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1

Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003–2007 estimates  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A considerable number of new studies with estimates of relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected. PMID:18647866

Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

2008-01-01

2

A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid.  

PubMed

Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

Hoving, Hendrik J T; Bush, Stephanie L; Robison, Bruce H

2012-04-23

3

A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Bush, Stephanie L.; Robison, Bruce H.

2012-01-01

4

Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.  

PubMed

To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. PMID:23768615

Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

2013-08-01

5

Relationship Characteristics and HIV Transmission Risk in Same-sex Male Couples in HIV Serodiscordant Relationships  

PubMed Central

Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004

Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.

2014-01-01

6

Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results. A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic

Jesse L. Clark; Carlos F. Caceres; Andres G. Lescano; Kelika A. Konda; Segundo R. Leon; Franca R. Jones; Susan M. Kegeles; Jeffrey D. Klausner; Thomas J. Coates

2007-01-01

7

On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context.  

PubMed

Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health. PMID:21816858

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin

2012-03-01

8

Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.  

PubMed

The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

2012-11-01

9

The association between substance use and intimate partner violence within black male same-sex relationships.  

PubMed

Compared with the extant research on heterosexual intimate partner violence (IPV)-including the knowledge base on alcohol and illicit drug use as predictors of such IPV-there is a paucity of studies on IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially Black MSM. This study investigates the prevalence of experiencing and perpetrating IPV among a sample of Black MSM couples and examines whether heavy drinking and/or illicit substance use is associated with IPV. We conducted a secondary analysis on a data set from 74 individuals (constituting 37 Black MSM couples) screened for inclusion in a couple-based HIV prevention pilot study targeting methamphetamine-involved couples. More than one third (n= 28, 38%) reported IPV at some point with the current partner: 24 both experiencing and perpetrating, 2 experiencing only, and 2 perpetrating only. IPV in the past 30 days was reported by 21 (28%) of the participants: 18 both experiencing and perpetrating, 1 experiencing only, and 2 perpetrating only. Heavy drinking and methamphetamine use each was associated significantly with experiencing and perpetrating IPV throughout the relationship as well as in the past 30 days. Rock/crack cocaine use was significantly associated with any history of experiencing and perpetrating IPV. Altogether, IPV rates in this sample of Black MSM couples equal or exceed those observed among women victimized by male partners as well as the general population of MSM. This exploratory study points to a critical need for further efforts to understand and address IPV among Black MSM. Similar to heterosexual IPV, results point to alcohol and illicit drug use treatment as important avenues to improve the health and social well-being of Black MSM. PMID:24919997

Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; McVinney, L Donald; Hess, Leona; Fopeano, Mark V; Hwang, Hyesung G; Charania, Mahnaz; Mansergh, Gordon

2015-03-01

10

Personal or relational? Examining sexual health in the context of HIV serodiscordant same-sex male couples  

PubMed Central

Couples’ ability to adopt a “we” orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a “we” orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a “we” orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples. PMID:23636681

Gamarel, K.E.; Starks, T.J; Dilworth, S.E.; Neilands, T.B.; Taylor, J.M.; Johnson, M.O.

2014-01-01

11

Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this commentary, the legal ramifications and implications of the recent ruling by the Massachusetts Supreme Court allowing same-sex marriages to occur in that state are examined. The author then suggests a hypothetical scenario for what the future might look like assuming that the Massachusetts decision is not overturned by adoption of a state constitutional amendment.

Vincent J. Samar

2005-01-01

12

Removal of adult males from the rearing environment increases preference for same-sex partners in the zebra finch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmental processes producing preferences for opposite-sex mating partners are not well understood. Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, are colonial and socially monogamous with biparental care. To determine whether the early social environment contributes to sexual partner preference, we removed adult males from breeding colonies when the oldest chicks were less than 1 week old (male-removal rearing) or left them in

Elizabeth Adkins-Regan; Alan Krakauer

2000-01-01

13

Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

2015-02-01

14

Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.  

PubMed

Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

2014-05-01

15

Same-sex pair-bonds are equivalent to male–female bonds in a life-long socially monogamous songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Same-sex sexual behaviors are well documented in both captive and wild animals. In monogamous species, these behaviors are\\u000a often exclusive, each individual having only one same-sex partner. A bias in sex ratio has been proposed as a social context\\u000a yielding same-sex pair-bonding, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. Focusing on a life-long pair-bonding songbird,\\u000a the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata,

Julie E. Elie; Nicolas Mathevon; Clémentine Vignal

16

The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

Lau, Charles Q.

2012-01-01

17

Assessing Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as

Pamela J. Lannutti; Kenneth A. Lachlan

2007-01-01

18

Children in Same-Sex Marriages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

2009-01-01

19

Adoption by Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relationship between sex-role beliefs and attitudes toward same-sex couple adoptions as suggested by Feminist and Queer theory. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect data from a purposive sample of adoption workers and social work students. The questionnaire included an abbreviated version of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale and the newly created Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Couples

Christina A. Spivey

2006-01-01

20

Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

[From Summary] Massachusetts became the first state to legalize marriage between same-sex couples May 17, as a result of a November 2003 decision by the state's highest court that denying gay and lesbian couples the right to marry violated the state's constitution. Currently federal law does not recognize same-sex marriages. This report discusses the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), P.L.

Alison M. Smith

2004-01-01

21

Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

2008-01-01

22

Bisexual Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM) has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure when used with heterosexual participants (Pearl & Galupo, 2007). The present research sought to establish the psychometric properties of the ATSM with a sexual minority population, compare bisexual women and men's ATSM scores with those of lesbians and gay men, and to explore

M. Paz Galupo; Marcia L. Pearl

2008-01-01

23

Sex Differences in the Value of Parents versus Same-Sex Peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research examined the hypothesis that males derive greater benefits than females do from cooperation with same-sex peers versus parents. In Study 1, 194 children, early adolescents, older adolescents, and adults from Brussels, Belgium predicted whether parents or same-sex peers would provide more benefits to a typical individual of their same age and sex. Results showed that at all

Joyce F. Benenson; Québec à Montréal; Henry Markovits

24

Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

2012-01-01

25

Same-sex partner preference in zebra finches: pairing flexibility and choice.  

PubMed

This study examined flexibility and choice in same-sex pair-bonding behavior in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Zebra finches form life-long monogamous relationships and extra pair behavior is very low, making them an ideal species in which to study same-sex pairing. We examined same-sex behaviors using both semi-naturalistic choice paradigms and skewed sex ratios. In the first experiment, we allowed zebra finches to pair in aviaries with equal sex ratios as part of multiple experiments. On average, 6.4% (N = 78) of unmanipulated pairs were same-sex: all but one was female-female. In a second experiment, we identified pairs from same-sex cages and selected 20 total same-sex pairs (10 of each sex). We then gave pairs a chance to court and pair with members of the opposite sex and observed their behavior for three days. Females did not retain their partner, but most paired with males. In contrast, some males did retain their partner. Similarly, females were more likely to engage in pairing behaviors with males than with their partners or other females whereas males were equally likely to engage in same-sex and opposite-sex pairing behaviors. These findings suggest that same-sex partnerships in zebra finches can be facultative, based on the sex ratio of the group in which they live, but can also be a choice, when opportunities to pair with opposite-sex individuals are possible. Furthermore, it is possible that females are more flexible in this choice of same-sex partnerships than are males. PMID:25190500

Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Zatirka, Brendon P

2014-11-01

26

The Political Is Psychoanalytic: On Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychoanalysis should attend to same-sex marriage for two reasons: (1) Exclusion from marriage harms the mental health of same-sex couples and their children and (2) psychoanalysis is the science of irrationality, and the arguments about same-sex marriage are often highly irrational. The arguments against same-sex marriage, made by senior judges in the United States, are best understood by the von

Mark J. Blechner

2008-01-01

27

Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

2005-01-01

28

Same-sex sexual behavior in birds: expression is related to social mating system and state of development at hatching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the findings of a phylogenetic comparative analysis examining patterns and frequency of occurrence of same-sex courtship and mounting behavior in birds. Our analysis has shown associations between same-sex sexual behavior and both mating system and degree of precociousness at hatching. The patterns of expression and frequency of occurrence of same-sex sexual behavior differed markedly for males and females.

Geoff R. MacFarlane; Simon P. Blomberg; Gisela Kaplan; L. J. Rogers

2006-01-01

29

Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.  

PubMed

This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

Shi, Liang

2013-01-01

30

Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.  

PubMed

This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. PMID:25416040

Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

2014-11-20

31

Same-Sex Sexuality and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: The influence of sexual orientation, early reports of same-sex attraction, and gender  

PubMed Central

Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk. PMID:22505839

Jager, Justin; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.

2012-01-01

32

Achieving Competent Family Practice with Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing recognition of same-sex marriage in different jurisdictions and growing numbers of parents raising children in the context of a same-sex relationship, it is becoming ever more important for family therapists to attain clinical competence in working with families headed by same-sex parents. This paper takes as its premise that good intentions and general acceptance of diversity

Jacky Coates; Richard Sullivna

2005-01-01

33

Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

Hand, Michael

2013-01-01

34

Peer Relations among Adolescents with Female Same-Sex Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …

Wainright, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

2008-01-01

35

Sex-role orientation of college students and their same-sex parents.  

PubMed

The study examined similarities and differences between sex-role orientations of college students and their same-sex parents. College undergraduates filled out the Bem Sex-role Inventory twice: once to describe themselves and the second time to describe their same-sex parents. The inventory was also used to obtain parental self-reports. Compared to their perceptions of their same-sex parents, male students described themselves as more feminine and female students described themselves as more masculine. Also, male students described their fathers as less feminine and female students described their mothers as both less masculine and less feminine than the parents described themselves. Students' femininity scores correlated significantly with the parental femininity scores both actual and perceived, however, no consistent relationship was found for the masculinity scores. Androgynous students and students with the reversed sex-role orientation perceived their parents as androgynous and reversed, respectively. PMID:2798688

Karylowski, J J; Bergeron, W

1989-10-01

36

Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was

Kimberly F. Balsam; Theodore P. Beauchaine; Esther D. Rothblum; Sondra E. Solomon

2008-01-01

37

Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine ongoing close friendships among same-sex adults. An analysis of frequency and depth of conversational topics was undertaken. The self-reports of female participants showed that they converse more frequently than the male participants about intimate topics and daily and shared activities. Sex differences on depth of topic discussion also emerged, with females reporting greater depth

Elizabeth J. Aries; Fern L. Johnson

1983-01-01

38

Do Children in Single-Parent Households Fare Better Living with Same-Sex Parents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…

Downey, Douglas B.; Powell, Brian

1993-01-01

39

Curvilinear relation between cognitive functioning and distance of child from parent of the same sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that the child's cognitive functioning is related curvilinearly to the distance of the child from the parent of the same sex. Such cognitive functioning is best exemplified by field independence and problem-solving skills. The hypotheses presented follow the basic hypothesis: (1) Males are better problem solvers and more field independent than females. (2) Boys with distant fathers tend to

David B. Lynn

1969-01-01

40

Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children.  

PubMed

Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several states offer partner-benefit programs. Studying the effect of these various forms of unions on children could inform the debate over gay marriage to the benefit of all sides of the argument. PMID:16158732

Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

2005-01-01

41

Citizenship, Same-Sex Marriage, and Feminist Critiques of Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thedebateoversame-sexmarriageintheUnitedStatesisfundamentallyadisagreementaboutthenatureofdemocraticcitizenship andthemeaningoffullinclusionofadultcitizensinthepolity.Thefactsthatmarriagehasbothprivateandpublicdimensions,and is described by policy makers as natural and unchanging even as they write laws to define it create confusion among those who publicly contest same-sex marriage. The feminist critique of marriage provides insight on the issue; its critique, along with the questions raised by same-sex marriage, indicates a need to rethink many aspects of the legal regulation of

Jyl Josephson

2005-01-01

42

Peer Relations Among Adolescents With Female Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents

Jennifer L. Wainright; Charlotte J. Patterson

2008-01-01

43

Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation.  

PubMed

It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would affect (different-sex) family formation. In this article, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980-2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including the construction of counterfactuals using the synthetic control method. In addition, the country-by-country case studies provide evidence of homogeneity of the estimated effects. PMID:25573170

Trandafir, Mircea

2015-02-01

44

Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…

Potter, Daniel

2012-01-01

45

Same-Sex Attraction and Successful Adolescent Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…

Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.

