Harris, Shanette M.
Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…
Wheldon, Christopher W; Pathak, Elizabeth B
Extradyadic sex is a significant source of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men in same-sex relationships. Nonmonogamous sexual agreements are common among male same-sex couples and may serve as effective targets for risk reduction interventions; however, there is a dearth of research reporting on the social and cultural determinants of explicit nonmonogamous agreements. In this study, it was hypothesized that attitudes toward dominant cultural standards of masculinity (i.e., normative masculinity) would be associated with the types of sexual agreements negotiated among gay male couples. An Internet-based survey was used to collect data from 931 men for this analysis. Results indicated that men who reported high endorsement of normative masculinity were more likely to be in nonmonogamous relationships. Furthermore, high endorsement of normative masculinity was predictive of relationship agreements characterized as the most sexually permissive. These findings indicate that rather than simply predicting nonmonogamy in gay male couples, attitudes toward masculinity may be indirectly related to increased risk of STIs by influencing the types of sexual agreements negotiated. This is the first empirical study to emphasize the role of masculinity as an explanatory factor of same-sex relationship agreements. PMID:19626535
Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R
Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A
Hoving, Hendrik J T; Bush, Stephanie L; Robison, Bruce H
Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492
Hoskins, Jessica L.; Ritchie, Michael G.; Bailey, Nathan W.
The evolutionary maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has received increasing attention because it is perceived to be an evolutionary paradox. The genetic basis of SSB is almost wholly unknown in non-human animals, though this is key to understanding its persistence. Recent theoretical work has yielded broadly applicable predictions centred on two genetic models for SSB: overdominance and sexual antagonism. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we assayed natural genetic variation for male SSB and empirically tested predictions about the mode of inheritance and fitness consequences of alleles influencing its expression. We screened 50 inbred lines derived from a wild population for male–male courtship and copulation behaviour, and examined crosses between the lines for evidence of overdominance and antagonistic fecundity selection. Consistent variation among lines revealed heritable genetic variation for SSB, but the nature of the genetic variation was complex. Phenotypic and fitness variation was consistent with expectations under overdominance, although predictions of the sexual antagonism model were also supported. We found an unexpected and strong paternal effect on the expression of SSB, suggesting possible Y-linkage of the trait. Our results inform evolutionary genetic mechanisms that might maintain low but persistently observed levels of male SSB in D. melanogaster, but highlight a need for broader taxonomic representation in studies of its evolutionary causes. PMID:26019160
Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L
To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. PMID:23768615
Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O
Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004
Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Cohn, Daniel J.; Siegel, Karolynn
Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management theory (Petronio 2002), we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends, and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: 1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else’s; 2) others had no reason to know; 3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal; 4) they were private people in general; and 5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information, and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health promotion services for this population. PMID:24597480
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
Parsons, Jeffrey T; Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Grov, Christian
Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. PMID:22906124
Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.
Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426
Gamarel, K.E.; Starks, T.J; Dilworth, S.E.; Neilands, T.B.; Taylor, J.M.; Johnson, M.O.
Couples’ ability to adopt a “we” orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a “we” orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a “we” orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples. PMID:23636681
Gamarel, Kristi E; Starks, T J; Dilworth, S E; Neilands, T B; Taylor, J M; Johnson, M O
Couples' ability to adopt a "we" orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (N = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a "we" orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a "we" orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples. PMID:23636681
Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Montero-Domínguez, Felix; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Garcia, Luis I; Manzo, Jorge; Hernandez, María Elena; Coria-Avila, Genaro A
The effects of the dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) were examined on the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference induced by cohabitation in rats. In Experiment 1, males received either saline or QNP (1.25mg/kg) and cohabited during three trials with almond-scented stimulus males that were sexually naïve. In Experiment 2, males received six trials, and in Experiment 3 received three trials with sexually expert stimulus males. During a final drug-free preference test, males chose between the familiar or a novel male partner. In Experiments 1, 2 and 3 only QNP-treated males displayed a social preference for the familiar male, observed with more time spent together. In Experiment 3 males also displayed a sexual preference observed with more non-contact erections when were exposed to their male partner. In Experiment 4 we tested the effects on OVX, E+P primed females that received 1 systemic injection of either saline or QNP during three conditioning trials. In Experiment 5, females received 2 injections 12-h apart during each trial. Results indicated that both saline and QNP-treated females failed to develop partner preference. These data demonstrate that enhanced D2-type receptor activity during cohabitation facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males, but not in female rats. We discuss the implications for same-sex partner preferences. PMID:21704064
Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.
Same-sex pairing is widespread among animals but is difficult to explain in an evolutionary context because it does not result in reproduction, and thus same-sex behaviour often is viewed as maladaptive. Here, we compare survival, fecundity and transition probabilities of female Laysan albatross in different pair types, and we show how female–female pairing could be an adaptive alternative mating strategy, albeit one that resulted in lower fitness than male–female pairing. Females in same-sex pairs produced 80% fewer chicks, had lower survival and skipped breeding more often than those in male–female pairs. Females in same-sex pairs that raised a chick sometimes acquired a male mate in the following year, but females in failed same-sex pairs never did, suggesting that males exert sexual selection by assessing female quality and relegating low-quality females into same-sex pairs. Sexual selection by males in a monomorphic, non-ornamented species is rare and suggests that reconsideration is needed of the circumstances in which alternative reproductive behaviour evolves. Given the lack of males and obligate biparental care in this species, this research demonstrates how same-sex pairing was better than not breeding and highlights how it could be an adaptive strategy under certain demographic conditions. PMID:24285198
Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A
Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. PMID:25601575
Siwatu, Mxolisi Sentwali Bandele
Investigated social forces interacting with sex and race to produce variations in feelings of same-sex closeness. College student surveys showed little variation by race and sex. Males and females differed in how they related to the same sex, but not in the significance of this bonding. A weak positive relationship existed between same-sex bonding…
Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen
Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774
Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max
Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172
Konda, Kelika A.; Lescano, Andres G.; Celentano, David D.; Hall, Eric; Montano, Silvia M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Coates, Thomas J.; Cáceres, Carlos F.
Background Detailed information on the sexual behavior of bisexual, non-gay identified men and the relationship between same-sex behavior and HIV/STI incidence are limited. This study provides information on the sexual behavior with male partners of non-gay identified men in urban, coastal Peru and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence. Methods We analyzed data from 2146 non-gay identified men with a baseline and then two years of annual follow-up, including detailed information on sexual behavior with up to 5 sex partners, to determine characteristics associated with bisexual behavior. Discrete time proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of self-reported sex with men on subsequent HIV/STI incidence. Results Over the three study visits, sex with a man was reported by 18.9% of men, 90% of whom also reported sex with a female partner. At baseline, reported bisexual behavior was associated with other sexual risk behaviors such as exchanging sex for money and increased risk of HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. The number of study visits in which recent sex with men was reported was positively correlated with risk of other sexual risk behaviors and incident HIV, HSV-2, and gonorrhea. Recent sex with a man was associated with increased HIV/STI incidence, HR 1.79 (95% CI 1.19 – 2.70), after adjusting for socio-demographics and other sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Given the prevalence of recent sex with men and the relationship of this behavior with HIV/STI incidence, interventions with non-gay identified men who have sex with men and their partners are warranted. PMID:23965772
MacFarlane, Geoff R; Vasey, Paul L
Same-sex genital interactions (SSGIs) occur across the order primates, yet explaining their maintenance in evolutionary terms appears problematic; as such interactions seem to counteract reproductive goals. We hypothesised that in more promiscuous species, where sexual motivation, mating effort, and non-conceptive heterosexual behaviour are greater, SSGIs may also occur at greater frequencies without necessarily impeding reproduction. We found that the expression of both male and female SSGIs were greater in multimale systems than in unimale ones. Both male and female SSGIs were positively correlated with the degree of promiscuity (relative testes mass). As mating system confers biases in the sex ratio that may influence the expression of SSGIs, we controlled for availability of members of the same-sex. When employing this control, results were largely congruent. For males, SSGIs were expressed more frequently in multimale systems. For both sexes, SSGIs were expressed more frequently with greater relative testes mass. We suggest SSGIs in primates may be a neutral by-product of selection for increases in promiscuous sexual activity, and that in certain instances these interactions may be co-opted to facilitate adaptive social functions. PMID:26930251
Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S
Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. PMID:25612800
Lau, Charles Q.
This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…
Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.
In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…
Riggle, Ellen D. B.; Rostosky, Sharon S.; Prather, Robert A.
