The current study focused on the challenging task of providing treatment to male batterers and the various factors that may positively affect the outcome of treatment. Group treatment has been shown to be a successful ...

  16. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  17. Managing Same-Sex Sexual Harassment Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Roy, Jr.; Gillis, Graham

    1997-01-01

    Examines three cases of same-sex sexual harassment claims recognized by the courts under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, including both heterosexual and homosexual incidents involving men and women. Focus is on common threads in the three cases, arguments of the traditional courts, and college and university management of same-sex

  18. Children in Same-Sex Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

  19. Age and Susceptibility to Same Sex Peer Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, J. K.; Thomas, N. T.

    1972-01-01

    Male and female students, ages 5-19, were subjected individually to an obviously and unanimously wrong decision by a group of their same-sex peers. Conformity differed among the age groups but not between the sexes. Maximum conformity was found in the adolescent age group. (Author)

  20. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  1. "Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

  2. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  3. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  4. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

  5. High levels of same-sex experiences in the Netherlands: prevalences of same-sex experiences in historical and international perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuyper, Lisette; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2009-01-01

    Some authors suggest that the public stance toward homosexuality can influence the prevalence of same-sex experiences (e.g., Butler, 2005). Since the Dutch stance toward homosexuality has become more positive during the last decades, it was hypothesized that the current Dutch prevalences of same-sex experiences are higher than in other times and countries. This hypothesis was investigated using the data of a recent Dutch population study, and comparing these results to those from previous and international studies. The current Dutch figures were indeed higher than recent figures from other countries. Among women, the recent figures were also higher than those found in previous Dutch studies. The prevalence of same-sex experiences among Dutch males stayed the same. These results and the methodological aspects of the study are discussed. PMID:19882423

  6. Same-Sex Adoption as a Welfare Alternative? Conservatism, Neoliberal Values, and Support for Adoption by Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Perry, Samuel L; Whitehead, Andrew L

    2015-12-01

    Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing on national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships. PMID:26226393

  7. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples' Social Networks.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory R; de Vries, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report, we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples' social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples' social networks are critically needed. PMID:26192404

  8. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  9. Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…

  10. Do Children in Single-Parent Households Fare Better Living with Same-Sex Parents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Douglas B.; Powell, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…

  11. SRC fight for Same Sex Marriage Crafty tips

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    A #12;2 SRC fight for Same Sex Marriage page 10-11 Crafty tips page 12-13 3 Dissonance page 4 to express ourselves as individuals and accepting that identifying as a woman biologically or psychologically

  12. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  13. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-02-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170

  14. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes.

    PubMed

    adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations. PMID:26188455

  15. Gendered (s)explorations among same-sex attracted young people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D; Hillier, L; Harrison, L

    2001-02-01

    This paper seeks to import a more complex understanding of gendered subjectivity into discussions of young people and homosexuality, and is based on an Australian national survey (n=749) of same-sex attracted youth (SSAY) aged between 14 and 21. Results revealed significant gender differences with regard to patterns of sexual attraction, behaviour and identity labels among participants. For the young men in the study, there was more congruence between feelings of gender a-typicality, same-sex attractions and same-sex behaviours. Overall, young women displayed more fluidity with regard to their sexual feelings, behaviours and identities. Young women were more likely to be engaged in private explorations of lesbianism, concurrent with participation in heterosexual sex and relationships. Young women were also grappling with more limited and emotionally risky opportunities for sex with other girls who were already known to them as friends. The invisibility of lesbianism as an identity or practice led to confusion about what feelings meant for the future in the arena of lived experience. The paper concludes that more research is needed into the impact of gender on the development of young people's experiences of homosexuality, particularly the manner in which invisibility and lack of social acceptance of a full spectrum of sexual diversity may disadvantage young women's emotional health and well-being. PMID:11259071

  16. Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

  17. Same-sex spousal benefits: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Smithies, R; vandenHoven, N

    1994-12-01

    Employers considering same-sex spousal benefits for employees based in Canada must deal with a number of unanswered questions. Some plan sponsors may make benefits coverage decisions based on personal or corporate beliefs or in response to employee demands. PMID:10141065

  18. Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

  19. Domestic Violence between Same-Sex Partners: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…

  20. Gender Differences in Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Norman R.; And Others

    An investigation of differences in the friendship patterns of men and of women reported that women appeared to be expressive in their friendship styles while men's same-sex friendships were best characterized as being instrumental. To examine these differences further, a study was conducted which investigated the relationship of friendship and…

  1. Social affiliation matters: both same-sex and opposite-sex relationships predict survival in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. ‘social connectedness’) with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes—females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936

  2. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

  3. Sensory regulation of C. elegans male mate-searching behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’s behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans. PMID:19062284

  4. Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare

    2015-03-01

    Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669

  5. Modeling Ideology and Predicting Policy Change with Social Media: Case of Same-Sex Marriage

    E-print Network

    Modeling Ideology and Predicting Policy Change with Social Media: Case of Same-Sex Marriage Amy X of important policy decisions. Focus- ing on the issue of same-sex marriage legalization, we exam- ine almost 2 million public Twitter posts related to same-sex marriage in the U.S. states over the course of 4 years

  6. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex

  7. 76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...amend its regulations to include same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

  8. 3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

  9. 77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...is amending its regulations to add same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...

  10. 75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...2, 2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

  11. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  12. 76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) proposes to amend its regulations to include same-sex... proposed rule, therefore, is designed to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from...

  13. The Brain Reaction to Viewing Faces of Opposite- and Same-Sex Romantic Partners

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual) and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual). We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups. PMID:21209829

  14. The brain reaction to viewing faces of opposite- and same-sex romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Zeki, Semir; Romaya, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual) and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual). We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups. PMID:21209829

  15. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  16. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    PubMed

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojt?ch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  17. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Pan, William K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  18. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-08-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  19. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  20. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate?=?81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (??=?2.93, 95% CI?=?0.35 to 5.52, P?=?.03; ??=?5.60, 95% CI?=?2.69 to 8.52, P?=?<.001; and ??=?6.01, 95% CI?=?2.84 to 9.17, P?=?<.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (??=?-3.03, 95% CI?=?-5.86 to -0.21, P?=?.04; ??=?-10.45, 95% CI?=?-18.48 to -2.42, P?=?.01; and ??=?-9.82, 95% CI?=?-17.86 to -1.78, P?=?.02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (? =0.94, 95% CI?=?0.08 to 1.81, P?=?.03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in health policy, improving child health outcomes. PMID:24952766

  1. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  2. Middle School Students' Perceptions of Coeducational and Same-Sex Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treanor, Laura; Graber, Kim; Housner, Lynn; Wiegand, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Middle school students who participated in both single-sex and coeducational physical education (PE) classes completed questionnaires eliciting their opinions on perceived abilities, affinity toward PE, and preferences for coeducational and same-sex classes. Most students liked PE, preferred same-sex classes, and rated themselves highly on PE…

  3. Same-Sex Legal Spouse Benefits and Retirement Updates (revised 1/6/2015)

    E-print Network

    Same-Sex Legal Spouse ­ Benefits and Retirement Updates (revised ­ 1/6/2015) Benefits Employees whose same-sex marriages are now legally recognized in Florida as of January 6, 2015, have a qualifying for the legal spouse and any eligible dependent children to be covered. 3. Certify that the spouse and children

  4. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  5. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  7. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  8. Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…

  9. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…

  10. Press advisory/FAQ Same-sex couples in Census 2010

    E-print Network

    Press advisory/FAQ Same-sex couples in Census 2010 Contact person: Gary J. Gates, PhD Williams) Historically, US Census Bureau data on same-sex couples have been a critical resource for informing the many national, state, and local debates about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights

  11. Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…

  12. Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

  13. 3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners... Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum for the Heads of... the following actions, consistent with existing law, in order to extend benefits to the...

  14. Tailoring a Collaborative, Constructionist Approach for the Treatment of Same-Sex Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Philip J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses universal couple issues, such as communication, faced by same-sex couples. Focuses on the ability of a collaborative, constructionist family therapy treatment approach to address marginalization issues faced by lesbian and gay couples. Looks at individual gay and lesbian identity, same-sex couple identity, and other issues. (RJM)

  15. Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of the risks of self-harm and suicide and in particular the importance of family in mental health outcomes for same-sex attracted young people. Mental health workers can assist families gain confidence in dealing with the news that a young person is same-sex attracted. Implications for practitioners and a model for affirmative…

  16. Instant HR October 10, 2014 TOPIC: Same-Sex Spouses Now Eligible for Coverage in the State Health Benefits Program

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    recognizing same-sex marriages on October 6, 2014. Employees who were already married to a same-sex spouse to provide a copy of the marriage certificate. Same-sex couples who did not file federal taxes as "marriedInstant HR ­ October 10, 2014 TOPIC: Same-Sex Spouses Now Eligible for Coverage in the State Health

  17. Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits. PMID:23963426

  18. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  19. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

  20. Gays, guys, and mchicha mwiba: same-sex relations and subjectivities in Dar es Salaam.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kåre; Aggleton, Peter; Leshabari, Melkizedeck T; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork, this article explores ways in which same-sex relations are perceived and performed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. While several different constructions of same-sex sexuality coexist in Dar es Salaam, it is common to conceive of same-sex practicing men as falling into two main categories. Men belonging to each of these differ with respect to the corporeal, gendered, and social positions that are open to them, and typically form dyads across the conceptual boundary of difference that runs between them. The article speaks to the importance of examining sexuality and gender in particular sociocultural settings. PMID:24313863

  1. The Impact on Iowa's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    E-print Network

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Baumle, Amanda K; Romero, Adam P.; Sears, Brad

    2008-01-01

    includes both a Medicaid expansion and separate programwww.hawk-i.org/. The Medicaid expansion portion of SCHIPMedicaid SSI TOTAL Estimated Savings in State Funds After Same-Sex Marriage IV. Expansion

  2. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  3. Female Same-Sex Sexuality from a Dynamical Systems Perspective: Sexual Desire, Motivation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  4. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  5. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

  6. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040

  7. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Spring, Amy L

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the "disappearance" of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  8. Androgen changes and flexible rutting behaviour in male giraffes.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Peter A; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André

    2013-10-23

    The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a 'roving male' tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833

  9. Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum oestrus

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum; MS. number: A9425) Adult male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, avoid contact Mongolian ger- bils, Meriones unguiculatus, are very similar (Elwood 1983), except that male gerbils do

  10. Viewing attractive or unattractive same-sex individuals changes self-rated attractiveness and face preferences in women

    E-print Network

    Little, Tony

    with an individual's perceived mate value. Exposure to attractive same-sex images resulted in lower selfViewing attractive or unattractive same-sex individuals changes self-rated attractiveness and face and high value. We used a con- trast effect in women, showing attractive and unattractive same-sex

  11. Stigma and intimacy in same-sex relationships: a narrative approach.

    PubMed

    Frost, David M

    2011-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in romantic relationships experience stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from widespread social devaluation of same-sex relationships. Research on same-sex couples has demonstrated a negative association between experiences of stigma and relationship quality. However, critical questions remain unanswered regarding how experiences of stigma become more or less meaningful within the context of same-sex relationships. This paper presents a study of the stories that a purposive sample of 99 individuals in same-sex relationships wrote about their relational high points, low points, decisions, and goals, as well as their experiences of stigma directly related to their relationships. Narrative analysis of these stories revealed that participants utilized several psychological strategies for making meaning of their experiences of stigma within the context of their relationships. Some participants framed stigma as having a negative impact on their relationships, while others framed stigma as relevant, but external to their lives. Some participants saw stigma as providing an opportunity to (re)define notions of commitment and relational legitimacy. Additionally, many participants framed stigma as bringing them closer to their partners and strengthening the bond within their relationships. The results of this study illuminate the psychological strategies individuals in same-sex couples use to make meaning of, cope with, and overcome societal devaluation thereby furthering understandings of the association between stigma and intimacy within marginalized relationships. PMID:21355641

  12. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    PubMed Central

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depended on both the sex of the judge and the sex of the face being judged: facial resemblance increased attractiveness judgements of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces, despite the use of identical procedures to manipulate resemblance. A control experiment indicated these effects were caused neither by lower resemblance of other-sex faces than same-sex faces, nor by an increased perception of averageness or familiarity of same-sex faces due to prototyping or mere exposure affecting only same-sex faces. The differential impact of self-resemblance on our perception of same-sex and other-sex faces supports the hypothesis that humans use facial resemblance as a cue of kinship. PMID:15451700

  13. Correlates of Individual Versus Joint Participation in Online Survey Research with Same-Sex Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Millar, Brett M; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based surveys are commonly utilized as a cost-effective mechanism for data collection in social and health psychology research. Little is known about the differences between partnered gay men who participate alone compared to those with partners who also agree to participate. A sample of 260 partnered gay/bisexual men from New York City completed an online survey covering demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, substance use, and relationship satisfaction. Upon completion, they had the option to send the study link to their partner. In total, 104 (40 %) participants successfully recruited their partners, 90 (34.6 %) were unsuccessful, and 66 (25.4 %) declined the option to refer their partners. Men who did not refer their partners were significantly older, in relationships longer, and reported higher personal income. Participants who successfully recruited partners reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction. While generalizability is limited given the diversity of methodological factors that influence research participation, these data provide an initial insight into the effects on sample composition imposed by the implementation of dyadic (vs. unpaired) designs in online studies. PMID:25432879

  14. Gendered (S)explorations among Same-Sex Attracted Young People in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Deborah; Hillier, Lynne; Harrison, Lyn

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to import a more complex understanding of gendered subjectivity into discussions of young people and homosexuality. This study is based on an Australian national survey of same-sex attracted youth (N=749). Results reveal significant gender differences with regard to patterns of sexual attraction. (MKA)

  15. "It's a Catch-22": Same-Sex-Attracted Young People on Coming Out to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Explores teen-initiated communication with parents about same-sex attraction, coming out, and adolescent sexuality. Reports the findings of a qualitative study on teen and parent reactions as well as a number of strategies which emerged that may help maintain healthy relationships in the face of developing sexuality. (Author/SD)

  16. When Families Present with Concerns about an Adolescent's Experience of Same-Sex Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarhouse, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)

  17. The Angel's Playground: Same-Sex Desires of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article examines narratives about same-sex desires between teachers and students in physical education, based on the life histories of physical education teachers who described their sexual identities as "gay man," "lesbian," "bisexual," "queer" and racial identities as "White," "Bi-racial," "Latina" and "Armenian-American." Many teachers…

  18. Well-Being among Same-Sex-and Opposite-Sex-Attracted Youth at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors,…

  19. Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

  20. Differential Mental Development of 18 Month-Old Same-Sexed and Opposite-Sexed Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn Norcross; Campbell, Kathleen M.

    This paper describes a study which examined the performance of 48 pairs of 18-month-old twins on the Mental Development Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether score differences would be found for the three subgroups of identical, fraternal same-sexed, and fraternal opposite-sexed twins. Of the 96 subjects, 46 (23…

  1. Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2011-01-01

    Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

  2. Sex-Role Orientation and Relationship Development in Same-Sex Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamke, Leanne K.; Bell, Nancy J.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between sex-role identity, behavioral interaction, and interpersonal attraction in an initial extended encounter. Female subjects (N=82) identified as either feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated participated in same-sex dyads. Results of the combined initial and final unstructured interactions indicated greater…

  3. Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

  4. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  5. A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Development and Expression of Female Same-Sex Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2007-06-01

    Researchers have documented substantial variability in the development and expression of same-sex sexuality, especially among women, posing challenges to traditional linear developmental models. In this article, I argue for a new approach to conceptualizing the development and expression of female same-sex sexuality over the life course, based in dynamical systems theory. Dynamical systems models seek to explain how complex patterns emerge, stabilize, change, and restabilize over time. Although originally developed by mathematicians and physicists to model complex physical phenomena in the natural world, they have increasingly been applied to social-behavioral phenomena, ranging from motor development to cognition to language. I demonstrate the utility of this approach for modeling change over time in female same-sex sexuality, reviewing extant published research and also introducing data collected from an ongoing, 10-year longitudinal study of young nonheterosexual women. I provide evidence that female same-sex sexuality demonstrates the emblematic features of a dynamical system: nonlinear change over time, spontaneous emergence of novel forms, and periodic reorganizations and phase transitions within the overall system. I highlight the specific contribution of a dynamical systems perspective for understanding such phenomena and suggest directions for future study. PMID:26151957

  6. Evaluating the welfare of the child in same-sex families.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2011-07-01

    Within the field of medically assisted reproduction, the welfare of the child is advanced as the major argument to decide the acceptability of certain applications. This argument, however, needs a complex framework in order to be understood and used properly. The effect of empirical evidence regarding the welfare of the child on people's judgments about the acceptability of same-sex families will differ for utilitarians and deontologists. Deontologists who are opposed to same-sex families will not change their mind when confronted with reassuring evidence. However, utilitarians also frequently use the evidence wrongly or draw the wrong conclusions. The reasonable welfare standard is put forward to avoid counterintuitive judgments and to block comparative reasoning that may follow from the use of heterosexual families as a control in follow-up research. Finally, a number of problems related to the use of parental sexual orientation as a criterion are discussed. The discrimination against same-sex families will not be overturned by empirical evidence about the welfare of the children. Children in same-sex families are generally doing well but their situation could be improved if their parents' relationship were to be socially and legally recognized. PMID:21493632

  7. Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

  8. Windsor and Perry: reactions of siblings in same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer B; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in U.S. v. Windsor (570 U.S. 307) and Hollingsworth v. Perry (570 U.S. 399) created a focal point for public discussion of marriage equality for same-sex couples. This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the reactions of individuals currently or previously in same-sex couple relationships and a heterosexual sibling who is currently or previously married (N = 371) to the Supreme Court decisions. Thematic content analysis was used to explore participants' responses to an open-ended question on a survey. Reactions of individuals from same-sex couples revealed the following themes: (1) longitudinal perspectives on the advancement of rights for same-sex couples; (2) emotional responses celebrating the decisions or expressing relief; (3) affirmation of their relationship or rights; (4) practical consequences of the extension of rights; and (5) minority stress related to anticipation of future prejudice or discrimination. Themes in the heterosexual siblings' responses were (1) ally support; (2) flat support without emotion or elaboration; (3) indifference to or ignorance about the decisions; and (4) disapproval of the decisions. These themes are compared and discussed in light of prior research on reactions to marriage restriction debates and marriage (in)equality and family relationships. PMID:25865954

  9. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  10. Same-sex practicing men in Tanzania from 1860 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Moen, Kåre; Aggleton, Peter; Leshabari, Melkizedeck T; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2014-08-01

    This article offers a review of published texts describing sexual relations between men in Tanzania in the period 1860-2010. It explores ways in which men who have sex with men have been named and understood; describes the sexual and social roles associated with differing same-sex identities and subjectivities; tracks politics, policies, and sociocultural expressions relating to sex between men; and explores the ways in which men's same-sex sexual practices have been responded to in the context of health and HIV. Among the impressions emerging from the historical record is that sex between men is not (and has not been) uncommon in Tanzania; that a significant conceptual distinction exists between men who are anally receptive and men who penetrate anally; and that there has been a range of views on, and opinions about, same-sex relations within the wider society. There is evidence that same-sex practicing men in Tanzania have been affected by HIV at least since 1982, with one seroprevalence study indicating that the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men was quite disproportionate as far back as 2007. However, while men who have sex with men have been defined as a "vulnerable population" with respect to HIV in national frameworks since 2003, this had not led to any significant amount of targeted HIV prevention work being reported by either local or international actors by 2010. PMID:24752788

  11. Overcoming Bias toward Same-Sex Couples: A Case Study from inside an MFT Ethics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Laurie L.; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From…

  12. The Significance of Living Together and Importance of Marriage in Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships. PMID:25848857

  13. One Statute for Two Spirits: Same-Sex Marriage in Indian Country

    E-print Network

    Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-04-16

    On March 15, 2013, the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (LTBB) became the third tribal nation to recognize same sex unions. The LTBB statute, Waganakising Odawak Statute 2013-003, defines marriage as “the legal and voluntary union of two...

  14. Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Terence A.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

  15. 75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 2, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of June 2, 2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal...-sex domestic partners of Federal employees, and, where applicable, to the children of...

  16. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further, the mixed method design enables triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data. A broad recruitment strategy has already enabled a large sample size with the inclusion of both gay men and lesbians. PMID:20211027

  17. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments. PMID:20221417

  18. Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour

    E-print Network

    Innes, David J.

    Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

  19. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-06-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  20. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    PubMed

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-11-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity. PMID:26183931

  1. A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

  2. Moving from ambivalence to certainty: older same-sex couples marry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Humble, Áine M

    2013-06-01

    A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality). PMID:23701954

  3. Perceptions of and Experience With System Responses to Female Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors’ perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV. PMID:21278817

  4. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22029563

  5. Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity.

    PubMed

    Sobo?an, Ana Marija

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities. PMID:21774603

  6. ?AD? Hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: Evidence of Same-Sex Mating in Nature and Hybrid Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaorong; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Nielsen, Kirsten; Patel, Sweta; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G; Heitman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, ? and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT) ? over a in C. neoformans populations limits ?–a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between ? isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural ?AD? hybrids that arose by fusion between two ? cells of different serotypes (A and D) were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1? was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed ?AD? strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population. PMID:17953489

  7. Attitudes towards same-sex marriage in Portugal: predictors and scale validation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (? = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p < .001). Furthermore, analysis of the scale's predictors demonstrates how a left-wing orientation (? = .22, p < .001) and the level of denial of deservingness for lesbian/gay discrimination (? = .30, p < .001) prove to be the best predictors of attitudes towards same-sex marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject. PMID:26054409

  8. 'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others. PMID:25317726

  9. Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters J hamsters undergoes a transition from play fighting to adult aggression. Repeated exposure to social stress investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were

  10. Diving behaviour during the breeding season in the terrestrially breeding male grey seal

    E-print Network

    Bowen, W. Don

    -defence polygyny), e.g., the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Modig 1996), or defend territories withinDiving behaviour during the breeding season in the terrestrially breeding male grey sealMillan Abstract: We examined the diving behaviour of breeding male grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) at Sable Island

  11. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

  12. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  13. The Number of SameSex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal Shalosh B. EKHAD 1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    attracted to either sex and chooses his or her mate according to other criteria. Also assume that everyoneThe Number of Same­Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal gets married. Then the expectation of the random variable ``Number of same­sex marriages'' is 2n (2 n

  14. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex

  15. The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal Shalosh B. EKHAD1

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal attracted to either sex and chooses his or her mate according to other criteria. Also assume that everyone gets married. Then the expectation of the random variable "Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n (2 n - 1

  16. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033

  17. High Rates of Same-Sex Attraction/Gender Nonconformity in the Offspring of Mothers with Thyroid Dysfunction During Pregnancy: Proposal of Prenatal Thyroid Model.