2006-01-01

46

What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a lesbian, gay,

Kristin S. Scherrer

2010-01-01

47

Same-Sex Partnerships in Japan: Bypasses and Other Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contemporary Japan, the family remains a strong social and legal entity. The right to make decisions on behalf of another in emergency situations lies with the immediate family. Similarly, immediate family members are legally entitled to claim from deceased family member's estates. One way to ensure that property and inheritance rights are passed on to same-sex partners is for

Claire Maree

2004-01-01

48

Sexuality Related Social Support Among Same-Sex Attracted Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supportive relationships with parents and peers are thought to be important in helping gay, lesbian, bisexual, or questioning youth cope with stressors related to their sexual identity. However, studies of same-sex attracted youth have yielded only minimal evidence for the link between social support and mental health. The lack of empirical findings may relate to inadequate measurement of the types

Nathan Daniel Doty

2009-01-01

49

Domestic Violence between Same-Sex Partners: Implications for Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dynamics of domestic violence between partners of the same sex. The social and cultural issues in the gay and lesbian communities play a large part in perpetuating the myths of domestic violence, which keeps the abuse hidden. This article is based on an extensive review of the literature and a clinical consensus among experts in the…

Peterman, Linda M.; Dixon, Charlotte G.

2003-01-01

50

Same-sex social behavior in meadow voles: Multiple and rapid formation of attachments.  

PubMed

Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring-summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles. PMID:19419672

Beery, Annaliese K; Routman, David M; Zucker, Irving

2009-04-20

51

3 CFR - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...i) clarify that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within...employees and those same-sex domestic partners' children. This section...

2011-01-01

52

Peer relations among adolescents with female same-sex parents.  

PubMed

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks. PMID:18194010

Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J

2008-01-01

53

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations  

PubMed Central

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

2013-01-01

54

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations.  

PubMed

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

Massey, Sean G; Merriwether, Ann M; Garcia, Justin R

2013-01-01

55

Gifted adolescents and intimacy in close same-sex friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

As most research with gifted children has demonstrated that giftedness has a positive effect on popularity and social self-esteem, it was expected that gifted adolescents would demonstrate higher intimacy with their same-sex closest friends and would tend to evince a more secure attachment style than nongifted cohorts. A total of 56 gifted and nongifted 9th graders completed questionnaires regarding their

Ofra Mayseless I

1993-01-01

56

The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex  

E-print Network

The French Spring of la Manif pour tous: Conservative Protests against Same-Sex Marriage against same-sex marriage, organized a summer school near Paris to celebrate a year of mobilization in April 2013, legalizing same-sex marriage and the adoption of children by same-sex married couples

Boyer, Edmond

57

Environmental modulation of same-sex affiliative behavior in female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and food availability on social bonds and group formation are poorly understood. Because seasonal transitions in female social behavior facilitate the assembly of winter groups in meadow voles, we explored the role of same-sex female associations in winter sociality. To examine the effects of winter typical environmental conditions on same-sex female affiliative behavior, paired female meadow voles were housed in varying combinations of day length, temperature, and food availability for 7weeks and then tested for social preference. In short days (SDs), lower ambient temperature increased huddling with unfamiliar females without interfering with existing social bonds, whereas lower temperature disrupted the retention of bonds in long days (LDs). Mild food restriction with no discernible effects on body mass enhanced affiliative behavior in SDs, but not LDs. A second experiment examined the effects of sex and day length on the propensity to aggregate with unfamiliar same-sex voles. Compared to LD females and SD males, SD females spent more time in group huddles with unfamiliar voles and displayed no social preference. These outcomes indicate that winter-like conditions enhance affiliative behavior between females and that pre-existing social bonds do not preclude integration into new winter social groups. The adaptive value of these behaviors is discussed. PMID:25497080

Ondrasek, Naomi R; Wade, Adam; Burkhard, Tracy; Hsu, Kacie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Post, Jessica; Zucker, Irving

2015-03-01

58

Comparing male escorts' sexual behaviour with their last male client versus non-commercial male partner.  

PubMed

Apart from research suggesting that male escorts are less likely to have condomless anal sex (CAS) with their male clients compared with male non-clients, little is known about how male escorts' behaviour differs between their clients and non-clients. In spring 2013, 387 Internet-based male escorts completed an online survey that included identical questions about their sexual behaviour with their last male client and male non-client. Encounters with non-commercial partners were significantly more likely to involve a greater range of sexual behaviours, including giving oral sex to partner, kissing, anal receptive sex and sex without condoms. These findings suggest that escorts may display a greater sexual repertoire with non-commercial partners compared to their clients. Encounters with non-commercial partners were also rated as more satisfying than with clients. Condomless anal sex was less common with clients, suggesting that escorts and clients may take active roles in mitigating risks for HIV and STI transmission with each other. Although the modal response for CAS was to abstain, more than half of participants reported CAS during at least one of the two encounters assessed. Behavioural and/or biomedical HIV-prevention strategies would be appropriate for some male escorts to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:25277601

Grov, Christian; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2015-02-01

59

Vermont Poised to Approve Same-Sex Civil Unions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acknowledging that it will likely cost some of them their jobs, on April 19, Vermont's Senate approved a bill establishing marriage-like civil unions for gay couples by a vote of nineteen to eleven. In the face of numerous hostile letters and phone calls, and even vandalism to their cars, the Senators, including two Republicans, displayed considerable courage in approving a measure simply because they believed it was the right thing to do regardless of the political consequences. The vote followed passage of a similar bill in the House, which was introduced after a ruling by the State Supreme Court in December that same-sex couples were being unconstitutionally denied the benefits of marriage. Provided the House approves the slight changes made by the Senate, Democratic Governor Howard Dean has said he will sign the bill, perhaps as early as June. Among other things, the legislation would allow same-sex couples to form civil unions that entitle them to the approximately 300 rights and benefits available to married couples under state law. These couples would still not be entitled to federal benefits available to married couples in regard to taxes and Social Security, and it is highly unlikely that any other state will recognize the unions, at least for the present time. Still, the bill goes well beyond any present legislation and is widely regarded, by supporters and opponents alike, as a milestone for gay civil rights.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

60

Asthma Disparities and Within-Group Differences in a National, Probability Sample of Same-Sex Partnered Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma among same-sex and opposite-sex partnered adults. Methods. Data were from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, in which same-sex partnership was a response option to a family planning item in the core questionnaire. Self-reported lifetime diagnosis of asthma and current asthma were examined in logistic regression models adjusted for demographic characteristics and asthma-related confounding factors and stratified by both gender and same-sex partnership status. Results. Significantly higher proportions of same-sex partnered male and female respondents reported lifetime and current asthma compared with their opposite-sex partnered peers. In adjusted analyses, same-sex partnership status remained significantly associated with asthma outcomes among men and women, with odds ratios ranging from 1.57 to 2.34. Conclusions. Results corroborated past studies that indicated asthma disproportionately affects sexual minority populations. The addition of sexual minority status questions to federal survey projects is key to further exploring health disparities in this population. Future studies are needed to investigate the etiology of this disparity. PMID:23865655

Lee, Joseph G.?L.; Bossarte, Robert; Silenzio, Vincent M.?B.

2013-01-01

61

Public Health Implications of Same-Sex Marriage  

PubMed Central

Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as “minority stress,” with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934

2011-01-01

62

Sperm-depleted males influence the reproductive behaviour of conspecifics.  

PubMed

In many insect species, sperm-depleted males (SDMs, i.e. males that have exhausted their sperm after a given number of matings) remain sexually active and continue to mate females. Here, we investigated the behavioural modifications that occur in both sexes of the parasitoid Asobara tabida Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), after matings by fertile males and sperm-depleted males. We show that (i) virgin females, mated females and females mated to a SDM exhibited different behaviours and that (ii) males responded differently to females depending on whether the females had previously mated with an SDM or not. Our findings demonstrate that SDM influenced the reproductive behaviour of both males and females, especially with regard to male responsiveness and female attractiveness. These findings are discussed in the context of adaptive behaviour and fitness maximization in both males and females. PMID:25182408

Louâpre, Philippe; Llopis, Stéphanie; Martel, Véronique; van Baaren, Joan

2014-11-01

63

Shall We Marry? Legal Marriage as a Commitment Event in Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners’ commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as

Ellen Schecter; Allison J. Tracy; Konjit V. Page; Gloria Luong

2008-01-01

64

Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex

Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

2012-01-01

65

Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity  

E-print Network

1 Same-sex unions in Europe Some Observations on European Diversity Reviews & Critical Commentary, online review, posted on May 8, 2014, http://councilforeuropeanstudies.org/critcom/same-sex-unions-in-europe-some-observations-on- european-diversity/ Maks Banens CMW ­ CNRS, University of Lyon Same-sex unions gained considerable legal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

2009-01-01

67

Declaration of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership Employee Information (please print)  

E-print Network

Declaration of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership Employee Information (please print) Last Name First: Home Address: Street City State Zip Code Same-Sex Domestic Partner Information (please print) Last Name First Name MI Social Security Number Birth Date Same-Sex Domestic Partner Dependent Children (please

Amin, S. Massoud

68

75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2, 2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...

2010-06-08

69

Reported Excellent Health Among Men in Same-Sex and Mixed-Sex Couples: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1993–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported excellent health was examined across sexual orientation among male adult couples using 18 years of data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Men in same-sex couples were more likely to report being in excellent health (28.7%) than men in unmarried and married mixed-sex couples (20.4% and 23.2%). After adjusting for other demographic and health factors, men in same-sex

Bill M. Jesdale; Jason W. Mitchell

2012-01-01

70

Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments.  

PubMed

Selection due to social interactions comprises competition over matings (sexual selection stricto sensu) plus other forms of social competition and cooperation. Sexual selection explains sex differences in ornamentation and in various other phenotypes, but does not easily explain cases where those phenotypes are similar in males and females. Understanding such similarities requires knowing how phenotypes influence nonsexual social interactions as well, which can be very important in gregarious animals, but whose role for phenotypic evolution has been overlooked. For example, 'mate choice' experiments often found preferences for ornamentation, but have not assessed whether those are strictly sexual or are general social preferences. Using choice experiments with a gregarious and mutually ornamented finch, the common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), we show that preferences for ornamentation in the opposite-sex also extend to same-sex interactions. Waxbills discriminated between opposite- and same-sex individuals, but most preferences for colour traits were similar when interacting with either sex. Similar preferences in sexual and nonsexual associations may be widespread in nature, either as social adaptations or as by-product of mate preferences. In either case, such preferences may set the stage for the evolution of mutual ornamentation and of various other similarities between the sexes. PMID:25371062

Cardoso, G C; Leitão, A V; Funghi, C; Batalha, H R; Lopes, R J; Mota, P G

2014-12-01

71

Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage  

PubMed Central

Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

2013-01-01

72

The Attitudes of Australian Heterosexuals Toward Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study of attitudes of Australian heterosexuals toward heterosexual, gay male, and lesbian parents and the children raised by these parents. A sample of Australian heterosexual males and females read one of six vignettes describing a family situation. Participants assessed the parents' emotional stability, responsibility, and competence; how loving, sensitive, and nurturing they were; the amount of

Charmaine N. Morse; Suzanne McLaren; Angus J. McLachlan

2008-01-01

73

Using the census to profile same-sex cohabitation: A research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on cohabitation have focused on opposite-sex partners. This study seeks to explore the use of census data in examining same-sex cohabitation and to examine same-sex cohabitation in comparative terms. We use the 1990 US census 5% sample from the New York metropolitan area to focus on unmarried partners. The descriptive socio-economic profile suggests that same-sex cohabiting householders have

Voon Chin Phua; Gayle Kaufman

1999-01-01

74

Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among

Jennifer J Power; Amaryll Perlesz; Margot J Schofield; Marian K Pitts; Rhonda Brown; Ruth McNair; Anna Barrett; Andrew Bickerdike

2010-01-01

75

The Future Impact of Same-Sex Marriage: More Questions Than Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Same-sex relationships have already significantly altered family law, by leading to new formal relationship statuses and incorporation of the principle that both of a child’s legal parents can be of the same sex. This essay explores further changes that may lie ahead as same-sex marriage debates increasingly affect both family law and the social meanings of marriage. Marriage as an

Nan D. Hunter

2012-01-01

76

Employment and Benefits Issues Involving Same-Sex Marriages in Massachusetts: An Employer’s Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of same-sex marriage has ignited a raucous debate over the contours of the institution of marriage. But lost in the noise are a host of real and very practical concerns faced by employers over the impact of same-sex marriage on employer-sponsored benefit plans and employment practices. Are same-sex spouses entitled to benefits, and under what circumstances? To what

Alden J. Bianchi

2004-01-01

77

Conspecific male chemical cues influence courtship behaviour in the male newt Lissotriton boscai  

E-print Network

Conspecific male chemical cues influence courtship behaviour in the male newt Lissotriton boscai of the newt Lissotriton boscai and other salamandrids showed that males modify their courtship in presence no evidence. Keywords: Bosca's newt, chemical cues, courtship display, audience effects, Lissotriton boscai