The lack of legal recognition of same-sex couples can leave partners vulnerable in a crisis or emergency. Advance planning is one strategy couples can use to establish legal rights. Analyses of data collected from both partners in 131 same-sex couples suggested that executing advance-planning documents (wills, powers of attorney for finance and…
Martell, Christopher R; Prince, Stacey E
Psychotherapy with same-sex couples does not differ markedly from standard couple therapies; this is also true for treating couples facing infidelity. However, same-sex couples often design their relationships differently, without tradition and formal marital contracts to prescribe behavior. Based on clinical experience and the empirical research, this article addresses the differing norms involved in affirmatively treating infidelity in gay and lesbian couples within the framework of integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). Two cases illustrate the process and outcome of IBCT with same-sex couples. PMID:16161132
Knapp, Craig W.; Harwood, B. Thomas
Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
Scheidt, Rick J.
Toman's theory of the relation of birth-order compatibility and interpersonal relations was extended to dyads (pairs) with members of the same sex. It was predicted that interpersonal compatibility between members of same-sex dyads (50 female, 27 male pairs of Vassar College roommates) would be positively correlated with birth-order compatibility…
McCloskey, Laura A.; Coleman, Lerita M.
This study assesses whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interactions, using data from tape-recordings of 43 pairs of white children (14 female and 12 male same-sex dyads and 17 different-sex dyads) playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children develop gender-differentiated speech…
Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra
Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…
Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.
We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…
Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403
Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D.
The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased—much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20–22), 58.2% were sexually experienced and 15.1% of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159
Cheng, Chia-Hsin Emily; Gipson, Jessica D; Perez, Tita Lorna; Cochran, Susan D
The Philippines is one of seven countries in which HIV incidence has recently increased-much of this increase has been among men who have sex with men. Despite this trend, knowledge on sexuality and same-sex behaviors in the Philippines is limited. This study examines same-sex behavior, sexual outcomes, substance use, and psychological distress among young adults participating in the 2005 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). We use gender-stratified, multivariate models to compare young adults who reported same-sex behaviors and those who did not. Among a cohort of 1,912 Filipino young adults (ages 20-22), 58.2 % were sexually experienced and 15.1 % of them reported same-sex sexual contacts or romantic relationships. Compared to females, more males reported same-sex sexual contact (19.4 vs. 2.3 %) or same-sex romantic relationships (9.2 vs. 4.1 %). Young adults reporting same-sex behavior had higher odds of smoking, drug use, perceived stress, and more sexual partners as compared to their peers. Males who reported same-sex behavior initiated sex earlier than those males who did not report same-sex behaviors. There were no significant differences in depressive distress. Earlier sexual initiation and higher levels of substance use among Filipino young adults engaging in same-sex behavior highlight the need to address unique health issues within this population. Mixed findings for depressive distress and perceived stress indicate that further investigation is needed to explore the potential impacts of same-sex status on mental health outcomes, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries such as the Philippines. PMID:25416159
Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Zatirka, Brendon P
This study examined flexibility and choice in same-sex pair-bonding behavior in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches form life-long monogamous relationships and extra pair behavior is very low, making them an ideal species in which to study same-sex pairing. We examined same-sex behaviors using both semi-naturalistic choice paradigms and skewed sex ratios. In the first experiment, we allowed zebra finches to pair in aviaries with equal sex ratios as part of multiple experiments. On average, 6.4% (N = 78) of unmanipulated pairs were same-sex: all but one was female-female. In a second experiment, we identified pairs from same-sex cages and selected 20 total same-sex pairs (10 of each sex). We then gave pairs a chance to court and pair with members of the opposite sex and observed their behavior for three days. Females did not retain their partner, but most paired with males. In contrast, some males did retain their partner. Similarly, females were more likely to engage in pairing behaviors with males than with their partners or other females whereas males were equally likely to engage in same-sex and opposite-sex pairing behaviors. These findings suggest that same-sex partnerships in zebra finches can be facultative, based on the sex ratio of the group in which they live, but can also be a choice, when opportunities to pair with opposite-sex individuals are possible. Furthermore, it is possible that females are more flexible in this choice of same-sex partnerships than are males. PMID:25190500
King, Michael; Bartlett, Annie
A growing number of countries have introduced a form of marriage or civil partnership registration for same sex couples. Marriage confers health benefits on heterosexual men and women and similar benefits could arise from same sex civil unions. The authors argue that legal and social recognition of same sex relationships may reduce discrimination, increase the stability of same sex relationships, and lead to better physical and mental health for gay and lesbian people. PMID:16476745
Cheng, S T; Chan, A C
One of the alleged reasons that males report lower intimacy in same-sex friendships than females is that males tend to be more competitive than females, but this assumption has not been empirically tested. In the current study, 121 Hong Kong adolescents filled out Chinese versions of the Intimate Friendship Scale and the Competitiveness Index. As predicted, females reported having more intimate same-sex relationships than males, and they scored lower on competitiveness than males. However, the correlations between scores on the Competitiveness Index and the Intimate Friendship subscales were small and nonsignificant, suggesting that the sex difference in intimacy was not a function of competitiveness. PMID:10203927
This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957
Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J
This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040
Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Lodge, Amy Caroline; Xu, Minle
Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships. PMID:25598552
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…
von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others
A pilot experiment aimed at discovering sex-specific language patterns as exhibited by males and females in conversation with same-sex and other-sex partners falsified the hypothesis frequently stated in the literature that males hold the dominant role in mixed-sex verbal interaction, at least in regard to college students. Twelve dyadic…
Perry, Samuel L; Whitehead, Andrew L
Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing on national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships. PMID:26226393
Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E
We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted. PMID:27251639
Perloff, Richard M.
Fifty-one preschool children were interviewed individually to assess awareness of gender constancy and choice of same-sex models. Differences emerged between high and low gender-constant children when they were given a choice between imitating a same-sex model performing a relatively unpleasant task and imitating an opposite-sex model enacting a…
LeBlanc, Allen J.; Frost, David M.; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory; de Vries, Brian
Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples’ social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples’ social networks are critically needed. PMID:26192404
Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …
Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.
The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…
Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…
Agardh, Anette; Ross, Michael; Östergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Markus; Tumwine, Gilbert; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Simpson, Julie A; Patton, George
Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group's health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10-25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6-16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9-4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4-3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people. PMID:26982494
Agardh, Anette; Ross, Michael; Östergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Markus; Tumwine, Gilbert; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Simpson, Julie A.; Patton, George
Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10–25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6–16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9–4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4–3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people. PMID:26982494
Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig
In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships. PMID:26966994
Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L
This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time. PMID:26048483
Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.
This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…
Downey, Douglas B.; Powell, Brian
Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159139.html More Americans Engaging in Same-Sex Encounters And the number ... June 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of Americans who say they've had sexual activity with ...
Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry
Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:22167814
Gates, Gary J.
Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…
It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170
Scherrer, Kristin S.
While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage. PMID:20596244
adams, Jimi; Light, Ryan
While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare. Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question. Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. We find that the literature on outcomes for children of same-sex parents is marked by scientific consensus that they experience "no differences" compared to children from other parental configurations. PMID:26188455
Mosley, Norman R.; And Others
An investigation of differences in the friendship patterns of men and of women reported that women appeared to be expressive in their friendship styles while men's same-sex friendships were best characterized as being instrumental. To examine these differences further, a study was conducted which investigated the relationship of friendship and…
... study lead author Jean Twenge, a professor of psychology at San Diego State University. The trend, she added, "suggests a fundamental shift in sexual behavior toward more freedom and the abandonment of previously strict social rules against same-sex sexuality." The findings come ...
Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.
Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…
Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.
This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169
Beery, Annaliese K; Routman, David M; Zucker, Irving
Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring-summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles. PMID:19419672
Mitchell, Jason W.