    PubMed

    Sabuncuoglu, Osman

    2015-09-30

    Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033

  18. Predation threat exerts specific effects on rat maternal behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour of male and female offspring

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    of male and female offspring Rahia Mashoodh a , Christopher J. Sinal b , Tara S. Perrot-Sinal a. In contrast, under the same conditions, male offspring showed the opposite behavioural response, consistent primarily by licking and grooming (LG) and arched-back nursing (ABN). Differences in rates of LG-ABN have

  19. Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis of testosterone in paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), where males provide both sole defence care, we manipulated testos- terone levels in males using testosterone propionate implants. We

  20. Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2011-01-01

    In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

  1. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction

    PubMed Central

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2011-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

  2. Cigarette Smoking in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions: The Role of Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559

  3. Day length and estradiol affect same-sex affiliative behavior in the female meadow vole

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Loo, Theresa J.; Zucker, Irving

    2008-01-01

    Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals remains poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 hour partner preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior. PMID:18387611

  4. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  5. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Lovari, S; Fattorini, N; Boesi, R; Bocci, A

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso-genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats. PMID:26105047

  6. Ranging behaviour of little bustard males, Tetrax tetrax, in the lekking grounds.

    PubMed

    Ponjoan, Anna; Bota, Gerard; Mañosa, Santi

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the ranging behaviour during the breeding season of 18 radiotracked little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) males, a disperse-lekking species inhabiting the cereal pseudo-steppes. The average kernel 95% home range was 60±50 ha and the average cluster 85% area was 17±17 ha. Range structure was as relevant as home range size for explaining the variation in the ranging behaviour of males, which could be partially explained by age, habitat quality and site. Ranging behaviour varied from males defending small and concentrated home ranges with high habitat quality, to males holding larger home ranges composed by several arenas. Our results suggest that social dominance and resource availability may affect ranging behaviour of males during the breeding season. Also, mating systems constraints may play a role on the use of space of males within the lekking ground. The ranging behaviour of a given male may be determined by a tendency to reduce and concentrate the home range as age and social status increase, and several fine-tuning mechanisms adjusting the ranging behaviour to the prevailing environmental or social factors on a given site and year. PMID:22626823

  7. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  8. Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    1 Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition Intrasexual Selection Recall that the other "part" of sexual selection is competition between individuals of the same sex Usually involves males competing of male-male competition Often begins with non-contact displays, which may or may not escalate to fighting

  9. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  10. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families. PMID:25911578

  11. The Effects Of Unequal Access To Health Insurance For Same-Sex Couples In California

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Pizer, Jennifer C.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694

  12. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

  13. Effect of genes, social experience, and their interaction on the courtship behaviour of transgenic Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Svetec, Nicolas; Houot, Benjamin; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    Behaviour depends (a) on genes that specify the neural and non-neural elements involved in the perception of and responses to sensory stimuli and (b) on experience that can modulate the fine development of these elements. We exposed transgenic and control Drosophila melanogaster males, and their hybrids, to male siblings during adult development and measured the contribution of genes and of experience to their courtship behaviour. The transgene CheB42a specifically targets male gustatory sensillae and alters the perception of male inhibitory pheromones which leads to frequent male-male interactions. The age at which social experience occurred and the genotype of tester males induced a variable effect on the intensity of male homo- and heterosexual courtship. The strong interaction between the effects of genes and of social experience reveals the plasticity of the apparently stereotyped elements involved in male courtship behaviour. Finally, a high intensity of homosexual courtship was found only in males that simultaneously carried a mutation in their white gene and the CheB42a transgene. PMID:16174337

  14. Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia:Atelopus hoogmoedi)

    E-print Network

    Hödl, Walter

    Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia, neotropical harlequin toads (Atelopus spp.) have undergone drastic population de- clines. Captive breeding has and females occupy different habitats (i.e. streams versus forest).We studied male toads along a stream site

  15. Spawning behaviour and success of mature male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr of farmed and

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Spawning behaviour and success of mature male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr of farmed and wild genetic differences in the reproduction of an alternative maturation phenotype in Atlantic salmon (Salmo mature male parr raised in similar environments. Parr competed for spawning opportunities in the presence

  16. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kasumovic, Michael M.; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn’t explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player’s attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when exploring the factors that affect male hostility towards women. PMID:26176699

  17. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when exploring the factors that affect male hostility towards women. PMID:26176699

  18. Courtship behaviour in a lekking species: individual variations and settlement tactics in male little bustard.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, F; Bretagnolle, V

    2001-08-15

    We analysed the display behaviour of male little bustard Tetrax tetrax to identify displays that are used in the context of male-male competition and those that are used for attracting females. Courtship was the main activity of males during the breeding season. Calling activity occurred throughout the day, and leks were attended for more than 4 months. Male sexual displays included snort call, wing-flash, and jump display. Snort call was performed throughout the day and mainly involved male-male interactions. In contrast, the wing-flash display was given only at twilight, and was performed most commonly when a female was present, supporting an inter-sexual function for this display. The jump display was performed only in the presence of female at anytime of the day. Analysis of individual variations in display behaviour revealed that intra-individual variation was low compared to inter-individual variation, especially for the jump display. It is, therefore, possible that display rates provide information on male quality. Four male settlement patterns could be defined, singles, paired, lekking and satellite lekking, but only wing-flash display and stamped snort call differed among those categories. We suggest that satellite males are attempting to benefit from proximity to higher status males, in accordance with the hotshot hypothesis of lek evolution. PMID:11470502

  19. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18?years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children with same-sex attracted parents. PMID:22888859

  20. Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored same-sex parents’ school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents’ perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting –as well as other interrelated contexts – may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children’s schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents’ perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children’s schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents’ level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families. PMID:25221780

  1. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  2. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths' most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth's socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further. PMID:25709840

  4. White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

  5. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer. PMID:25331494

  6. Female same-sex desires: conceptualizing a disease in competing medical fields in nineteenth-century Europe.

    PubMed

    Beccalossi, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which female same-sex desires were represented across a range of nineteenth-century European medical writings. While recognizing the conceptual innovations of the late-nineteenth-century psychiatric idea of "sexual inversion," it argues that the category of "sexual invert" was positioned alongside other medical representations of same-sex desires, such as gynecological descriptions of women with hypertrophy of the clitoris and socio-cultural analyses of the tribade-prostitute. These representations complicate current historical accounts of sexual inversion, which emphasize conceptual ruptures within the history of medicine. PMID:21330299

  7. A review of "Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics." by Harriette Andreadis 

    E-print Network

    Madhavi Menon

    2002-01-01

    -CENTURY NEWS Harriette Andreadis. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same- Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. xiii + 254 pp. + 9 illus. $17.00 Paper. Review by MADHAVI MENON, ITHACA COLLEGE. In a book... rape and female same-sex desire. Tracing its representational history in art and in court masques, Andreadis comments on Queen Anne (who played Calisto as a young princess of eleven) and on her court, with its (in)famous emphasis on strong literary...

  8. Short-term exposure to an endocrine disruptor affects behavioural consistency in male threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2011-10-01

    It has been established that exposure to xenooestrogens can have profound effects on reproductive and aggressive behaviours in aquatic organisms. Studies on the effects of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) on behaviour, however, rarely examine these effects over multiple trials, across time, or across contexts. In addition, it is possible that individuals vary in their sensitivity to EE2 and individuals may differ in the degree to which their behaviour is affected. The study of consistent individual differences in behaviour has grown in popularity in recent years perhaps because of the evolutionary questions this behavioural variation raises. Adult male threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from an anadromous population repeatedly received the simultaneous presentation of a dummy male and dummy female conspecific both before and after exposure to a short-term, nominal (15 ng L(-1)) concentration of 17?-ethinyloestradiol (EE2). These before and after measures were then compared against one another as well as against responses of males in a control group that was not exposed to EE2. Courtship, aggression, and nesting behaviours were all affected by EE2 exposure. In addition, behavioural consistency over trials was markedly reduced after EE2 exposure, as shown by lower repeatability values in the after exposure measures and in weaker correlations between the before and after exposure measures in the EE2 group compared to the control group. This suggests that male threespine stickleback vary in their sensitivity to EE2. This study is one of the first to examine the effects of short-term EE2 exposure on behaviour across trials and has important implications for population-level fitness consequences of xenooestrogens. PMID:21975189

  9. Predation threat exerts specific effects on rat maternal behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour of male and female offspring.

    PubMed

    Mashoodh, Rahia; Sinal, Christopher J; Perrot-Sinal, Tara S

    2009-03-23

    Differences in the rate of maternal behaviours received by rodent offspring are associated with differential programming of molecular and behavioural components of anxiety and stress-related functions. To determine the degree to which maternal behaviours are sensitive to environmental conditions, Long-Evans rat dams were exposed to the odour of a predator (cat) at two different time points during the first week postpartum. Exposure on the day of birth (DOB), but not the third day following birth, increased levels of maternal care in predator-exposed dams relative to dams exposed to a control condition across the first 5 days post-partum. As adults, female offspring of dams exposed on DOB exhibited a less-anxious phenotype in a novel open-field, spending more time in the center and less time displaying thigmotaxis. In contrast, under the same conditions, male offspring showed the opposite behavioural response, consistent with an increasingly anxious phenotype. Results from a subsequent stressor test (response to a predator odour) were consistent with the notion that the rearing effects were specific to anxiety-related behaviours in offspring. Accordingly, we showed that rearing conditions did not affect GR mRNA or NGFI-A expression in the hippocampus of offspring or cross-fostered offspring. The dissociation between stress and anxiety, as well as the sex-specific alterations in behaviour, may reflect the specificity inherent to neural programming in the face of naturalistic early life conditions. PMID:19171159

  10. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  11. Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

  12. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  13. Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

  14. Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-02-01

    There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior. PMID:18536986

  15. Same-Sex versus Other-Sex Best Friendship in Early Adolescence: Longitudinal Predictors of Antisocial Behavior throughout Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…

  16. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  17. JUST AMONG FRIENDS: ASSOCIATIONS AMONG EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION, FRIEND BEHAVIOR, AND FRIENDSHIP QUALITY IN EARLY ADOLESCENT SAME-SEX FRIEND DYADS

    E-print Network

    Legerski, John-Paul

    2010-08-31

    To better understand emotional expression within the context of close same-sex friendships of young adolescents, this study examined emotional expressivity among 116 adolescents (58 friend dyads) in Grades 7-8 (12-14 years of age) utilizing a multi...

  18. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  19. Relationship Satisfaction, Affectivity, and Gay-Specific Stressors in Same-Sex Couples Joined in Civil Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…

  20. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  1. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  2. Mental Health Differences between Young Adults with and without Same-Sex Contact: A Simultaneous Examination of Underlying Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…

  3. Relationship stigma and relationship outcomes in interracial and same-sex relationships: Examination of sources and buffers.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Starks, Tyrel J

    2015-12-01

    Interracial and same-sex romantic relationships are more common and socially accepted in the United States than ever before; yet, stigmatization of these relationships persists, with consequences for relationship dynamics. We conducted an online survey study with adults living in the United States in interracial and same-sex relationships to examine associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with several relationship outcomes (i.e., investment, satisfaction, intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, love, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction), as well as the potential buffering roles of egalitarianism and dyadic coping. Regression analyses with 480 participants support that above and beyond individually experienced discrimination and other well-known predictors of relationship outcomes, relationship stigma from friends in particular was associated with lower relationship commitment, trust, love, and sexual communication, as well as greater odds of intimate partner aggression victimization. Egalitarianism and dyadic coping moderated some of the associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with relationship outcomes, supporting their potential roles as buffers. These findings suggest many avenues for future research and implications for clinicians working with interracial and same-sex couples, individuals in those couples, and their families. Given increasing prevalence of interracial and same-sex relationships and marriages, more work should continue to explore these couples' experiences and how best to support them. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121534

  4. Author's personal copy Learning in the context of sexual behaviour and danger in female and male

    E-print Network

    Dukas, Reuven

    pseudoobscura female fruit fly learning speciation Learning in the context of mate choice is important because it can influence sexual selection and incipient speciation. While fruit flies (Drosophila spp.) have been on fruit fly learning in the context of sexual behaviour has focused on males even though females typically

  5. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  6. Influence Strategies in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    Some writers have suggested that males and females differ not only in influencibility, but also in the strategies which they use to influence others. Although general sex differences in friendships may affect influence strategies, there is little research comparing males' and females' friendships. To explore differences between same- and…

  7. Family relationships and adolescent well-being: are families equally protective for same-sex attracted youth?

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2013-03-01

    Existing research suggests that sexual minority youth experience lower levels of well-being, in part because they perceive less social support than heterosexual youth. Sexual minority youth with strong family relationships may demonstrate resilience and increased well-being; however, it is also possible that the experience of sexual stigma may make these relationships less protective for sexual minority youth. Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we explore the links between same-sex attraction, family relationships, and adolescent well-being in a sample of over 13,000 7th-12th grade adolescents (51 % female, 52 % non-Latino/a white, 17 % Latino, 21 % African American, and 7 % Asian). Specifically, we examine whether lower levels of parental closeness, parental involvement, and family support among same-sex attracted youth explain in part why these youth experience increased depressive symptoms and risk behaviors, including binge drinking, illegal drug use, and running away from home, relative to other-sex attracted youth. Second, we ask whether family relationships are equally protective against depressive symptoms and risk behaviors for same-sex attracted and other-sex attracted youth. We find that same-sex attracted youth, particularly girls, report higher levels of depressive symptoms, binge drinking, and drug use in part because they perceive less closeness with parents and less support from their families. Results also suggest that parental closeness and parental involvement may be less protective against risk behaviors for same-sex attracted boys than for their other-sex attracted peers. Findings thus suggest that interventions targeting the families of sexual minority youth should educate parents about the potentially negative effects of heteronormative assumptions and attitudes on positive adolescent development. PMID:23196375

  8. Understanding help seeking behaviour among male offenders: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Amanda; Byng, Richard; Campbell, John; Hess, David; Owens, Christabel; Aitken, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors that influence help seeking for mental distress by offenders. Design Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with prisoners before and after release. Setting One category B local prison in southern England. Participants 35 male offenders aged 18-52, a quarter of whom had been flagged as being at risk of self harm. Results Most respondents reported that they would not seek help from a general practitioner or other healthcare professional if experiencing mental distress. When followed up after release, none had sought medical help despite the fact that many had considerable emotional problems. Many participants were hesitant to seek help because they feared being given a formal diagnosis of mental illness. Some of these men feared the stigma that such a diagnosis would bring, whereas others feared that a diagnosis would mean having to confront the problem. Lack of trust emerged as the most prominent theme in prisoners' discourse about not seeking help from health professionals. Distrust towards the “system” and authority figures in general was linked to adverse childhood experiences. Distrust directed specifically at healthcare professionals was often expressed as specific negative beliefs: many perceived that health professionals (most often doctors) “just don't care,” “just want to medicate,” and treat patients “superficially.” Those men who would consider going to a general practitioner reported positive previous experiences of being respected and listened to. Conclusions Distrust is a major barrier to accessing health care among offenders. Like most people, the respondents in this study wanted to feel listened to, acknowledged, and treated as individuals by health professionals. By ensuring that a positive precedent is set, particularly for sceptical groups such as ex-prisoners, general practitioners and prison doctors may be able to encourage future help seeking. Information specifically designed for prisoners is needed to help to de-stigmatise mental illness, and preparation for release should include provision of information about access to health and social services. Awareness training for health professionals is recommended: trust might be fostered in this population by seemingly trivial gestures that indicate respect. PMID:17223630

  9. Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

  10. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    PubMed

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during parental care after larval hatching, which may have possible implications on reproductive success and population dynamics. PMID:25213287

  11. Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

    2010-04-01

    The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

  12. When Sexual and Religious Orientation Collide: Considerations in Working with Conflicted Same-Sex Attracted Male Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The debate among scholars and gay activists and religious/political activists about the appropriateness and efficacy of conversion therapy has left out a number of individuals for whom neither gay-affirmative nor conversion therapy may be indicated. The present discussion, through the use of case material, offers considerations for the…

  13. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  14. How a romantic relationship can protect same-sex attracted youth and young adults from the impact of expected rejection.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Jonas, Kai J

    2014-12-01

    Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress, psychological well-being, and its moderated relation by romantic relationship status among 309 Dutch same-sex attracted youth (16-24 years old, 52.9% female). The results showed that minority stress components (internalized homophobia, expected rejection, and meta-stereotyping) were negatively related to psychological well-being. Moderation analyses revealed that only the impact of "expected rejection" on psychological well-being was buffered for those involved in a romantic relationship. This shows the particular functional link of romantic support in rejection contexts. PMID:25291236

  15. Exploring the Possibility of Same-Sex Love in Late Ming China

    E-print Network

    Shernuk, Kyle

    2008-07-01

    by setting, like a gemstone, the ultimate female virtue in an equally virtuous male body and intelligence.”31 Hairpins’’stories of moral negotiations are mediated by the power of qing and its ability to allow for play with the sta- ble categories...

  16. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. PMID:26577881

  17. Coming Out to Dad: Young Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences Disclosing Same-Sex Attraction to Their Fathers.

    PubMed

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  18. Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data.

    PubMed

    Aldén, Lina; Edlund, Lena; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mueller-Smith, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is afoot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994-2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage-a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples-children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization. PMID:26126882

  19. Mild mutations in the pan neural gene prospero affect male-specific behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yaël; Savy, Mathilde; Soichot, Julien; Everaerts, Claude; Cézilly, Frank; Ferveur, Jean François

    2004-01-30

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most appropriate model organisms to study the genetics of behaviour. Here, we focus on prospero (pros), a key gene for the development of the nervous system which specifies multiple aspects from the early formation of the embryonic central nervous system to the formation of larval and adult sensory organs. We studied the effects on locomotion, courtship and mating behaviour of three mild pros mutations. These newly isolated pros mutations were induced after the incomplete excision of a transposable genomic element that, before excision, caused a lethal phenotype during larval development. Strikingly, these mutant strains, but not the strains with a clean excision, produced a high frequency of heterozygous flies, after more than 50 generations in the lab. We investigated the factors that could decrease the fitness of homozygotes relatively to heterozygous pros mutant flies. Flies of both genotypes had slightly different levels of fertility. More strikingly, homozygous mutant males had a lower sexual activity than heterozygous males and failed to mate in a competitive situation. No similar effect was detected in mutant females. These findings suggest that mild mutations in pros did not alter vital functions during development but drastically changed adult male behaviour and reproductive fitness. PMID:14744542

  20. Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

  1. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…

  2. "Because She Was My First Girlfriend, I Didn't Know Any Different": Making the Case for Mainstreaming Same-Sex Sex/Relationship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Catherine; Hester, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…

  3. Faculty Senate Resolution in Support of Benefits for Same Sex Domestic Partners Approved by the University of Virginia Faculty Senate, 04 March 2014

    E-print Network

    Huang, Wei

    Faculty Senate Resolution in Support of Benefits for Same Sex Domestic Partners Approved of other Virginia four-year institutions, such as the College of William and Mary and George Mason University, support extending benefits at their institutions to include same-sex domestic partners; And

  4. Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

  5. The Importance of Gender and Gender Nonconformity for Same-Sex-Attracted Dutch Youth's Perceived Experiences of Victimization across Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; van Bergen, Diana D.; Hospers, Harm J.; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education (n = 305). In contexts of school and strangers,…

  6. Behavioural alterations in male mice lacking the gene for D-aspartate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Weil, Zachary M; Huang, Alex S; Beigneux, Anne; Kim, Paul M; Molliver, Mark E; Blackshaw, Seth; Young, Stephen G; Nelson, Randy J; Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-08-10

    D-serine and D-aspartate are important regulators of mammalian physiology. D-aspartate is found in nervous and endocrine tissue, specifically in hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, pituitary, and adrenal medullary cells. Endogenous D-aspartate is selectively degraded by D-aspartate oxidase. We previously reported that adult male mice lacking the gene for D-aspartate oxidase (Ddo(-/-) mice) display elevated concentrations of D-aspartate in several neuronal and neuroendocrine tissues as well as impaired sexual performance and altered autogrooming behaviour. In the present study, we analyzed behaviours relevant to affect, cognition, and motor control in Ddo(-/-) mice. Ddo(-/-) mice display deficits in sensorimotor gating and motor coordination as well as reduced immobility in the forced swim test. Basal corticosterone concentrations are elevated. The Ddo(-/-) mice have D-aspartate immunoreactive cells in the cerebellum and adrenal glands that are not observed in the wild-type mice. However, no differences in anxiety-like behaviour are detected in open field or light-dark preference tests. Also, Ddo(-/-) mice do not differ from wild-type mice in either passive avoidance or spontaneous alternation tasks. Although many of these behavioural deficits may be due to the lack of Ddo during development, our results are consistent with the widespread distribution of D-aspartate and the hypothesis that endogenous D-aspartate serves diverse behavioural functions. PMID:16725213

  7. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  8. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study. PMID:24306355

  9. Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

  10. Transient Population Dynamics of Mosquitoes during Sterile Male Releases: Modelling Mating Behaviour and Perturbations of Life History Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology. PMID:24086715

  11. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Henny M W; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorder. Little is known about this, even though it is now well documented that depression and anxiety are more prevalent among persons with same-sex attraction. Method Data, derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), allowed us to compare patients with a same-sex (n = 122) and an exclusively opposite-sex (n = 1658) attraction. Persons with same-sex attraction included persons who were attracted to both sexes. Data were collected by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and paper-and pencil questionnaires. Results Seven percent of the patients reported any same-sex orientation. Clinical expression of depression and anxiety did not differ in relation to sexual attraction. Regarding substance use, same-sex attracted women reported more drug use than heterosexual women (drug use: 16.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.003). Regarding stressful childhood experiences, men with any same-sex attraction reported more sexual abuse during childhood than men with a heterosexual orientation (20.4% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.005). Conclusions For women with same-sex attraction substance use (especially illicit drug use) might be a coping mechanism to deal with existing symptoms or with the minority stressors they have to deal with; for same-sex attracted men stressful childhood experiences might reflect an aspect of etiology. PMID:26445702

  12. Effect of Asteracantha longifolia seeds on the sexual behaviour of male rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nagendra S; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V K

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the effect of seeds of Asteracantha longifolia on the sexual behaviour of male albino rats. The ethanolic extract of seeds of A. longifolia was administered to groups of rats in 100, 150 and 200 mg kg?¹ doses for a period of 28 days, and the action compared with control rats. The changes in body and organ weight, sexual behaviour, histo-architecture and fructose levels of seminal vesicles were observed. The sexual behaviour was assessed by determining parameters such as mount frequency (MF), intromission latency, mount latency (ML) and post-ejaculatory latency. The ethanolic extract exhibited pronounced anabolic effects in treated animals, as evidenced by gains in the body and reproductive organ weights. Increased spermatogenesis due to treatment with extracts was also witnessed in transverse section. The treatment further markedly affected sexual behaviour of the animals, as reflected by the reduction of ML, increase in MF and enhanced attractability towards females. A significant increase in the sperm count as well as fructose levels of seminal vesicles was noted. PMID:19753500

  13. Behind bullying and defending: same-sex and other-sex relations and their associations with acceptance and rejection.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, René; Verlinden, Marina; Huitsing, Gijs; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about bullying and defending behaviors of children in early elementary school. However, this period is crucial for children's development as at this age they start to participate in a stable peer group, and difficulties in social interactions can be detected early by professionals. An interactive animated web-based computer program was used in this study to assess peer relationships among young children. The computerized assessment was conducted among 2,135 children in grades 1-2 from 22 elementary schools to examine the association of bullying, victimization, and defending with being accepted or rejected. Same-sex and other-sex peer relations were distinguished using dyadic data. Both boys and girls were more likely to accept same-sex classmates than other-sex classmates, and boys were more often nominated than girls as perpetrators of bullying against both boys and girls. It was found that bullies were rejected by those for whom they posed a potential threat, and that defenders were preferred by those classmates for whom they were a potential source of protection. Bullies chose victims who were rejected by significant others, but contrary to expectations, children who bullied boys scored low on peer affection. It is possible that these bullies were not strategic enough to select the "right" targets. Overall, the current findings provide evidence for strategies involved in bullying and defending at early age. PMID:23861031