Alvarez, Nadir

78

Political and Sexual Attitudes Concerning Same-Sex Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is based upon interviews and questionnaire data from male “homosexuals” (n = 177), “bisexuals” or “bicurious” (n = 166), and “persistent heterosexuals” (n = 528) between 20 and 30 years of age from working and professional social classes in three countries: Brazil, Turkey and\\u000a Thailand. The main goal is to compare cultural attitudes toward politics and sex, as well as the impact of social class

Fernando L. Cardoso

2010-01-01

79

Self Harm and Suicide Risk for Same-Sex Attracted Young People: A Family Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the risks of self-harm and suicide and in particular the importance of family in mental health outcomes for same-sex attracted young people. Mental health workers can assist families gain confidence in dealing with the news that a young person is same-sex attracted. Implications for practitioners and a model for affirmative…

Brown, Rhonda

2002-01-01

80

Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in the United States: A Social Science Perspective1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same- sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a

Gregory M. Herek

81

Same-sex Couples and the Law: Recent Developments in the British Isles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article chronicles the treatment of same-sex couples in England and the Republic of Ireland in recent years in order to ascertain (i) the impact that incorporation of the European Convention into the domestic law of each State has had on the rights of same-sex couples, (ii) what the introduction of civil partnership legislation might mean for the future of

Brian Tobin

2009-01-01

82

Female Same-Sex Families in the Dialectics of Marginality and Conformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and

Ana Marija Sobo?an

2011-01-01

83

Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

2004-01-01

84

Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Where We Are and Where We Are Going  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal landscape for same-sex couples seeking to marry has shifted dramatically over the last five years. On October 10, 2008, the Connecticut Supreme Court became the third state high court to rule that its state constitution could not sustain a statutory framework that excludes same-sex couples from marrying, following the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on November 18, 2003, and

Jennifer Levi

2009-01-01

85

The Framework of Full Faith and Credit and Interstate Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers whether a Massachusetts same-sex marriage or a Vermont same-sex civil union is entitled to full faith and credit in other states by virtue of the Full Faith and Credit Clause of Article IV of the United States Constitution (\\

Reppy William A. Jr

2006-01-01

86

The Framework of Full Faith and Credit and Interstate Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers whether a Massachusetts same-sex marriage or a Vermont same-sex civil union is entitled to full faith and credit in other states by virtue of the Full Faith and Credit Clause of Article IV of the United States Constitution (\\

Reppy William A. Jr

2005-01-01

87

The Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples on the California Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our analysis relies on the same methods that we used in previous studies of the fiscal impact of marriage for same-sex couples on Washington, New Mexico, New Hampshire, California, Connecticut, Colorado, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Vermont, Maryland, and Iowa. The full methodology for our analysis is set out in Putting a Price on Equality? The Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on California's

Brad Sears; M. V. Lee Badgett

88

Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

2012-01-01

89

Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…

Thyer, Bruce A.

2007-01-01

90

Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.  

PubMed

Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits. PMID:23963426

2013-09-01

91

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556

Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

2013-01-01

92

Norm-Narrowing and Self- and Other-Perceived Aggression in Early-Adolescent Same-Sex and Mixed-Sex Cliques  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the relations between group context and self- and other-perceptions of aggressive behavior in an ethnically-diverse sample of 168 male and female grade 7 adolescents. We used self- and peer-reports of aggression in high- and average-aggressive mixed-sex and same-sex cliques to examine whether group members would assimilate their…

Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Malone, Patrick; Quinlan, Nicole Polanichka; Miller-Johnson, Shari

2007-01-01

93

Exploring the Possibility of Same-Sex Love in Late Ming China  

E-print Network

to same-sex love in China are hard to clearly identify, as the ear- liest forms of the Chinese language contain a built-in inde"niteness and are unmarked sexually, thereby com- plicating the process of compiling re- liable references.2 Same-sex love ap... need to re- main loyal to each other. !is creates a greater air of legitimacy around same- sex love because it begins to be repre- sented more in terms that re%ect what is considered to be part of so-called normal relationships. !e "nal novella...

Shernuk, Kyle

2008-07-01

94

Shall we marry? Legal marriage as a commitment event in same-sex relationships.  

PubMed

This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed. PMID:18826168

Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria

2008-01-01

95

One Statute for Two Spirits: Same-Sex Marriage in Indian Country  

E-print Network

On March 15, 2013, the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians (LTBB) became the third tribal nation to recognize same sex unions. The LTBB statute, Waganakising Odawak Statute 2013-003, defines marriage as “the legal ...

Kronk, Elizabeth Ann

2013-04-16

96

Environmental modulation and physiological correlates of same-sex affiliative behavior in female meadow voles  

E-print Network

2010. Oxytocin and same-sex social behavior in female meadowOxytocin and the neural mechanisms regulating social cognition and affiliative behavior.oxytocin may facilitate a seasonal change in some facet of affiliative behavior

Ondrasek, Naomi

2012-01-01

97

Predicting the Support of Same-Sex Relationship Rights Among Social Work Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s, the United States has seen several instances of legislative action on the topic of same-sex marriages and civil unions. As some studies explored public reactions to such laws, the perspectives of social workers and social work students have mostly been ignored. In addressing part of this oversight, this paper looks at the approval of same-sex relationship rights

Eric Swank; Lisa Raiz

2010-01-01

98

Attachment and the quality of romantic relationships of young adults with same-sex parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated attachment and the quality of romantic relationships in young adults with same-sex parents. Specifically, two variables, attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were investigated to determine what extent they predicted relationship support, depth, and conflict. Participants consisted of 82 young adults, ages 18 to 30, who were raised from birth by same-sex parents and who were or

Joseph Verdino

2009-01-01

99

The Independence of Young Adults and the Rise of Interracial and Same-Sex Unions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interracial unions and same-sex unions were rare and secretive in the past because U.S. society was organized to suppress such unions. The rise of same-sex and interracial unions in the past few decades suggests changes in the basic structure of U.S. society. Young adults have been marrying later, and single young adults are much less likely to live with their

Michael J. Rosenfeld; Byung-Soo Kim

2005-01-01

100

Northern Enlightenment: Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Marriage in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social workers have an ethical and professional responsibility to promote social justice and equality for oppressed groups, including sexual minorities. Advocating for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage is one way to enact this responsibility. The legal recognition of same-sex marriage is a significant accomplishment toward equality for gay and lesbian Canadians—one in which the social work profession played a

Michael R. Woodford; Peter A. Newman; Shari Brotman; Bill Ryan

2010-01-01

101

Individuals' Beliefs about the Etiology of Same-Sex Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships between beliefs about the etiology of having a same-sex sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and support for gay-relevant legislation using the justification-suppression model of prejudice as our theoretical foundation. Results indicated that more belief that a same-sex sexual orientation was due to nurture factors predicted less support for gay-relevant legislation, and that this relationship was mediated by

Sara J. Smith; Danielle C. Zanotti; Amber M. Axelton; Donald A. Saucier

2011-01-01

102

Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and rela- tionship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses

Jennifer L. Wainright; Stephen T. Russell; Charlotte J. Patterson

2004-01-01

103

Delinquency, Victimization, and Substance Use Among Adolescents With Female Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of whether parental sexual orientation has an impact on human development has important implications for psychological theories and for legal policy. This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. different-sex parents), family and relationship variables, substance use, delinquency, and victimization of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents living with female same-sex couples and 44 adolescents living with different-sex

Jennifer L. Wainright; Charlotte J. Patterson

2006-01-01

104

Will providing marriage rights to same-sex couples undermine heterosexual marriage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes data regarding the impact on heterosexual marriages of laws in five European countries that provide marriage\\u000a or marriage-like rights to same-sex couples. The data provide no evidence that giving partnership rights to same-sex couples\\u000a had any impact on heterosexual marriage. Specifically, heterosexual marriage rates and divorce rates in Denmark, Norway, Sweden,\\u000a Iceland, and the Netherlands displayed no

M. V. Lee Badgett

2004-01-01

105

“This is Not a Lesbian Wedding”: Examining Same-Sex Marriage and Bisexual-Lesbian Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage (SSM) has impacted the lives of cross-sexual orientation same-sex couples. Twenty-six, female-female couples, consisting of one bisexual and one lesbian partner, who were married or engaged to be married in Massachusetts participated in instant messenger interviews about their experiences with SSM. Results indicated that SSM impacted participants' views of

Pamela J. Lannutti

2008-01-01

106

Wedding Bell Blues: The Income Tax Consequences of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, gay and lesbian couples have gone to court to force the government to allow same-sex couples to marry. Largely unnoticed during the debates surrounding same-sex marriages are their economic consequences, including the impact on government tax collections. It is well-known that a couple's joint income tax burden can change with marriage. Many couples, especially two- earner couples with similar

James Robert Alm; M. V. Lee Badgett; Leslie A. Whittington

2000-01-01

107

University domestic partner benefits: Policy discourses about same-sex coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considered university-sponsored same-sex domestic partner benefits from analytic, critical, and persuasive discourse analysis frameworks. This research study was inspired and guided by the following questions: Have institutions of higher education employed similar arguments and strategies in the process of pursuing same-sex domestic partner benefits? At institutions where such a policy would not be expected---religion-affiliated colleges or universities, or

Byron Patrick McCrae

2007-01-01

108

Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.  

PubMed

Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

2014-11-01

109

Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.  

PubMed

A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120

Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

2013-03-01

110

Female brown-headed cowbirds', Molothrus ater, organization and behaviour reflects male social dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four large aviaries, we studied social assortment and reproductive behaviour of female brown-headed cowbirds housed with males differing in age class and in corresponding levels of intrasexual interaction. Juvenile and adult females resided with either (1) adult males, (2) juvenile males, (3) adult and juvenile males, or (4) no males. We observed social behaviour of males and females from

Meredith J. West; David J. White; Andrew P. King

2002-01-01

111

Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders  

PubMed Central

During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

2013-01-01

112

Genetic and environmental influences on problematic masturbatory behavior in children: a study of same-sex twins.  

PubMed

Child sexual behavior problems, such as excessive or public masturbation, are often judged to result from environmental stress or trauma. We studied the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for problematic masturbatory behavior among nonreferred prepubertal children. All twins born in Sweden in 1985-86 were identified from the Swedish Twin Registry. Parents, mainly mothers, completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings (Achenbach, 1991) for 401 monozygotic (MZ) and 248 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex twin pairs (male-male or female-female) at age 7-9 years. Scores of two CBCL items concerning specific sexual behavior problems (Plays with own sex parts in public and Plays with own sex parts too much) were summed and the influence of genetic and environmental factors on variability assessed. The prevalence of problematic child masturbatory behavior was low and associated with other emotional and behavioral problems. The degree of problematic child masturbatory behavior resemblance was higher within MZ twin pairs as compared to DZ same-sex twin pairs. Model fitting indicated that genetic factors substantially influenced the studied behaviors (77%, 95% CI = 9-96%), although family environment also played a role. Our results suggest that hereditary factors should be considered together with stressful experiences such as sexual victimization in the evaluation of elementary school children presenting with problematic masturbatory behaviors. When interpreting the findings, the very brief measure of sexual problem behavior and low statistical power, precluding the analysis of possible coinheritance with other symptoms or disorders, should be borne in mind. PMID:12187547

Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Lichtenstein, Paul

2002-08-01

113

Same-sex Sexuality and Adolescent Psychological Well-being: The Influence of Sexual Orientation, Early Reports of Same-sex Attraction, and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth

Justin Jager; Pamela E. Davis-Kean

2010-01-01

114

Exploratory and antipredator behaviours differ between territorial and nonterritorial male lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative territorial tactics may be part of a broader behavioural tendency that can influence the expression of other behavioural traits. We compared the exploratory and predator avoidance behaviours of territorial and floater male water skinks, Eulamprus heatwolei, to identify whether these alternative behavioural tactics are part of a broader behavioural dichotomy. Floater and territorial males differed in their tendencies to

Jessica Stapley; J. Scott Keogh

2004-01-01

115

Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Brussels  

E-print Network

Same-sex Marriage: From Europe to the Global Arena with David Paternotte, Free University of Excellence/European Studies Center. While same-sex marriage was long regarded as the privilege of a few activists. Given the diversity of countries where same-sex marriage is currently under discussion

Machery, Edouard

116

Same-sex romantic attraction and experiences of violence in adolescence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Recent national attention to hate crimes committed against lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths has highlighted the need to understand this group's experiences of violence. Using nationally representative data, we examine the associations between romantic attraction and experiences of violence, as well as the risk of witnessing violence and perpetrating violence against others. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were examined. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions were compared with those reporting other-sex attractions. Survey logistic regression was used to control for sample design effects. RESULTS: Youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are more likely to experience extreme forms of violence than youths who report other-sex attraction. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions are also more likely to witness violence. The higher incidence of violence perpetrated by youths attracted to the same sex is explained by their experiences of violence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence that youths reporting same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are at greater risk for experiencing, witnessing, and perpetrating violence. PMID:11392932

Russell, S T; Franz, B T; Driscoll, A K

2001-01-01

117

In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462

Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

2012-10-01

118

Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.  