Abstract Purpose: Gay and bisexual men (GBM) have poorer health outcomes than the general population. Improved health outcomes will require that GBM have access to healthcare and that healthcare providers are aware of their sexual behaviors. This study sought to examine factors associated with having health insurance and disclosure of same-sex sexual behaviors to primary care providers (PCPs) among GBM in primary same-sex relationships. Methods: We conducted an online survey of a national sample of 722 men in same-sex couples living in the United States. Logistic regression and multinomial regression models were conducted to assess whether characteristic differences existed between men who did and did not have health insurance, and between men who did and did not report that their PCP knew about their same-sex sexual activity. Results: Our national sample of same-sex partnered men identified themselves predominantly as gay and white, and most reported having an income and health insurance. Having health insurance and disclosing sexual behavior to PCPs was associated with increasing age, higher education, and higher income levels. Insurance was less prevalent among nonwhite participants and those living in the south and midwest United States. Disclosure of sexual behavior was more common in urban respondents and in the western United States. In 25% of couples, one partner was insured, while the other was not. Conclusions: Having health insurance and disclosing one's sexual behavior to PCPs was suboptimal overall and occurred in patterns likely to exacerbate health disparities among those GBM already more heavily burdened with poorer health outcomes. These factors need to be considered by PCPs and health policymakers to improve the health of GBM. Patient- and provider-targeted interventions could also improve the health outcomes of GBM. PMID:26790018
Chused, J F
One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation. PMID:10669962
Archie, Elizabeth A.; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.
Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. ‘social connectedness’) with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes—females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals. PMID:25209936
Massey, Sean G; Merriwether, Ann M; Garcia, Justin R
The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347
Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M; August, Kristin J; Nave, Christopher S
Research suggests that romantic partners may benefit each other's health, but factors contributing to partners' involvement in eating regulation have been relatively unexplored. In this study, 104 heterosexual couples, 72 female same-sex and 72 male same-sex couples were examined in order to understand how partners' weight statuses were related to attempts to regulate eating behaviors. Weight status was assessed via body mass index and eating regulation was assessed using the Partner Feeding Questionnaire. Actor-Partner Interdependence Models revealed that gay men were particularly likely to regulate their partners' eating behaviors. Additionally, partners were found to regulate their significant others' eating behaviors when their significant others were heavy. Women were most likely to attempt to regulate their partners' eating behaviors when they were thin and their partners were heavy. These findings are discussed in the context of current obesity trends and the role of romantic partners in healthy weight management. PMID:26660637
MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.
The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347
Franssens, Dirk; Hospers, Harm J; Kok, Gerjo
The present study examined the first episode of anal intercourse of young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) who were in the midst of their coming-out. Cross-sectional data regarding the first episode of anal intercourse were extracted from Outcomes, a longitudinal study on coming-out and sexual behavior of YGBM in the Netherlands. Overall, 45% of respondents reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with their first same-sex partner. Rates of UAI did not significantly differ between meeting place (offline vs. online) and partner status (steady, regular or casual). PMID:20300819
Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving
The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080
Stake, Jayne E.; Granger, Charles R.
The relationship between the science career commitment and high school science teacher models was examined for 141 female and 129 male high school students. Teacher attractiveness and science-related teacher contact affected the influence of same-sex teachers more than that of opposite-sex teachers. The implications for female participation in…
Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as “minority stress,” with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934
Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669
Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy; Christensen, Kaare
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n = 1812) and SS (n = 4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n = 13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06–.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33–.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45–.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25655669
Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.
Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’s behaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans. PMID:19062284
For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277
McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.
From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…
... for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) proposes to amend its regulations to include same-sex... proposed rule, therefore, is designed to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from...
Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G
Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062
Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea
Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536
The purpose of this study was to use paired choice tests to examine mate selection by female domestic chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus. We examined five behavioural and six morphological traits of 34 pairs of males to determine which male features influenced female mate choice. The frequency of a behavioural display known as wingflapping was the only variable that differed significantly between males that were chosen and males that were not. Within trials, females selected males with the highest wingflapping rate. Across trials, the wingflapping rate of chosen males ranged widely (3-82 wingflaps/h) suggesting that females used a relative choice mechanism when selecting a mate. These results differ from earlier work on the closely related red junglefowl, G. g. murghi, in which females use morphological traits and a threshold choice mechanism when selecting mates. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9819324
Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob
Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769
Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624
Lee, Joseph G. L.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Pan, William K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.
The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987
Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M
The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987
Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch
Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890
Ahrenfeldt, Linda J.; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20–40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt’s adaptation of Fishman’s three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament’s measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907
Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins. PMID:26689907
Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus
Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876
Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life. Other organ systems that exhibit sex differences include the liver, an important consideration for neurotoxicology because it may process many toxic chemicals differentially in males and females. Despite the scope and pervasiveness of sex differences, however, they are disregarded by much of neurotoxicology research. Males predominate in behavioral experiments, few such experiments study both sexes, some investigators fail to even describe the sex of their subjects, and in vitro studies tend to wholly ignore sex, even for model systems aimed at neurological disorders that display marked sex differences. The public is acutely aware of sex differences in behavior, as attested by its appetite for books on the topic. It closely follows debates about the proportion of women in professions that feature science and mathematics. Neurotoxicology, especially in the domain of laboratory research, will be hindered in its ability to translate its findings into human health measures if it assigns sex differences to a minor role. It must also be sensitive to how such debates are framed. Often, the differences evoking the most discussion are subtle in scope. They do not lend themselves to the typical analyses conducted by experimenters; that is, reliance on mean differences and null hypothesis testing. PMID
Smith, Carolynn L; Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly; Evans, Christopher S
Correctly directing social behaviour towards a specific individual requires an ability to discriminate between conspecifics. The mechanisms of individual recognition include phenotype matching and familiarity-based recognition. Communication-based recognition is a subset of familiarity-based recognition wherein the classification is based on behavioural or distinctive signalling properties. Male fowl (Gallus gallus) produce a visual display (tidbitting) upon finding food in the presence of a female. Females typically approach displaying males. However, males may tidbit without food. We used the distinctiveness of the visual display and the unreliability of some males to test for communication-based recognition in female fowl. We manipulated the prior experience of the hens with the males to create two classes of males: S(+) wherein the tidbitting signal was paired with a food reward to the female, and S (-) wherein the tidbitting signal occurred without food reward. We then conducted a sequential discrimination test with hens using a live video feed of a familiar male. The results of the discrimination tests revealed that hens discriminated between categories of males based on their signalling behaviour. These results suggest that fowl possess a communication-based recognition system. This is the first demonstration of live-to-video transfer of recognition in any species of bird. PMID:26915426
Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.
Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica
The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…
Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa
Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood. PMID:27091185
Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia
International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…
Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne
Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…
Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie
How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…
Treanor, Laura; Graber, Kim; Housner, Lynn; Wiegand, Robert
Middle school students who participated in both single-sex and coeducational physical education (PE) classes completed questionnaires eliciting their opinions on perceived abilities, affinity toward PE, and preferences for coeducational and same-sex classes. Most students liked PE, preferred same-sex classes, and rated themselves highly on PE…
... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners... Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum for the Heads of... the following actions, consistent with existing law, in order to extend benefits to the...
Blewett, Lynn A.
Objectives. We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31 947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3 060 711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259 147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Results. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Conclusions. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners. PMID:24328616
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.
This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…
Herek, Gregory M.
Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…
Howard, J. Paul R.
The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how educators…
Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
Thyer, Bruce A.
Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…
Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a
Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W.; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette
Background Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality
Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie
The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556
von Doussa, Henry; Power, Jennifer; McNair, Ruth; Brown, Rhonda; Schofield, Margot; Perlesz, Amaryll; Pitts, Marian; Bickerdike, Andrew
This article reports on a qualitative study of barriers and access to healthcare for same-sex attracted parents and their children. Focus groups were held with same-sex attracted parents to explore their experiences with healthcare providers and identify barriers and facilitators to access. Parents reported experiencing uncomfortable or anxiety-provoking encounters with healthcare workers who struggled to adopt inclusive or appropriate language to engage their family. Parents valued healthcare workers who were able to be open and honest and comfortably ask questions about their relationships and family. A separate set of focus groups were held with mainstream healthcare workers to identity their experiences and concerns about delivering equitable and quality care for same-sex parented families. Healthcare workers reported lacking confidence to actively engage with same-sex attracted parents and their children. This lack of confidence related to workers' unfamiliarity with same-sex parents, or lesbian, gay and bisexual culture, and limited opportunities to gain information or training in this area. Workers were seeking training and resources that offered information about appropriate language and terminology as well as concrete strategies for engaging with same-sex parented families. For instance, workers suggested they would find it useful to have a set of 'door opening' questions they could utilize to ask clients about their sexuality, relationship status or family make-up. This article outlines a set of guidelines for healthcare providers for working with same-sex parented families which was a key outcome of this study. PMID:25736035
Bloom, Tina; Gielen, Andrea; Glass, Nancy
Young women experiencing dating violence in same-sex relationships face significant barriers to help for safety planning. Therefore, our team developed a tailored smartphone safety decision aid app for dating violence survivors and their peers. College women survivors of same-sex dating violence, peers, and college staff reviewed the app, identifying users' barriers to information, resources, and services and key strategies for dissemination, inclusiveness, and safety for the app. Findings support the use of the app to assist college women experiencing same-sex dating violence and peers to connect with resources and develop tailored safety plans to reduce violence and increase their safety. PMID:26515797
Willcox, R R
Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558
Willcox, R R
Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. PMID:6894558
Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.