  14. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law. PMID:24190101

  15. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

  16. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others. PMID:25118098

  17. A nose that roars: anatomical specializations and behavioural features of rutting male saiga

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya; Volodina, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of the unique saiga nose in vocal production has been neglected so far. Rutting male saigas produce loud nasal roars. Prior to roaring, they tense and extend their noses in a highly stereotypic manner. This change of nose configuration includes dorsal folding and convex curving of the nasal vestibulum and is maintained until the roar ends. Red and fallow deer males that orally roar achieve a temporary increase of vocal tract length (vtl) by larynx retraction. Saiga males attain a similar effect by pulling their flexible nasal vestibulum rostrally, allowing for a temporary elongation of the nasal vocal tract by about 20%. Decrease of formant frequencies and formant dispersion, as acoustic effects of an increase of vtl, are assumed to convey important information on the quality of a dominant male to conspecifics, e.g. on body size and fighting ability. Nasal roaring in saiga may equally serve to deter rival males and to attract females. Anatomical constraints might have set a limit to the rostral pulling of the nasal vestibulum. It seems likely that the sexual dimorphism of the saiga nose was induced by sexual selection. Adult males of many mammalian species, after sniffing or licking female urine or genital secretions, raise their head and strongly retract their upper lip and small nasal vestibulum while inhalating orally. This flehmen behaviour is assumed to promote transport of non-volatile substances via the incisive ducts into the vomeronasal organs for pheromone detection. The flehmen aspect in saiga involves the extensive flexible walls of the greatly enlarged nasal vestibulum and is characterized by a distinctly concave configuration of the nose region, the reverse of that observed in nasal roaring. A step-by-step model for the gradual evolution of the saiga nose is presented here. PMID:17971116

  18. The Effect of Timing of Female Vibrational Reply on Male Signalling and Searching Behaviour in the Leafhopper Aphrodes makarovi

    PubMed Central

    Kuhelj, Anka; de Groot, Maarten; Blejec, Andrej; Virant-Doberlet, Meta

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication in animals often involves duetting characterized by a coordinated reciprocal exchange of acoustic signals. We used playback experiments to study the role of timing of a female reply in the species-specific duet structure in the leafhopper Aphrodes makarovi (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). In leafhoppers, mate recognition and location is mediated exclusively by species- and sex-specific substrate-borne vibrational signals and a female signal emitted in reply to male advertisement calls is essential for recognition and successful location of the female. In A. makarovi, males have to initiate each exchange of vibrational signals between partners, and in a duet the beginning of a female reply overlaps the end of the male advertisement call. Results of playback treatments in which female replies were delayed and did not overlap with the male call revealed that in order to trigger an appropriate behavioural response of the male, female reply has to appear in a period less than 400 ms after the end of the initiating male call. Results also suggest that males are not able to detect a female reply while calling, since female reply that did not continue after the end of male call triggered male behaviour similar to behaviour observed in the absence of female reply. Together, our results show that vibrational duets are tightly coordinated and that the species-specific duet structure plays an important role in mate recognition in location processes. PMID:26488472

  19. Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

  20. Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behaviour in male Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    Wild, J Martin; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in Japanese quail has for many years been the focus of intensive investigations into its role in reproductive behaviour. The present paper delineates a sequence of descending pathways that finally reach sacral levels of the spinal cord housing motor neurons innervating cloacal muscles involved in reproductive behaviour. We first retrogradely labeled the motor neurons innervating the large cloacal sphincter muscle (mSC) that forms part of the foam gland complex (Seiwert and Adkins-Regan, 1998, Brain Behav Evol 52:61–80) and then putative premotor nuclei in the brainstem, one of which was nucleus retroambigualis (RAm) in the caudal medulla. Anterograde tracing from RAm defined a bulbospinal pathway, terminations of which overlapped the distribution of mSC motor neurons and their extensive dorsally directed dendrites. Descending input to RAm arose from an extensive dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM-ICo), electrical stimulation of which drove vocalizations. POM neurons were retrogradely labeled by injections of tracer into DM-ICo, but POM projections largely surrounded DM, rather than penetrated it. Thus, although a POM projection to ICo was shown, a POM projection to DM must be inferred. Nevertheless, the sequence of projections in the male quail from POM to cloacal motor neurons strongly resembles that in rats, cats and monkeys for the control of reproductive behaviour, as largely defined by Holstege and co-workers (e.g., Holstege et al., 1997, Neuroscience 80: 587–598). PMID:23225613

  1. "Post-Gay" Yet? The Relevance of the Lesbian and Gay Scene to Same-Sex Attracted Young People in Contemporary Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; de Wit, John; Reynolds, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the lesbian and gay "scene" of bars, nightclubs, and dance parties has been undergoing a structural decline in many Western cities. This article aimed to examine the relevance of the scene to same-sex attracted young adults amid these changes. An online survey was conducted with 572 same-sex attracted young women and men in Sydney. Only a minority of respondents participated in the scene at least weekly (16%), and the majority did not regard the scene as important to their leisure time (60%). However, respondents valued the scene as a space to connect with other same-sex attracted people and display same-sex affection without fear of hostility. Lesbian and gay identified respondents tended to be more socially engaged with the scene compared to other same-sex attracted respondents. The findings suggest that while the scene continues to be valued by many same-sex attracted young people, improved social attitudes have made participating in the scene less of an imperative. PMID:25927352

  2. Homosexual inclinations and the passions: A Thomistic theory of the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert Loyd

    2014-01-01

    The Catholic Church has held that every human being is a child of God, and every person deserves to be treated with dignity and love regardless of their actions. The phrase “love the sinner, hate the sin” is a simple summary of the approach the Church takes to loving all human beings. The Church has also held firmly that both homosexual acts and homosexual inclinations are disordered, although the origins or contributing factors of homosexual inclinations are not entirely understood. In this paper, I apply principles from St. Thomas Aquinas's treatise on the passions to show that habitual mis-identification of the cause of pleasure associated with the apprehension of beauty, or misjudgments, may be involved in the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder. PMID:24899749

  3. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Bochner, S

    1994-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns. PMID:8197895

  4. Homosexual inclinations and the passions: A Thomistic theory of the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Robert Loyd

    2014-05-01

    The Catholic Church has held that every human being is a child of God, and every person deserves to be treated with dignity and love regardless of their actions. The phrase "love the sinner, hate the sin" is a simple summary of the approach the Church takes to loving all human beings. The Church has also held firmly that both homosexual acts and homosexual inclinations are disordered, although the origins or contributing factors of homosexual inclinations are not entirely understood. In this paper, I apply principles from St. Thomas Aquinas's treatise on the passions to show that habitual mis-identification of the cause of pleasure associated with the apprehension of beauty, or misjudgments, may be involved in the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder. PMID:24899749

  5. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  6. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    PubMed Central

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ages 18–24 were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants’ narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The young gay and bisexual men who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers’ responses commonly differed from sons’ expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers’ response, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of SSA, religious views, sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the young gay and bisexual men’s stories was particularly striking. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  7. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  8. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

  9. Health care-seeking behaviour of HIV-infected mothers and male partners in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Drake, Alison L; Wilson, Suzanne K; Kinuthia, John; Roxby, Alison C; Matemo, Daniel; Farquhar, Carey; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    Health care-seeking behaviours of HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly characterised and typically focus on individual health conditions rather than overall health. We conducted a qualitative study to understand how HIV-infected mothers, their male partners and their HIV-exposed infants seek medical services. We performed 32 in-depth interviews (17 female, 15 male) and four focus group discussions among HIV-infected post-partum women and their male partners in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a grounded theory approach to explore the paths followed for health-related concerns. Female participants reported that willingness to be tested for HIV influences whether women sought antenatal care and the type of facility they preferred for childbirth. The need for medical care outside regular clinic hours and securing safe transportation at night were also significant barriers to seeking care. Most men sought services from traditional healers and chemists before HIV diagnosis, and at governmental facilities afterwards. Both men and women sent infants to traditional healers for non-medical conditions such as bewitching and massage but rarely for medical conditions. Strategies to reduce HIV-related stigma and fears in antenatal and maternity settings, increase access to care after-hours and improve linkage to HIV care for men early in their infection are needed. PMID:25646645

  10. Use of a deslorelin implant for influencing sex hormones and male behaviour in a stallion - Case report.

    PubMed

    Schönert, Susanne; Reher, Martina; Gruber, Achim D; Carstanjen, Bianca

    2012-12-01

    This case report describes the use of a subcutaneously applied 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant in a three-year-old Arabian crossbred stallion showing unwanted strong male behaviour. Following deslorelin acetate implantation the stallion showed a short transitional increase in male behaviour. A 'gelding-like' behaviour was noted 15 days (D15) after treatment. The horse was surgically castrated at the owners request at D52 after treatment. Serum testosterone, oestradiol-17? and oestrone sulphate values decreased after deslorelin acetate implantation, but serum LH and FSH levels remained unchanged. Histopathological analysis of both testes and sperm analysis revealed a reduced spermatogenesis at D52. The testicular volume decreased after treatment. The use of a subcutaneously applied deslorelin acetate implant might be a promising tool to change the behaviour of aggressive stallions. PMID:23160033

  11. The effect of mixing entire male pigs prior to transport to slaughter on behaviour, welfare and carcass lesions.

    PubMed

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day -5, -2, and -1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day -1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day -1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  12. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day ?5, ?2, and ?1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day ?1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day ?1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  13. Effect of Bombax ceiba L. on spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour and erectile function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, C; Thakur, M; Yadav, S K

    2012-05-01

    A number of herbal drugs are advocated in the traditional Ayurvedic literature for the improvement of overall sexual function. Young roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Fam. Bombacaceae) [correction added after online publication 1 August 2011: the family of Bombax ceiba was incorrectly mentioned as Orchidaceae. It has been corrected to Bombacaceae] also known as Semal Musli are used traditionally in Indian subcontinent as sexual stimulant. Its juice is considered nutritive and restorative tonic. Lyophilised aqueous extract of roots was studied for effect on sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Administration of 100 mg Kg(-1) body weight of aqueous extract influenced the five parameters evaluated in vivo. Sexual behaviour analysis in the presence of a female rate, serum testosterone level, anabolic effects, epididymal sperm count and seminal fructose level were the parameters evaluated. In B. ceiba extract-treated animals, a gain in body and sexual organ weights was observed. Mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies were significantly improved (P < 0.05). An increase in serum testosterone levels was also observed, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Seminal fructose content and epididymal sperm count were significantly improved as well. Penile erection index was also higher compared to control group animals. Hesitation time was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and copulatory rate was doubled in treated animals compared with control group animals. PMID:21806665

  14. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures. PMID:18342957

  15. Atorvastatin improves Y-maze learning behaviour in nicotine treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused by nicotine to a significant level. PMID:26409179

  16. Day length affects feeding behaviour and food intake in adult male emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Blache, D; Martin, G B

    1999-12-01

    1. In south-western Australia, male and female emus decrease their food intake when they start breeding in early winter and increase their intake during spring and summer when the breeding season and egg incubation are finished. 2. This annual feeding cycle seems to be under the influence of several environmental factors. Here, we tested the importance of photoperiod using male emus kept in light-controlled rooms with ad libitum access to food and water. 3. Long days increased food intake whereas short days decreased it. Emus fed only during the light hours. 4. Frequency of meals was similar under the 2-day lengths but meal duration was shorter when the emus were on short days than when they were on long days. Thus, day length seemed to affect appetite but not interest in food. 5. Further investigations are needed to test whether these changes in feeding behaviour are a direct consequence of day length or if they are secondary to photoperiod-driven changes in sexual activity. PMID:10670666

  17. Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

  18. Gender Nonconformity, Homophobic Peer Victimization, and Mental Health: How Same-Sex Attraction and Biological Sex Matter.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) ages 11 to 16 (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper-and-pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related to both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behavior among adolescents. PMID:26099017

  19. Back to the future: prohibiting surrogacy for singles, same-sex and shorter-term heterosexual couples in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm K; Willmott, Lindy; Trowse, Pip; White, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This article considers the regulatory position concerning altruistic surrogacy in Queensland, focusing on the intended changes to the current legal framework announced by the government in June 2012. The previous government had made significant progress by reforming surrogacy laws in 2010. However, that progress is at risk of being reversed. The proposed changes to the law would make it a criminal offence to enter into an altruistic surrogacy arrangement for certain individuals or couples. If enacted, the offence would only apply in altruistic surrogacy cases where the intended parent or parents are either single, in a same-sex relationship, or are in a heterosexual relationship of less than two years. Moreover, if enacted, the offence would apply extra-territorially. The authors argue that these changes represent a retrograde step for the law and urge the government to reconsider. This is based on the fact that they are out of step with current social attitudes, are contrary to the spirit of anti-discrimination laws, and that they are unjustified in terms of child welfare concerns. PMID:23600195

  20. Concurrent modulation of neuronal and behavioural olfactory responses to sex and host plant cues in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Sophie H; Saveer, Ahmed M; Binyameen, Muhammad; Bengtsson, Marie; Birgersson, Göran; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Becher, Paul G

    2015-01-22

    Mating has profound effects on animal physiology and behaviour, not only in females but also in males, which we show here for olfactory responses. In cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis, odour-mediated attraction to sex pheromone and plant volatiles are modulated after mating, producing a behavioural response that matches the physiological condition of the male insect. Unmated males are attracted by upwind flight to sex pheromone released by calling females, as well as to volatiles of lilac flowers and green leaves of the host plant cotton, signalling adult food and mating sites, respectively. Mating temporarily abolishes male attraction to females and host plant odour, but does not diminish attraction to flowers. This behavioural modulation is correlated with a response modulation in the olfactory system, as shown by electro-physiological recordings from antennae and by functional imaging of the antennal lobe, using natural odours and synthetic compounds. An effect of mating on the olfactory responses to pheromone and cotton plant volatiles but not to lilac flowers indicates the presence of functionally independent neural circuits within the olfactory system. Our results indicate that these circuits interconnect and weigh perception of social and habitat odour signals to generate appropriate behavioural responses according to mating state. PMID:25621329

  1. Behavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate choice affect

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    choice affect female reproductive life histories? RÜDIGER RIESCH1,2 *, MARTIN PLATH3 , AMBER M. MAKOWICZ1 unisexual females leads to reduced reproductive output in unisexuals, the observed magnitude of differencesBehavioural and life-history regulation in a unisexual/ bisexual mating system: does male mate

  2. From silence to sensitivity: a new Identity Disclosure model to facilitate disclosure for same-sex attracted women in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    McNair, Ruth Patricia; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela

    2012-07-01

    Women's same-sex attraction is rarely raised within general practice consultations, despite a common desire for its inclusion. Same-sex attracted women are significantly more likely than heterosexual women to suffer a range of health inequalities, making disclosure of sexual orientation often clinically relevant. This research explored the influences on disclosure from the perspectives of GPs and their regular same-sex attracted female patients. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews between mid 2005 and late 2006 with 33 same-sex attracted Australian women, 27 GPs and 1 psychiatrist, including 24 patient-GP pairs. Analysis revealed three disclosure patterns by same-sex attracted women with their preferred GPs, which we labelled open (telling), passive (waiting to be asked) and private (not telling). The three main influences on disclosure patterns were women's sexual identity experience, the risk of disclosure perceived by women and GPs, and the quality of the patient-doctor relationship. We developed the Identity Disclosure model to explain the interactions between these three influences. The more important a woman's sexual identity, the more likely she was to prefer an open disclosure approach, while a lower level of identity importance led to a passive or private approach. Risk and relationship then counterbalanced the disclosure decision. A high level of perceived risk for women or GPs would reduce women's openness, or GPs' willingness to facilitate disclosure. Reciprocal knowing within the relationship would attenuate risk and increase openness. Reciprocity had the capacity to increase GPs' shared responsibility for disclosure, which was desired by many women. We suggest that the Identity Disclosure model will facilitate GPs' understanding of the complex influences on disclosure, and ultimately transform their consultations with same-sex attracted women beyond the habitual silence to a new level of sensitivity. PMID:22503834

  3. Health-seeking behaviour of male foreign migrant workers living in a dormitory in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ?21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p?=?0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p?=?0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning?

  4. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  5. A Clear Stand: Religious Schools Are Being Pressed to Spell Out Their Policies Regarding Gay Students and the Children of Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…

  6. Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

  7. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  8. "It Was as Useful as a Chocolate Kettle": Sex Education in the Lives of Same-Sex-Attracted Young People in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Lynne; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…

  9. I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic partnership is subject to filing of an Affidavit of Domestic Partnership.

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    I wish to enroll my spouse or *same sex domestic partner in the DSGHP Dependent Plan. *Domestic: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Last First Middle Relation to Student: ( ) Biological Child ( ) Step Child ( ) Adopted Child Date

  10. The Effect of Requiring Private Employers to Extend Health Benefit Eligibility to Same-Sex Partners of Employees: Evidence from California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchmueller, Thomas C.; Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships in…

  11. Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…

  12. Exploring the “Bisexual Bridge”: A Qualitative Study of Risk Behavior and Disclosure of Same-Sex Behavior Among Black Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Jenkins, Tyrrell R.; Dauria, Emily; Patel, Shilpa N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored factors influencing sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices among Black bisexual men. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 Black men in Atlanta, Georgia, who reported having had oral, vaginal, or anal sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months. Results. Participants described approaches to disclosure of same-sex behavior as part of a complex decisional balance influenced by both situational and individual factors and ranging from full disclosure to total secrecy. Influences on sexual behavior and condom-use practices included: (1) type of relationship, (2) gender-specific considerations, (3) perceptions of comfort or trust, and (4) fear of disease or pregnancy. Conclusions. Disclosure of same-sex behavior was not a major influence on the sexual behavior and condom-use practices of the Black bisexual men in our study, who demonstrated heterogeneity in approaches to sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices. Additional research is needed to assess the social determinants of sexual risk for this population. Future HIV-prevention efforts should include initiatives to encourage accuracy in risk assessment and in taking sexual histories in clinical settings. PMID:19910348

  13. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points…

  14. The Residential Segregation of Same-Sex Partnered Households from Heterosexual Partnered Households: Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the U.S., 2010 

    E-print Network

    Deng, Xiaodan

    2015-05-12

    offers a better understanding of the location and segregation patterns of same-sex couples in metropolitan areas in the U.S. It also fills an important information gap by providing an empirical perspective to the vibrant policy and intellectual debates...

  15. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-01-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  16. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-09-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  17. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gillian R; Kulbarsh, Kyle D; Spencer, Karen A; Duval, Camille

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light-dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light-dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  18. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gillian R.; Kulbarsh, Kyle D.; Spencer, Karen A.; Duval, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light–dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light–dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  19. Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1

    PubMed Central

    García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

  20. Do parents play different roles in drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents? A longitudinal follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chao-Chia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Wu, Chi-Chen; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gender differences in the associations between adolescent drinking behaviour, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and attitudes towards underage drinking, were investigated. Methods Data were drawn from two cohorts in the Child and Adolescent Behaviours in Long-term Evolution project. We used data from 2009 to 2006, when cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, were in grade 9. No cohort effect was found, so the two cohorts were pooled; 3972 students (1999 boys and 1973 girls) participated in the study. The major variables included adolescent drinking behaviours over the last month, and perceived parental drinking behaviours and parental attitudes towards underage drinking. The effects of the combination of parental drinking behaviours, and attitudes on the drinking behaviours of male and female adolescents, were analysed by logistic regression. Results The drinking behaviour of boys was correlated with the drinking behaviours and attitudes of their fathers but not with those of their mothers. Among boys, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.46), a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94), or a drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.85) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, whereas maternal behaviour and attitude were not significant influences. Among girls, having a non-drinking father who was against underage drinking (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.91) or a non-drinking father who was favourable towards underage drinking (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.83) significantly decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption, as did having a non-drinking mother who was against underage drinking (OR=0.23, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.60). Conclusions The influences of fathers and mothers on the drinking behaviour of their adolescent children differed by offspring gender. PMID:25877273

  1. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  2. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ioerger, Michael; Henry, Kimberly L; Chen, Peter Y; Cigularov, Konstantin P; Tomazic, Rocco G

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  3. Popularity among same-sex and cross-sex peers: A process-oriented examination of links to aggressive behaviors and depressive affect

    PubMed Central

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children’s development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third-and fourth-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at three time points over two school years. Data included peer-reported popularity, social exclusion, friendships, peer victimization, and aggression, and self-reported social self-esteem and depressive affect. Same-sex and cross-sex popularity independently contributed to the prediction of aggression and depressive affect. Popularity was associated with heightened aggression through reduced social exclusion and was indirectly related to lower levels of depressive affect through increased friendships. For boys only, same-sex popularity was further associated with dampened depressive affect through reduced social exclusion and peer victimization and increased social self-esteem. Findings are discussed in light of the potential tradeoffs associated with popularity in preadolescence. PMID:24684714

  4. Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001

  5. On-ground housing in “Mice Drawer System” (MDS) cage affects locomotor behaviour but not anxiety in male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, Luciano; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2008-03-01

    In the present study adult male mice were housed for 21 days in a housing modules of the Mice Drawer System (MDS). MDS is the facility that will support the research on board the International Space Station (ISS). Our investigation focused on: circadian rhythmicity of wide behavioural categories such as locomotor activity, food intake/drinking and resting; emotionality in the elevated plus maze (EPM); body weight. Housing in the MDS determined a strong up-regulation of activity and feeding behaviour and a concomitant decrease in inactivity. Importantly, housing in the MDS disrupted circadian rhythmicity in mice and also determined a decrease in body weight. Finally, when mice were tested in the EPM a clear hyperactivity (i.e. increased total transitions) was found, while no evidence for altered anxiety was detected. In conclusion, housing adult male mice in the MDS housing modules may affect their behaviour, circadian rhythmicity while having no effect on anxiety. It is suggested that to allow adaptation to the peculiar housing allowed by MDS a longer housing duration is needed.