PubMed Central

Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depended on both the sex of the judge and the sex of the face being judged: facial resemblance increased attractiveness judgements of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces, despite the use of identical procedures to manipulate resemblance. A control experiment indicated these effects were caused neither by lower resemblance of other-sex faces than same-sex faces, nor by an increased perception of averageness or familiarity of same-sex faces due to prototyping or mere exposure affecting only same-sex faces. The differential impact of self-resemblance on our perception of same-sex and other-sex faces supports the hypothesis that humans use facial resemblance as a cue of kinship. PMID:15451700

DeBruine, Lisa M.

2004-01-01

119

Enigmatic Liaisons in Lepidoptera: A Review of Same-Sex Courtship and Copulation in Butterflies and Moths  

PubMed Central

Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera. PMID:23452066

Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

2012-01-01

120

Beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: Spanish and Chilean university students.  

PubMed

The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children. A total of 491 participants completed the study (208 Spaniards and 283 Chileans). The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex (men have a greater degree of rejection), traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection. The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed. PMID:25012637

Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Cardenas-Castro, Manuel

2014-01-01

121

Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.  

PubMed

The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other. PMID:24885468

Davis-Delano, Laurel R

2014-01-01

122

Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

2012-01-01

123

Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

Beck, Terence A.

2013-01-01

124

77 FR 42909 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...relationship typically demonstrated by marriage. OPM has used a similar definition of...jurisdictions that allow for same-sex marriage should be treated as ``spouses...rule. At this time, the Defense of Marriage Act, 1 U.S.C. 7, precludes...

2012-07-20

125

Well-Being Among Same-Sex- and Opposite-Sex- Attracted Youth at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors, concerns and

Ian Rivers; Nathalie Noret

2008-01-01

126

Work-Family Interface for Same-Sex, Dual-Earner Couples: Implications for Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author highlights information for career counselors to consider when addressing work-family interface with individuals who are members of same-sex, dual-earner couples or families. D. E. Super's (1990) life-span, life-space theory is the framework used to organize the literature review and discussion of current trends. Issues related to the…

Perrone, Kristin M.

2005-01-01

127

Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Strategies for Change. Sage Series on Violence against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While a great deal has been written on domestic violence, the focus has been primarily on the violence of men against their current or former wives or girlfriends. Yet studies have shown that partner abuse is as common and severe among same-sex couples as among heterosexual couples. This book examines a broad range of issues that confront victims…

Leventhal, Beth, Ed.; Lundy, Sandra E., Ed.

128

Same Sex Attraction, Homophobic Bullying and Mental Health of Young People in Northern Ireland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a…

McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk

2008-01-01

129

Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

2008-01-01

130

Coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents.  

PubMed

Children who are born to or adopted by 1 member of a same-sex couple deserve the security of 2 legally recognized parents. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics supports legislative and legal efforts to provide the possibility of adoption of the child by the second parent or coparent in these families. PMID:11826219

2002-02-01

131

Parens Patri[Archy]: Adoption, Eugenics, and Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arkansas, Florida, Mississippi, and Utah have laws or regulations prohibiting gay men, lesbian women, same-sex couples, or single parents (heterosexual and homosexual) from serving as adoptive or foster parents. In court filings, Arkansas, Florida, and Utah justify their bans by contending that married couples are the optimal families in which to raise children because families headed by gay or single

Kari E Hong

2003-01-01

132

Growing Up in a Same-Sex Parented Family: The Adolescent Voice of Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study gives voice to a unique group of youngsters who are observed and discussed frequently but rarely engaged in the debate about their development. Emerging research on the adjustment of children being raised by same-sex parents focuses on measuring achievements and outcomes. Missing from the literature are studies that capture the voice of the adolescent and his or her

Marjorie G. Welsh

2011-01-01

133

The Parent Trap: Differential Familial Power in Same-Sex Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do intact same-sex couples where one member of the couple became pregnant with assisted reproduction or was the primary adopter, and the other member became a parent through second parent adoption, understand the legal protections afforded them? In short the answer is no. An interesting family dynamic arises around those who can claim the true status as parent based on

Deirdre M. Bowen

2008-01-01

134

A scale on beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: reliability and validity.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a new instrument named Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment on Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF). The scale was developed to assess of the adults' beliefs about negative impacts on children who are raised by same-sex parents. An initial pool of 95 items was generated by the authors based on a review of the literature on homophobia and feedback from several focus groups. Research findings, based on a sample of 212 university students (mean age 22 years, SD?=?8.28), supported the reliability and validity of the scale. The final versions of the SBCASSF included items reflecting the following two factors: individual opposition (? = .87) and normative opposition (? = .88). Convergent validity of the scale is demonstrated by predictable correlations with beliefs about the cause of same-sex sexual orientation and the support for gay and lesbian rights. Our study reveals a strong positive association between high scores on SBCASSF and beliefs that the origin of same-sex sexual orientation is learned and opposition to gay and lesbian rights. PMID:23101497

Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector

2012-01-01

135

Children of same-sex parents: in and out of the closet  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the patterns, issues and themes

Juliet E. Hart; Jon E. Mourot; Megan Aros

2012-01-01

136

Overview of Forms of Joint Legal Parenting Available to Same-Sex Couples in European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview of possibilities for same-sex couples for joint parental authority, second-parent adoption, joint adoption, and (semi-)automatic joint maternity, in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Situation as of 1 September 2009

C. Waaldijk

2009-01-01

137

' WHERE THE PA RENTS ARE OF THE SAME SEX ' : QUEBEC'S REFORMS TO FILIA T ION  

Microsoft Academic Search

To advance debates on legal responses to parenting by gay and lesbian couples, this article introduces reforms enacted by the legislature of Quebec, a civil law jurisdiction with a codifi ed private law, in 2002. Quebec's pioneering regime permits two persons of the same sex to register as a child's parents from birth, not only by adoption. They may do

ROBER T LECKEY

2009-01-01

138

Legislating Unequal Treatment: An Exploration of Public Policy on Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social policy surrounding same-sex marriage has resulted in subsequent changes to public policy. Over the past 15 years, increased discussion surrounding the issue has emerged, inciting the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA). It is particularly salient for social workers to keep abreast of legislation that is impacting vulnerable and disenfranchised populations. Since the

Jill M. Chonody; Kenneth Scott Smith; Melanie A. Litle

2012-01-01

139

Children of same-sex parents: in and out of the  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the patterns, issues and themes

Juliet E. Hart; Jon E. Mourot; Megan Aros

2011-01-01

140

Structural and Moral Commitment Among Same-Sex Couples: Relationship Duration, Religiosity, and Parental Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined ecological predictors of structural and moral commitment among cohabiting same-sex couples. Structural commitment was operationalized as the execution of legal documents, and moral commitment was operationalized as having a commitment ceremony. The authors tested 2 logistic regression models using a subsample of Rainbow Illinois survey respondents. First, the execution of legal documents was examined using the entire

Ramona Faith Oswald; Abbie Goldberg; Kate Kuvalanka; Eric Clausell

2008-01-01

141

Japanese Less Open Than Finns Toward a Same-Sex Friend  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research compares responses by adult Finns (N=38) and Japanese (N=105) after they appraised 50 potential conversation topics and rated them in terms of degree of truthfulness toward a same-sex friend. Three topics show no significant difference. Finns rate four topics lower, which deal with money and one's closest relationships. Japanese report 42% less willingness to 'frankly and directly express

Charles McHugh

2002-01-01

142

Speak Now: Progressive Considerations on the Advent of Civil Marriage for Same-Sex Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amidst the political and legal storm surrounding the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's recent groundbreaking decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health, which extends marriage rights to same- sex couples in Massachusetts, this Essay seeks to maintain the debate questioning the supremacy of marriage as the ideal family unit. The Essay presents examples of the subordinating effects that marriage laws

Kara S Suffredini; Madeleine V Findley

2004-01-01

143

The Effect of State-Legalized Same-Sex Marriage on Social Security Benefits and Pensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,

Laura Haltzel; Patrick Purcell

2008-01-01

144

Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2005-01-01

145

Invisible Victims: Same-Sex IPV in the National Violence against Women Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…

Messinger, Adam M.

2011-01-01

146

Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

Willetts, Marion C.

2011-01-01

147

Serotonin selectively enhances perception and sensory neural responses to stimuli generated by same-sex conspecifics  

PubMed Central

Centrifugal serotonergic fibers innervating sensory brain areas are seen ubiquitously across systems and species but their function remains unclear. Here we examined the functional role of serotonergic innervation onto electrosensory neurons in weakly electric fish by eliciting endogenous release through electrical stimulation as well as exogenous focal application of serotonin in the vicinity of the cell being recorded from. Both approaches showed that the function of serotonergic input onto electrosensory pyramidal neurons is to render them more excitable by reducing the spike afterhyperpolarization amplitude and thereby promoting burst firing. Further, serotonergic input selectively improved neuronal responses to stimuli that occur during interactions between same-sex conspecifics but not to stimuli associated with either prey or that occur during interactions between opposite-sex conspecifics. Finally, we tested whether serotonin-mediated enhanced pyramidal neuron responses to stimuli associated with same-sex conspecifics actually increase perception by the animal. Our behavioral experiments show that exogenous injection and endogenous release of serotonin both increase the magnitude of behavioral responses to stimuli associated with same-sex conspecifics as well as simultaneously decrease aggressive behaviors. Thus, our data indicate that the serotonergic system inhibits aggressive behavior toward same-sex conspecifics, while at the same time increasing perception of stimuli associated with these individuals. This function is likely to be conserved across systems and species. PMID:24218585

Deemyad, Tara; Metzen, Michael G.; Pan, Yingzhou; Chacron, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

148

Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study  

PubMed Central

Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further, the mixed method design enables triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data. A broad recruitment strategy has already enabled a large sample size with the inclusion of both gay men and lesbians. PMID:20211027

2010-01-01

149

A Population-Based Study of Alcohol Use in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Unions.  

PubMed

The present study advances research on union status and health by providing a first look at alcohol use differentials among different-sex and same-sex married and cohabiting individuals using nationally representative population-based data (National Health Interview Surveys 1997-2011, N = 181,581). The results showed that both same-sex and different-sex married groups reported lower alcohol use than both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. The results further revealed that same-sex and different-sex married individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use, whereas same-sex and different-sex cohabiting individuals reported similar levels of alcohol use. Drawing on marital advantage and minority stress approaches, the findings suggest that it is cohabitation status-not same-sex status-that is associated with elevated alcohol rates. PMID:24860195

Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Spiker, Russell

2014-06-01

150

Sexually selected behaviour: red squirrel males search for reproductive success.  

PubMed

1. Differential male reproductive success is commonplace in mammals and frequently attributed to variation in morphological traits that provide individuals with a competitive advantage in female defence mating systems. Other mammalian mating systems, however, have received comparatively little attention and correlates of male reproductive success in them are less well understood. 2. We studied a free-ranging population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) exhibiting year-round individual territoriality. Males must temporarily vacate their territories to locate spatially dispersed receptive females, thereby setting the stage for a scramble competition mating system. 3. We predicted that both male annual mating success (measured as the number of females copulated with) and annual reproductive success (measured as the number of offspring sired) would be positively correlated with both search ability (measured as the number of oestrous females located over the mating season) and effort (measured as mating season home range size), generating directional sexual selection on these two metrics. 4. Mating season home ranges of males showed, on average, an almost 10-fold increase relative to those measured during the nonmating season, while those of females showed a more moderate twofold increase and both annual mating and reproductive success of males was positively correlated with search ability and search effort. 5. The spatial dispersion of females, resulting from the strict territorial social structure of red squirrels, gave rise to a predicted scramble competition mating system. Furthermore, the strength of sexual selection on behavioural traits in this mating system equalled previous estimates for morphological traits in female defence mating systems. PMID:19040682

Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Gunn, Melissa R; Coltman, David W

2009-03-01

151

A Comparison of Relationship Satisfaction, Social Support, and Stress Between Women with First and Prior Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Internet-based study was to determine differences between women in their first same-sex relationships and women who have had same-sex relationships prior to their current relationship. Participants included 754 women within the United States and Canada who were at least 18 years of age and were in an ongoing same-sex relationship of at least six months. Women

Teresa Reeves; Sharon G. Horne

2009-01-01

152

Moving from ambivalence to certainty: older same-sex couples marry in Canada.  