During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181
Herek, Gregory M
Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent's sexual orientation is unrelated to her or his ability to provide a healthy and nurturing family environment; and that marriage bestows substantial psychological, social, and health benefits. It is concluded that same-sex couples and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships. Trends in public opinion toward greater support for legal recognition of same-sex couples are discussed. PMID:16953748
Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132
Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M
Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132
Spring, Amy L
Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the "disappearance" of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412
Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim
We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples. PMID:24585040
Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie
Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. PMID:26921411
Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412
Finck, Jonas; Kuntze, Janine; Ronacher, Bernhard
Gomphocerine grasshoppers use species-specific calling songs for sex recognition and mate attraction. In two closely related species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, acoustic communication is the only experimentally characterized communication channel that elicits male courtship behaviour. However, courtship in these species involves extensive close-range interactions that are likely to be mediated by other signalling modalities, in particular chemical cues. We developed a bioassay to determine if female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) act as chemical cues that induce courtship behaviour, and if males assess variation in CHCs to determine whether or not to court a female. The results of this approach provide evidence that grasshopper males use species- and sex-specific information from CHC signals and respond with a courtship song to the CHC profile of conspecific females but not to the CHC profile of heterospecific females and conspecific males. We conclude that males of C. biguttulus and C. mollis use multimodal channels for mating decisions, based on both acoustic and olfactory cues. We discuss various factors that might favour the evolution of male choosiness in grasshoppers. PMID:27025933
Frost, David M
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in romantic relationships experience stigma, prejudice, and discrimination stemming from widespread social devaluation of same-sex relationships. Research on same-sex couples has demonstrated a negative association between experiences of stigma and relationship quality. However, critical questions remain unanswered regarding how experiences of stigma become more or less meaningful within the context of same-sex relationships. This paper presents a study of the stories that a purposive sample of 99 individuals in same-sex relationships wrote about their relational high points, low points, decisions, and goals, as well as their experiences of stigma directly related to their relationships. Narrative analysis of these stories revealed that participants utilized several psychological strategies for making meaning of their experiences of stigma within the context of their relationships. Some participants framed stigma as having a negative impact on their relationships, while others framed stigma as relevant, but external to their lives. Some participants saw stigma as providing an opportunity to (re)define notions of commitment and relational legitimacy. Additionally, many participants framed stigma as bringing them closer to their partners and strengthening the bond within their relationships. The results of this study illuminate the psychological strategies individuals in same-sex couples use to make meaning of, cope with, and overcome societal devaluation thereby furthering understandings of the association between stigma and intimacy within marginalized relationships. PMID:21355641
Takács, Judit; Szalma, Ivett; Bartus, Tamás
By examining social attitudes on same-sex adoption in 28 European countries, we highlighted individual and country-level factors that can determine the level of social acceptance or rejection of this specific kind of adoption. This article contributes to the literature on social acceptance of lesbian women, gay men, and their adoption practices in Europe and directs attention to several previously under-researched aspects of social attitudes on same-sex parenting rights. The empirical base of this study was the fourth round of the European Values Study, conducted in 2008-2010. Using ordered logistic regressions, we examined the impact of several individual and country-level characteristics on the agreement level with the statement that "Homosexual couples should be able to adopt children." We found strong relationships between social attitudes towards adoption by same-sex couples and the existence of legislation permitting same-sex adoption practices at the country-level, as well as some individual attitudes, including those related to traditional family formation practices, "justification of homosexuality," and (non-) preference for homosexual neighbors. Our findings indicate a shift within the potential interpretational contexts of adoption by same-sex couples from a narrow sexuality-based framework to a different and possibly much wider context of family and parenting practices. PMID:26919840
Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie
This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462
Seeber, Peter A; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André
The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a 'roving male' tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833
Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric
Malaria vector control relies heavily on the use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). These, together with the combined drug administration efforts to control malaria, have reduced the death toll to less than 700,000 deaths/year. This progress has engendered real excitement but the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance is challenging our ability to sustain and consolidate the substantial gains that have been made. Research is required to discover novel vector control tools that can supplement and improve the effectiveness of those currently available. Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males. Importantly, further knowledge of male biology could also lead to the development of new interventions, such as sound traps and male mass killing in swarms, and contribute to new population sampling tools. We review and discuss recent advances in the behavioural ecology of male mating with an emphasis on the potential applications that can be derived from such knowledge. We also highlight those aspects of male mating ecology that urgently require additional study in the future. PMID:26113015
Beyrer, C; Eiumtrakul, S; Celentano, D D; Nelson, K E; Ruckphaopunt, S; Khamboonruang, C
In northern Thailand, baseline interviews with and blood testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies of military conscripts were conducted during May-November 1993. Researchers also examined conscripts discharged in April 1993. They interviewed and tested a total of 2047 men. 134 men (6.5%) had had at least one male sex partner. (These men are referred to as MSM.) Only 4 (2.9%) had had sex with only men. The remaining 130 (97.1%) had also had female sex partners. The 134 MSM men were more likely than heterosexual men to be married (odds ratio [OR] = 2.67) and to have a girlfriend with whom they had sex (OR = 1.6). They were also more likely than heterosexual men to have ever had any sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR = 2.71), gonorrhea (2.05), syphilis (OR = 3.17), nongonococcal urethritis (OR = 4.54), penile discharge with pus (OR = 2.47), watery penile discharge (OR = 6.24), and dysuria (OR = 2.43). The overall HIV prevalence was 12.1% (247 men). MSM men were only somewhat more likely to be HIV infected (PR = 1.51). MSM men with more than one male lifetime partner were significantly more likely to be infected with HIV than those with only one male partner (OR = 2.89). Same-sex behavior was more common among discharged men who had returned to civilian life than those were still in the military (9.3% vs. 6.5%). Discharged bi/homosexual men was the only group of Royal Thai Army current or former conscripts in which sex with men was independently associated with HIV infection (27.3% vs. 12.4% for HIV-infected heterosexual former conscripts; OR = 2.54). Among all subjects, HIV infection was associated with ever visited a female commercial sex worker (OR = 4.16) and ever had any STD (OR = 5.47), gonorrhea (OR = 3.08), syphilis (OR = 3.81), genital herpes (OR = 3.54), genital warts (OR = 3.56), and genital ulcer disease (OR = 5.59). These findings show that MSM in Northern Thailand are at high risk of STDs and HIV. HIV/STD prevention efforts should target all young
Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki
Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals. PMID:27168192
Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude
In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.
Starks, Tyrel S.; Millar, Brett M.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.
Internet-based surveys are commonly utilized as a cost effective mechanism for data collection in social and health psychology research. Little is known about the differences between partnered gay men who participate alone compared to those with partners who also agree to participate. A sample of 260 partnered gay/bisexual men from New York City completed an online survey covering demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, substance use, and relationship satisfaction. Upon completion, they had the option to send the study link to their partner. In total, 104 (40%) participants successfully recruited their partners, 90 (34.6%) were unsuccessful, and 66 (25.4%) declined the option to refer their partners. Men who did not refer their partners were significantly older, in relationships longer, and reported higher personal income. Participants who successfully recruited partners reported significantly higher relationship satisfaction. While generalizability is limited given the diversity of methodological factors that influence research participation, these data provide an initial insight into the effects on sample composition imposed by the implementation of dyadic (vs. unpaired) designs in online studies. PMID:25432879
Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H
Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. PMID:27194703
After first defining surrogacy, distinguishing between cases in which the pregnancy results from the surrogate's own egg or a donor egg, and examining the different configurations of male homosexual families, the authors outline French and foreign legislation and provide a summary of the literature and of French working group hearings. Arguments for and against lifting the ban on surrogacy for gay couples are examined. The main arguments for lifting the ban are the following: 1) the same-sex couple's desire to start a family from their own gene pool, 2) current obstacles to adoption, 3) the notion of equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples, 4) frequent recourse to surrogacy abroad, which is not only very costly but also leaves the child in a state of legal limbo on its return to France, and 5) the lack of access to therapeutic alternatives. Some arguments against lifting the ban are of a medical nature: (1) physical and psychological risks for the surrogate, 2) the fact that exchanges between the mother and fetus during pregnancy are more complex than previously thought (microchimerism, epigenetics) and never negligible, and 3) the physical and psychological risks for the child. Other arguments are of an ethical nature: 1) surrogacy may undermine the status of motherhood, 2) surrogacy is becoming a societal rather than a medical issue, implying a profound bioethical upheaval, 3) the increasing commercialization of the human body, 4) subjugation of women to men's desires, 5) the risks for the surrogate's own couple and children, and for the host couple, 6) unavoidable financial aspects, and (7) the risk of abuse. The aim of this study is to bring together all the factors potentially influencing the health consequences of surrogacy, for both the mother and the child, especially if surrogacy were to be legalized for male homosexual couples. Surrogacy raises issues far beyond purely medical considerations and is primarily a societal issue that must be
Dempsey, Deborah; Hillier, Lynne; Harrison, Lyn
Seeks to import a more complex understanding of gendered subjectivity into discussions of young people and homosexuality. This study is based on an Australian national survey of same-sex attracted youth (N=749). Results reveal significant gender differences with regard to patterns of sexual attraction. (MKA)
Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.