  6. Understanding why males and females multiply mate is at the heart of behavioural

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    and plentiful, a female should be able to maximize her reproductive success by mating with only a single male mating systems, males provide only sperm (genes) and no direct benefits, yet females still multiply mate. In these systems, females might benefit indirectly by obtaining good genes or genes that better complement

  7. School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

    2011-01-01

    This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…

  8. Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Hartana Tb, Gagan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The male-to-female transgender (waria) is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviours (getting, carrying, and offering a condom) and two condom use behaviours (during receptive and insertive anal sex) were assessed. Methods The study involved 209 waria, recruited from five districts in Jakarta and interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Specific measures were developed to study attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in order to predict intentions and behaviours. Results The explained variance between intentions with regard to three preparatory behaviours and two condom uses ranged between 30 and 57%, and the variance between the actual preparatory behaviours of three preparatory and two condom uses ranged between 21 and 42%. In our study, as with several previous studies of the TPB on HIV protection behaviours, the TPB variables differed in their predictive power. With regard to intention, attitude and PBC were consistently significant predictors; attitude was the strongest predictor of intention for all three preparatory behaviours, and PBC was the strongest predictor of intention for condom use, both during receptive and insertive anal sex. TPB variables were also significantly related to the second parameter of future behaviour: actual (past) behaviour. TPB variables were differentially related to the five behaviours. Attitude was predictive in three behaviours, PBC in three behaviours and subjective norms in two behaviours. Conclusions Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted. PMID:25529498

  9. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6) once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders. PMID:15530165

  10. Better mate in the shade: enhancement of male mating behaviour in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in a UV-rich environment.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) vision is widespread in a variety of animals, playing important roles in behaviours such as foraging and reproduction. Despite accumulated information about UV vision and UV-dependent behaviours of animals, little is known about the effect of temporal changes and local variations in UV light on UV-dependent behaviour. Here we report the mating behaviour of male cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in environments with varying content of UV light. We first confirmed that the relative UV content is higher in shaded places than in sunny places. We furthermore arranged experimental areas with varying UV contents in the field, where we compared three aspects of male mating behaviour: visual localization of females, female-searching flight and copulation success rate. In all aspects males performed more actively in UV-rich environments: males searched females for longer, approached females preferentially in the shade and copulated there more frequently. Apparently, female-searching males detect females more easily in a UV-rich environment. The present findings should be taken into consideration when UV-dependent behaviours, visual mate choice in particular, are studied. PMID:19011209

  11. Unsafe sexual behaviour in domestic and foreign migrant male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan: occupational-based and behavioural assessment survey

    PubMed Central

    Al Rifai, Rami; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Morita, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge, health and work-related conditions, and correlates of practising unsafe sex among domestic and foreign male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional behavioural assessment survey. Setting Multinational workplaces in Jordan. Participants 230 Jordanian and 480 foreign male workers aged ?18?years who had worked in a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) for 12?months or more. Outcomes The primary outcome was the prevalence of practising unsafe sex. ‘Unsafe sex’ was defined as sex with a non-regular sexual partner with inconsistent condom usage. Results Overall, 74.3% of workers reported lifetime sexual experience. The proportion of lifetime unsafe sex was similar among domestic (31.8%) and foreign (35.6%) workers. Of those, 59.2% of domestic and 68.1% of foreign workers started practising unsafe sex after joining the QIZ. Rates of lifetime unsafe sex were significantly higher among those who had their sexual debut after joining the QIZ in domestic (aOR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and foreign workers (aOR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1). Among the domestic workers, being 18–24?years old (aOR, 4.9), unmarried (aOR, 4.8), working in the QIZ for 5–8?years (aOR, 5.0), sometimes/frequently shopped with foreign workers (aOR, 2.1) or were current/ex-alcohol drinkers (aORs, 3.4) were independently significantly associated with higher odds of practising unsafe sex. Conclusions A significant proportion of domestic and foreign male workers had been practising unsafe sex. The findings indicated that not only foreigners but also domestic male workers associating with foreign workers are at high risk of unsafe sex. Tailored interventions to promote safer sex in multinational workplaces in Jordan are needed. PMID:26068511

  12. Alcohol and club drug use among same-sex attracted young people: associations with frequenting the lesbian and gay scene and other bars and nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Lea, Toby; Reynolds, Robert; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the lesbian and gay "scene" of bars and nightclubs is a more common site for club drug use than other bars and clubs. A cross-sectional, online survey was conducted with 254 same-sex attracted women and 318 men aged 18-25 in Sydney, Australia. Drug use was more likely in those who attended any venue type more frequently. Men, but not women, were more likely to report drug use in lesbian and gay venues than other venues. Club drug use may be more normalized within the lesbian and gay scene than elsewhere, particularly among young men. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:23127199

  13. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  14. Sex and the sinner: comparing religious and nonreligious same-sex attracted adults on internalized homonegativity and distress.

    PubMed

    Sowe, Babucarr J; Brown, Jac; Taylor, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Homonegative prejudice has long been connected with poor psychological outcomes. These have often been purported to include internalized homonegativity (IH), an outcome regarded as especially detrimental given its association with a large number of adverse mental health correlates. Given the evidence that homonegative prejudice often prevails most strongly within many mainstream religious contexts, the current study examined whether religious lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals would possess higher levels of internalized homonegativity than their nonreligious, and formerly religious, LGB counterparts. To test this hypothesis, Christian, formerly Christian, and nonreligious Australian LGB respondents (N = 579), recruited through social media platforms and a diverse range of community groups, completed an online survey assessing IH; religion-sexuality distress; religious and familial homonegativity; sense of self; and outness. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed that Christian LGB respondents possessed significantly more IH than nonreligious respondents. Furthermore, perceiving greater homonegativity in one's religious and familial environments predicted higher levels of distress and IH among Christians specifically. Despite having apostatized, former Christians still reported greater religion-sexuality distress than nonreligious individuals, suggesting that the psychological effects of homonegative religious environments are potentially enduring. Across all respondents, IH was also greater for males, those who were less "out," and those who possessed a weaker sense of self. Findings generally support the premise that religious homonegativity places LGB Christians at additional psychological risk, with particular regard to IH and religion-sexuality identity conflict, and that both personal and interpersonal characteristics may exacerbate this risk. PMID:25265218

  15. Photoperiod Affects Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Aggressive Behaviour in Male Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus

    E-print Network

    Demas, Greg

    Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) J. C. Wen,*a A. K. Hotchkiss,* G. E. Demas and R. J. Nelson* *Departments University, Bloomington, IN, USA. Key words: photoperiod, Siberian hamster, seasonal, aggression, nitric including photoperiod (day length). Male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) housed in short photoperiod

  16. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Adaptations to Repeated Stress during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Delville, Yvon

    Hamsters J. C. Wommack,* A. Salinas,* R. H. Melloni Jr, and Y. Delville* *Psychology Department, the consequences of stress are often severe and long lasting. Repeated subjugation in adult male golden hamsters-pubertal changes in stress hormones may explain why juvenile hamsters are more resilient to social stress than

  17. Men and women as perpetrators and victims of sexual aggression in heterosexual and same-sex encounters: a study of first-year college students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N?=?2,149 first-year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same-sex and heterosexual victim-perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim-perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite-sex and same-sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. PMID:23629691

  18. Male Moth Songs Tempt Females to Accept Mating: The Role of Acoustic and Pheromonal Communication in the Reproductive Behaviour of Aphomia sociella

    PubMed Central

    Kindl, Ji?í; Kalinová, Blanka; ?ervenka, Milan; Jílek, Milan; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae. PMID:22065997

  19. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact

    PubMed Central

    Dane, Sharon K.; Masser, Barbara M.; MacDonald, Geoff; Duck, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals’ reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate’s same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context–that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy) and liked more (Studies 1–2). Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1), were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2). Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2). The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants’ memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3). Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate’s sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate’s sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of ‘coming out’ under conditions of contact. PMID:26308076

  20. Effects of progesterone and RU486 on the development and expression of adult male sexual behaviour and gene expression in the amygdala and preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Breton, A B; Austin, K J; Leedy, M G; Alexander, B M

    2012-01-01

    The number of progesterone receptors is greater in the male than female neonatal rat hypothalamus. The aims of the present study were to determine developmental effects of progesterone on the expression of adult male sexual behaviour and whether changes in behaviour were reflected by altered gene expression within the hypothalamic preoptic area (POA) or medial amygdala. Male rats were treated with progesterone (40 µg kg(-1), i.p.), the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 (40 µg kg(-1), i.p.) or an equal volume of vehicle (10% ethanol, 90% corn oil) on postnatal Days 1-5. Treatment with either progesterone or RU486 inhibited (P ? 0.07) the initial expression of consummatory sexual behaviour at 10.5 weeks of age without influencing growth or serum concentrations of testosterone. Sexual interest, as measured by latency to exhibiting mounting behaviour or the number of mounts achieved, was not influenced by treatment with either progesterone or RU486. The effects of treatment with progesterone or RU486 on sexual behaviour were diminished by experience. Microarray analysis of the POA indicated 61 genes that were upregulated and 49 that were downregulated (P ? 0.01) following RU486 treatment of male rats. However, the altered expression of selected genes was not confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of targeted genes within the amygdala was not influenced by treatment with either progesterone or RU486. Neonatal treatment with RU486, but not progesterone, decreased testes weight (P=0.02) without affecting testes morphology. The results indicate that altering the progesterone environment during a critical developmental period affects the expression of behaviour, but that changes in behaviour are not mirrored by the altered expression of selected genes. PMID:22935152

  1. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  2. Female and Male Teachers' Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Conceptions and Attitudes Towards Nature and the Environment Do Not Differ: Ecofeminism Put to the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Ewen, B.; Clément, P.; Gericke, N. M.; Nyberg, E.; Hagman, M.; Landström, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre- and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one…

  3. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F; Bandieri, E; Arletti, R

    2001-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed properties to improve energy and fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic Maca pulverised root oral administration on rat sexual behaviour. Sixty male sexually experienced rats (20 group) were daily treated for 15 days with Maca 15 mg kg(-1), Maca 75 mg kg(-1) or saline 0.5 ml kg(-1). The following sexual performance parameters were evaluated at first and last day of treatment: 1st mount (ML), 1st intromission (IL), ejaculation (EL) and postejaculatory (PEL) latencies, intercopulatory interval (ICI) and copulatory efficacy (CE). An activity cage test was carried out to evaluate if Maca-induced locomotion changes could indirectly improve rat sexual performances. It was observed that both lower and higher Maca doses acutely decreased ML, IL and ICI in a significant way (P < 0.05), while only the 75 mg kg(-1) dose decreased the PEL (T = 29, P < 0.05). This effect seems to be the only one dose-dependent. After 15 days of treatment, both doses are able to significantly decrease ML, IL, EL and PEL, while the 75 mg kg(-1) dose decreased the ICI (T = 40, P < 0.05) too. IL, EL and PEL variations seem to be dose-related after chronic treatment. Moreover, chronic Maca treatment induced an apparently not dose-related increase in rat locomotion, during the second 10-min period of observation in the activity cage. The late in Maca-induced locomotion modification excludes that improvement of tested sexual performance parameters is related to an increase in rat aspecific activity. Thus, it was concluded that both acute and chronic Maca oral administration significantly improve sexual performance parameters in male rats. PMID:11297856

  4. Mortality Risks Among Persons Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners: Evidence From the 2008 General Social Survey—National Death Index Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation–associated health risks. Methods We used data from the 1988–2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer–related mortality. Results The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation–associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

  5. Male sex workers: practices, contexts, and vulnerabilities for HIV acquisition and transmission.

    PubMed

    Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2015-01-17

    Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks. PMID:25059939

  6. Effects of space allowance and earthen floor on welfare-related physiological and behavioural responses in male blue foxes.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Niemelä, P; Jauhiainen, L; Tupasela, T

    Welfare-related physiological and behavioural responses were studied in farm-bred male blue foxes (Alopex lagopus). Three different-sized cages (80-cm long [CL80], 120-cm long [CL120], and 240-cm long [CL240]; each 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) with wire-mesh floors and one enlarged cage (CL240E) with both wire-mesh floor (240-cm long x 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) and earthen floor (80-cm long x 105-cm wide x 70-cm high) were compared. N = 30 males for each group. The experiments lasted from weaning in July to pelting in December. Statistical analyses were based on the models accounting for litter as a block effect. Breaking strength of tibia was highest for foxes having access to both wire-mesh and ground floors (CL240E). Stress-induced hyperthermia was evident during capture and immobilisation. The highest rectal temperature (mean +/- SEM) was found in CL240E (capture: 39.6 +/- 0.09 degrees C, restraint:40.0 +/- 0.09 degrees C) and the lowest in CL80 (capture: 39.1 +/- 0.09 degrees C, restraint: 39.7 +/- 0.09 degrees C). Likewise, capture time (median; interquartile range) in the home cage was highest in CL240E (29; 18 to 44) and lowest in CL80 (12; 9 to 14). During capture, foxes tended to withdraw to the farthest site within the cage. CL240E foxes typically showed the most fear towards human. The most confident animals were found in CL80. The cortisol:creatinine ratio (median; interquartile range) obtained from circadian urine did not reveal statistically significant differences among CL80 (3. 5; 2.6 to 4.1), CL120 (2.3; 1.5 to 3.8) and CL240 (2.3, 1.5 to 3.7). The earthen flooring complicated the urine sampling and conclusions for CL240E (1.7; 1.2 to 2.2). CL240E foxes were the most active and explorative on both wire-mesh- and ground-floored open-field arenas. Altogether, 53% of furs from CL240E were classified as very dirty. Dirtiness of furs in other test groups was slight. In conclusion, the present results did not reveal an unambiguous superiority of any of the studied cage options for well-being of farmed blue foxes. PMID:10913798

  7. Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Saccheri, Ilik J.

    2015-01-01

    Protandry (prior emergence of males) in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once), males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip) in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males) consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (?44%) of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (?3%) emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source) populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects). PMID:25648908

  8. Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

  9. Dose-dependent effects of ethanol extract of Salvia haematodes Wall roots on reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansode, F W; Rajendran, S M; Singh, R K

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the dose-dependent effects of Salvia haematodes Wall roots (SHW) extract on male reproductive function and copulatory behaviour in rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control and treated (5, 50 and 300 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) for 30 days). At the end of treatment regimes, the reproductive activity viz. body/organ weights, testicular spermatogenesis, daily sperm production rate (DSP) and epididymal sperm counts, and sexual behaviour including mounting latency (ML), mounting frequency (MF), intromission latency (IL), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculatory interval (PEI) and penile reflexes (PE) were assessed. Results showed significant increase in body weight (at 300 mg kg(-1) ), testis/epididymis weights (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) ), testicular spermatids, DSP, tubular diameter and epididymal sperm counts (at 50 and 300 mg kg(-1) doses) in treated compared with control rats. It also produced dose-dependant changes in sexual behaviour. The 5 mg kg(-1) dose of extract increased MF and PE, whereas 50 and 300 kg(-1) doses caused significant increase in MF, IF, PE, EL (but less than sildenafil citrate treatment), hit rate and seminal plug weight. It is concluded that SHW extract enhances anabolic activity, testicular function and sexual behavioural performance in a dose-dependant manner. PMID:24621398

  10. Low-level repeated exposure to diazinon and chlorpyrifos decrease anxiety-like behaviour in adult male rats as assessed by marble burying behaviour.

    PubMed

    Savy, Claire Y; Fitchett, Ann E; McQuade, Richard; Gartside, Sarah E; Morris, Christopher M; Blain, Peter G; Judge, Sarah J

    2015-09-01

    Occupational exposure to organophosphate (OPs) pesticides is reported to increase in the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Preclinical studies using OP levels, which inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, support the clinical observations, but little is known of the effects of exposure below this threshold. We examined the effects of low level OP exposure on behaviours and neurochemistry associated with affective disorders. Adult rats were administered either diazinon (1mg/kg i.p.) which is present in sheep dip and flea collars, chlorpyrifos (1mg/kg i.p.) which is present in crop sprays, or vehicle for 5 days. OP exposure did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity (blood, cerebellum, caudate putamen, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex), anhedonia-like behaviour (sucrose preference), working memory (novel object recognition), locomotor activity or anxiety-like behaviour in the open field arena. In contrast OP exposure attenuated marble burying behaviour, an ethological measure of anxiety. The diazinon-induced reduction in marble burying persisted after exposure cessation. In comparison to vehicle, dopamine levels were lowered by chlorpyrifos, but not diazinon. 5-HT levels and turnover were unaffected by OP exposure. However, 5-HT transporter expression was reduced by diazinon suggesting subtle changes in 5-HT transmission. These data indicate exposure to occupational and domestic OPs, below the threshold to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, can subtly alter behaviour and neurochemistry. PMID:26297601

  11. Long-term effects of early postnatal nutrition on subsequently body weight gain, emotionally and learning behaviour in male rats.

    PubMed

    Hinz, G; Hecht, K; Rohde, W; Dörner, G

    1983-07-01

    Male rats have been reared as litters of 2 pups (group A) or 12 pups (group B) during the first 3 weeks of life. Males of group A exhibited higher body weights from day 10 to day 430, reached puberty at earlier age and showed lower emotionality as well as diminished learning capability and decreased memory capacity in adulthood as compared to males of group B. Furthermore, adult males of group A developed an increased ratio of insulin to glucose serum concentration at 90 minutes after glucose administration. PMID:6352287

  12. Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Results Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25–29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7–4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7–3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8) than their counterparts. Conclusions The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours. PMID:25423311

  13. Children and Parents as Informants of Emotional and Behavioural Problems Predicting Female and Male Adolescent Risk Behaviour: A Longitudinal Cross-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierhaus, Marc; Lohaus, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether health risk behaviour in adolescence can be predicted by self- and by parental reports of psychopathology (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) assessed two and four years earlier. A total sample of 366 fourth graders participated in a longitudinal study with measurements taken in grades 4, 6, and 8. In grades 4…

  14. Age-related differences in the association between stereotypic behaviour and salivary cortisol in young males with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M

    2015-12-01

    To identify if age influenced the relationship between one of the central symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and physiological stress, the association between stereotypic behaviour (SB) and stress-related cortisol concentrations was examined in a sample of 150 young males with an ASD. Parent-rated SB was significantly correlated with cortisol concentrations for boys aged 6years to 12years but not for adolescents aged 13years to 18years. This age-related difference in this association was not a function of cortisol concentrations but was related to differences in SB across these two age groups. IQ did not have a significant effect on this relationship, suggesting that age-related learning may have been a possible pathway for reduced SB during adolescence. The aspect of SB that was most powerfully related to cortisol was general repetitive behaviour rather than movements of specific body parts. Explanations of these findings are raised for further investigation. PMID:26456519

  15. Male More than Female Infants Imitate Propulsive Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Tennyson, Robert; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male

  16. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  17. Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation-- one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice-- which inform the men’s interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

  18. Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID:24392104

  19. HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

  20. HIV vulnerabilities and coercive sex at same-sex sexual debut among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Stephen W; Ruan, Yuhua; Spittal, Patricia M; Pearce, Margo E; Qian, Han-Zhu; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Zheng; Shao, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined coercive sex and HIV vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The present study seeks to compare individual characteristics between MSM who did and did not experience coercive sex at their MSM sexual debut and to identify HIV risk factors correlated with coercive sex at MSM sexual debut. In 2007, we recruited 167 MSM in Beijing, China by peer-referred social network sampling. Each participant then completed self-administered questionnaires regarding their sexual experiences and practices. Results show that 14% of participants reported coercive sex at MSM sexual debut, of whom 48% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Coercive sex at MSM sexual debut was significantly associated with UAI [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.95-14.87] and lifetime number of male sex partners (AOR: 7.25, 95% CI: 2.39-22.01). Coercive sex is harming MSM in China and should be immediately addressed by researchers, public health officials, and MSM community stakeholders. PMID:24099311

  1. Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Family psychosocial characteristics in childhood have been associated with children's development into criminal behaviour and mortality. This study explored these possible relationships and examined alcohol and/or drug use and mental problems as possible mediating factors, highlighting gender-specific patterns. Methods Data from Swedish subjects born in 1953 (n = 14,294) from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were examined. Several indicators of adverse family factors and individual problems were included in the present study. The information was derived from various data sources, covering different periods. Gender-specific associations with incidence of criminality (1966-1980) and mortality (1981-2009) were analysed using logistic regression. Furthermore, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for all variables in the fully adjusted models which were positively related to the outcome. Results Overall incidence of criminality and mortality was (m/f 32.3/6.6) and (m/f 6.1/3.5), respectively. The results showed that all aspects of family psychosocial and individual problems studied were associated with criminality for both genders. Among males, individual problems seemed to partly mediate these relations, but the associations remained statistically significant. Interestingly, the PAF analysis revealed a reduction in criminality of 17.5% when individual problems with alcohol and/or drug use were considered. Among females, a significant impact of alcohol and/or drug use on the association between family psychosocial characteristics and subsequent criminality was obtained. Inclusion of father's occupational class only somewhat reduced the estimates for the genders. Concerning male mortality, father's alcohol abuse was significantly related to an increased risk. When individual criminality was accounted for, the association was substantially reduced but remained statistically significant. Among females, when adjusting for family psychosocial factors, only the association between parents' mental problems and females' mortality was significant. None of the individual problem variables managed to explain this association. Conclusions Family psychosocial characteristics were associated with both subsequent criminal behaviour and mortality. These connections were partly explained by individual risk factors, especially by alcohol and/or drug use. The practical implications of the findings point to the importance of addressing the individual's alcohol and/or drug use in reducing criminal behaviour, which would also lower the mortality rates. PMID:21962152

  2. Face Aftereffects Indicate Dissociable, but Not Distinct, Coding of Male and Female Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquet, Emma; Rhodes, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that exposure to distorted faces of one sex induces perceptual aftereffects for test faces that are of the same sex, but not for test faces of the other sex (A. C. Little, L. M. DeBruine, & B. C. Jones, 2005). This result suggests that male and female faces have separate neural coding. Given the high degree of visual similarity…

  3. Biological and psychosocial determinants of male and female human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    James, William H

    2005-09-01

    Some propositions on male and female sexual orientation will be considered. Some of these are established; others are more speculative. The aim is to offer some notes towards a coherent, comprehensive theory of sexual orientation. 1. The distinction between butch and femme lesbians seems real rather than a social construct. 2. High levels of prenatal steroid hormones seem to be causally associated with the sexual orientation of butch lesbians. However it is not established whether the causal process operates prenatally or postnatally (or both). This is so because prenatal hormone levels are thought to correlate positively with postnatal hormone levels. And high postnatal hormone levels may facilitate homosexual behaviour as a consequence of sensation-seeking. 3. Male bisexuals also are interpreted to have been exposed to high prenatal testosterone levels. But (for reasons similar to those outlined above in regard to butch lesbians) it is unclear whether these have a direct prenatal effect on the brain or whether they are precursors of high postnatal testosterone levels, which are associated with male bisexual orientation by promoting sensation-seeking behaviour. 4. Postnatal learning processes seem to be causally involved in the sexual orientation of some femme lesbians and some exclusive male homosexuals. 5. Some homosexual men have genes that predispose to their sexual orientation. 6. The same may apply to some lesbians, but such genes have not, as far as I know, been identified. 7. People (of both sexes) who engage in same-sex sexual behaviour may be classified simultaneously in two ways, viz (1) 'active' vs 'passive' and (2) those who do and those who do not engage (or consider engaging) in sex with members of the opposite sex. Ex hypothesi, some of the 'active' ones initiate some of the 'passive' ones. The active ones are driven more by hormones and the passive ones by psychosocial factors. The active males contain a substantial proportion of self-identified bisexuals; and the active females a substantial proportion of self-identified butches. 8. These two active categories (butch lesbians and male bisexuals) share a number of endocrinological, psychological, morphological and behavioural features vis-a-vis their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual peers. Methods of testing some of these ideas are presented. PMID:16174346

  4. Heritability of Antisocial Behaviour at 9: Do Callous-Unemotional Traits Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viding, Essi; Jones, Alice P.; Paul, J. Frick; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A previous finding from our group indicated that teacher-rated antisocial behaviour (AB) among 7-year-olds is particularly heritable in the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Using a sample of 1865 same-sex twin pairs, we employed DeFries-Fulker extremes analysis to investigate whether teacher-rated AB with/without CU traits also shows…

  5. The influence of a magnesium-rich marine extract on behaviour, salivary cortisol levels and skin lesions in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K; O'Gorman, D M; Taylor, S; Boyle, L A