PubMed

A qualitative study, within a life course perspective, explored the transition into marriage for mid- to later-life same-sex couples. Twenty individuals (representing 11 couples) were interviewed - 12 lesbians, seven gay men, and one bisexual man. At the time of their marriages, participants were between 42 and 72 years old (average age: 54) and had been with their partners from six months to 19 years (average: 7.5 years). Three processes highlighted the ways in which these same-sex couples' experiences of deciding to marry were influenced by their life course experiences. First, individuals had to integrate marriage into their psyches (integration). Second, they had to consider why they would marry their specific partner (rationale). Third, the study participants demonstrated how their experiences of wedding planning and their wedding characteristics were imbued with intentionality as a result of lifetime experiences of homophobia and/or heterosexism (intentionality). PMID:23701954

Humble, Áine M

2013-06-01

153

Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents.  

PubMed

This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses indicated that, on measures of psychosocial adjustment and school outcomes, adolescents were functioning well, and their adjustment was not generally associated with family type. Assessments of romantic relationships and sexual behavior were not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported better school adjustment. PMID:15566386

Wainright, Jennifer L; Russell, Stephen T; Patterson, Charlotte J

2004-01-01

154

Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents.  

PubMed

The question of whether parental sexual orientation has an impact on human development has important implications for psychological theories and for legal policy. This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. different-sex parents), family and relationship variables, substance use, delinquency, and victimization of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents living with female same-sex couples and 44 adolescents living with different-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Analyses indicated that adolescents were functioning well and that their adjustment was not associated with family type. Adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported less delinquent behavior and substance use, suggesting that the quality of parent-adolescent relationships better predicts adolescent outcomes than does family type. PMID:16938011

Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J

2006-09-01

155

Perceptions of and Experience With System Responses to Female Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors’ perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV. PMID:21278817

Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Glass, Nancy

2011-01-01

156

Substance use behaviors among college students with same-sex and opposite-sex experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study seeks to describe the population of college students with same-sex sexual experience and determine if these students report more substance use than their peers with only opposite-sex experience. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by a national random sample of college students on 119 campuses in 1999. A total of 10,301 sexually active students were categorized as having only

Marla Eisenberg; Henry Wechsler

2003-01-01

157

Sexual orientation and neighborhood quality: Do same-sex couples make better communities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an initial empirical analysis on identifying the general relationship between housing values and the spatial distribution of same-sex couples across the U.S. The paper uses the 1990 and 2000 census 5% Public Use Microdata Samples and introduces the gay index into the social-amenity- based hedonic housing models. The results show signi…cant correlation between the spatial concentration of

Shihe Fu

2007-01-01

158

To have or not to have: Advance planning by same-sex couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight same-sex couples were interviewed regarding advance planning documents (e.g., wills and powers of attorney).\\u000a Results revealed motivating and inhibiting factors in decisions whether to execute documents. Couples who had executed advance\\u000a planning documents were motivated by their desire for protection, by their commitment to their relationships, by their families\\u000a of origin, by their friends and life experiences, and by

Ellen D. B. Riggle; Sharon Scales Rostosky; Russell Couch; Carolyn Brodnicki; Jessica Campbell; Todd Savage

2006-01-01

159

An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?  

PubMed

Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22029563

Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

2011-01-01

160

Sex Variations in the Disclosure to Parents of Same-Sex Attractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision whether to disclose same-sex attractions to parents was explored through in-depth interviews with 164 young women and men. Participants were more likely to disclose to mothers than fathers, usually around age 19 years and in a face-to-face encounter. Mothers were told before fathers, largely because mothers asked or because youth wanted to share their life with them; fathers

Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Geoffrey L. Ream

2003-01-01

161

Internalized Sexual Minority Stressors and Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem in both same-sex and heterosexual relationships. Although there are numerous\\u000a similarities in the dynamics of IPV, gay men and lesbians experience unique stressors related to their sexual minority status.\\u000a This preliminary, descriptive study examined the relationship among internalized homophobia, stigma consciousness, and openness\\u000a to self-reported IPV victimization and perpetration. Among 581 men

Amana F. Carvalho; Robin J. Lewis; Valerian J. Derlega; Barbara A. Winstead; Claudia Viggiano

162

Oxytocin and same-sex social behavior in female meadow voles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a range of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors including parent-offspring bonding and partner preference formation between socially monogamous mates. Its role in mediating non-reproductive social relationships in rodents, however, remains largely unexplored. We examined whether OT facilitates same-sex social preferences between female meadow voles—a species that forms social nesting groups in short,

A. K. Beery; I. Zucker

2010-01-01

163

Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data

Henny M. W. Bos; Theo G. M. Sandfort; Eddy H. de Bruyn; Esther M. Hakvoort

2008-01-01

164

The Disproportionate Impact of Antigay Family Policies on Black and Latino Same-sex Couple Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the racial dynamics of antigay activism, and the particular, disproportionate impact of antigay family\\u000a policies on Black and Latino same-sex couple families. Starting in the mid-1990s, antigay activists have passed dozens of\\u000a laws and constitutional amendments banning and repealing state recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For two decades\\u000a the antigay movement has portrayed sexual orientation nondiscrimination

Sean Cahill

2009-01-01

165

Litigating Same-Sex Marriage: Might the Courts Actually Be Bastions of Rationality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great political philosopher John Stuart Mill once asked, “Was there any domination which did not appear natural to those that possessed it?” (Mill 1984, 269–270). For same-sex couples seeking access to the institution of marriage, the public sense that marriage is naturally and obviously meant only for opposite-sex couples has been a formidable barrier. The first state supreme courts

Evan Gerstmann

2005-01-01

166

Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.  

PubMed

Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence. PMID:23999997

Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

2014-12-01

167

Perceptions of Same-sex Domestic Violence Among Crisis Center Staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crisis center staff help form the frontline in the fight against domestic violence. Therefore, it is important that we understand\\u000a any biases they may have when addressing cases of same-sex domestic violence. In this study, 120 crisis center staff members\\u000a were given a vignette depicting a domestic dispute and asked to complete a questionnaire about their perceptions of the incident

Michael J. Brown; Jennifer Groscup

2009-01-01

168

Etiology of homosexuality and attitudes toward same-sex parenting: a randomized study.  

PubMed

Attribution theory suggests the hypothesis that heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual sexual orientation will be more negative when homosexuality is attributed to controllable causes. Our randomized study analyzed (a) whether beliefs about the genetic or environmental etiology of the homosexual sexual orientation can be immediately modified by reading a text and (b) the causal effect of attributions about the controllability (environmental etiology) or noncontrollability (genetic etiology) of homosexual sexual orientation on the rejection of same-sex parenting and their social rights. The sample was composed of 190 Spanish university students with a mean age of 22.07 years (SD = 8.46). The results show that beliefs about the etiology of the sexual orientation could be modified by means of a written text. Furthermore, participants who believed that sexual orientation had a genetic etiology showed greater support for social rights and less rejection of same-sex parenting. However, the effects were detected only when there was a traditional opposition to the family with same-sex parenting. When the opposition was normative, the effect was not statistically significant. Our results can be useful in planning variables for intervention programs designed to foster tolerance toward and normality of sexual diversity. PMID:24024528

Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector; Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Badenes-Ribera, Laura

2015-02-01

169

Testosterone correlates of mate guarding, singing and aggressive behaviour in male barn swallows, Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual and social behaviour in male birds is largely controlled by gonadal secretions, most notably testosterone. In this paper the relationships between natural testosterone plasma concentrations and mate guarding, singing and rates of aggression in male barn swallows are reported. Behaviour of individually marked male swallows was observed in three breeding colonies. Individual mate-guarding rate was positively correlated with individual

N. SAINO; A. P. MØLLER

1995-01-01

170

Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex

Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

2009-01-01

171

Same-sex Relationships and the Full Faith and Credit Clause: Reducing America to the Lowest Common Denominator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother's former same-sex partner. As more states

Rena M Lindevaldsen

2009-01-01

172

Referenda and the District of Columbia's Human Rights Act: Voting on Same-Sex Marriage in the Nation's Capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with Massachusetts in 2003, the courts and legislatures of many states have had to decide whether same-sex marriage is or should be a fundamental right under their respective constitutions. Although only five states and the District of Columbia legally perform same-sex marriages, a few other jurisdictions are in the process of proposing laws moving in that direction. However, the

Jacob Stewart

2011-01-01

173

Members of the Wedding: The Psychological Impact of the Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 17, 2004, same-sex marriage was legalized in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. This event had a profound impact not only on the legal status of same-sex couples but also on our emotional and psychic lives. With the option to marry legally comes a set of internal conflicts about belonging and rejection that many of us began to encounter more

Cara A. Segal; Stacey L. Novack

2008-01-01

174

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour  

E-print Network

Sexual reproduction in Daphnia pulex (Crustacea: Cladocera): observations on male mating behaviour conditions. Keywords: clone, Daphnia, inbreeding, mating behaviour, sexual reproduction Introduction with the dif®culty of locating and identifying poten- tial mates during sexual reproduction. Gerritsen (1980

Innes, David J.

175

Sex behaviour of male Japanese tourists in Bangkok, Thailand.  

PubMed

This paper explores why Japanese men engage in potentially risky commercial sexual behaviours while on holiday in Thailand. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 heterosexual male Japanese tourists, aged 19-36, who paid for sex with Thai women. Study participants were recruited at guesthouses in Bangkok. Analysis revealed eight main factors that encourage participation in commercial sex: a sense of freedom and anonymity during "time-out" spent travelling in a foreign country; a sense that there are permissive norms governing commercial sex in Thailand; the perceived sexual desirability of Thai women, a sense of economic and racial superiority relative to Thai women; a sense of loneliness or feeling in need of companionship; peer influence; the widespread availability of inexpensive sexual services in Thailand; and sexual desire or need. Findings indicate that Japanese male sexual conduct reflects individual drives while on holiday, in the context of interactions among Japanese peers, shaped by Thailand's socio-cultural environment. PMID:16641061

Yokota, Fumihiko

2006-01-01

176

Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction  

PubMed Central

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support. PMID:21423842

Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

2011-01-01

177

Spectrographic analysis of the ultrasonic vocalisations of adult male and female BALB\\/c mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB\\/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB\\/c male mice uttered

Benjamin E. F. Gourbal; Mathieu Barthelemy; Gilles Petit; Claude Gabrion

2004-01-01

178

Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p?behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16–22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8–40.7, p?

2013-01-01

179

Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women  

PubMed Central

In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

2011-01-01

180

Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.  

PubMed

Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy. PMID:21919272

Lewis, Daniel C

2011-01-01

181

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish  

E-print Network

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish MARCO DADDA harassment is often intense and is costly for females. In Gambusia holbrooki, sexual harassment can greatly behaviour is a flexible strategy and that male sexual harassment may represent an important factor

Pilastro, Andrea

182

Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

2013-10-01

183

Interstate Recognition of Same-Sex Parents in the Wake of Gay Marriage, Civil Unions, and Domestic Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the parental rights of a same-sex partner\\/spouse who is neither biologically related to, nor an adoptive parent of, a child being raised by the couple. Using a hypothetical example of a same-sex couple with one child, this Article explores whether the parental rights granted to a non-biological parent by marriage, civil union, or domestic partnership can and

Deborah L Forman

2004-01-01

184

Same-Sex Relationships and the Full Faith and Credit Clause: Reducing America to the Lowest Common Denominator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother’s former same-sex partner. As more states

Rena M. Lindevaldsen

2009-01-01

185

Psychiatric Symptoms and Same-Sex Sexual Attraction and Behavior in Light of Childhood Gender Atypical Behavior and Parental Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with

Katarina Alanko; Pekka Santtila; Katarina Witting; Markus Varjonen; Patrik Jern; Ada Johansson; Bettina von der Pahlen; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2009-01-01

186

Beyond Racial Precedents: Loving v. Virginia as an Appropriate Legal Model and Strategy for Same-Sex Marriage Litigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores how LGBT marriage activists and lawyers have employed a racial interpretation of due process and equal protection in recent same-sex marriage litigation. Special attention is paid to the Supreme Court's opinion in Loving v. Virginia, the landmark case that declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional. By exploring the use of racial precedent in same-sex marriage litigation and its treatment

Michael J. Csere

2010-01-01

187

Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) demonstrate same-sex partner preferences.  