The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …
Messinger, Adam M.
With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…
McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk
This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a…
Rivers, Ian; Noret, Nathalie
In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors,…
Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie
Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727
Beck, Terence A.
Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…
Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W
Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships. PMID:25848857
Clark, Jennifer B; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F
The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in U.S. v. Windsor (570 U.S. 307) and Hollingsworth v. Perry (570 U.S. 399) created a focal point for public discussion of marriage equality for same-sex couples. This article reports the results of an exploratory study of the reactions of individuals currently or previously in same-sex couple relationships and a heterosexual sibling who is currently or previously married (N = 371) to the Supreme Court decisions. Thematic content analysis was used to explore participants' responses to an open-ended question on a survey. Reactions of individuals from same-sex couples revealed the following themes: (1) longitudinal perspectives on the advancement of rights for same-sex couples; (2) emotional responses celebrating the decisions or expressing relief; (3) affirmation of their relationship or rights; (4) practical consequences of the extension of rights; and (5) minority stress related to anticipation of future prejudice or discrimination. Themes in the heterosexual siblings' responses were (1) ally support; (2) flat support without emotion or elaboration; (3) indifference to or ignorance about the decisions; and (4) disapproval of the decisions. These themes are compared and discussed in light of prior research on reactions to marriage restriction debates and marriage (in)equality and family relationships. PMID:25865954
Black, Kathryn Norcross; Campbell, Kathleen M.
This paper describes a study which examined the performance of 48 pairs of 18-month-old twins on the Mental Development Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to determine whether score differences would be found for the three subgroups of identical, fraternal same-sexed, and fraternal opposite-sexed twins. Of the 96 subjects, 46 (23…
Children who are born to or adopted by 1 member of a same-sex couple deserve the security of 2 legally recognized parents. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics supports legislative and legal efforts to provide the possibility of adoption of the child by the second parent or coparent in these families. PMID:11826219
Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian
Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…
Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.
This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…
Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.
Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…
Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon
This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…
Yarhouse, Mark A.
Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)
Charles, Laurie L.; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L.
This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From…
Perrone, Kristin M.
The author highlights information for career counselors to consider when addressing work-family interface with individuals who are members of same-sex, dual-earner couples or families. D. E. Super's (1990) life-span, life-space theory is the framework used to organize the literature review and discussion of current trends. Issues related to the…
Willetts, Marion C.
Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…
Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan
An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…
Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.
The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…
Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts
Studied mentoring relationships for 205 female retail proteges in cross- and same-sex mentoring relationships. Found no significant differences between groups on mentor and protege age differences, protege career level at relationship onset, company affiliation, mentor characteristics, benefits derived, problems reported, duration of relationship,…
Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.
Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)
Moen, Kåre; Aggleton, Peter; Leshabari, Melkizedeck T; Middelthon, Anne-Lise
This article offers a review of published texts describing sexual relations between men in Tanzania in the period 1860-2010. It explores ways in which men who have sex with men have been named and understood; describes the sexual and social roles associated with differing same-sex identities and subjectivities; tracks politics, policies, and sociocultural expressions relating to sex between men; and explores the ways in which men's same-sex sexual practices have been responded to in the context of health and HIV. Among the impressions emerging from the historical record is that sex between men is not (and has not been) uncommon in Tanzania; that a significant conceptual distinction exists between men who are anally receptive and men who penetrate anally; and that there has been a range of views on, and opinions about, same-sex relations within the wider society. There is evidence that same-sex practicing men in Tanzania have been affected by HIV at least since 1982, with one seroprevalence study indicating that the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men was quite disproportionate as far back as 2007. However, while men who have sex with men have been defined as a "vulnerable population" with respect to HIV in national frameworks since 2003, this had not led to any significant amount of targeted HIV prevention work being reported by either local or international actors by 2010. PMID:24752788
Horn, Staccy S.
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…
Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family
Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments. PMID:20221417
Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey
Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments PMID:20221417
Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L
The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity. PMID:26183931
Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell
The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195
Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell
The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997–2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status—not same-sex status—that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195
Humble, Áine M
A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality). PMID:23701954
Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Glass, Nancy
Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors’ perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV. PMID:21278817
Alhusen, Jeanne L; Lucea, Marguerite B; Glass, Nancy
Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors' perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV. PMID:21278817
Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen
This article conceptualizes the child as having active agency in the constructions of their social worlds, and reports on a study that understands the twin experiences from the perspectives of the twins. It examines how twins account for their relationships with their co-twins. The study drew on accounts of 60 twin children--10 monozygotic (MZ), 10 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex, 10 DZ opposite-sex pairs--aged 5 to 10 years and their parent (n = 30). The children engaged in a sticker activity in which they represented their friendships, including their friendship with their co-twin. Using the task as a resource, the children were asked about their friends, the attributes of friendship and examples of everyday friendships encounters. These were audio-recorded and transcribed. Further, parents completed a questionnaire that provided demographic information and asked parents about the children's social experiences including twin children's time spent together, shared interests and their co-twin relationship. Using data from the pictorial representation from the sticker task and parent questionnaires, differences in relationship between MZ, DZ same-sex and DZ opposite-sex twins were examined and used to select a smaller sample for detailed study. DZ same-sex twins tended to view their co-twin less favorably and there was a nonsignificant trend in which conflict was elevated, compared to the other two groups. Based on these findings, the transcripts selected for analysis focuses on the DZ same-sex girls. The girls reported that they had differences of thought, activity and self-presentation. Conflict, competition and challenge as types of social interaction were described, suggesting that the everyday relationship of the twin with her co-twin is always being negotiated and realigned. Evident here is the complexity of social interactions in which the twins engaged everyday with each other. PMID:16611475
Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Badenes-Ribera, Laura
Attribution theory suggests the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual sexual orientation will be more negative when homosexuality is attributed to controllable causes. Our randomized study analyzed (a) whether beliefs about the genetic or environmental etiology of the homosexual sexual orientation can be immediately modified by reading a text and (b) the causal effect of attributions about the controllability (environmental etiology) or noncontrollability (genetic etiology) of homosexual sexual orientation on the rejection of same-sex parenting and their social rights. The sample was composed of 190 Spanish university students with a mean age of 22.07 years (SD = 8.46). The results show that beliefs about the etiology of the sexual orientation could be modified by means of a written text. Furthermore, participants who believed that sexual orientation had a genetic etiology showed greater support for social rights and less rejection of same-sex parenting. However, the effects were detected only when there was a traditional opposition to the family with same-sex parenting. When the opposition was normative, the effect was not statistically significant. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster tolerance toward and normality of sexual diversity. PMID:24024528
This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others. PMID:25317726
de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição
The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (α = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p < .001). Furthermore, analysis of the scale's predictors demonstrates how a left-wing orientation (β = .22, p < .001) and the level of denial of deservingness for lesbian/gay discrimination (β = .30, p < .001) prove to be the best predictors of attitudes towards same-sex marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject. PMID:26054409
Sullins, D. Paul
The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882
Whitton, Sarah W; Kuryluk, Amanda D
Extending research based on different-sex (i.e., heterosexual) couples, the authors explored associations between romantic relationship quality and depressive symptoms in a geographically diverse sample (N = 571) of U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. The authors also examined whether this association was moderated by individual characteristics (gender, age, and internalized heterosexism) or relationship factors (relationship length, commitment, and interdependence). Results indicated a moderate negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms, echoing findings from different-sex couples. This association was not moderated by gender, age, internalized heterosexism, or relationship length. In contrast, commitment and interdependence did demonstrate moderating effects. Although the negative association between relationship quality and depressive symptoms was present at all levels of commitment and interdependence, it was amplified at higher commitment and interdependence levels. In general, findings contribute to a growing literature suggesting many commonalities between same-sex and opposite sex couples. Specifically, they suggest the importance of relationship quality to the emotional well-being of LGBT adults, supporting clinical interventions and social policies that promote healthy and stable same-sex relationships. PMID:25000131