    2013-06-01

    Growing pigs can display undesirable behaviours, reflecting or causing poor welfare. Addition of magnesium (Mg) to the diet could reduce these, as Mg supplementation has been associated with improved coping ability in response to stress. This study examined the effect of supplementation with a Mg-rich marine extract-based product (Supplement) on the behaviour, skin and tail lesion scores and salivary cortisol concentrations of growing pigs. At weaning (28 days), 448 piglets were assigned to either Control or Supplement (0.05%) diets in single-sex groups of 14. Four weeks later (c. 17 kg), pigs were blocked according to weight and back test scores. Seven piglets from each pen were mixed with seven from another pen of the same sex and dietary treatment to yield the following groups: control male, Supplement male, control female and Supplement female (n = 4 of each). This marked the start of the 9-week experimental period. Instances of the following behaviours were recorded in each pen for 8 × 2 min periods 1 day/week: aggression (fight, head-knock and bite); harmful (tail-in-mouth, ear-chewing and belly-nosing); and sexual/mounting behaviour. Four focal pigs were selected from each pen, and their behaviour was continuously recorded for 2 × 5 min periods on the same day. Saliva was collected once per week at 1000 h by allowing pigs to chew on a cotton bud for c. 1 min. Salivary cortisol was analysed in duplicate by an enzyme immunoassay. Skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity 1 day/week. There were fewer aggressive incidents in Supplement pens (P < 0.01), and mounting behaviour (performed only by males) was almost three times lower in Supplement than in control pens (P < 0.01). However, there was no effect of Supplement on the incidence of each of the harmful behaviours. Behaviour of the focal pigs showed no treatment effect on the duration or incidence of aggressive behaviour. However, Supplement pigs spent less time performing harmful behaviours compared with control pigs (P < 0.001). Supplement had no effect on the occurrence or severity of tail-biting outbreaks or on tail lesion scores. However, Supplement females had lower skin lesion scores, in particular in the ears and shoulders (P < 0.01). Finally, Supplement pigs had lower salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.01). Mounting is a major welfare concern in uncastrated pigs, and therefore this represents an important welfare benefit of Supplement. Reduced salivary cortisol, in conjunction with reduced skin lesion scores in supplemented females, suggests that addition of a Mg-rich marine extract improved pig welfare in this system. PMID:23253104

  6. Males under attack: sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology

    E-print Network

    Foellmer, Matthias

    potentially very potent factor resulting in selection on males in the context of reproduction is sexualMales under attack: sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology and behaviour success, males may be under sexual selection through male­male competition, female choice and/or sexual

  7. Morphology of reproductive organs, semen quality and sexual behaviour of the male rabbit exposed to a soy-containing diet and soy-derived isoflavones during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, J R; Báo, S N

    2009-12-01

    Placental and breastfeeding transfer of soy isoflavones are potential routes for animal and human exposure to phytoestrogens, and reproductive dysfunctions have been linked to early exposure to these compounds. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perinatal (intrauterine and lactational) exposure to soy-containing diet and soy-derived isoflavones on the reproductive parameters of male rabbits. For this purpose, 12 female rabbits were randomly assigned to receive: (1) a soy- and alfalfa-free diet (control diet); (2) a soy- and alfalfa-free diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg body wt/day of soy isoflavones; (3) a soy- and alfalfa-free diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg body wt/day of soy isoflavones; and (4) a diet containing 18% of soy meal, throughout gestation and lactation. Weight and morphology of the reproductive organs of some of the male offspring were evaluated at weaning (between days 29 and 31). The remaining males were placed on the control diet from weaning to adulthood (gestational and lactational exposure only). Sexual behaviour, semen quality and reproductive organs' morphology were evaluated after puberty. There were no significant differences in litter size and gestation duration between control and treatment groups. Perinatal exposure to soy-containing diet and soy isoflavones did not alter testis, epididymides, proprostate and prostate weight and gross morphology. After puberty, sexual behaviour and semen parameters did not differ significantly from the control group. These results indicate that intrauterine and lactational exposure to soy-containing diet and soy-derived isoflavones may not adversely affect reproductive development and function of male rabbits. PMID:19144022

  8. Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bates, Elizabeth A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Archer, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282-294] typology. A student sample (N?=?1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same-sex non-intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. PMID:23878077

  9. Male-male sexual behavior in Japanese quail: being "on top" reduces mating and fertilization with females.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) engage in vigorous same-sex sexual interactions that have been interpreted as aggressive behavior reflecting dominance relationships. The consequences of this behavior for reproductive success, and whether it is a form of competition over mating and fertilization, are unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of seeing or interacting with another male on a male's subsequent mating and fertilization success with females. A vigorous interaction with another male in which the subject performed more cloacal contact movements (movements to try to make contact with the other bird's cloacal opening) reduced subsequent mating and fertilization success with a female to a similar extent as a prior mating with a different female. Receiving one or more cloacal contacts from another male was less detrimental for subsequent success. The mere presence of another (stimulus) male delayed mating initiation in those male subjects that approached the stimulus first instead of the female. These results do not support the idea that the male "on top" in male-male sexual interactions is the dominant bird who goes on to achieve greater reproductive success. Instead, the results are consistent with male-male sexual behavior as an occasionally costly by-product of strong mating motivation. PMID:25264235

  10. Natural Variation in plep-1 Causes Male-Male Copulatory Behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Noble, Luke M; Chang, Audrey S; McNelis, Daniel; Kramer, Max; Yen, Mimi; Nicodemus, Jasmine P; Riccardi, David D; Ammerman, Patrick; Phillips, Matthew; Islam, Tangirul; Rockman, Matthew V

    2015-10-19

    In sexual species, gametes have to find and recognize one another. Signaling is thus central to sexual reproduction and involves a rapidly evolving interplay of shared and divergent interests [1-4]. Among Caenorhabditis nematodes, three species have evolved self-fertilization, changing the balance of intersexual relations [5]. Males in these androdioecious species are rare, and the evolutionary interests of hermaphrodites dominate. Signaling has shifted accordingly, with females losing behavioral responses to males [6, 7] and males losing competitive abilities [8, 9]. Males in these species also show variable same-sex and autocopulatory mating behaviors [6, 10]. These behaviors could have evolved by relaxed selection on male function, accumulation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit hermaphrodites and harm males [5, 11], or neither of these, because androdioecy also reduces the ability of populations to respond to selection [12-14]. We have identified the genetic cause of a male-male mating behavior exhibited by geographically dispersed C. elegans isolates, wherein males mate with and deposit copulatory plugs on one another's excretory pores. We find a single locus of major effect that is explained by segregation of a loss-of-function mutation in an uncharacterized gene, plep-1, expressed in the excretory cell in both sexes. Males homozygous for the plep-1 mutation have excretory pores that are attractive or receptive to copulatory behavior of other males. Excretory pore plugs are injurious and hermaphrodite activity is compromised in plep-1 mutants, so the allele might be unconditionally deleterious, persisting in the population because the species' androdioecious mating system limits the reach of selection. PMID:26455306

  11. Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... delivers the sperm into the woman's body. The male reproductive system makes, stores, and transports sperm. Chemicals in your body called hormones control this. Sperm and male sex hormone (testosterone) are made in the 2 ...

  12. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  13. Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species

    E-print Network

    Jones, Adam

    Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse species Male pregnancy and the formation of seahorse mating behaviour reveals that male pregnancy in seahorses and their relatives has had profound effects to appreciate the evolutionary implications of male pregnancy. The pregnant male and his devoted wife Mating

  14. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2002, 63, 487493 doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1952, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    behaviours in male geckos (1) when gonadally intact, (2) following castration and (3) following testosterone relative to naïve males following castration. However, the courtship behaviour of castrated naïve

  15. Social experience and pheromonal perception can change male-male interactions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Svetec, Nicolas; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2005-03-01

    Social interaction with conspecifics can influence the developing brain and behaviour of the exposed animal. This experience can involve the exchange and retention of visual, chemical, acoustic and tactile signals. When several Drosophila melanogaster male flies are associated with mated females in the presence of food, they show frequent aggressive interactions. To measure the role of social experience on male-male interaction, two tester males - naive or exposed to sibling(s) during a variable period of their adult development - were confronted in the absence of female and food. The two males displayed homosexual courtship and aggressive behaviours, the frequency, intensity and directionality of which varied according to their experience. The effect of social experience was greatly enhanced between transgenic males partially defective for pheromonal perception, indicating that male inhibitory pheromones are normally used to repress male-male interaction. PMID:15755887

  16. Testosterone-induced male traits in female ruffs (Philomachus pugnax): autosomal

    E-print Network

    genetic variation for behavioural alternative per se is unimportant (Eberhard 1982; Emlen 1994; Gross 1996 behaviour exists in male ru¡s, with no obvious parallel expression in females. Pedigree data of male male courtship behaviour in gonad-intact female ru¡s, using subcutaneous testosterone implants

  17. Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.

    PubMed

    Forslund

    2000-04-01

    European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792930

  18. Why We Must Try Same-Sex Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laster, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Educators have not been teaching to the learning style of boys, nor have they kept up with recent findings in brain research on the developmental differences between boys and girls. With all the education reform efforts about, with new accountability standards so high, school districts nationwide struggle to balance budgets and increase student…

  19. Same-Sex Relationships and Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Jan; Davies, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited existing research looking at homosexuality and people with intellectual disabilities has identified a low level of knowledge, homophobic attitudes and negative experiences for gay men. Mainstream research has identified traditional gender role beliefs to be highly associated with negative attitudes towards homosexuality. This…

  20. Same-sex attraction: a model to aid nurses' understanding.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Young people attracted to people of their own sex are at risk of bullying and discrimination. It is often difficult for them to find support. Either emotionally or in relation to their health needs. This article explores a model to aid nurses in understanding the process individuals go through before coming to terms with their sexuality. The model also outlines the steps that nurses can take to enhance the care they provide for this vulnerable group of patients and clients. PMID:20050445

  1. Condoms - male

    MedlinePLUS

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive-condom; Contraception-condom; Barrier method-condom ... not protect against the spread of infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth ...

  2. Social Exclusion: More Important to Human Females Than Males

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Hultgren, Brittney; Nguyen, Tuyet; Bullock, Grace; Wrangham, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical models based on primate evidence suggest that social structure determines the costs and benefits of particular aggressive strategies. In humans, males more than females interact in groups of unrelated same-sex peers, and larger group size predicts success in inter-group contests. In marked contrast, human females form isolated one-on-one relationships with fewer instrumental benefits, so social exclusion constitutes a more useful strategy. If this model is accurate, then human social exclusion should be utilized by females more than males and females should be more sensitive to its occurrence. Here we present four studies supporting this model. In Study 1, using a computerized game with fictitious opponents, we demonstrate that females are more willing than males to socially exclude a temporary ally. In Study 2, females report more actual incidents of social exclusion than males do. In Study 3, females perceive cues revealing social exclusion more rapidly than males do. Finally, in Study 4, females’ heart rate increases more than males’ in response to social exclusion. Together, results indicate that social exclusion is a strategy well-tailored to human females’ social structure. PMID:23405221

  3. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid”) males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection at the colony level rather than the individual level. PMID:22703760

  4. Ploughing behaviour of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) suggests a scent marking function 

    E-print Network

    Leus, Kristin; Bland, K P; Dhondt, A A; Macdonald, Alastair A

    1996-01-01

    A unique form of behaviour, 'ploughing behaviour', was studied in experiments carried out on 13 babirusa, three adult males, two sub-adult males, five adult females and three sub-adult females. Ploughingbehaviour was ...

  5. Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnant after at least one year of trying. Causes of male infertility include Physical problems with the testicles Blockages in the ducts that carry sperm Hormone problems A history of high fevers or mumps Genetic disorders Lifestyle or environmental factors About a third of ...

  6. Courtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side

    E-print Network

    Gross, Mart

    's genetic quality and health. However, the relationship between an individual's FA and behaviourCourtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side Mart R. Gross1,*, Ho Young Suk the quantity of their orange signal. This appears to be a strictly behavioural male response to cues provided

  7. The number of subordinates moderates intrasexual competition among males in cooperatively breeding meerkats.

    PubMed

    Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-01-22

    For dominant individuals in cooperatively breeding species, the presence of subordinates is associated with both benefits (i.e. increased reproductive output and other group-living benefits) and costs (i.e. intrasexual competition on reproduction). The biological market theory predicts that dominant individuals are tolerant to same-sex group members when there are only a few subordinates, so as to maximize their own reproductive success. We investigated factors affecting aggression by dominant males and submission by subordinate males for a cooperatively breeding mammal, meerkats, Suricata suricatta. In this species, reproductive conflict occurs between the dominant male and the non-offspring males. As predicted, the number of subordinates in a group was positively associated with the aggression frequency by the dominant male and with the submission frequency by the subordinate males. Relative to the aggression frequency against male offspring, the frequency of aggression against non-offspring males was comparable in small groups, but was higher in large groups. These results indicate that reproductive conflict is present between the dominant male and the non-offspring males but is moderated in groups with small numbers of subordinates. This study provides an empirical data agreeing with the biological market theory in the context of intrasexual competition in cooperatively breeding species. PMID:17986431

  8. Behaviour (2014) DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003173 brill.com/beh Puma communication behaviours: understanding

    E-print Network

    Wilmers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Behaviour (2014) DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003173 brill.com/beh Puma communication behaviours, but these behaviours are not well understood in pumas (Puma concolor). We used motion-triggered video cameras to document the use of communication behaviours by male and female pumas, and used a series of experimental

  9. Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saino, N.; Rubolini, D.; Romano, M.; Boncoraglio, G.

    2007-03-01

    The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations between digit ratios and diverse phenotypic traits in humans. However, no study has investigated experimentally the effect of prenatal estrogens on digit ratios. We analyzed the effect of estradiol injection in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs on digit ratios. Males from control eggs had higher ratios between the second or third and the fourth digit of the right foot compared to females. Estradiol-treated eggs produced males with lower (feminized) right foot second to fourth digit ratio. Thus, we provided the first experimental evidence that prenatal exposure to physiologically high estrogen levels affects bird digit ratios.

  10. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  11. Male Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Wieland; Wagner, Isabel V; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Körner, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Many cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal studies have examined the association between adiposity and pubertal development. In addition, the impact of an increased fat mass on reproduction and fertility in human obese men and in male animal models of obesity has been studied. A trend toward earlier pubertal development and maturation in both sexes has been shown, and the notion that obese boys might progress to puberty at a slower pace than their nonobese peers can no longer be substantiated. Impaired fertility markers and reduced reproductive functions have been observed in obesity. Obesity affects both pubertal development and fertility in men. PMID:26568491

  12. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner. PMID:25567073

  13. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  14. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  15. Male Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss, Male Pattern Baldness (Male Pattern Alopecia) Information for adults A A A This man has worsening male-pattern hair loss resulting from the medication Tenormin. Overview Male pattern ...

  16. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > Male Reproductive ... your son's reproductive health. Continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  17. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > Your Changing Body > Male ... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  18. Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male territorial aggression in the three-spined stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Ingolf P.; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2008-07-01

    Animal colour signals serve important functions in intraspecific interactions, including species recognition, mate choice and agonistic behaviour. An increasing interest concerns ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, for instance studies on the effect of UV in mating decisions. More recently, some studies also established that UV signals affect intrasexual interactions. We studied the role of UV during aggressive encounters between male three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus), a species in which UV has an effect on female and male mate choice and shoaling behaviour. To that aim, we compared the aggressive response of a territorial male to male intruders, either seen in UV-including (UV+) or UV-lacking (UV-) conditions. Our prediction was that, if UV wavelengths are used in male-male competition, a territorial male should show less competitive behaviour towards an intruder representing a lower threat, i.e. the one presented without UV light. Male sticklebacks showed significantly lower levels of aggression towards male opponents lacking an UV component to their coloration than male opponents possessing this colour component. Discrimination was not influenced by a difference in brightness between the UV+ and UV- stimuli. Finally, we present some reflectance-spectrophotometrical data of two skin regions (cheek and abdomen) of the experimental males and analysed relationships between colorimetric variables, body variables and behaviour. Our study emphasises that UV visual cues are of importance in different communicational tasks in the three-spined stickleback.

  19. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  20. Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition

    E-print Network

    Miller, Christine Whitney

    in sex-role reversed species. Polygyny. Mating systems characterized by high vari- ance in male reproductive success; a few males mate with many females, and many males mate with few or no females. Sperm between males and females is due to the factors that limit reproductive success for each sex. In- dividual

  1. "Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": Findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age) who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex) was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex) was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands) push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV prevention need to be developed in close collaboration with affected communities and be closely related to policy-making and implementation; to go beyond the limited success of traditional behavioural and biomedical interventions to particularly address the underlying social and structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability in the study communities. PMID:22202562

  2. Between and within couple-level factors associated with gay male couples' investment in a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2014-08-01

    Sexual agreements are common among gay male couples, and between one-third and two-thirds of gay men acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies have assessed whether agreements could be used for HIV prevention yet additional research is needed. By using dyadic data collected from 361 U.S. gay male couples, the present cross-sectional study sought to assess whether certain between and within couple-level relationship characteristics predict a partner's value in, commitment to, and satisfaction with an agreement. On average, couples with higher levels of constructive communication and relationship satisfaction and commitment were associated with partners who had higher levels of investment in the agreement. Within the couple, differences in commitment and investment of the relationship were also found to be negatively associated with partners' investment toward an agreement. Implications are discussed for how sexual agreements may be used to develop new HIV prevention efforts for gay male couples. PMID:24327185

  3. Between and within couple-level factors associated with gay male couples’ investment in a sexual agreement

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual agreements are common among gay male couples, and between one-third and two-thirds of gay men acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies have assessed whether agreements could be used for HIV prevention yet additional research is needed. By using dyadic data collected from 361 U.S. gay male couples, the present cross-sectional study sought to assess whether certain between and within couple-level relationship characteristics predict a partner's value in, commitment to, and satisfaction with an agreement. On average, couples with higher levels of constructive communication and relationship satisfaction and commitment were associated with partners who had higher levels of investment in the agreement. Within the couple, differences in commitment and investment of the relationship were also found to be negatively associated with partners’ investment toward an agreement. Implications are discussed for how sexual agreements may be used to develop new HIV prevention efforts for gay male couples. PMID:24327185

  4. The association between bullying behaviour, arousal levels and behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; White, Eleanor

    2005-06-01

    Research into bullying behaviour has identified two main categories of bullying behaviour, direct bullying and relational bullying, within which different profiles are evident, namely 'pure' bullies, 'pure' victims, bully/victims and neutral children. The current study examined the relationship between direct and relational bullying profiles, arousal levels, and behaviour problems. 242 (males: 121, females: 121) Secondary school pupils (mean age 13.5 years) completed three questionnaires; the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) (Behav. Res. Therapy 26 (1988) 415); the School Relationships Questionnaire (SRQ) (detailed in J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 41(8) (2000) 989; Br. J. Psychol. 92 (2001) 673); the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 38(5) (1997) 581). Results revealed that the bully/victim profile for direct and relational bullying had the highest levels of arousal compared to other bullying profiles. Conversely, direct 'pure' bullies had low levels of arousal. Clinical behaviour problems as measured by the SDQ were associated with high levels of arousal. Clinically low arousal was not related to either bullying profiles, or behaviour problems. These findings were largely consistent with the arousal theory of behaviour (Crime and personality, 1964), which indicates that arousal levels are differentially associated with distinct behaviour patterns. The results provide implications for bullying intervention strategies, and methods to manage the school environment in relation to arousal levels. PMID:15925689

  5. Marriage and the Civilizing of Male Sexual Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosik, Christopher H.; Byrd, A. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. M. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States." There are many arguable contentions Herek made in his defense of same-sex marriage. We have chosen to focus on only one in this commentary: What is the active ingredient in marriage that serves the socially advantageous goal of civilizing…

  6. Mental Health, Behaviour and Intellectual Abilities of People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maatta, Tuomo; Tervo-Maatta, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2006-01-01

    The mental health, adaptive behaviour and intellectual abilities of people with Down syndrome (n=129) were evaluated in a population-based survey of social and health care records. Females had better cognitive abilities and speech production compared with males. Males had more behavioural problems than females. Behaviour suggestive of attention…

  7. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps. 

    E-print Network

    Cook, James M; Compton, Steven G; Herre, E Allen; West, Stuart A

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphisms in morphology and behaviour of male fig wasps are among the most extreme in the animal kingdom, and offer excellent oppotunities to test the predictions of certain sexual selection models....

  8. Vocal communication between male Xenopus laevis MARTHA L. TOBIAS, CANDACE BARNARD, ROBERT O'HAGAN,

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Darcy B.

    call types were directed to males; three of these were directed to both sexes and three were directed with a specific behaviour and others were not. Clasped males always growled and clasping males typically produced. Calling increases the male's access to females either directly, through attraction, or indirectly, via

  9. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePLUS

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  10. Theories: Behaviour Change | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Theories | 20121

    E-print Network

    Theories: Behaviour Change | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Theories | 20121 Theories and models of behaviour and behaviour change 1 Contents Theories and models of behaviour .............................................................................................4 3. Theories of Individual Behaviour and Behaviour Change................................5 3

  11. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Garner, Shawn R.; Fleming, Ian A.; Gross, Mart R.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55–84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males. PMID:26361548

  12. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Neff, Bryan D; Garner, Shawn R; Fleming, Ian A; Gross, Mart R

    2015-08-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55-84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males. PMID:26361548

  13. “What do You Mean I’ve Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!” Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape

    PubMed Central

    Toefy, Yoesrie; Skinner, Donald; Thomsen, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually. Results The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling. Conclusions There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested. PMID:26176946

  14. Degree of male ornamentation affects female preference for conspecific versus heterospecific males.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sarah A; Luddem, S T

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have shown female preference for conspecific males with the attached artificial ornaments of more elaborate heterospecifics. However, preference for heterospecifics under natural conditions is relatively rare. We tested what factors affect behavioural mechanisms of species isolation using three species of estrildid finch (genus Uraeginthus) that occur in both sympatry and allopatry. These finches differ in degree of sexual dimorphism; male ornamentation; behavioural and morphological similarity; and phylogenetic distance. Paired mate-choice trials were used in which females were presented with a conspecific and heterospecific male to test which of the above between-species differences best predicted the degree of premating isolation. The three species differed in the degree of species-specific mate preference shown. Females from the brighter two species discriminated against dull males, independently of sympatry-allopatry, similarity and phylogenetic distance. Females from the dull species reacted to conspecific males and brighter heterospecific males equally strongly, independently of similarity and phylogenetic distance. In contrast to previous studies, an equal preference for heterospecific and conspecific males was found under natural conditions. It is suggested that differences between closely related species in male ornamentation affect the likelihood that premating isolation will occur due to the fact that sexual selection tends to drive preferences for exaggerated ornamentation. PMID:11798425

  15. Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kevin P.

    Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks Kevin P. Johnson1 {, Frank Mc changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere

  16. Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species

    PubMed Central

    Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2013-01-01

    When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

  17. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  18. Examining Natural Mentoring Relationships (NMRs) among Self-Identified Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning (GBQ) Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Gary W.; Sánchez, Bernadette; Fernández, M. Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have identified the presence of natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) as one of a set of protective factors that promote and protect the health and well-being of “at-risk” and marginalized youth. While this work has informed our understanding of the importance of NMRs for supporting youth and promoting positive development, it has only just begun to extend its inquiry focus onto the lives of same-sex attracted (SSA) youth (e.g., gay and bisexual youth). Thirty-nine in-depth interviews with self-identified gay, bisexual, and questioning (GBQ) male youth (ages 15 – 22) were qualitatively analyzed for the presence, form, and function of NMRs. Results from this inquiry revealed that participants identified a diverse range of “natural mentors” and that the provision of social support was of thematic prominence in these relationships. Results from this effort are here presented. Clinical and programming implications, as well as directions for future work are discussed. PMID:23408225

  19. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    PubMed

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. PMID:24932897

  20. Sexual behaviour: rapid speciation in an arthropod.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Shaw, Kerry L

    2005-01-27

    Theory predicts that sexual behaviour in animals can evolve rapidly, accelerating the rate of species formation. Here we estimate the rate of speciation in Laupala, a group of forest-dwelling Hawaiian crickets that is characterized primarily through differences in male courtship song. We find that Laupala has the highest rate of speciation so far recorded in arthropods, supporting the idea that divergence in courtship or sexual behaviour drives rapid speciation in animals. PMID:15674280

  1. Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sánchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

    2010-01-01

    Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality. PMID:18410986

  2. Aggressive Transition between Alternative Male Social Tactics in a Long-Lived Australian Dragon (Physignathus lesueurii) Living at High Density

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Troy A.; Baird, Teresa D.; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Theory predicts the evolution of alternative male social tactics when intense competition coupled with the superior competitive ability of some individuals limits access to reproductive opportunities by others. How selection has shaped alternative social tactics may be especially interesting in long-lived species where size among sexually mature males varies markedly. We conducted experimental studies on long-lived eastern Australian water dragons living where competition was intense to test the hypotheses that mature males adopt alternative social tactics that are plastic, and that large size and body condition determine resource-holding potential. Approximately one-half of mature males (N?=?14) defended territories using high rates of patrol and advertisement display, whereas 16 smaller mature males having lower body condition indices utilized non-territorial social tactics. Although territorial males were larger in absolute size and head dimensions, their heads were not allometrically larger. Territorial males advertised very frequently using displays involving stereotypical movements of the head and dewlap. More aggressive displays were given infrequently during baseline social conditions, but increased during periods of social instability. Female home ranges overlapped those of several territorial and non-territorial males, but females interacted more frequently with territorial males. The extreme plasticity of social tactics in this species that are dependent on body size was confirmed by two instances when relatively large non-territorial males spontaneously evicted territory owners, and by marked shifts in tactics by non-territorial males in response to temporary experimental removals of territory owners, followed (usually) by their expulsion when original owners were reinstated. The high level of social plasticity in this population where same-sex competitors are densely concentrated in preferred habitat suggests that chronic high energetic costs of defense may select for males to cycle between territorial and non-territorial social tactics depending upon their changing energetic status and their current capacity for competition with rivals. PMID:22905109

  3. Reproductive behaviour of captive Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    PubMed

    Zainal Zahari, Z; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Yap, K C; Jainudeen, M R

    2005-02-01

    The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is on the verge of extinction in Malaysia. At the Sumatran rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Sungai Dusun, the reproductive behaviour of two female and two male rhinoceroses were studied for 8-10 months during attempts to breed them in captivity. Due to the paucity of scientific information on the reproductive biology of the Sumatran rhinoceros, this study was conducted to obtain information on the reproductive behaviour of this species. The male rhino was introduced to a female rhino in the morning for 1-2 h daily in order to observe for behavioural oestrus. Observations were made on the signs of oestrus and mating behaviour. Oestrus was determined by receptivity towards the male and lasted about 24 h. Common signs of oestrus were an increase in frequency of urine spraying, tail raising or swinging, anogenital and other contacts. Although the males exhibited mounting, the inability of the male to achieve intromission was poor. The study demonstrated that the pattern of courtship and copulation of the captive Sumatran rhinos were comparable with those of other rhino species, reported previously by other scientists and flehmen reflex was also exhibited by the male Sumatran rhinos. In a captive breeding programme, it is recommended that only an oestral female is introduced into a male enclosure due to the male solitary behaviour and to avoid serious injuries inflicted onto the females. PMID:15581515

  4. Associations between personality, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour 

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the associations between personality traits, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of 196 male and female undergraduate ...

  5. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  6. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & ... reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts (epididymis, ductus ...

  8. Social isolation increases cell proliferation in male and cell survival in female California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Ruscio, Michael G; Bradley King, S; Haun, Harold L

    2015-11-01

    Social environment has direct effects on an animal's behavior, physiology and neurobiology. In particular, adult neurogenesis is notably affected by a variety of social manipulations, including social isolation. We hypothesized that social isolation should have particularly acute effects on neurogenesis in a highly social (monogamous and bi-parental) species such as Peromyscus californicus, the California mouse. Adult male and female P. californicus mice were housed in isolation or in same-sex pairs for 4 or 24 days. At the end of each period, either cell proliferation or cell survival was quantified with BrdU label and neuronal markers (either TuJ1 or NeuN). After 4 days, isolated males had greater cellular proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) than pair housed males. After 24 days, isolate females demonstrated greater cell survival in the DG than paired females. Males demonstrated a similar, but non-significant pattern. No differences in cellular proliferation or cell survival were found in the subventricular zone (SVZ), or medial amygdala (MeA). These results add to the evidence which demonstrates that neurogenic responses to environmental conditions are not identical across species. These data may be critical in understanding the functional significance of neurogenesis as it relates to the interactions between social systems, social environment and the display of social behaviors. PMID:26342752

  9. Quick guide Male pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    ! Male pregnancy is an alien concept to us mammals. Yet this phenomenon is the universal reproductive systems and sexual selection. Male pregnancy may even facilitate the creation of new species. SeahorsesMagazine R791 Quick guide Male pregnancy Adam G. Jones1 and John C. Avise2 Don't try this at home

  10. Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male–female interactions

    PubMed Central

    Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F.

    2014-01-01

    Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

  11. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  12. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2003, 66, 441447 doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2258

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2003, 66, 441­447 doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2258 Mongolian gerbil fathers avoid9318) We examined effects on the parental behaviour of male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus with the view that androgen-mediated olfactory stimuli produced by newborn male Mongolian gerbils make them

  13. ENTOMOLOGIST'S MONTHLY MAGAZINE 41 MALE COURTSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Rafael Lucas

    to mount others on a sandy beach, just above the high tide mark, at Puerto Vargas (Limon Province, Costa is associated with sandy littoral and dune areas (Tongiorgi, 1969; Caussanel, 1970; Moore, 1974; Chelazzi

  14. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Hamer, D.H.; Hu, S.; Magnuson, V.L.; Hu, N.; Pattatucci, A.M.L.

    1993-07-16

    The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage analysis of a selected group of 40 families in which there were two gay brothers and no indication of nonmaternal transmission revealed a correlation between homosexual orientation and the inheritance of polymorphic markers on the X chromosome in approximately 64 percent of the sib-pairs tested. The linkage to markers on Xq28, the subtelomeric region of the long arm of the sex chromosome, had a multipoint lod score of 4.0(P = 10[sup [minus]5]), indicating a statistical confidence level of more than 99 percent that at least one subtype of male sexual orientation is genetically influenced.

  15. The functions of non-reproductive mounts among male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Faraut, Lauriane; Northwood, Amy; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2015-11-01

    Same-sex, non-reproductive mounts have been observed in a number of primate species and in various social contexts. However, the function of non-reproductive mounts is still largely unknown. We aimed to test whether non-reproductive mounts function to assert dominance and as appeasement behavior in male Barbary macaques. We analyzed post-mount behavior in 54 macaques belonging to two captive groups at Trentham Monkey Forest in Staffordshire, using 10?min post-mount/matched-control focal sessions collected either on the mounter or the mountee. In support of the dominance assertion hypothesis, the higher-ranking male within a mounting pair was more likely to be the mounter than the mountee, and to mock bite the lower-ranking male. In support of the appeasement hypothesis, the former mounting partners were more likely to exchange grooming and to have a lower frequency of self-scratching (a measure of social tension) after a non-reproductive mount than in control sessions. Our study indicates that non-reproductive mounts have different and not mutually exclusive functions and can modulate the quality of social interactions among group members. We discuss the possible factors that can affect the occurrence of non-reproductive mounts within and between species. Am. J. Primatol. 77:1149-1157, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26204882

  16. Context Consistency and Seasonal Variation in Boldness of Male Two-Spotted Gobies

    PubMed Central

    Magnhagen, Carin; Wacker, Sebastian; Forsgren, Elisabet; Cats Myhre, Lise; Espy, Elizabeth; Amundsen, Trond

    2014-01-01

    In order to attribute the behaviour of an animal to its personality it is important to study whether certain behavioural traits show up consistently across a variety of contexts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether breeding state males of the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, showed consistent degree of boldness when tested in four different behaviour assays. We also wanted to investigate whether boldness varied over the breeding season in accordance with changes in male-male competition for matings. We used two standard assays (the emergence test and the open field test), and two simple assays related to threat response. Repeated runs of each of the tests were highly correlated, and we found significant correlations between all four assays. Thus, we have documented both a within and a between-context consistency in risk-taking behaviour. Furthermore, we found that goby males studied during the middle of the breeding season were bolder than males studied at the end of the season. Since male two-spotted gobies face strongly decreasing male-male competition as the season progresses, the benefit of being bold for the mating success of the males may differ over the time of the breeding season. The difference in behaviour found over the season thus corresponds well with the sexual dynamics of this model species. PMID:24671255

  17. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  18. Behavioural Repertoire of Working Donkeys and Consistency of Behaviour over Time, as a Preliminary Step towards Identifying Pain-Related Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Fran H.; Hockenhull, Jo; Pritchard, Joy C.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Whay, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males). Instantaneous (scan) and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001). Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001). Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001). However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001). Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001) and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies. Conclusions/Significance All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys. PMID:25076209

  19. Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male–male contests

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Caroline; Charrier, Isabelle; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Specialized signals emitted by competing males often convey honest information about fighting ability. It is generally believed that receivers use these signals to directly assess their opponents. Here, we demonstrate an alternative communication strategy used by males in a breeding system where the costs of conflict are extreme. We evaluated the acoustic displays of breeding male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and found that social knowledge gained through prior experience with signallers was sufficient to maintain structured dominance relationships. Using sound analysis and playback experiments with both natural and modified signals, we determined that males do not rely on encoded information about size or dominance status, but rather learn to recognize individual acoustic signatures produced by their rivals. Further, we show that behavioural responses to competitors' calls are modulated by relative position in the hierarchy: the highest ranking (alpha) males defend their harems from all opponents, whereas mid-ranking (beta) males respond differentially to familiar challengers based on the outcome of previous competitive interactions. Our findings demonstrate that social knowledge of rivals alone can regulate dominance relationships among competing males within large, spatially dynamic social groups, and illustrate the importance of combining descriptive and experimental methods when deciphering the biological relevance of animal signals. PMID:26361553

  20. Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male-male contests.

    PubMed

    Casey, Caroline; Charrier, Isabelle; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    Specialized signals emitted by competing males often convey honest information about fighting ability. It is generally believed that receivers use these signals to directly assess their opponents. Here, we demonstrate an alternative communication strategy used by males in a breeding system where the costs of conflict are extreme. We evaluated the acoustic displays of breeding male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and found that social knowledge gained through prior experience with signallers was sufficient to maintain structured dominance relationships. Using sound analysis and playback experiments with both natural and modified signals, we determined that males do not rely on encoded information about size or dominance status, but rather learn to recognize individual acoustic signatures produced by their rivals. Further, we show that behavioural responses to competitors' calls are modulated by relative position in the hierarchy: the highest ranking (alpha) males defend their harems from all opponents, whereas mid-ranking (beta) males respond differentially to familiar challengers based on the outcome of previous competitive interactions. Our findings demonstrate that social knowledge of rivals alone can regulate dominance relationships among competing males within large, spatially dynamic social groups, and illustrate the importance of combining descriptive and experimental methods when deciphering the biological relevance of animal signals. PMID:26361553

  1. High Proportion of Male Faeces in Jaguar Populations

    PubMed Central

    Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n?=?493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n?=?68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species. PMID:23285226

  2. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  3. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23853554

  4. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 59, 885893 doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1389, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    contexts. Assuming close genetic relationship among males, affiliative and cooperative behaviour have been behavioural and genetic data showed that males that affiliated and cooperated with each other were not closelyANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 59, 885­893 doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1389, available online at http

  5. Rates of Self-Reported Delinquency among Western Australian Male and Female High School Students: The Male-Female Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Tan, Carol; Khan, Umneea; Carroll, Annemaree

    2013-01-01

    The Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (ASDS) was administered to 328 adolescents (174 males and 154 females) from eight high schools in Perth, Western Australia. The ages of the sample ranged from 13 to 17 years. Males reported a greater percentage level of involvement than females in 36 of 40 individual delinquent behaviours comprising the…

  6. The Genetic Relatedness in Groups of Joint-Nesting Taiwan Yuhinas: Low Genetic Relatedness with Preferences for Male Kin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Ru; Li, Shou-Hsien; Fang, Shu; Pu, Chang-En; Yuan, Hsiao-Wei; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of direct and indirect fitness and, thus, the role of kinship in the evolution of social behavior is much debated. Studying the genetic relatedness of interacting individuals is crucial to improving our understanding of these issues. Here, we used a seven-year data set to study the genetic structure of the Taiwan yuhina (Yuhina brunneciceps), a joint-nesting passerine. Ten microsatellite loci were used to investigate the pair-wised relatedness among yuhina breeding group members. We found that the average genetic relatedness between same-sex group members was very low (0.069 for male dyads and 0.016 for female dyads). There was also a low ratio of closely-related kin (r>0.25) in the cooperative breeding groups of yuhinas (21.59% and 9.68% for male and female dyads, respectively). However, the relatedness of male dyads within breeding groups was significantly higher than female dyads. Our results suggest that yuhina cooperation is maintained primarily by direct fitness benefits to individuals; however, kin selection might play a role in partner choice for male yuhinas. Our study also highlights an important, but often neglected, question: Why do animals form non-kin groups, if kin are available? We use biological market theory to propose an explanation for group formation of unrelated Taiwan yuhinas. PMID:26086267

  7. Testosterone is involved in mediating the effects of prenatal stress in male guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2011-02-01

    Studies in humans have demonstrated a link between stress during pregnancy and altered behaviour and stress reactivity in children. In guinea pigs, we have previously shown that a short period of maternal stress during gestation leads to increased anxiety, elevated basal cortisol levels and decreased testosterone levels in adult males. We hypothesized that restoring testosterone to normal levels in the adult males born to prenatally stressed mothers would reverse the changes in behaviours and endocrine function. We found differences in attention and anxiety-related behaviours and basal stress endocrine activity between the prenatally stressed and control males. Administration of testosterone reversed the behavioural differences in the prenatally stressed offspring. There was, however, little effect of postnatal testosterone administration on stress-related endocrine activity. This study provides new information to begin to address the mechanism underlying the interplay between prenatal stress, gonadal steroids and postnatal behaviours. PMID:21173081

  8. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  9. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePLUS

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... Ali O, Donohue PA. Gynecomastia. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The ... videos produced for the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Looking for Additional Information? Visit our provider site ...

  11. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  12. Courtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side.

    PubMed

    Gross, Mart R; Suk, Ho Young; Robertson, Cory T

    2007-09-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the small random deviations from perfect morphological symmetry that result during development, is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. In many species, FA seems to play a role in mate choice, perhaps because it signals an individual's genetic quality and health. However, the relationship between an individual's FA and behaviour is generally unknown: what do more asymmetric individuals do about their own asymmetry? We now show for the first time that individuals respond behaviourally to their own morphological FA in what appears to be an adaptive manner. During courtship, male guppies exhibiting high FA in ornamental colour, bias their displays towards their more colourful body side, thus potentially increasing their attractiveness by exaggerating the quantity of their orange signal. This appears to be a strictly behavioural male response to cues provided by females, as it does not occur when males court a non-reactive model female. Whether inferior males realize any mating advantage remains uncertain, but our study clearly demonstrates a behavioural response to random morphological asymmetries that appears to be adaptive. We propose that the tendency to show or otherwise use a 'best side' is common in nature, with implications for sexual signalling and the evolution of more pronounced asymmetries. PMID:17580294

  13. Male monkeys remember which group members have given alarm calls

    E-print Network

    de Vries, Han

    , unanswered question is why animals stop their alarm calls and whether this depends on non-social (e's behaviour influences how long the male will continue his alarm calling. We tested three hypotheses. There could be several non-social and social expla- nations for why primates confronted with a predator stop

  14. Copulation duration, insemination efficiency and male attractiveness in guppies

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    may influence paternity by biasing sperm usage in favour of particular males. In the guppy, Poecilia attractiveness. We videorecorded copulations in the laboratory to test the hypothesis that there is a positive a possible signalling function of this display. Ó 2007 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  15. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    PubMed Central

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length), and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively), but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. PMID:21853105

  16. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Fernandes, Alexandre C.; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans. PMID:25404923

  17. Gender and binegativity: men's and women's attitudes toward male and female bisexuals.

    PubMed

    Yost, Megan R; Thomas, Genéa D

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the influence of gender on attitudes about bisexuals. A total of 164 heterosexual female and 89 heterosexual male undergraduates completed the Biphobia Scale (Mulick & Wright, 2002), rewritten to refer to bisexual men and bisexual women and thus re-named the Gender-Specific Binegativity Scale. A mixed-design ANOVA revealed an interaction between rater's sex and target's sex: women equally accepted bisexual men and bisexual women, but men were less accepting of bisexual men than bisexual women. A mediation analysis indicated the relationship between rater's sex and greater acceptance of bisexual women was partially explained by eroticization of female same-sex sexuality. Finally, participants also responded to two open-ended items, which provided additional information about the content of binegativity: participants described male bisexuals negatively, as gender-nonconforming, and labeled them "really gay," whereas participants described female bisexuals positively, as sexy, and labeled them "really heterosexual." These findings suggest multiple underlying beliefs about bisexuals that contribute to binegativity, particularly against bisexual men. Results also confirm the importance of considering gender (of both the target and the rater) when assessing sexual prejudice. PMID:21597943

  18. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  19. Undergraduate Animal Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    Undergraduate Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences #12 animals tick and how human activity affects them, then our degree in Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science with companion animals. At Bristol, you'll be taught by some of the world's leading animal behaviour and welfare

  20. animal welfare and behavioural

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviour; understanding learning theoryCompanion animal welfare and behavioural rehabilitation Undergraduate #12;bristol.ac.uk/ug-study The Certificate of Higher Education in Companion Animal Welfare and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based

  1. Brief Report: Binge Drinking among High-Risk Male and Female Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2006-01-01

    A major factor attributed to the problem and consequences of underage alcohol use is binge drinking. The objective of this study was to examine binge drinking and other alcohol-related problem behaviour among high-risk male and female adolescents who were from alternative schools and programs because of learning and/or behaviour problems.…

  2. The etiology of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Roper, W G

    1996-02-01

    This hypothesis agrees with Le Vay's suggestion that the two phenomena of childhood behavior and adult sexuality are induced by separate events rather than being two events in a single chain. However, it differs from Le Vay in that it includes the postnatal period, as being of crucial importance in the development of adult sexuality. Male homosexuality is portrayed as a biological variation of human sexuality and the hormonal changes which may produce it are described. It is postulated that sexual preference is dictated by testosterone action on the brain possibly commencing prenatally but certainly continuing during a critical postnatal period. It is proposed that reduction in testosterone action results in reduced proliferation of hypothalamic nuclei, which play a vital role in psycho-sexual orientation. The cause of this reduction in testosterone is the prolongation of hyperprolactinemia during this critical postnatal period, which is deemed to be secondary to prolactin microadenomata stimulated to secrete prolactin by high estrogen levels at the end of pregnancy and failing to turn off this secretion until after this critical postnatal period. It is postulated that there is a temporal dissociation between the development of masculine behaviour and psycho-sexual orientation, but that hormonal influences may overlap these periods. Hyperprolactinemia, caused by stress upon the infant, may also influence psycho-sexual orientation. PMID:8692050

  3. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  4. Male Diachasma alloeum parasitoids from two host species of tephritid fruit flies respond equally to

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    Male Diachasma alloeum parasitoids from two host species of tephritid fruit flies respond equally and blueberry-infesting Rhagoletis mendax, both tephri- tid fruit fly sibling species. The behavioural responses of male D. alloeum originating from both fruit fly host species to hexane extracts of conspecific females

  5. Abstract Previous work has shown that under elevated predation risk, male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) switch

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Abstract Previous work has shown that under elevated predation risk, male guppies (Poecilia is traditionally inter- preted as a `risk-sensitive' response that makes males less conspicuous to predators. However, predation risk leads to behavioural changes (such as schooling and predator inspection

  6. Autism Spectrum Phenotype in Males and Females with Fragile X Full Mutation and Premutation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M.; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K.; Loesch, Danuta Z.

    2007-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with…

  7. Revolutionary coalitions in male rhesus macaques James P. Higham1,2,3)

    E-print Network

    Maestripieri, Dario

    Revolutionary coalitions in male rhesus macaques James P. Higham1,2,3) & Dario Maestripieri1,2) (1 macaques, a species in which male coalitions are reportedly rare or absent. We then report a series in free-ranging rhesus macaques. Keywords: coalitions, co-operation, social behaviour, dominance, rank

  8. Imitation as behaviour parsing.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, R W

    2003-01-01

    Non-human great apes appear to be able to acquire elaborate skills partly by imitation, raising the possibility of the transfer of skill by imitation in animals that have only rudimentary mentalizing capacities: in contrast to the frequent assumption that imitation depends on prior understanding of others' intentions. Attempts to understand the apes' behaviour have led to the development of a purely mechanistic model of imitation, the 'behaviour parsing' model, in which the statistical regularities that are inevitable in planned behaviour are used to decipher the organization of another agent's behaviour, and thence to imitate parts of it. Behaviour can thereby be understood statistically in terms of its correlations (circumstances of use, effects on the environment) without understanding of intentions or the everyday physics of cause-and-effect. Thus, imitation of complex, novel behaviour may not require mentalizing, but conversely behaviour parsing may be a necessary preliminary to attributing intention and cause. PMID:12689378

  9. Mating behaviours of Daphnia pulicaria, a cyclic parthenogen: comparisons with copepods

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The pre-and post-contact mating behaviours of Daphnia pulicaria are investigated by direct observations of vertical distributions, swimming behaviours and male-female interactions. Analysis of vertical distributions in a 1 m deep, thermally stratified migration chamber reveals that females were always located in the upper layer of the water column but males exhibited a bimodal depth distribution, in which an individual's depth was a function of body length and water temperature. The observed distributions of males may be the result of several interacting pressures; predation avoidance, life-history optimization, and avoidance of assortative mating. Male swimming behaviour was faster and orthogonal to that of females, which is in agreement with the predictions of encounter-rate maximization models. Video recordings of males and females interacting in a 1-litre vessel showed that males both pursued and contacted other males more often than females. Thus, there was no evidence that Daphnia are able to use water-borne chemical signals to locate and identify potential mates. However, the average duration of male-female contacts (13.8 s) was much longer than those between males (1.6 s), suggesting that males can determine the sex of contacted individuals.Daphnia mating behaviour is significantly more complex than previously acknowledged. In contrast to the conventional view of Daphnia males swimming more-or-less randomly and mating with any individual encountered, they exhibit behaviours which increase the potential of mating with females while reducing the risk of predation. Several male behaviours, such as 'scanning' and the performance of area-restricted spirals upon encounter, are similar to those reported for some copepods and may be common to zooplankton that lack sophisticated chemosensory abilities. The possibility that Daphnia may also be able to assess such important female attributes as species and reproductive status is discussed.