PubMed

Female meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are territorial during warm months but demonstrate social tolerance under low temperatures. In spring, females nest together and some pairs participate in communal nursing and rearing of young. Because communal nursing involves significant cooperation, selective pair-bonds may develop between 2 nestmates. Using a choice apparatus, the authors determined that (a) captive females demonstrated partner preferences for a nestmate; (b) partner preferences were enduring and persisted after dyadic separation; and (c) following the loss of a nestmate, females did not develop preferences for a new nestmate, even after extended cohabitation. Data support the hypothesis that captive meadow voles develop selective and enduring same-sex social bonds that may, under free-living conditions, facilitate communal nesting and cooperative rearing of young. PMID:14498804

Parker, Karen J; Lee, Theresa M

2003-09-01

188

The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.  

PubMed

The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

2015-02-01

189

The Effects Of Unequal Access To Health Insurance For Same-Sex Couples In California  

PubMed Central

Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694

Ponce, Ninez A.; Cochran, Susan D.; Pizer, Jennifer C.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

190

ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology  

PubMed Central

Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18?years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children with same-sex attracted parents. PMID:22888859

2012-01-01

191

Ranging behaviour of little bustard males, Tetrax tetrax, in the lekking grounds.  

PubMed

We investigated the ranging behaviour during the breeding season of 18 radiotracked little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) males, a disperse-lekking species inhabiting the cereal pseudo-steppes. The average kernel 95% home range was 60±50 ha and the average cluster 85% area was 17±17 ha. Range structure was as relevant as home range size for explaining the variation in the ranging behaviour of males, which could be partially explained by age, habitat quality and site. Ranging behaviour varied from males defending small and concentrated home ranges with high habitat quality, to males holding larger home ranges composed by several arenas. Our results suggest that social dominance and resource availability may affect ranging behaviour of males during the breeding season. Also, mating systems constraints may play a role on the use of space of males within the lekking ground. The ranging behaviour of a given male may be determined by a tendency to reduce and concentrate the home range as age and social status increase, and several fine-tuning mechanisms adjusting the ranging behaviour to the prevailing environmental or social factors on a given site and year. PMID:22626823

Ponjoan, Anna; Bota, Gerard; Mañosa, Santi

2012-09-01

192

Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children.  

PubMed

Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families. PMID:25221780

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

2014-09-01

193

Same-Sex Legal Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Methods. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18–70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion?=?3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35?608 individuals (weighted proportion?=?96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36?774 individuals. Results. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P?same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Conclusions. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue. PMID:23237155

LeBlanc, Allen J.; Lee Badgett, M. V.

2013-01-01

194

White Cells Facilitate Opposite- and Same-Sex Mating of Opaque Cells in Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1) impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa) in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans. PMID:25329547

Liang, Weihong; Guan, Guobo; Zhang, Qiuyu; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Huang, Guanghua

2014-01-01

195

Perceptions of predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in same-sex parents.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of women are choosing to have children in the context of same-sex relationships or as "out" lesbian or bisexual individuals. This study used qualitative methods to assess perceived predisposing and protective factors for perinatal depression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) women. Two focus groups with LGBQ women were conducted: 1) biological parents of young children and 2) nonbiological parents of young children or whose partners were currently pregnant. Three major themes emerged. Issues related to social support were primary, particularly related to disappointment with the lack of support provided by members of the family of origin. Participants also described issues related to the couple relationship, such as challenges in negotiating parenting roles. Finally, legal and policy barriers (e.g., second parent adoption) were identified as a significant source of stress during the transition to parenthood. Both lack of social support and relationship problems have previously been identified as risk factors for perinatal depression in heterosexual women, and legal and policy barriers may represent a unique risk factor for this population. Therefore, additional study of perinatal mental health among LGBQ women is warranted. PMID:16260356

Ross, Lori E; Steele, Leah; Sapiro, Beth

2005-01-01

196

Aggressive Behaviour, Mental Sub-normality and the XYY Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that 1 per cent of males in institutions for the mentally sub-normal are chromatin-positive and that the majority of these have an XXY sex chromosome constitution1. In 1963 Forssman and Hambert2 reported on a survey of the nuclear sex of 760 male patients in three Swedish institutions for criminal and `hard-to-manage' males of sub-normal intelligence. They

Patricia A. Jacobs; Muriel Brunton; Marie M. Melville; R. P. BRITTAIN; W. F. MCCLEMONT

1965-01-01

197

Perception of male–male competition influences Drosophila copulation behaviour even in species where females rarely remate  

PubMed Central

Males in many taxa are known to exhibit behavioural plasticity in response to the perceived intensity of sperm competition, reflected in Drosophila melanogaster by increased copulation duration following prior exposure to a rival. We tested the prediction that males do not adjust their copulation effort in response to the presence of a competitor in Drosophila species where there is little or no sperm competition. Contrary to expectations, male plasticity in copulation duration was found in both Drosophila subobscura and Drosophila acanthoptera, species in which females rarely remate. These results are discussed in relation to the adaptive basis of plasticity in these species. PMID:21752815

Lizé, Anne; Doff, Rowan J.; Smaller, Eve A.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hurst, Gregory D. D.

2012-01-01

198

Glucocorticoids and the Development of Agonistic Behaviour during Puberty in Male Golden Hamsters  

E-print Network

early in puberty accelerates this transition. The present study investigated the possible role of glucocorticoids on the maturation of agonistic behaviour. First, we compared serum cortisol levels following a 20 investigated the effects of stress hormones on the matur- ation of agonistic behaviour. Male hamsters were

Delville, Yvon

199

The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

2011-01-01

200

Same-Sex and Other-Sex Peer Reports: Unique Contributors to Understanding Children’s School Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study proposed to understand how same-sex and other-sex peer nominations relate differently to teacher reports\\u000a of children’s behaviors and measures of children’s friendships. Students provided peer nominations, mutual friend data, and\\u000a social network data. Teachers rated students’ antisocial behavior and social competence. As expected, other-sex peer social\\u000a preference scores predicted teacher ratings of antisocial behavior, while same-sex peer

Stacy L. Frazier; Marc S. Atkins; Laura Hess Olson; Aaron R. Lyon

2009-01-01

201

Impact of mental health on perception of relationship satisfaction and quality among female same-sex couples.  

PubMed

Using data from both partners in female same-sex couples, individual and dyadic (individual/actor-partner) level analyses were conducted to determine the associations between couple members' global mental health, internalized homophobia, and perceptions of relationship qualities and satisfaction (N = 90). Findings at the dyadic level indicated that an individual's global mental health was uniquely associated with her partner's assessment of relationship satisfaction and qualities, beyond the effects of the individual's own mental health and internalized homophobia. Implications for further research on the strengths and challenges within female same-sex couple relationships are discussed. PMID:16873225

Otis, Melanie D; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S

2006-01-01

202

Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae)  

E-print Network

Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata selection spider nuptial gift The occurrence of nuptial gifts is rare in spiders, being well known only courtship. Although some males can mate without offering a prey, the gift in this species is thought

Wisenden, Brian D.

203

Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia:Atelopus hoogmoedi)  

E-print Network

Site fidelity, home range behaviour and habitat utilization of male harlequin toads (Amphibia, neotropical harlequin toads (Atelopus spp.) have undergone drastic population de- clines. Captive breeding has and females occupy different habitats (i.e. streams versus forest).We studied male toads along a stream site

Hödl, Walter

204

Effects of exposure to predatory cues on territorial behaviour of male fathead minnows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a laboratory study to determine if male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, altered their territorial behaviour associated with reproduction in response to combinations of visual and chemical cues from northern pike, Esox lucius. We introduced the following stimuli to a territorial male: a brick (control), fathead minnow alarm pheromone, a pike fed brook stickleback, Culea inconstans, or a pike

Hilary M. Jones; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

1997-01-01

205

Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)  

E-print Network

of testosterone in paternal care in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), where males provide both sole defenceEffects of Exogenous Testosterone on Parental Care Behaviours in Male Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Chandra M. C. Rodgers*, Bryan D. Neff* & Rosemary Knapp * Department of Biology, Western

Neff, Bryan D.

206

Opposing behavioural alterations in male and female transgenic TGF? mice: association with tumour susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychosocial factors are thought to influence risk and survival from cancer. We have previously studied specific behaviours in transgenic male CD-1 MT42 mice, which overexpress the gene encoding human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in multiple tissues, and which develop a high incidence of spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma. The male TGF alpha mice spent a lengthened time immobile in the

LA Hilakivi-Clarke; PK Arora; R Clarke; A Wright; RB Dickson

1993-01-01

207

Approach Strategy by which Male Mediterranean Tarantulas Adjust to the Cannibalistic Behaviour of Females  

E-print Network

Approach Strategy by which Male Mediterranean Tarantulas Adjust to the Cannibalistic Behaviour spiders, Lycosa tarantula (L.) (Araneae, Lycosidae), decides to approach females in periods when experiments, we offered a grasshopper (typical prey) or a male L. tarantula to females at night and during

Illinois at Chicago, University of

208

Female foraging and male vigilance in white-tailed ptarmigan ( Lagopus leucurus ): opportunism or behavioural coordination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several species of birds, high rates of male vigilance are correlated with high rates of female foraging. This relationship\\u000a is thought to ultimately result in higher reproductive success for females paired with highly vigilant males. However, previous\\u000a research has not examined the behavioural mechanism that produces the correlation between male vigilance and rates of female\\u000a foraging. Foraging females may

Thomas Artiss; Wesley M. Hochachka; Kathy Martin

1999-01-01

209

194 Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 9 Number 2 pp. 194197 Accurate determination of same-sex twin zygosity  

E-print Network

194 Twin Research and Human Genetics Volume 9 Number 2 pp. 194­197 Accurate determination of same-sex twin zygosity is important for medical, scientific and personal reasons. Determination may be based proba- bilities of correctly concluding a twin pair is monozygotic, given they share the same genotypes

Nyholt, Dale R.

210

Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

Pope, Amber Leighann

2010-01-01

211

The Rights of Divorced Lesbians: Interstate Recognition of Child Custody Judgments in the Context of Same-Sex Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note explores the issue of interstate recognition of child custody, which arises in the context of same-sex divorce. The Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA) requires states to grant full faith and credit to all child custody orders; on the other hand, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) allows states to deny full faith and credit to judgments “arising out

Kathryn J. Harvey

2009-01-01

212

The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

2009-01-01

213

Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.  

PubMed

Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

2014-08-01

214

Now That We Do: Same-sex Couples and Marriage in Massachusetts, a Demographic and Economic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay and lesbian couples can now legally marry in Massachusetts. This article examines the demographics of same-sex couples and concludes that gay marriage will have a relatively small but positive long-term aggregate economic impact on the Commonwealth.

Randy Albelda; Michael Ash; M. V. Lee Badgett

2005-01-01

215

Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

Tang, Denise

2014-01-01

216

Courtship behaviour in a lekking species: individual variations and settlement tactics in male little bustard.  

PubMed

We analysed the display behaviour of male little bustard Tetrax tetrax to identify displays that are used in the context of male-male competition and those that are used for attracting females. Courtship was the main activity of males during the breeding season. Calling activity occurred throughout the day, and leks were attended for more than 4 months. Male sexual displays included snort call, wing-flash, and jump display. Snort call was performed throughout the day and mainly involved male-male interactions. In contrast, the wing-flash display was given only at twilight, and was performed most commonly when a female was present, supporting an inter-sexual function for this display. The jump display was performed only in the presence of female at anytime of the day. Analysis of individual variations in display behaviour revealed that intra-individual variation was low compared to inter-individual variation, especially for the jump display. It is, therefore, possible that display rates provide information on male quality. Four male settlement patterns could be defined, singles, paired, lekking and satellite lekking, but only wing-flash display and stamped snort call differed among those categories. We suggest that satellite males are attempting to benefit from proximity to higher status males, in accordance with the hotshot hypothesis of lek evolution. PMID:11470502

Jiguet, F; Bretagnolle, V

2001-08-15

217

Comparison of Teenagers' Early Same-Sex and Heterosexual Behavior: UK Data From the SHARE and RIPPLE Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose North American research finds increased sexual risk-taking among teenagers with same-sex partners, but understanding of underlying processes is limited. The research carried out in the United Kingdom compares teenagers' early sexual experiences according to same- or opposite-sex partner, focusing on unwanted sex in addition to risk-taking, and exploring underlying psychosocial differences. Methods Multivariate analyses combined self-reported data from two randomized control trials of school sex education programs (N = 10,250). Outcomes from sexually experienced teenagers (N = 3,766) were partner pressure to have first sex and subsequent regret, and sexual risk measures including pregnancy. Covariates included self-esteem, future expectations, substance use, and communication with mother. Results By the time of follow-up (mean age, 16), same-sex genital contact (touching or oral or anal) was reported by 2.3% of teenagers, with the majority also reporting heterosexual intercourse. A total of 39% reported heterosexual intercourse and no same-sex genital contact. Boys were more likely to report partner pressure (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.29–5.08) and regret (OR = 2.32; 95% CI = 1.39–3.86) in relation to first same-sex genital contact than first heterosexual intercourse, but girls showed no differences according to partner type. Teenagers with bisexual behavior reported greater pregnancy or partner pregnancy risk than teenagers with exclusively opposite-sex partners (girls, OR = 4.51, 95% CI = 2.35–8.64; boys, OR = 4.43, 95% CI = 2.41–8.14), partially reduced by attitudinal and behavioral differences. Conclusions This UK study confirms greater reporting of sexual risk-taking among teenagers with same-sex partners, and suggests that boys in this group are vulnerable to unwanted sex. It suggests limitations to the interpretation of differences, in terms of psychosocial risk factors common to all adolescents. PMID:21185521