Sullins, D Paul
The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 15,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. PMID:27313882
Sobočan, Ana Marija
The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities. PMID:21774603
Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle
There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub
Mooijman, Marlon; Stern, Chadly
Taking another person's perspective has generally been found to foster positive attitudes. We propose that perspective taking can lead to more negative attitudes when people imagine an experience that threatens their current motivations and goals. We test this idea by examining how taking the perspective of a male same-sex couple influences political conservatives' attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrate that (a) the extent to which conservatives (but not liberals) imagine same-sex sexual behavior predicts more anti-gay attitudes, (b) this effect is in part attributable to conservatives experiencing greater disgust, and (c) having conservatives reappraise disgust as not necessarily signaling the threat of disease eliminates this effect. These findings indicate that perspective taking can foster negative attitudes when the content of perspective taking threatens current motivations. The proposed ideas provide unique insights toward developing a more comprehensive framework of how perspective taking shapes attitudes. PMID:27460270
Roisman, Glenn I; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle
This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships was examined at multiple levels of analysis via self-reports and partner reports, laboratory observations, and measures of physiological reactivity during dyadic interactions. Additionally, individuals in same-sex, engaged, and marital relationships were compared with one another on adult attachment security as assessed through the coherence of participants' narratives about their childhood experiences. Results indicated that individuals in committed same-sex relationships were generally not distinguishable from their committed heterosexual counterparts, with one exception--lesbians were especially effective at working together harmoniously in laboratory observations. PMID:18194008
This paper explores why Japanese men engage in potentially risky commercial sexual behaviours while on holiday in Thailand. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 heterosexual male Japanese tourists, aged 19-36, who paid for sex with Thai women. Study participants were recruited at guesthouses in Bangkok. Analysis revealed eight main factors that encourage participation in commercial sex: a sense of freedom and anonymity during "time-out" spent travelling in a foreign country; a sense that there are permissive norms governing commercial sex in Thailand; the perceived sexual desirability of Thai women, a sense of economic and racial superiority relative to Thai women; a sense of loneliness or feeling in need of companionship; peer influence; the widespread availability of inexpensive sexual services in Thailand; and sexual desire or need. Findings indicate that Japanese male sexual conduct reflects individual drives while on holiday, in the context of interactions among Japanese peers, shaped by Thailand's socio-cultural environment. PMID:16641061
Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert; Silver, Eric; Silenzio, Vincent
Objectives To examine health indicators of same-sex partnered veterans as compared with their opposite-sex partnered veteran and nonveteran peers. Methods Same-sex partner status was derived by self-reported same-sex partnerships in data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Outcome variables included health risk disparities associated with sexual minority status (e.g., frequent mental distress) and veteran status (e.g., firearm ownership). Stratified multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of same-sex partnered veteran status with health indicators. Results Same-sex partnered veterans had higher odds of being overweight and keeping firearms in the house compared with same-sex partnered nonveterans. Same-sex partnered veterans were less likely than opposite-sex partnered veterans to be overweight, and they were more than twice as likely to be current smokers when compared with opposite-sex partnered nonveterans. Conclusions Findings suggest both that some health disparities patterns identified by same-sex partnership status among the general population also exist among veteran populations, and that some unique distinctions may exist, particularly related to BMI and firearm ownership. Collection of information about sexual minority status within Department of Veterans Affairs data sources is needed to more accurately assess the health of this minority population. PMID:23495467
Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.
Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…
Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Almeida, Rute; Anselmo, Cátia; Ferreira, André; Pereira, Henrique; Leal, Isabel
The purpose of this study was to explore university students' attitudes toward same-sex parenting and toward gay and lesbian rights. A total of 292 participants, aged between 18 and 27 (M = 21) responded to a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward parenting by gay men and lesbians, gay and lesbian rights, and beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality. Results revealed that the majority of students were against gay and lesbian parenting, gay and lesbian equal rights, and believed that homosexuality has a social/environmental basis. It was found that sexual prejudice is highly prevalent in Portuguese university students, and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25089332
Morris, Robert J
In the long history of the West's encounter with Hawaiian culture, which began in the late 1700s with Captain Cook, translators and translations have often been the tools of intentional falsehood, thus demonstrating the truth of the Italian proverb, Traduttore, traditore ("the translator is a traitor")--particularly with regard to same-sex texts. The standards of truth have often been subverted in translation by the demands of foreign religion, hegemony, business, and academe. This subversion continues to this day in the form of the "missionary mentality" in politics and law. The way out of this situation is a brutally honest cleaning-off of the besmirched Hawaiian texts. PMID:17135122
Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033
Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65%) males and 270 (35%) females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8%) were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2%) had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher's exact test). There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring. PMID:26605033
Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665
Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.
Beery, Annaliese K.; Loo, Theresa J.; Zucker, Irving
Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals remains poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 hour partner preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior. PMID:18387611
Morales Knight, Luis F; Hope, Debra A
Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development. PMID:22476518
Lewis, Daniel C
Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy. PMID:21919272
LeBlanc, Allen J.; Frost, David M.; Wight, Richard G.
Drawing from 2 largely isolated approaches to the study of social stress—stress proliferation and minority stress—the authors theorize about stress and mental health among same-sex couples. With this integrated stress framework, they hypothesized that couple-level minority stressors may be experienced by individual partners and jointly by couples as a result of the stigmatized status of their same-sex relationship—a novel concept. They also consider dyadic minority stress processes, which result from the relational experience of individual-level minority stressors between partners. Because this framework includes stressors emanating from both status- (e.g., sexual minority) and role-based (e.g., partner) stress domains, it facilitates the study of stress proliferation linking minority stress (e.g., discrimination), more commonly experienced relational stress (e.g., conflict), and mental health. This framework can be applied to the study of stress and health among other marginalized couples, such as interracial/ethnic, interfaith, and age-discrepant couples. PMID:25663713
Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yinjie; Jiang, Shuling; Tu, Xiaoming
The purpose of the study is to explore the disclosure of same-sex behavior by men who have sex with men (MSM) to different groups of people (i.e. family, friends, coworkers, and doctors) and the associated sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. A self-administered survey was conducted among 307 migrant MSM, aged 18-30, in Beijing in 2009. Most MSM disclosed their same-sex behavior to friends (69%), followed by family (25%), coworkers (25%), and doctors (24%). Factors associated with disclosure to friends included higher levels of perceived stigma, social capital and acculturation in Beijing, and suspecting partner to have a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Factors associated with disclosure to family included lower levels of internalized stigma, higher levels of acculturation in Beijing, and both risk and protective behavioral factors. MSM who disclosed to coworkers reported having worked in more cities, living with coworkers, and lower levels of social capital in Beijing. Disclosure to doctors was related to STD infection, sex partner, and sociodemographic factors. Results indicated that selective disclosure by MSM was situational and context-based. Future HIV/STD intervention needs to take into account factors relevant to their selective disclosure to different audiences. PMID:23654216
Beery, A K; Zucker, I
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a range of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors including parent-offspring bonding and partner preference formation between socially monogamous mates. Its role in mediating non-reproductive social relationships in rodents, however, remains largely unexplored. We examined whether OT facilitates same-sex social preferences between female meadow voles-a species that forms social nesting groups in short, winter-like day lengths. In contrast to results from studies of opposite-sex attachment between prairie vole mates, we found that neither OT nor dopamine neurotransmission was required for baseline levels of social partner preference formation or expression. OT enhanced preference formation beyond baseline levels-an effect that was counteracted by treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA). Oxytocin receptor (OTR) density correlated with social behavior in brain regions not known to be associated with opposite-sex affiliation, including the lateral septum and central amygdala. In addition, voles housed in short day lengths (SD) exhibited higher levels of OTR binding in the central amygdala, and voles exposed to high concentrations of estradiol exhibited less binding in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and increased binding in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that same-sex social behavior shares common elements with other mammalian social behaviors affected by OT, but that the specific neural pathways through which OT exerts its influence are likely distinct from those known for sexual attachments. PMID:20580660
Beery, Annaliese K; Loo, Theresa J; Zucker, Irving
Non-sexual social bonding between adult mammals is poorly understood, despite its importance in many species. Female meadow voles are territorial and nest alone in long summer day lengths when circulating estradiol concentrations are high, but cohabit in groups in short winter photoperiods when estradiol secretion is low. The influence of day length and estradiol on same-sex huddling behavior was assessed in adult female pairs housed together in long day lengths (LDs) or short day lengths (SDs) from weaning. The behavior of intact, ovariectomized, and estradiol-treated ovariectomized females from each photoperiod was assessed during 3 h partner-preference tests. Intact SD voles, unlike intact LD voles, spent the majority of the test in proximity to their cage-mates. Estradiol treatment of SD voles significantly reduced time spent huddling with the partner. Neither ovariectomy nor estradiol treatment significantly affected the amount of time LD females spent in contact with their partners. Low estradiol availability is therefore a necessary but not sufficient condition for maintenance of high levels of huddling. These results establish that ovarian hormones interact with photoperiod to affect same-sex social behavior. PMID:18387611
Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0–7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16–22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8–40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0–26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2, p = 0.002). Conclusions To prevent the spread of STI’s in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated
Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin
Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997–2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter’s education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559
Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn
In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205
Male sexual behaviour was controlled by castration and testosterone replacement. The first experiment shows that, within a group of similarly coloured and castrated male mallards, females preferred males treated with testosterone. The second experiment shows that a testosterone-treated male was always preferred by the females, irrespective of plumage colour, in a choice between a wild and a white mallard drake. The results shows that testosterone dependent male cues is important in mate choice in the mallard duck. PMID:24896699
Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used interchangeably by individual males, but the degree to which either is used may depend on the social environment into which males are born. Here we show that male mating behaviour varies according to the rearing sex ratio: when reared in male-biased groups, males performed more forced copulations and fewer courtship displays but showed the opposite pattern of behaviour when reared in female-biased groups. Our prediction, based on sperm competition theory, that stripped sperm number would reflect social structure was not supported by our results. Instead, the overall level of sexual activity (gonopodial thrusts+sigmoid displays) was a better predictor of sperm number in the different groups of males. Rearing density, where sex ratio was controlled, did not significantly affect male mating behaviour or sperm traits. Males reared under the different sex ratios continued to show their characteristic behaviour patterns when placed in equal sex ratio tanks. We conclude, therefore, that males adopt mating strategies to suit their social environment, and that these strategies remain fixed, for short periods at least, if population structure changes. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564602
Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks. PMID:23842784
This paper questions international public health theories that characterize AIDS in Africa as an unambiguous heterosexual epidemic. It does so by describing the daily sexual lives of a community of Namibian youth who engage in same-sex sexual practices. The author outlines how the ongoing vilification of "homosexuals" by ruling State officials serves as a stigmatizing backdrop against which young people experience and practice their sexuality. Drawing upon 20 months of ethnographic research, the paper discusses the HIV sexual risk perceptions and practices of young men, highlighting the complexities in sexual subjectivity that form within the cultural politics of competing masculinities, state-sponsored anti-homosexual rhetoric and transnational queer rights protest. Bounded and monolithic notions of gender and sexual identity do not lend themselves to HIV risk and vulnerability analysis in this community. PMID:16923647
Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen
The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827
Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families. PMID:25911578
Peragine, Deane E; Yousuf, Yusef; Fu, Yi; Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Ginzberg, Keren; Holmes, Melissa M
Competitive interactions can have striking and enduring effects on behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced plasticity are unclear, particularly in females. Naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies are characterized by the strictest social and reproductive hierarchy among mammals, and represent an ideal system for studies of social competition. In large matriarchal colonies, breeding is monopolized by one female and 1-3 males, with other colony members being socially subordinate and reproductively suppressed. To date, competition for breeding status has been examined in-colony, with female, but not male, aggression observed following the death/removal of established queens. To determine whether this sex difference extends to colony-founding contexts, and clarify neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying behavioral change in females competing for status, we examined neurogenesis and steroid hormone concentrations in colony-housed subordinates, and NMRs given the opportunity to transition status via pair-housing. To this end, Ki-67 and doublecortin immunoreactivity were compared in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) of colony-housed subordinates, and subordinates housed with a same-sex (SS) or opposite-sex (OS) conspecific. Results suggest that OS pairing in eusocial mammals promotes cooperation and enhances hippocampal plasticity, while SS pairing is stressful, resulting in enhanced HPA activation and muted hippocampal neurogenesis relative to OS pairs. Data further indicate that competition for status is confined to females, with female-female housing exerting contrasting effects on hippocampal and amygdalar neurogenesis. These findings advance understanding of social stress effects on neuroplasticity and behavior, and highlight the importance of including female-dominated species in research on aggression and intrasexual competition. PMID:27018426
Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.
Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.
Sutton, Philip M
In recent years, national and international medical and mental-health associations typically have emphasized the potential harmfulness of professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction (SSA or homosexuality) and behavior. State legislatures in the US and legislative bodies in other countries either have passed or are considering passing laws which would penalize professionals who provide professional care for unwanted SSA-to minors and/or adults-including the loss of the license to practice. This paper was written as a response to the present situation in the UK. The paper reviews the universal ethics of all medical and mental-health professionals to avoid harm and do good (non-maleficence/non-malfeasance and beneficence); discusses the documented potential for harm when using every mental-health treatment for every presenting problem; clarifies steps taken by the Alliance for Therapeutic Choice and Scientific Integrity (Alliance), its clinical and research divisions, the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality Institute (NARTH Institute) and its international division, the International Federation for Therapeutic Choice (IFTC), to promote ethical professional care for unwanted SSA; clarifies the injustice and presumed ideological biases of the medical and mental-health associations' warning about the potential for harm for psychotherapy only for unwanted SSA and not all psychotherapy approaches; and documents that the research purporting to show this harmfulness, in the research authors own words, does not do so. Recommendations to promote scientific integrity in the conduct and reporting of relevant research are offered. Lay Summary: There has been a lot of controversy about the potential harmfulness of professional care for unwanted same-sex attraction and behavior (SSA or homosexuality). This paper reviews the ethics of all medical and mental health professionals to avoid harm and do good; discusses the known potential for harm when
Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children
Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M
Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133
Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.
According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…
Graham, Brittney M; Solomon, Nancy G; Noe, Douglas A; Keane, Brian
Females are generally expected to be selective when choosing their social and sexual partners. In a previous laboratory study, female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) showed significant social and sexual preferences for males with longer microsatellite DNA within the avpr1a gene encoding the vasopressin 1a receptor, as predicted if females select mates whose parental behaviour should increase female reproductive success. We tested the hypothesis that males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles exhibit differences in courtship behaviour, which could act as cues for female mate preference. The only behavioural difference we detected between males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles in mate preference trials was that males with short avpr1a microsatellite alleles sniffed the anogenital region of females more frequently during the first two days of the trials. Our results did not strongly support the hypothesis that a male's avpr1a genotype predicts the courtship behaviours we measured and suggests that other courtship behaviours or traits, such as odour and vocalizations, may be more important to female prairie voles when choosing mates. Additional studies using a wider array of species are needed to assess the degree to which male mammal courtship behaviour provides information on mate quality to females. PMID:27083501
Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R
The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. PMID:26322730
Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth
Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356
Gilman, S E; Cochran, S D; Mays, V M; Hughes, M; Ostrow, D; Kessler, R C
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals with same-sex sexual partners. METHODS: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative household survey. Respondents were asked the number of women and men with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 5 years. Psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R) criteria were assessed with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: A total of 2.1% of men and 1.5% of women reported 1 or more same-sex sexual partners in the past 5 years. These respondents had higher 12-month prevalences of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and of suicidal thoughts and plans than did respondents with opposite-sex partners only. Decomposition showed that the elevated same-sex 12-month prevalences were largely due to higher lifetime prevalences. Ages at onset and persistence of disorders did not differ between the same-sex and opposite-sex subsamples. CONCLUSIONS: Homosexual orientation, defined as having same-sex sexual partners, is associated with a general elevation of risk for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and for suicidal thoughts and plans. Further research is needed to replicate and explore the causal mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:11392937
Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar
Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468
Svetec, Nicolas; Houot, Benjamin; Ferveur, Jean-François
Behaviour depends (a) on genes that specify the neural and non-neural elements involved in the perception of and responses to sensory stimuli and (b) on experience that can modulate the fine development of these elements. We exposed transgenic and control Drosophila melanogaster males, and their hybrids, to male siblings during adult development and measured the contribution of genes and of experience to their courtship behaviour. The transgene CheB42a specifically targets male gustatory sensillae and alters the perception of male inhibitory pheromones which leads to frequent male-male interactions. The age at which social experience occurred and the genotype of tester males induced a variable effect on the intensity of male homo- and heterosexual courtship. The strong interaction between the effects of genes and of social experience reveals the plasticity of the apparently stereotyped elements involved in male courtship behaviour. Finally, a high intensity of homosexual courtship was found only in males that simultaneously carried a mutation in their white gene and the CheB42a transgene. PMID:16174337
Kasumovic, Michael M.; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H.
Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn’t explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player’s attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when
Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H
Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when
In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer. PMID:25331494
[The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].
Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J
Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and
Sandell, M. I.
Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.
Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F
In the emerging context of marriage equality, it is important to explore the reasons for and experience of marriage for long-term same-sex couples, including the role of minority stress. In Wave 3 of the population-based, longitudinal CUPPLES Study we interviewed 21 long-term same-sex couples (14 female, 7 male) who resided in 12 different states and who were legally married. Couple members ranged in age from 37 to 84 and reported being together as a couple from 15 to 41 years. Seven couples lived in states that did not recognize their marriage at the time of the interview. Legal protection and social validation emerged as the two primary domains that captured couples' lived experiences of marriage. Minority stress experiences emerged in the narratives in the context of couples' long-term commitment, the availability of civil marriage, and couples' participation in activist efforts on behalf of marriage equality for themselves and others. PMID:27191207
Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren
This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…
Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout
Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex…
Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol
This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…
Pope, Amber Leighann
Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…
Rosenthal, Lisa; Starks, Tyrel J
Interracial and same-sex romantic relationships are more common and socially accepted in the United States than ever before; yet, stigmatization of these relationships persists, with consequences for relationship dynamics. We conducted an online survey study with adults living in the United States in interracial and same-sex relationships to examine associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with several relationship outcomes (i.e., investment, satisfaction, intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, love, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction), as well as the potential buffering roles of egalitarianism and dyadic coping. Regression analyses with 480 participants support that above and beyond individually experienced discrimination and other well-known predictors of relationship outcomes, relationship stigma from friends in particular was associated with lower relationship commitment, trust, love, and sexual communication, as well as greater odds of intimate partner aggression victimization. Egalitarianism and dyadic coping moderated some of the associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with relationship outcomes, supporting their potential roles as buffers. These findings suggest many avenues for future research and implications for clinicians working with interracial and same-sex couples, individuals in those couples, and their families. Given increasing prevalence of interracial and same-sex relationships and marriages, more work should continue to explore these couples' experiences and how best to support them. PMID:26121534
Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.
Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…
Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther
Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575
Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…
This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…
Manning, Wendy D.; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther
Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California’s voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575
Arndorfer, Cara Lee; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the…
Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer
The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…
Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.
Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.
Madden, Margaret E.; And Others
Some writers have suggested that males and females differ not only in influencibility, but also in the strategies which they use to influence others. Although general sex differences in friendships may affect influence strategies, there is little research comparing males' and females' friendships. To explore differences between same- and…
LeBlanc, Allen J.; Lee Badgett, M. V.
Objectives. We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Methods. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18–70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Results. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P < .001). Psychological distress was not significantly distinguishable among same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Conclusions. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue. PMID:23237155
Sheridan, Lorraine P; North, Adrian C; Scott, Adrian J
Most stalking literature reports on male stalkers and female victims. This work examines stalking experiences in 4 sex dyads: male stalker-female victim, female stalker-male victim, female-female dyads, and male-male dyads. Respondents were 872 self-defined victims of stalking from the United Kingdom and the United States who completed an anonymous survey. The study variables covered the process of stalking, effects on victims and third parties, and victim responses to stalking. Approximately 10% of comparisons were significant, indicating that sex of victim and stalker is not a highly discriminative factor in stalking cases. Female victims of male stalkers were most likely to suffer physical and psychological consequences. Female victims reported more fear than males did, and most significant differences conformed to sex role stereotypes. Earlier work suggested stalker motivation and prior victim-stalker relationship as important variables in analyses of stalking, but these did not prove significant in this work, perhaps because of sampling differences. PMID:25905142
Sebire, Marion; Allen, Yvonne; Bersuder, Philippe; Katsiadaki, Ioanna
Over the past 15 years considerable attention has been given to the presence in the environment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may have harmful effects on organisms. Specific test guidelines for the detection of EDCs used for short-term fish screening assays have been developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Compared to the core species used in the OECD guidelines, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has an additional and unique endpoint for (anti-)androgenic substances through the androgen-dependent glue protein (spiggin) used in the nest building. Here we describe a specific behavioural assay that was developed in parallel to the OECD protocol, utilising unique behavioural features of sticklebacks. In the assay, a photoperiod of 16L:8D (light:dark) and a temperature of 17+/-1 degrees C was used to induce breeding in quiescent male sticklebacks that were simultaneously exposed for a 21-day period to the mammalian anti-androgen flutamide (FL) at 100, 500 and 1000 microg/l (plus a water control). Spiggin production and the reproductive behaviour (nest building and courtship) of male sticklebacks were the main measured endpoints. The control fish entered an active breeding cycle including nest building and courtship behaviours as expected due to the stimulating temperature and photoperiodic conditions. The FL-exposed males showed significantly lower spiggin levels at 500 and 1000 microg/l. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the number of nests built by the FL-treated males at 100 microg/l with no nest built at 500 and 1000 microg/l. Finally, FL affected the courtship behaviour of the males with a significant reduction of the number of zigzags towards the female. When the breeding status of the stickleback males is controlled, the behavioural assay developed here is a suitable tool for the detection of androgen antagonists. PMID:18809216
Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Chapman, Tracey
Plasticity in behaviour is of fundamental significance when environments are variable. Such plasticity is particularly important in the context of rapid changes in the socio-sexual environment. Males can exhibit adaptive plastic responses to variation in the overall level of reproductive competition. However, the extent of behavioural flexibility within individuals, and the degree to which rapidly changing plastic responses map onto fitness are unknown. We addressed this by determining the behaviour and fitness profiles of individual Drosophila melanogaster males subjected to up to three episodes of exposure to rivals or no rivals, in all combinations. Behaviour (mating duration) was remarkably sensitive to the level of competition and fully reversible, suggesting that substantial costs arise from the incorrect expression of even highly flexible behaviour. However, changes in mating duration matched fitness outcomes (offspring number) only in scenarios in which males experienced zero then high competition. Following the removal of competition, mating duration, but not offspring production, decreased to below control levels. This indicates that the benefit of increasing reproductive investment when encountering rivals may exceed that of decreasing investment when rivals disappear. Such asymmetric fitness benefits and mismatches with behavioural responses are expected to exert strong selection on the evolution of plasticity. PMID:22438501
Currie; Burke; Whitney; Thompson
Behavioural observations and DNA fingerprinting were used to determine the relationship between male and female behaviours and levels of extra-pair paternity in the wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe. Behavioural observations were consistent with the hypothesis that males attempted to ensure paternity by mate guarding, while pursuing extra-pair copulations (EPCs) primarily outside the fertile period of their pair female. The intensity of guarding varied with time of season and was greater at late nests. However, although males on territories with late nests also experienced high intrusion rates, the intensity of guarding was influenced more by the operational sex ratio (which was female skewed at early nests) than by intrusion rates per se. We suggest that early breeding males adopted a strategy of territorial defence to ensure paternity, as opposed to guarding their female directly (which late breeding males did), to capitalize on the increased opportunities to pursue EPCs in neighbouring territories. Females were less conspicuous than males in their pursuit of EPCs, were never seen off territory or observed to solicit extra-pair males directly, and rejected the majority of EPCs. The frequency of extra-pair paternity was 11% of 73 offspring, in 29% of 17 broods, and was not correlated with the intensity of guarding. Female cooperation appeared to be important for successful copulation, and extra-pair paternity is therefore likely to be a consequence of solicited, or at least accepted, EPCs. We discuss why females might have participated in EPCs. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514681
Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.
Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…