  10. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain. PMID:26123524

  11. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain. PMID:26123524

  12. Social context-dependent modification of courtship behaviour in Drosophila prolongata.

    PubMed

    Setoguchi, Shiori; Kudo, Ayumi; Takanashi, Takuma; Ishikawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Induction of alternative mating tactics by surrounding conditions, such as the presence of conspecific males, is observed in many animal species. Satellite behaviour is a remarkable example in which parasitic males exploit the reproductive investment by other males. Despite the abundance of parasitic mating tactics, however, few examples are known in which males alter courtship behaviour as a counter tactic against parasitic rivals. The fruit fly Drosophila prolongata shows prominent sexual dimorphism in the forelegs. When courting females, males of D. prolongata perform 'leg vibration', in which a male vibrates the female's body with his enlarged forelegs. In this study, we found that leg vibration increased female receptivity, but it also raised a risk of interception of the female by rival males. Consequently, in the presence of rivals, males of D. prolongata shifted their courtship behaviour from leg vibration to 'rubbing', which was less vulnerable to interference by rival males. These results demonstrated that the males of D. prolongata adjust their courtship behaviour to circumvent the social context-dependent risk of leg vibration. PMID:26538591

  13. Object-horning in goitered gazelle: agonistic or marking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-03-01

    We studied object-horning behaviour in goitered gazelles in the natural, arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. We found that object-horning was used by adult males mostly as a threat display during territorial conflicts. Therefore object-horning was observed most frequently in territorial single males during the rut in November-December. Object-horning, though, also had a marking effect, with the males' use of this behaviour leaving visible traces that advertized the location of preorbital and urination-defecation scent marks. Therefore, this pattern also was observed linked with preorbital marking and urination-defecation marking behaviours, especially during the rut. Goitered gazelle males chose the most abundant and eatable shrubs for object horning. In contrast to other gazelle species, object-horning in goitered gazelle was observed much more frequently and at the same rate as preorbital and urination-defecation scent markings. This, then, proved a more vigorous and aggressive level of rutting behaviour of the goitered gazelle compared to tropical gazelles, and most likely connected to the short rutting period in the studied species. We concluded, therefore, that object-horning was a manifold phenomenon that played a very important role in goitered gazelle agonistic displays, but without loosing the marking intention of this behaviour. PMID:24365541

  14. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 1999, 58, 501513 Article No. anbe.1999.1200, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 1999, 58, 501­513 Article No. anbe.1999.1200, available online at http male marmosets living with their natal family. © 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour behaviour while living with their natal families. The social mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have

  15. Assessment during aggressive contests between male jumping spiders

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Damian O.; Kasumovic, Michael M.; Punzalan, David; Andrade, Maydianne C. B.; Mason, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment strategies are an important component in game theoretical models of contests. Strategies can be either based on one’s own abilities (self assessment) or on the relative abilities of two opponents (mutual assessment). Using statistical methodology that allows discrimination between assessment types, we examined contests in the jumping spider Phiddipus clarus. In this species, aggressive interactions can be divided into ‘pre-contact’ and ‘contact’ phases. Pre-contact phases consist of bouts of visual and vibratory signaling. Contact phases follow where males physically contact each other (leg fencing). Both weight and vibratory signaling differences predicted winners with heavier and more actively signaling males winning more contests. Vibratory behaviour predicted pre-contact phase duration, with higher signaling rates and larger differences between contestants leading to longer pre-contact interaction times. Contact phase duration was predicted most strongly by the weight of losing males relative to that of winning males, suggesting that P. clarus males use self-assessment in determining contest duration. While a self-assessment strategy was supported, our data suggest a secondary role for mutual assessment (“partial mutual assessment”). After initial contest bouts, male competitors changed their behaviour. Pre-contact and contact phase durations were reduced while vibratory signaling behaviour in winners was unchanged. In addition, only vibratory signaling differences predicted winners in subsequent bouts suggesting a role of experience in determining contest outcomes. We suggest that the rules and assessment strategies males use can change depending on experience and that assessment strategies are likely a continuum between self- and mutual assessment. PMID:19727331

  16. Unruly democracy and the privileges of public intimacy: (same) sex spousal hiring in academia.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Chantal

    2005-01-01

    Within the context of a discussion of lesbian academic couples there is something to be said about the (dis)pleasures and profits of a heteronormative practice such as spousal hiring and how much this privilege reveals the broader systemic discrimination vis-à-vis sexual and gender claims in our academic institutions. Two issues emerge from its (questionable) application: (1) How a privilege such as spousal hiring intersects with institutional policies concerning sexual diversity; and in light of this, (2)Why queer or lesbian couples shouldn't embrace dubious spousal hiring incentives. PMID:17548297

  17. The Consequences of Same-Sex, Cross-Sex, and Androgynous Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    The sex role choices of preschool children were observed for two years in a free play situation to determine what the consequences of such choices are for the types of play chosen and for social behaviors. The sex role factor was plotted on four quadrants: Masculine (M), Feminine (F), Androgynous and Low on both M and F (LMF). The children who…

  18. 1. When Gay People Get Married: What Happens When Societies Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Analysis of Children's Literature: Mirrors, Windows and Doors (Routledge). Maria José Botelho and Masha in an Uncertain World (Wiley). Anna Nagurney, Finance and Operations Management, with Qiang Qiang. 14. Lost Alphabet, a book of poetry (Copper Canyon Press). Lisa Olstein, English 15. Wounded Knee: Party Politics

  19. The effect of victims' responses to overt bullying on same-sex peer bystander reactions.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Nicole; Bussey, Kay; Rapee, Ronald M

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of victims' responses to overt bullying on peer bystanders' attitudes and reactions. Fifth- and seventh-grade students (N = 206; M(age) = 11.13 and 13.18 years, respectively) completed online questionnaires about gender-consistent videotaped hypothetical bullying scenarios in which the victims' responses (angry, sad, confident, ignoring) were experimentally manipulated. Victims' responses significantly influenced bystanders' attitudes towards the victim, perceptions of the victimization, emotional reactions, and behavioral intentions. In general, angry victims elicited more negative reactions, sad victims elicited greater intentions to act, while incidents involving confident victims were perceived as less serious. Several variations depending on the bullying type and students' grade, gender, and personal experiences with bullying were evident. Implications for individual-level and peer-level anti-bullying interventions are discussed. PMID:26407835

  20. Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

  1. Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's "Education for Tolerance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and…

  2. Then and Now: Recruitment, Definition, Diversity, and Positive Attributes of Same-Sex Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2008-01-01

    It is not my intent to critique individual contributions in this special issue but to assess scholarly progress since the last special issue devoted to sexual orientation in Developmental Psychology (Patterson, 1995). Because not all steps forward can be catalogued in this limited forum, I focus on several long-standing challenges faced by…

  3. Close Friendship in Adulthood: Conversational Content Between Same-Sex Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aries, Elizabeth J.; Johnson, Fern L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between traditional sex-role stereotypes about personality traits and children's judgments about themselves and their peers. Also investigated the development of androgynous orientations in children. (CMG)

  4. Commitment without Marriage: Union Formation among Long-Term Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course…

  5. Citizenship Education and the Politics of Public Participation: The Case of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Citizenship education programs promote political participation by young people. These programs risk misrepresenting politics to students by encouraging them to believe that there are universally accepted principles which govern the definition of citizenship and who is entitled to participate in its various dimensions. The article argues that…

  6. 77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Office of Personnel Management (OPM) published proposed regulations in the Federal Register at 76 FR... Absence and Leave as well as its Federal Long Term Care regulations, see 75 FR 33491 (June 14, 2010) (codified at 5 CFR 630.201) and 75 FR 30267 (June 1, 2010) (codified at 5 CFR 875.213), and OPM has tried...

  7. The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal

    E-print Network

    Ekhad, Shalosh B

    2011-01-01

    Why bother with fully rigorous proofs when one can very quickly get semi-rigorous ones? Yes, yes, we know how to get a "rigorous" proof of the result stated in the title of this article. One way is the boring, human one, citing some heavy guns of theorems that already exist in the literature. We also know how to get a fully rigorous proof automatically, using the methods in this http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/mamarim/mamarimhtml/georgy.htm neat article (but it would be a little more complicated, since the probability generating polynomial is not "closed form" but satisfies a second-order recurrence gotten from the Zeilberger algorithm), otherwise the same method would work, alas, it is not yet implemented. Instead, we chose to use the great Maple package http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/HISTABRUT">HISTABRUT(in fact, a very tiny part of it, procedure AlphaSeq), explained in this other http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/mamarim/mamarimhtml/histabrut.html">neat article, and get a semi-rig...

  8. Same-Sex Schooling. The Progress of Education Reform, 2007. Volume 7, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the U.S. Department of Education issued new rules making it easier for schools and districts to use gender-separate classes, programs and activities as a strategy for enhancing educational achievement and opportunity. Education Secretary Margaret Spellings described the revised Title IX regulations as part of a greater effort to…

  9. Internalized Heterosexism and Same-Sex Attraction as Predictors of Sexual Orientation Identity

    E-print Network

    LaFollette, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals in America continue to face discrimination and prejudice. As a consequence, many LGB individuals internalize negative thoughts and feelings about homosexuality, known as internalized ...

  10. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  11. 1 | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Discussion paper |2012| Discussion Paper: Behaviour Change

    E-print Network

    1 | Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change: Discussion paper |2012| Discussion Paper: Behaviour Change Forestry, sustainable behaviours and behaviour change ­ a discussion paper1 Introduction This discussion paper explores what the current focus on behaviour means for the forestry sector, using evidence

  12. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  13. Brain regional differences in social encounter-induced Fos expression in male and female rats after post-weaning social isolation.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Megan; Goodell, Dayton J; Adams, Jessica; Bland, Sondra T

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity has been related to a number of psychological disorders including mood and other disorders that can manifest as inappropriate or aggressive responses to social challenges. The present study used post-weaning social isolation (PSI) in rats, a model of early life adversity, to examine its effects on Fos protein expression produced by exposure to a novel social encounter. We have previously reported that the social encounter-induced increase in Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex observed in group-housed controls (GRP) was attenuated in rats that had experienced PSI. Here we assessed Fos expression in other brain regions thought to be involved in emotion regulation and social behavior. Male and female rats were housed in same-sex groups or in isolation (ISO) for 4 weeks beginning on postnatal day (P) 21 and were exposed to a single 15 min social encounter with a novel same-sex conspecific on P49. Fos positive cells were assessed using immunohistochemistry in 16 regions within the forebrain. Exposure to a novel conspecific increased Fos expression in the forebrain of GRP rats in a region- and sex-specific fashion. This increase was blunted or absent in ISO rats within many regions including cortical regions, thalamus, habenula, dentate gyrus, lateral septum, and basolateral amygdala. In several regions, the increase in Fos was greater in male than in female group housed rats. Negative relationships were observed between social interactions and Fos in some regions. Forebrain hypofunction produced by early-life adversity may be involved in socially inappropriate behavior. PMID:26562664

  14. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Shabila, Nazar P.; Ismail, Kamaran H.; Saleh, Abubakir M.; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%). Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%). Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%), speeding (30.4%), allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9%) and using mobile phones (27.7%). Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%), driving while sleepy (4.4%), driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5%) and drunk driving (6.4%). Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P <0.001) and those who owned a car (P = 0.002). The mean risk perception score was higher among >20-year-olds (P = 0.028). There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001). Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil. PMID:26357559

  15. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  16. Newborn male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  17. Life History Effects Upon Contest Behaviour: Age as a Predictor of Territorial Contest Dynamics in Two Populations of the

    E-print Network

    Gotthard, Karl

    because the duration of these aerial persistence contests is a sensitive measure of the losing male with respect to predation risk, may have influenced the evolution of lifetime aggressive strategies (although see Kemp 2002a; Hunt et al. 2004). Male­male contest behaviour is one sexually selected aspect

  18. Advances in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephanie T; Amory, John K; Bremner, William J

    2008-06-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90-95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  19. Behaviours Associated with Acoustic Communication in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Longrie, Nicolas; Poncin, Pascal; Denoël, Mathieu; Gennotte, Vincent; Delcourt, Johann; Parmentier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Sound production is widespread among fishes and accompanies many social interactions. The literature reports twenty-nine cichlid species known to produce sounds during aggressive and courtship displays, but the precise range in behavioural contexts is unclear. This study aims to describe the various Oreochromis niloticus behaviours that are associated with sound production in order to delimit the role of sound during different activities, including agonistic behaviours, pit activities, and reproduction and parental care by males and females of the species. Methodology/Principal Findings Sounds mostly occur during the day. The sounds recorded during this study accompany previously known behaviours, and no particular behaviour is systematically associated with sound production. Males and females make sounds during territorial defence but not during courtship and mating. Sounds support visual behaviours but are not used alone. During agonistic interactions, a calling Oreochromis niloticus does not bite after producing sounds, and more sounds are produced in defence of territory than for dominating individuals. Females produce sounds to defend eggs but not larvae. Conclusion/Significance Sounds are produced to reinforce visual behaviours. Moreover, comparisons with O. mossambicus indicate two sister species can differ in their use of sound, their acoustic characteristics, and the function of sound production. These findings support the role of sounds in differentiating species and promoting speciation. They also make clear that the association of sounds with specific life-cycle roles cannot be generalized to the entire taxa. PMID:23620756

  20. Correlational selection does not explain the evolution of a behavioural syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, C S; Brooks, R C

    2013-10-01

    Correlated suites of behaviours, or behavioural syndromes, appear to be widespread, and yet few studies have explored how they arise and are maintained. One possibility holds that correlational selection can generate and maintain behavioural syndrome if certain behavioural combinations enjoy greater fitness than other combinations. Here we test this correlational selection hypothesis by comparing behavioural syndrome structure with a multivariate fitness surface based on reproductive success of male water striders. We measured the structure of a behavioural syndrome including dispersal ability, exploration behaviour, latency to remount and sex recognition sensitivity in males. We then measured the relationship between these behaviours and mating success in a range of sex ratio environments. Despite the presence of some significant correlational selection, behavioural syndrome structure was not associated with correlational selection on behaviours. Although we cannot conclusively reject the correlational selection hypothesis, our evidence suggests that correlational selection and resulting linkage disequilibrium might not be responsible for maintaining the strong correlations between behaviours. Instead, we suggest alternative ways in which this behavioural syndrome may have arisen and outline the need for physiological and quantitative genetic tests of these suggestions. PMID:23980636

  1. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction. PMID:25916694

  2. Veterinarians' perceptions of behaviour support in small-animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Roshier, A. L.; McBride, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians are professionals considered to be at the forefront of animal welfare, including behaviour medicine. However, concerns raised, both within the profession and without, highlight that the support offered is not optimal, due to deficiencies in veterinary training, which focuses on physical aspects and overlooks psychological aspects. This preliminary study explored the experiences and perceptions of six veterinarians (three male, three female, age range: 23–55?years) in two UK small-animal practices. Seventeen annual booster consultations were videoed and conversations thematically analysed for welfare topics discussed. Both veterinarians and clients completed questionnaires to gather demographic information and perspectives. All veterinarians recognised behaviour as a component of their caseload, and acknowledged that clients expected them to provide behaviour support. Veterinarians varied in their experiences of and confidence in providing behaviour support. Five felt unable to meet client expectations; four did not feel their training had prepared them sufficiently. Only one provided dedicated behaviour consultations, the others referred cases. All provided suggestions for behaviour skills needed for new veterinary graduates. The study has afforded an insight into the experiences of a small opportunistic sample of veterinarians. The data indicated important limitations regarding time available in general consultations to discuss behaviour concerns, and practitioner knowledge and skill in detection, anamnesis, assessment and provision of appropriate behaviour information. Suggestions for veterinary training in behaviour are provided. PMID:23475046

  3. Assessing the Validity of Sexual Behaviour Reports in a Whole Population Survey in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Judith R.; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Banda, Emmanuel; Parrott, Fiona; Floyd, Sian; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Nkhata, Misheck; Tanton, Clare; Hemmings, Joanne; Molesworth, Anna; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting. Methods All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates. Results 6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible) consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves), but was only apparent in younger married women. Conclusions We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population. PMID:21818398

  4. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D. L.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons ( Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  5. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. This condom is a thin sheath ... are disposable after a single use. 1 , 2 Vasectomy ( va-SEK-tuh-mee ) is a surgical procedure ...

  6. Sexually Explicit Media on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Risk, and Media Characteristics in Gay Male Adult Videos

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34%) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36%). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156

  7. Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.

    PubMed

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156

  8. The courtship song of fanning males in the fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Canale, A; Benelli, G; Lanzo, F; Giannotti, P; Mazzoni, V; Lucchi, A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we describe acoustically the wing-fanning behaviour showed by the male of the braconid Psyttalia concolor towards females and other conspecific males. Psyttalia concolor is a synovigenic koinobiont larval-pupal endoparasitoid of many Tephritidae, used in olive crops to control the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. In this braconid male wing fanning produces a courtship song characterised by sequences of homogenous pulses with harmonic structure and a fundamental frequency of about 180 Hz. Song parameters can vary according to the behavioural context. Statistically significant differences, both in terms of pulse frequency and duration, characterise fanning towards females in comparison with male-male approaches. Moreover, the pulse duration is associated with the fanning song displayed before a successful courtship. Our observations allowed us to define the airborne component of the sound and to definitely confirm the exclusive role of the wings in signal production within sexual communication in P. concolor. PMID:23302745

  9. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (sexsomnia).

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Irshaad Osman

    2006-05-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a viable defence on the basis of automatism. The behaviours that occur during sleepwalking can be highly complex and include sexual behaviour of all types. Somnambulistic sexual behaviour (also called sexsomnia, sleep sex) is considered a variant of sleepwalking disorder as the overwhelming majority of people with Sexsomnia have a history of parasomnia and a family history of sleepwalking. Sexual behaviour during a sleep automatism can vary from explicit sexual vocalisations, to violent masturbation, to complex sexual acts including anal, oral and vaginal penetration. A recent case in England is reported where the defendant was acquitted on 3 charges of rape on the basis of automatism due to somnambulistic sexual behaviour. PMID:16564199

  10. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parenting Behaviours and Its Relationship to Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…

  12. Adolescent Lottery and Scratchcard Players: Do Their Attitudes Influence Their Gambling Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Richard T. A.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the link between attitudes and behaviour in relation to adolescent participation on the National Lottery and scratchcards by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A questionnaire constructed by the authors was administered to a sample of 1195 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 15 years (550 male, 641 female, 4…

  13. Behavioural Brain Research 143 (2003) 8594 Research report

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Behavioural Brain Research 143 (2003) 85­94 Research report Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.5­16.5 years old) diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Eight adolescent males matched for age.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Place learning; Fetal Alcohol Syndrome; Virtual Morris water task

  14. Classroom Teachers' Efficacy in Teaching Healthy Behaviour Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This study, grounded in Self-Efficacy Theory, investigated classroom teachers' self-efficacy changes related to teaching healthy behaviour content after participating in ongoing workshops. Participants were 50 male and female teachers at the primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 33) levels from two schools in one Native American community. Teacher…

  15. Are attractive male crickets better able to pay the costs of an immune challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Telemeco, Melissa S.C.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction and immunity are fitness-related traits that trade-off with each other. Parasite-mediated theories of sexual selection suggest, however, that higher-quality males should suffer smaller costs to reproduction-related traits and behaviours (e.g., sexual display) from an immune challenge because these males possess more resources with which to deal with the challenge. We used Gryllus texensis field crickets to test the prediction that attractive males should better maintain the performance of fitness-related traits (e.g., calling effort) in the face of an immune challenge compared with unattractive males. We found no support for our original predictions. However, that immune activation causes attractive males to significantly increase their calling effort compared with unattractive males suggests that these males might terminally invest in order to compensate for decreased future reproduction. PMID:26713249

  16. When not to copy: female fruit flies use sophisticated public information to avoid mated males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, Adeline; Blanchet, Simon; van Laere, Pauline; Clobert, Jean; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-10-01

    Semen limitation (lack of semen to fertilize all of a female's eggs) imposes high fitness costs to female partners. Females should therefore avoid mating with semen-limited males. This can be achieved by using public information extracted from watching individual males' previous copulating activities. This adaptive preference should be flexible given that semen limitation is temporary. We first demonstrate that the number of offspring produced by males Drosophila melanogaster gradually decreases over successive copulations. We then show that females avoid mating with males they just watched copulating and that visual public cues are sufficient to elicit this response. Finally, after males were given the time to replenish their sperm reserves, females did not avoid the males they previously saw copulating anymore. These results suggest that female fruit flies may have evolved sophisticated behavioural processes of resistance to semen-limited males, and demonstrate unsuspected adaptive context-dependent mate choice in an invertebrate.

  17. Female metasternal gland odours mediate male aggregation in Rhodnius prolixus, a triatomid bug.

    PubMed

    Pontes, G B; Lorenzo, M G

    2012-03-01

    We investigated whether metasternal gland (MG) products mediate male aggregation during mating in Rhodnius prolixus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Stål, 1859, through selective occlusion of female MGs. Pairs of insects presenting intact MGs mated and other males aggregated around them confirming conclusions from previous studies. However, when female MGs were occluded, males did not aggregate. Conversely, the occlusion of male MGs did not affect aggregation of males. The present experiments demonstrated that the products emitted by the MGs of a mating R. prolixus female induce other males to aggregate around the mating pair. Aggregation behaviour of males probably results from the eventual release of volatiles from the female's MGs. We reinforce the hypothesis suggesting that the compounds produced by the MGs of R. prolixus act as sexual communication signals for this species. PMID:22077398

  18. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  19. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae): Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    PubMed Central

    Dushimirimana, Severin; Hance, Thierry; Damiens, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk.) males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria. PMID:23213413

  20. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2002, 64, 727737 doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.4014, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2002, 64, 727­737 doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.4014, available online at http questions remain unclear from this finding. First, why do male chimpanzees not bias their behaviour towards, to test the hypothesis that demographic constraints limit the number of maternal kin with whom male

  1. Photoperiod Mediated Changes in Olfactory Bulb Neurogenesis and Olfactory Behavior in Male White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus)

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic) brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD) and short day lengths (SD) for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus. PMID:22912730

  2. Male infanticide in captive plains zebra, Equus burchelli.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek; Bartos

    2000-04-01

    On the assumption that infanticide exists in plains zebra, as reported for horses, Equus caballus, we tested the following hypothesis. Introducing a new zebra male into a herd of breeding females should increase foal mortality in comparison with herds in which the sire of the foals is still present. The younger the foal, the more likely infanticide should be. We collected data from five herds in two zoological gardens in the Czech Republic. We found nine records of infanticide in plains zebra and three cases of abortions that were probably induced by forced copulation. We analysed additional indirect data to investigate the possibility of introduced males causing other abortions. Abortions were three times more likely in herds with introduced males than with only fathers present. Postnatal mortality of the foals was four times greater with introduced males than with fathers. No indication of a sex preference was observed for infanticide by a new male for either abortions or postpartum deaths. When we combined all records involving introduced males, the probability of foal death was greatest when the new male joined the herd just after conception and decreased with increasing time between conception and date of the new male introduction (the chance of a foal surviving was less than 5% just after conception and more than 50% at the time of delivery). Mortality of foals did not depend on whether the new male was introduced before or after the foal was born. Survival increased to more than 60% after the foal reached 1 month of age. Our results suggest that captive plains zebra show the highest occurrence of infanticide reported among ungulates. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792924

  3. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  4. Fatal attraction: Male spider mites prefer females killed by the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.