Parkes, Alison; Strange, Vicki; Wight, Daniel; Bonell, Chris; Copas, Andrew; Henderson, Marion; Buston, Katie; Stephenson, Judith; Johnson, Anne; Allen, Elizabeth; Hart, Graham

2011-01-01

218

Understanding help seeking behaviour among male offenders: qualitative interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the factors that influence help seeking for mental distress by offenders. Design Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with prisoners before and after release. Setting One category B local prison in southern England. Participants 35 male offenders aged 18-52, a quarter of whom had been flagged as being at risk of self harm. Results Most respondents reported

Amanda Howerton; Richard Byng; John Campbell; David Hess; Christabel Owens; Peter Aitken

2007-01-01

219

Male alternative reproductive behaviours in a Mediterranean wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus: Evidence from otoliths for multiple life-history pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although alternative reproductive behaviours have been studied extensively, it has only been possible in a few cases to document the underlying life-history pathways and factors that determine their expression. In Symphodus ocellatus, a Mediterranean wrasse, males adopt a variety of behaviours. Within a season, they may invest in territory defence, nest building and broodcare (nesting males); join nesting males in

Suzanne H. Alonzo; Michael Taborsky; Peter Wirtz

220

Behavioural and energetic responses to body state in male and female barn swallows (Hirundo rustica).  

PubMed

Females and males often have different roles when attending young. The factors responsible for shifts in the balance of effort when both sexes provision their young are not clear. This study asked if sex-specific behaviour and provisioning rules in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were dependent on individual body-state or affected by the state of their provisioning partner. To assess this male and female barn swallows underwent overnight warming manipulations whilst provisioning 10-14 day old nestlings, a time when energetic demands are maximal. The overnight warming treatment reduced thermoregulatory costs and provided birds with extra energy reserves at dawn. Only one member of a pair was manipulated in this way, whilst their partners were left un-manipulated to assess their response to their partner's elevated body-state. The energetic and behavioural responses to these manipulations were followed over the subsequent 24-h. I found that warmed male and female barn swallows increased their energy expenditure and nest visitation rates to the same extent after manipulation, implying a trade-off in resource allocation, which was biased towards reproductive effort. There was no effect of gender. Males paired with manipulated females showed no energetic or behavioural adjustments, however, females paired with manipulated males tended to increase both energy expenditure and nest visitation. This study provides evidence that energy reserves constrain behaviour, and that male and female swallows normally follow the same state-dependent rules when provisioning young. PMID:15846052

Spencer, Karen A

2005-04-01

221

Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites  

PubMed Central

The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male–male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male–male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive (‘Napoleon complex’) in male–male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour. PMID:25673881

Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2015-01-01

222

Self-disclosure modeling in same-sex and mixed-sex unsupervised groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the effects of videotaped models in eliciting self-disclosure for male and female undergraduates in unsupervised groups of one or both sexes. Videotaped modeling was clearly superior to a control condition in increasing self-disclosure. Females generally displayed more self-disclosure than males. Whether a group was composed of members of both sexes or of only one sex had no significant effect.

Lawrence V. Annis; Donald F. Perry

1977-01-01

223

Behavioural responses to video playbacks by zebra finch males.  

PubMed

A major problem for communication research is to provide standardized stimuli and to disentangle the relative contribution of different sensory channels to the compound signal and its effectiveness. Video techniques have frequently been used for this purpose. Fifty Hertz cathode ray tube (CRT) screens cannot be used for birds because their flicker frequency is lower than the time resolution of at least songbirds. Thin film transistor (TFT) screens have successfully been used to present video clips of behaving conspecifics. We show here that they are indeed transmitting video images in a way that enables zebra finches to react appropriately to live video images of conspecifics and that the test birds are able to detect small differences in the behaviour of the stimulus animals. Adding acoustic information strongly enhanced the reaction to the video clips. PMID:17045422

Galoch, Zdzislaw; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2007-01-10

224

How a romantic relationship can protect same-sex attracted youth and young adults from the impact of expected rejection.  

PubMed

Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress, psychological well-being, and its moderated relation by romantic relationship status among 309 Dutch same-sex attracted youth (16-24 years old, 52.9% female). The results showed that minority stress components (internalized homophobia, expected rejection, and meta-stereotyping) were negatively related to psychological well-being. Moderation analyses revealed that only the impact of "expected rejection" on psychological well-being was buffered for those involved in a romantic relationship. This shows the particular functional link of romantic support in rejection contexts. PMID:25291236

Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Jonas, Kai J

2014-12-01

225

Risk and Ethical Concerns of Hunting Male Elephant: Behavioural and Physiological Assays of the Remaining Elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1) risk of attack or damage (11 hunts), and (2) behavioural (movement dynamics) and physiological (stress

Tarryne Burke; Bruce Page; Gus van Dyk; Josh Millspaugh; Rob Slotow; Peter M. Bennett

2008-01-01

226

Self-mutilative behaviours in male alcohol-dependent inpatients and relationship with posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-mutilation (SM) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male alcohol-dependent inpatients, and to examine whether there is something unique about self-mutilaters with the PTSD\\/alcohol-dependence co-morbidity, compared with self-mutilaters without PTSD in this population. Participants were 156 consecutively admitted male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire

Cuneyt Evren; Ercan Dalbudak; Bilge Evren; Rabia Cetin; Mine Durkaya

2011-01-01

227

A review of "Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-Sex Literary Erotics." by Harriette Andreadis  

E-print Network

52 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Harriette Andreadis. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same- Sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001. xiii + 254 pp. + 9 illus. $17.00 Paper. Review by MADHAVI MENON, ITHACA... COLLEGE. In a book that claims to be about erotic ellipses, Sappho in Early Modern England is also dependent on one: its evident debt to Foucauldian theory goes both unnamed and unpaid. In general, scholars of Renaissance sexuality draw on Foucault...

Madhavi Menon

2002-01-01

228

Equality Discrepancy Between Women in Same-Sex Relationships: The Mediating Role of Attachment in Relationship Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This internet study explored the mediating effects of anxious and avoidant attachment on the link between relationship equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction among 75 cohabitating U.S. and Canadian women’s same-sex couples. Multiple regression\\u000a results indicated that both anxious and avoidant attachment were found to mediate the relationship between dyadic equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction, suggesting that the more partners perceived

Sharon G. Horne; Wendy J. Biss

2009-01-01

229

System Justification, Right-Wing Conservatism, and Internalized Homophobia: Gay and Lesbian Attitudes toward Same-Sex Parenting in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting a system justification perspective (Jost and Banaji 1994), we investigated the manner and extent to which gay men\\u000a and lesbians might internalize a sense of inferiority when it comes to parenthood. In an Italian sample of gay and lesbian\\u000a individuals, we found that gay men who scored high (versus low) on system justification and right-wing conservatism regarded\\u000a same sex

Maria Giuseppina Pacilli; Alessandro Taurino; John T. Jost; Jojanneke van der Toorn

230

Same-sex sexual behavior of men in Kenya: Implications for HIV prevention, programs, and policy  

PubMed Central

Unprotected anal sex has long been recognized as a risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). In Africa, however, general denial of MSM existence and associated stigma discouraged research. To address this gap in the literature, partners conducted the first behavioral surveys of MSM in Kenya. The first study was to assess HIV risk among MSM in Nairobi, and the second study a pre-post intervention study of male sex workers in Mombasa. The 2004 behavioral survey of 500 men in Mombasa revealed that MSM were having multiple sexual partners and failed to access appropriate prevention counseling and care at Kenya clinics. A 2006 capture-recapture enumeration in Mombasa estimated that over 700 male sex workers were active, after which a pre-intervention baseline survey of 425 male sex workers was conducted. Awareness of unprotected anal sex as an HIV risk behavior and consistent condom use with clients was low, and use of oil-based lubricants high. Based on this information, peer educators were trained in HIV prevention, basic counseling skills, and distribution of condoms and lubricants. To assess impact of the interventions, a follow-up survey of 442 male sex workers was implemented in 2008. Exposure to peer educators was significantly associated with increased consistent condom use, improved HIV knowledge, and increased use of water-based lubricants. These results have provided needed information to the Government of Kenya and have informed HIV prevention interventions. PMID:24753921

Geibel, S.

2012-01-01

231

Self-disclosure Modeling in Same-sex and Mixed-sex Unsupervised Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of videotaped models in eliciting self-disclosure were assessed for men and women in unsupervised groups of one or both sexes. Videotaped modeling was clearly superior to a control condition in increasing self-disclosure. Females generally displayed more self-disclosure than males. (Author)

Annis, Lawrence V.; Perry, Donald F.

1977-01-01

232

Psychology and the politics of same-sex desire in the United States: an analysis of three cases.  

PubMed

Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion. PMID:21936232

Hammack, Phillip L; Windell, Eric P

2011-08-01

233

Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis  

PubMed Central

Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

2010-01-01

234

Male clients' behaviours with and perspectives about their last male escort encounter: comparing repeat versus first-time hires.  

PubMed

Research on men who have sex with men suggests that condomless anal intercourse occurs more frequently in established sexual relationships. While comparable data regarding male-for-male escorting is unavailable, research implies that many clients seek emotional as well as physical connections with the men they hire. In 2012, 495 male clients, recruited via daddysreviews.com completed an online survey about their last hiring experience. Most participants were from the USA (85.7%), the UK and Canada (3.2% each). In total, 75% of encounters involved an escort hired for the first time; 25% were with a previously hired escort ('repeat encounter'). The client's age, lifetime number of escorts hired and number hired in the past year were positively associated with the last encounter being a repeat encounter. Cuddling, sharing a meal, drinking alcohol, taking a walk, watching a show and shopping were also positively associated with repeat encounters. Conversely, none of the sexual behaviours were significantly associated with repeat encounters. Repeat encounters were significantly more likely to include non-sexual behaviours alongside sexual activities, but no more likely to involve condomless anal intercourse. Moreover, clients' knowledge of escorts' HIV status was not significantly associated with engaging in condomless anal intercourse with repeat encounters. PMID:24915753

Wolff, Margaret M; Grov, Christian; Smith, Michael D; Koken, Juline A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2014-01-01

235

Effects of male harassment on females' oviposition behaviour in Libellulidae (Odonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated whether the level of male harassment affects females' oviposition behaviour, such that females oviposit unguarded under suboptimal conditions and\\/or vary oviposition duration, dip number, dip frequency or number of oviposition site changes. The study species were the libellulids Crocothemis erythraea, Ortbetrum chrysostigma, Pantala flavescens, Sympetrum fonscolombii, Trithemis annulata and T. kirbyi ardens. Only a few ovipositions under suboptimal

Kamilla Koch

2006-01-01

236

Effects of body size and harem size on male reproductive behaviour in the southern elephant seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study on size and reproductive behaviour in the southern elephant seal,Mirounga leonina, on South Georgia from 1991 to 1993, large size, measured as nose to hind flipper length, was associated with factors that confer an advantage in terms of reproductive success. Some males stayed at the centre of harems, others were on the periphery and others were outside

A. O. MODIG

1996-01-01

237

Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

2012-01-01

238

Money, Housework, Sex, and Conflict: Same-Sex Couples in Civil Unions, Those Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Siblings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the division of finances, the division of household tasks, relationship maintenance behaviors, sexual activity, monogamy, and conflict among same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont, same-sex couples who had not had civil unions recruited from their friendship circles, and married heterosexual couples recruited from among their siblings. Married heterosexuals had a more traditional,

Sondra E. Solomon; Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam

2005-01-01

239

From media frame to social change? A comparative analysis of same-sex rights in the United States and New Zealand press  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract On 26 April 2005, The Civil Union Bill officially granted registered same-sex couples in New Zealand recognition and relationship rights that are equal to that of traditional marriage. In a relatively short time, the country was successful in its pursuit for same-sex

Linda Jean Kenix

240

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour  

PubMed Central

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male’s ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male’s investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female’s foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate’s behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male–male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male–female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate’s access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male–female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

KELLAM, JAMES S.; LUCAS, JEFFREY R.; WINGFIELD, JOHN C.