    PubMed

    Trandem, Nina; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Westrum, Karin; Knudsen, Geir Kjølberg; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2015-06-01

    Exploring prospective mates can be risky. Males of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae approach and guard immobile (quiescent) female nymphs to increase their chances of fathering offspring, this being a first-male sperm priority species. We investigated the behaviour of male T. urticae towards females killed by the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana, letting them choose between a fungal killed and a healthy quiescent female. The dead female (called cadaver) was in one of three stages: (1) non-sporulating; (2) sporulating with primary conidia (non-infective); (3) surrounded/partly covered by secondary capilliconidia (infective). When the cadaver was in stage 1 or 2, males were significantly more often observed near the cadaver than near the healthy female. When the cadaver was in stage 3 (infective capilliconidia), males preferred the vicinity of healthy females. The frequency of two male behaviours, touching and guarding, was also recorded. Touching the cadaver tended to decrease as cadaver developed, whereas touching the healthy females increased. Guarding of non-sporulating cadavers and healthy females was equally common, while guarding of sporulating cadavers was only observed once (stage 2) or not at all (stage 3). To differentiate between the effect of fungal infection and sex, we also let males choose between a non-sporulating cadaver of each sex. Males then preferred to approach the female cadaver. Touching behaviour followed the same pattern, and guarding of male cadavers was not observed. Our results indicate that T. urticae males are more attracted to non-infective female cadavers than to healthy females, only detecting their mistake when very close. Moreover, males approach and explore cadavers surrounded by infective conidia. Whether the results of host manipulation by the pathogen or just sensory constraints in the host, this inability to detect unsuitable and indeed infective mates promotes transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25889815

  5. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that such males are abnormally perseverative when interacting with females. Investigating similar problems in other taxa would be worthwhile, since many vertebrates, wild and domestic, live in conditions that cause stereotypic behaviour and/or impair neurological development. PMID:24282547

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    PubMed

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that such males are abnormally perseverative when interacting with females. Investigating similar problems in other taxa would be worthwhile, since many vertebrates, wild and domestic, live in conditions that cause stereotypic behaviour and/or impair neurological development. PMID:24282547

  7. Equine learning behaviour.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack; Arkins, Sean

    2007-09-01

    Scientists and equestrians continually seek to achieve a clearer understanding of equine learning behaviour and its implications for training. Behavioural and learning processes in the horse are likely to influence not only equine athletic success but also the usefulness of the horse as a domesticated species. However given the status and commercial importance of the animal, equine learning behaviour has received only limited investigation. Indeed most experimental studies on equine cognitive function to date have addressed behaviour, learning and conceptualization processes at a moderately basic cognitive level compared to studies in other species. It is however, likely that the horses with the greatest ability to learn and form/understand concepts are those, which are better equipped to succeed in terms of the human-horse relationship and the contemporary training environment. Within equitation generally, interpretation of the behavioural processes and training of the desired responses in the horse are normally attempted using negative reinforcement strategies. On the other hand, experimental designs to actually induce and/or measure equine learning rely almost exclusively on primary positive reinforcement regimes. Employing two such different approaches may complicate interpretation and lead to difficulties in identifying problematic or undesirable behaviours in the horse. The visual system provides the horse with direct access to immediate environmental stimuli that affect behaviour but vision in the horse is of yet not fully investigated or understood. Further investigations of the equine visual system will benefit our understanding of equine perception, cognitive function and the subsequent link with learning and training. More detailed comparative investigations of feral or free-ranging and domestic horses may provide useful evidence of attention, stress and motivational issues affecting behavioural and learning processes in the horse. The challenge for scientists is, as always, to design and commission experiments that will investigate and provide insight into these processes in a manner that withstands scientific scrutiny. PMID:17400403

  8. Why do males choose heterospecific females in the red spider mite?

    PubMed

    Sato, Yukie; Staudacher, Heike; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2016-01-01

    In some species, males readily show courtship behaviour towards heterospecific females and even prefer them to females of their own species. This behaviour is generally explained by indiscriminate mating to acquire more mates, but may partly be explained by male mate preference mechanisms that have developed to choose among conspecific females, as male preference for larger females causes mating with larger heterospecific females. Recently, we found that males of the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi collected from Spain (invasive population), prefer to mate with females of the two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae rather than with conspecific females. In spider mites, mate preference for non-kin individuals has been observed. Here, we investigated if T. evansi males collected from the area of its origin (Brazil) also show preference for heterospecific females. Secondly, we investigated if mate preference of T. evansi males for heterospecific females is affected by their relatedness to conspecific females which are offered together with heterospecific females. We found that mate preference for heterospecific females exists in Brazilian T. evansi, suggesting that the preference for heterospecific females is not a lack of evolved premating isolation with an allopatric species. We found that T. evansi males showed lower propensity to mate with heterospecific females when alternative females were non-kin in the two iso-female lines collected from Brazil. However, the effect of relatedness on male mate preference was not significant. We discuss alternative hypotheses explaining why T. evansi males prefer to mate with T. urticae females. PMID:26530994

  9. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  10. Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kimberly A; Houde, Anne E; Price, Anna C; Rodd, F Helen

    2013-11-01

    To understand the processes that maintain genetic diversity is a long-standing challenge in evolutionary biology, with implications for predicting disease resistance, response to environmental change, and population persistence. Simple population genetic models are not sufficient to explain the high levels of genetic diversity sometimes observed in ecologically important traits. In guppies (Poecilia reticulata), male colour pattern is both diverse and heritable, and is arguably one of the most extreme examples of morphological polymorphism known. Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), a form of selection in which genotypes are favoured when they are rare, can potentially maintain such extensive polymorphism, but few experimental studies have confirmed its operation in nature. Here we use highly replicated experimental manipulations of natural populations to show that males with rare colour patterns have higher reproductive fitness, demonstrating NFDS mediated by sexual selection. Rare males acquired more mates and sired more offspring compared to common males and, as previously reported, had higher rates of survival. Orange colour, implicated in other studies of sexual selection in guppies, did predict male reproductive success, but only in one of three populations. These data support the hypothesis that NFDS maintains diversity in the colour patterns of male guppies through two selective agents, mates and predators. Similar field-based manipulations of genotype frequencies could provide a powerful approach to reveal the underlying ecological and behavioural mechanisms that maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:24172904

  11. Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 543549 Effects of testosterone on use of space by male dark-eyed juncos when their

    E-print Network

    Ketterson, Ellen D.

    Anim. Behav., 1997, 54, 543­549 Effects of testosterone on use of space by male dark-eyed juncos acceptance 9 September 1996; final acceptance 30 November 1996; MS. number: A7617) Abstract. Testosterone the relationship between testosterone and behaviours (territoriality, consort- ing with female) through which males

  12. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2002, 64, 369375 doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3065, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2002, 64, 369­375 doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3065, available online at http Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Ecological://www.idealibrary.com on The effect of hunger on mating behaviour and sexual selection for male body size in Gerris buenoi AMAYA

  13. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 59, 443458 doi: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1313, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Gentner, Timothy

    ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 59, 443­458 doi: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1313, available online at http be applied to similar behaviours in other species of songbirds. 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal preferences for longer compared with shorter male song bouts. Behaviour in the operant apparatus varied

  14. The Influence of Vibratory Courtship on Female Mating Behaviour in Orb-Web Spiders (Argiope keyserlingi, Karsch 1878)

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    Web-building spiders are important models for sexual selection. While our understanding of post-copulatory mechanisms including sperm competition and cryptic female choice is considerable, our knowledge of courtship and how it influences male and female mating decisions is still extremely poor. Here, we provide the first comprehensive description of male courtship behaviour and vibrations generated in the web by the orb-web spider, Argiope keyserlingi – a recognised model species. We identified three main elements of male courtship: shudders, abdominal wags and mating thread dances (including both plucks and bounces). The vibrations generated by these behaviours are described in detail. Male shuddering behaviour appears to have a strong influence on female latency to mate acceptance, with males that shudder at high rates without compromising shudder duration being preferred. Shuddering behaviour may also mediate female aggressive behaviour, with males that generate long shudders less likely to be cannibalised after copulation. Male abdominal wagging behaviour, however, appears to have only limited influence on female mating decisions. This study provides avenues for future work that synthesises pre- and post-copulatory mechanisms in web-building spiders to generate an all-encompassing model of how sexual selection operates. PMID:23341922

  15. An extract from wild green oat improves rat behaviour.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Charlotte; Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Wullschleger, Carla; Heyne, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    An extract of wild green oat (Avena sativa L.), was tested in vivo in rats for its behavioural effects after chronic oral administration via extract-admixed food. Thirty six male Sprague-Dawley rats received (A) standard diet (controls), (B) 10 g/kg extract-admixed food or (C) 100 g/kg extract-admixed food. The following behavioural tests were performed: elevated plus maze, forced swimming, conditioned avoidance response and tetradic encounter. Body weight, food and fluid consumption were measured and apparent physical appearance was determined twice a week. Apart from a slightly decreased food and fluid intake in the high dose group there were no side effects observed during the treatment. The low dose led to an improvement of active stress response, an enhancement of shock avoidance learning and an increased synchrony in social behaviour. It may be concluded that the wild green oat extract is suitable to improve behavioural initiative in different situations. PMID:19322760

  16. Effects of psychological stress on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Nargund, Vinod H

    2015-07-01

    Psychological stress can be defined as any uncomfortable 'emotional experience' accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioural changes or responses. Many clinical studies looking at the effects of psychological stress on male fertility have shown that stress is associated with reduced paternity and abnormal semen parameters. Enough scientific evidence exists to suggest that psychological stress could severely affect spermatogenesis, mainly as a result of varying testosterone secretion. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has a direct inhibitory action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and Leydig cells in the testes. The newly discovered hormone, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), also has an inhibitory effect on the HPG axis. Inhibition of the HPG axis results in a fall in testosterone levels, which causes changes in Sertoli cells and the blood-testis barrier, leading to the arrest of spermatogenesis. Germ cells also become vulnerable to gonadotoxins and oxidation. However, the extent and severity of the effects of psychological stress on human testes is difficult to study and data mostly come from animal models. Despite this limitation, stress as a causative factor in male infertility cannot be ignored and patients should be made aware of its effects on testicular function and fertility and helped to manage them. PMID:26057063

  17. New insights into the hormonal and behavioural correlates of polymorphism in white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Brent M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Maney, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    The white-throated sparrow is a promising model for behavioural neuroendocrinology and genetics because behaviour and endocrine function may be linked to a chromosomal rearrangement that determines plumage colour. The notion that the two colour morphs, tan-striped (TS) and white-striped (WS), differ predictably in aggression and parenting has been widely accepted, despite conflicting evidence. It is also hypothesized that morph-typic behaviour is hormone mediated, yet no field study has measured sex steroids and behaviour in the same birds. Here, we re-evaluate the TS and WS phenotypes, describe the conditions under which they differ and investigate relationships between sex steroids and behaviour. We report that (1) during territorial intrusions, WS males were more aggressive than TS birds, but this difference was restricted to singing; WS males sang more than TS males but showed identical levels of physical aggression. WS females sang more than TS females and were also more physically aggressive. (2) TS males provisioned young more frequently than did WS males, but only during first broods. The parental strategy of WS males was flexible, and during replacement broods, WS and TS males provisioned at equal rates. (3) Consistent with previous studies, we detected no morph difference in female provisioning. (4) Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were higher in WS males than in TS males during periods of peak territorial defence and during first broods; within breeding stages, male androgen levels were positively correlated with singing and negatively correlated with provisioning. Plasma oestradiol levels were higher in WS females than in TS females and higher during peak territorial defence; oestradiol levels tended to be positively correlated with singing. Overall, our results refine the TS and WS phenotypes, show that behavioural differences between them are restricted to periods with relatively high mating opportunity, and demonstrate an association between sex steroids and morph-typic behaviour. These results will inform future studies of this promising model. PMID:25045171

  18. Fear of failure and student athletes' interpersonal antisocial behaviour in education and sport.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sam S; Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. The link between fear of failure and students' antisocial behaviour has received scant research attention despite associations between fear of failure, hostility, and aggression. Also, the effect of sport experience on antisocial behaviour has not been considered outside of the sport context in adult populations. Further, to date, sex differences have not been considered in fear of failure research. AIMS. To examine whether (a) fear of failure and sport experience predict antisocial behaviour in the university and sport contexts in student athletes, and whether this prediction is the same in males and females; and (b) sex differences exist in antisocial behaviour and fear of failure. SAMPLE. British university student athletes (n= 176 male; n= 155 female; M(age) = 20.11 years). METHOD. Participants completed questionnaires assessing fear of failure, sport experience, and antisocial behaviour in both contexts. RESULTS. (a) Fear of failure and sport experience positively predicted antisocial behaviour in university and sport and the strength of these predictions did not differ between males and females; (b) females reported higher levels of fear of devaluing one's self-estimate than males whereas males reported higher levels of fear of important others losing interest than females. Males engaged more frequently than females in antisocial behaviour in both contexts. CONCLUSIONS. Fear of failure and sport experience may be important considerations when trying to understand antisocial behaviour in student athletes in education and sport; moreover, the potential effect of overall fear of failure and of sport experience on this frequency does not differ by sex. The findings make an important contribution to the fear of failure and morality literatures. PMID:21199481

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Increased MaleMale Courtship in Ecdysone Receptor Deficient

    E-print Network

    Ganter, Geoffrey

    ORIGINAL PAPER Increased Male­Male Courtship in Ecdysone Receptor Deficient Adult Flies Geoffrey K 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Male­male courtship is infrequent among, they engaged in elevated levels of male­male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females

  20. PSA-NCAM in the posterodorsal medial amygdala is necessary for the pubertal emergence of attraction to female odors in male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O; Cooke, Bradley M

    2015-09-01

    During puberty, attention turns away from same-sex socialization to focus on the opposite sex. How the brain mediates this change in perception and motivation is unknown. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) virtually disappears from most of the central nervous system after embryogenesis, but it remains elevated in discrete regions of the adult brain. One such brain area is the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD). The MePD has been implicated in male sexual attraction, measured here as the preference to investigate female odors. We hypothesize that PSA-NCAM gates hormone-dependent plasticity necessary for the emergence of males' attraction to females. To evaluate this idea, we first measured PSA-NCAM levels across puberty in several brain regions, and identified when female odor preference normally emerges in male Syrian hamsters. We found that MePD PSA-NCAM staining peaks shortly before the surge of pubertal androgen and the emergence of preference. To test the necessity of PSA-NCAM for female odor preference, we infused endo-neuraminidase-N into the MePD to deplete it of PSAs before female odor preference normally appears. This blocked female odor preference, which suggests that PSA-NCAM facilitates behaviorally relevant, hormone-driven plasticity. PMID:26335887

  1. Sex-specific behavioural symptoms of viral gut infection and Wolbachia in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vale, Pedro F; Jardine, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    All organisms are infected with a range of symbionts spanning the spectrum of beneficial mutualists to detrimental parasites. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a good example, as both endosymbiotic Wolbachia, and pathogenic Drosophila C Virus (DCV) commonly infect it. While the pathophysiology and immune responses against both symbionts are the focus of intense study, the behavioural effects of these infections have received less attention. Here we report sex-specific behavioural responses to these infections in D. melanogaster. DCV infection caused increased sleep in female flies, but had no detectable effect in male flies. The presence of Wolbachia did not reduce this behavioural response to viral infection. We also found evidence for a sex-specific cost of Wolbachia, as male flies infected with the endosymbiont became more lethargic when awake. We discuss these behavioural symptoms as potentially adaptive sickness behaviours. PMID:26301521

  2. Sexual Selection of Human Cooperative Behaviour: An Experimental Study in Rural Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men’s cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women’s cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection. PMID:22984503

  3. Autism spectrum phenotype in males and females with fragile X full mutation and premutation.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Bui, Quang M; Huggins, Richard; Taylor, Annette K; Loesch, Danuta Z

    2007-04-01

    The behavioural phenotype of autism was assessed in individuals with full mutation and premutation fragile X syndrome (FXS) using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale-Generic (ADOS-G) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). The participants, aged 5-80 years, comprised 33 males and 31 females with full mutation, 7 males and 43 females with premutation, and 38 non-fragile X relatives (29 males, 9 females). In the full mutation group, a total of 67% males and 23% females met either the Autism Disorder (AD) or the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) criteria on at least one of the diagnostic tests. In the premutation group, 14% males and 5% females met the ADOS-G criteria for ASD. The presence of autism manifestations in males and females with full mutation and premutation provide support for a spectrum view. PMID:17031449

  4. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  5. Why Are Male Social Relationships Complex in the Doubtful Sound Bottlenose Dolphin Population?

    PubMed Central

    Lusseau, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Access to oestrus females tends to be the main driver of male sociality. This factor can lead to complex behavioural interactions between males and groups of males. Male bottlenose dolphins may form alliances to consort females and to compete with other males. In some populations these alliances may form temporary coalitions when competing for females. I examined the role of dyadic and group interactions in the association patterns of male bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. There is no apparent mating competition in this population and no consortship has been observed, yet agonistic interactions between males occur regularly. Methodology/Principal Findings By comparing the network of male interactions in several social dimensions (affiliative, agonistic, and associative) I show that while agonistic interactions relate to dyadic association patterns, affiliative interactions seem to relate to group association patterns. Some evidence suggests that groups of males also formed temporary coalitions during agonistic interactions. While different groups of males had similar relationships with non-oestrus females, the time they spent with oestrus females and mothers of newborns differed greatly. Conclusions/Significance After considering several hypotheses, I propose that the evolution of these complex relationships was driven by sexual competition probably to out-compete other males for female choice. PMID:17406672

  6. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  7. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 60, 837849 doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1547, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Potts, Wayne

    with an attached male) that is nesting in the high intertidal zone. These males are engaged in sperm competition where they are most likely to fertilize eggs. Although eggs and sperm retain their viability for some and male behaviour affect the outcome of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. 2000

  8. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2000, 59, 801806 doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1365, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    ://www.idealibrary.com on Why some male Mongolian gerbils may help at the nest: testosterone, asexuality and alloparenting) In previous studies we have shown that those male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, that as fetuses of testosterone-mediated variation in both the sexual and parental behaviour of male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones

  9. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  10. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  11. Survivorship Clinic Male Health Issues

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    reproductive system functions and how it may be affected by therapy given to treat cancer. The male reproductive system contains many structures and is controlled by the pituitary gland in the brain hair, and muscular development of the body. How does cancer therapy affect the male reproductive system

  12. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour??

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959

  13. The Darwin Awards: sex differences in idiotic behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Andy; Isaacs, John Dudley

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in risk seeking behaviour, emergency hospital admissions, and mortality are well documented. However, little is known about sex differences in idiotic risk taking behaviour. This paper reviews the data on winners of the Darwin Award over a 20 year period (1995-2014). Winners of the Darwin Award must eliminate themselves from the gene pool in such an idiotic manner that their action ensures one less idiot will survive. This paper reports a marked sex difference in Darwin Award winners: males are significantly more likely to receive the award than females (P<0.0001). We discuss some of the reasons for this difference. PMID:25500113

  14. Agonistic sounds signal male quality in the Lusitanian toadfish.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2015-10-01

    Acoustic communication during agonistic behaviour is widespread in fishes. Yet, compared to other taxa, little is known on the information content of fish agonistic calls and their effect on territorial defence. Lusitanian toadfish males (Halobatrachus didactylus) are highly territorial during the breeding season and use sounds (boatwhistles, BW) to defend nests from intruders. BW present most energy in either the fundamental frequency, set by the contraction rate of the sonic muscles attached to the swimbladder, or in the harmonics, which are multiples of the fundamental frequency. Here we investigated if temporal and spectral features of BW produced during territorial defence reflect aspects of male quality that may be important in resolving disputes. We found that higher mean pulse period (i.e. lower fundamental frequency) reflected higher levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), the main teleost androgen which, in turn, was significantly related with male condition (relative body mass and glycogen content). BW dominant harmonic mean and variability decreased with sonic muscle lipid content. We found no association between BW duration and male quality. Taken together, these results suggest that the spectral content of fish agonistic sounds may signal male features that are key in fight outcome. PMID:26048302

  15. Parental provisioning behaviour plays a key role in linking personality with reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Mutzel, A.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Araya-Ajoy, Y. G.; Kempenaers, B.

    2013-01-01

    Repeatable behavioural traits (‘personality’) have been shown to covary with fitness, but it remains poorly understood how such behaviour–fitness relationships come about. We applied a multivariate approach to reveal the mechanistic pathways by which variation in exploratory and aggressive behaviour is translated into variation in reproductive success in a natural population of blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus. Using path analysis, we demonstrate a key role for provisioning behaviour in mediating the link between personality and reproductive success (number of fledged offspring). Aggressive males fed their nestlings at lower rates than less aggressive individuals. At the same time, their low parental investment was associated with increased female effort, thereby positively affecting fledgling production. Whereas male exploratory behaviour was unrelated to provisioning behaviour and reproductive success, fast-exploring females fed their offspring at higher rates and initiated breeding earlier, thus increasing reproductive success. Our findings provide strong support for specific mechanistic pathways linking components of behavioural syndromes to reproductive success. Importantly, relationships between behavioural phenotypes and reproductive success were obscured when considering simple bivariate relationships, underlining the importance of adopting multivariate views and statistical tools as path analysis to the study of behavioural evolution. PMID:23782885

  16. Sex in troubled waters: Widespread agricultural contaminant disrupts reproductive behaviour in fish.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Michael G; Saaristo, Minna; Baumgartner, John B; Johnstone, Christopher P; Allinson, Mayumi; Allinson, Graeme; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-04-01

    Chemical pollution is a pervasive and insidious agent of environmental change. One class of chemical pollutant threatening ecosystems globally is the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The capacity of EDCs to disrupt development and reproduction is well established, but their effects on behaviour have received far less attention. Here, we investigate the impact of a widespread androgenic EDC on reproductive behaviour in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We found that short-term exposure of male guppies to an environmentally relevant concentration of 17?-trenbolone-a common environmental pollutant associated with livestock production-influenced the amount of male courtship and forced copulatory behaviour (sneaking) performed toward females, as well as the receptivity of females toward exposed males. Exposure to 17?-trenbolone was also associated with greater male mass. However, no effect of female exposure to 17?-trenbolone was detected on female reproductive behaviour, indicating sex-specific vulnerability at this dosage. Our study is the first to show altered male reproductive behaviour following exposure to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17?-trenbolone, demonstrating the possibility of widespread disruption of mating systems of aquatic organisms by common agricultural contaminants. PMID:25797925

  17. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  18. Ultra High Energy Behaviour

    E-print Network

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2011-03-18

    We reexamine the behaviour of particles at Ultra Highe energies in the context of the fact that the LHC has already touched an energy of $7 TeV$ and is likely to attain $14 TeV$ by 2013/2014.Consequences like a possible new shortlived interaction within the Compton scale are discussed.

  19. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  20. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    PubMed Central

    Kulczykowska, Ewa; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Nietrzeba, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops): masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17?-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates. PMID:25527645