2006-01-01

241

Mood and male sexual behaviour in the APP23 model of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is characterised by both cognitive deterioration and the development of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disturbances, among which affective disturbances, stereotyped behaviour, dietary hyperactivity and changes in sexual behaviour. The transgenic APP23 mouse models Alzheimer's disease and has shown to be a unique tool in the study of this condition. APP23 mice develop, next to the age-dependent cognitive decline, also a range of behavioural problems, such as circadian activity disturbances and increased aggression, in analogy with the dementing patients. The present study aimed to investigate whether this model also develops mood disturbances and changes in sexual behaviour. Using two behavioural despair paradigms and the sucrose preference test, we did not find evidence for the development of depression-related behaviours. A sophisticated protocol was neither able to unravel changes in male sexual behaviour between APP23 and WT mice. The present study nevertheless provides evidence that the APP23 mice are more anxious and fearful in comparison with control littermates, which opens perspectives to future treatment studies. PMID:17445916

Vloeberghs, Ellen; Van Dam, Debby; Franck, Frieda; Staufenbiel, Matthias; De Deyn, Peter Paul

2007-06-18

242

Sexual harassment between same-sex peers: intersection of mental health, homophobia, and sexual violence in schools.  

PubMed

This article provides a historical and legal framework for defining peer sexual harassment from three different perspectives: sex discrimination, mental health, and sexual violence. Major court decisions that define sexual harassment in both education and the workplace are highlighted, and arguments regarding sexual harassment between peers of the same sex are profiled. This research also identifies sexism and heterosexism as a major social violence problem in U.S. education and argues that peer sexual harassment is sexual violence with considerable mental health implications for both boys and girls. Recommendations for social work practice regarding peer sexual harassment in schools are discussed. PMID:11829246

Fineran, Susan

2002-01-01

243

The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.  

PubMed

Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research. PMID:16932805

Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

2006-03-01

244

Signals and behavioural responses are not coupled in males: aggression affected by replacement of an evolutionarily lost colour signal.  

PubMed Central

Male Sceloporus virgatus lack the blue abdominal patches which are used during aggressive encounters in other Sceloporus lizards. Herein we report that, despite having lost this signal, males have retained a behavioural response to experimentally restored blue abdominal patches. We tested two adaptive hypotheses: selection acted primarily upon signallers or selection acted upon both signallers and receivers. The first predicts that only the signal is lost and that male interactions should be affected by the restoration of blue patches. The latter predicts that both the signal and behavioural response are lost and the display of the restored blue patches should have no effect on male-male interactions. We compared the behaviour of receivers in paired encounters where one male (signaller) had blue-painted abdominal patches to a set of trials where both males had white-painted abdomens, unmanipulated abdomens or a novel-painted pattern. The receivers of the blue-painted signal were more likely to display submissive behaviour. The receivers in either the unmanipulated, white-painted or novel-painted signal trials were more likely to display neutral behaviour. These results support the hypothesis that receivers have retained a behavioural response and selection has acted primarily on the signaller. We believe this is the first documentation of males responding to an evolutionarily lost signal in conspecific males. PMID:10819143

Quinn, V S; Hews, D K

2000-01-01

245

Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: Evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not

Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor

2005-01-01

246

Tied to the nest: male black-capped chickadees decrease dawn chorus movement behaviour when their mate is fertile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of

Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

247

The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.  

PubMed

It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law. PMID:24190101

Trandafir, Mircea

2014-02-01

248

Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?  

PubMed

The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

2014-01-01

249

Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain and Male\\/Female Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,

Dick F. Swaab

250

Indiscriminate Males: Mating Behaviour of a Marine Snail Compromised by a Sexual Conflict?  

PubMed Central

Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings. PMID:20711254

Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.

2010-01-01

251

Winners and losers in health insurance: access and type of coverage for women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships.  

PubMed

Using data from the American Community Survey, 2009 (N=580,754), we compared rates of health insurance coverage and types of coverage used between women in same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships. This large, national dataset also allowed us to investigate regional variation in insurance coverage for women in same-sex partnerships by comparing "gay-tolerant" states versus other states. Multivariate analyses revealed that women in same-sex partnerships consistently had lower rates of health insurance coverage than married women in opposite-sex partnerships, but always more than unmarried women in opposite-sex partnerships. We also found that state-level variation in gay tolerance did not contribute to the access or type of coverage used by women in same-sex partnerships. PMID:24400654

Pals, Heili; Waren, Warren

2014-01-01

252

Special Article: The American Academy of Pediatrics Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents Policy Statement: Its Science, Its Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a Policy Statement entitled Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents encouraging members to “Advocate for initiatives that establish permanency through coparent or second-parent adoption for children of same-sex partners.” The Policy Statement is based upon the best available science and has resulted in a wide-ranging debate on lesbian, gay, bisexual,

Kenneth Haller

2002-01-01

253

Does Physical Abuse, Sexual Abuse, or Neglect in Childhood Increase the Likelihood of Same-sex Sexual Relationships and Cohabitation? A Prospective 30-year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing cross-sectional research suggests associations between physical and sexual abuse in childhood and same-sex sexual\\u000a orientation in adulthood. This study prospectively examined whether abuse and\\/or neglect in childhood were associated with\\u000a increased likelihood of same-sex partnerships in adulthood. The sample included physically abused (N = 85), sexually abused (N = 72), and neglected (N = 429) children (ages 0–11) with documented cases during 1967–1971 who were

Helen W. Wilson; Cathy Spatz Widom

2010-01-01

254

A same-sex stepparent shortens a prebreeder's duration on the natal territory: tests of two hypotheses in Florida scrub-jays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prebreeders of the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) are less likely to be found on their natal territories with a same-sex stepparent than with parents or an opposite-sex stepparent.\\u000a We tested two models that had been proposed to account for this sexual asymmetry. The dominance hypothesis states that stepparents\\u000a perceive same-sex prebreeders as competitors, primarily for a mate, so behave aggressively

Jill M. Goldstein; Glen E. Woolfenden; Jack P. Hailman

1998-01-01

255

Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

2013-01-01

256

Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.  

PubMed

The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-?-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher. PMID:21729701

von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

2011-10-01

257

Drawing Desire: Male Youth and Homoerotic Fan Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…

Dennis, Jeffery P.

2010-01-01

258

Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 ?m) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 ?m) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

2011-01-01

259

Sex differences in impaling behaviour of Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor: do males have better impaling skills than females?  

PubMed

Prey impaling in shrikes Laniidae is considered to be a feeding adaptation to dismember and consume large prey and is unique among food-storing animals. However, other exaptations of this behaviour were recorded, including signals in mate choice, where cache size is a sign of male quality. Thus, due to a strong sexual selection, male and female birds might differ in their behavioural patterns of impaling behaviour. We examined sex differences in impaling behaviour of the Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor - one of the species where caches are known to be sexual signals. Data were collected in western Poland during breeding seasons in the years 2006-2010. In the studied population, we recorded several sex-specific differences in impaling behaviour. Males impaled prey, invertebrates as well as vertebrates, faster and with fewer attempts per impaling event than females. Sexes differed in the location of impaled prey; males selected more visible places, especially during the mating and courtship phase, whereas females impaled prey in concealed locations. Males also had slightly better impaling success compared to females. We suggest that sex differences in impaling behaviour may be due to different uses of impaled prey, and the better impaling skills of males may be the result of better experience in impaling which is forced by sexual selection in this species. We also discuss other factors which might trigger sex-specific differences in food caching by shrikes. PMID:22659619

Antczak, Marcin; Hromada, Martin; Tryjanowski, Piotr

2012-09-01

260

Behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in male red-sided garter snakes. Four hours of capture stress resulted in no suppression of mating behaviour relative to control individuals. In contrast, the same stress resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone and a significant decrease in plasma levels of testosterone. There was a significant negative

Ignacio T. Moore; Michael P. Lemaster; Robert T. Mason

2000-01-01

261

Effect of Asteracantha longifolia seeds on the sexual behaviour of male rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to study the effect of seeds of Asteracantha longifolia on the sexual behaviour of male albino rats. The ethanolic extract of seeds of A. longifolia was administered to groups of rats in 100, 150 and 200 mg kg?¹ doses for a period of 28 days, and the action compared with control rats. The changes in body and organ weight, sexual behaviour, histo-architecture and fructose levels of seminal vesicles were observed. The sexual behaviour was assessed by determining parameters such as mount frequency (MF), intromission latency, mount latency (ML) and post-ejaculatory latency. The ethanolic extract exhibited pronounced anabolic effects in treated animals, as evidenced by gains in the body and reproductive organ weights. Increased spermatogenesis due to treatment with extracts was also witnessed in transverse section. The treatment further markedly affected sexual behaviour of the animals, as reflected by the reduction of ML, increase in MF and enhanced attractability towards females. A significant increase in the sperm count as well as fructose levels of seminal vesicles was noted. PMID:19753500

Chauhan, Nagendra S; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V K

2011-09-01

262

Chronic social stress does not affect behavioural habituation in male CD1 mice.  

PubMed

Various protocols to induce chronic stress in rodents are being used to determine the effects and underlying mechanisms of prolonged stress experience. Recently, a novel chronic social stress (CSS) protocol has been developed for mice where social instability in adolescence and early adulthood is induced. This protocol has been shown to cause an increase in HPA-axis activity and acute avoidance behaviour in the elevated plus maze. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of this CSS protocol on habituation to an initially novel environment in CD1 mice, since it has been shown that initially high avoidance behaviour in mice can still be followed by rapid habituation, pointing towards an adaptive response. One group of male mice, the CSS group, was exposed to the CSS protocol for 7 weeks and we compared their behavioural and physiological responses with male mice that were housed in a stable social group, the SH group. The results reveal a decrease in body weight gain and fur condition, changes in adrenal weight and decreased GR mRNA expression in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in chronically stressed CD1 animals. Irrespective of such evidence for a significantly stressful effect of the protocol, CD 1 mice, after termination of the stress procedure, revealed habituation profiles that matched those of control animals. We conclude that the physiological and central-nervous effects caused by a CSS procedure as used in this experiment fall within the coping capacities of CD1 mice at the behavioural level. PMID:25036428

Boleij, Hetty; Willems, Jeroen; Leijten, Marieke; van't Klooster, José; Lesscher, Heidi; Kirchhoff, Susanne; Lavrijsen, Marla; Arndt, Saskia S; Ohl, Frauke

2014-10-15

263

A nose that roars: anatomical specializations and behavioural features of rutting male saiga  

PubMed Central

The involvement of the unique saiga nose in vocal production has been neglected so far. Rutting male saigas produce loud nasal roars. Prior to roaring, they tense and extend their noses in a highly stereotypic manner. This change of nose configuration includes dorsal folding and convex curving of the nasal vestibulum and is maintained until the roar ends. Red and fallow deer males that orally roar achieve a temporary increase of vocal tract length (vtl) by larynx retraction. Saiga males attain a similar effect by pulling their flexible nasal vestibulum rostrally, allowing for a temporary elongation of the nasal vocal tract by about 20%. Decrease of formant frequencies and formant dispersion, as acoustic effects of an increase of vtl, are assumed to convey important information on the quality of a dominant male to conspecifics, e.g. on body size and fighting ability. Nasal roaring in saiga may equally serve to deter rival males and to attract females. Anatomical constraints might have set a limit to the rostral pulling of the nasal vestibulum. It seems likely that the sexual dimorphism of the saiga nose was induced by sexual selection. Adult males of many mammalian species, after sniffing or licking female urine or genital secretions, raise their head and strongly retract their upper lip and small nasal vestibulum while inhalating orally. This flehmen behaviour is assumed to promote transport of non-volatile substances via the incisive ducts into the vomeronasal organs for pheromone detection. The flehmen aspect in saiga involves the extensive flexible walls of the greatly enlarged nasal vestibulum and is characterized by a distinctly concave configuration of the nose region, the reverse of that observed in nasal roaring. A step-by-step model for the gradual evolution of the saiga nose is presented here. PMID:17971116

Frey, Roland; Volodin, Ilya; Volodina, Elena

2007-01-01

264

The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate  

PubMed Central

Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture–mark–recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation—winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the ‘risky male behaviour’ hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism. PMID:18426751

Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

2008-01-01

265

Same-sex cohabiting elders versus different-sex cohabiting and married elders: effects of relationship status and sex of partner on economic and health outcomes.  

PubMed

In this article, I use pooled data from the 2008-2010 American Community Surveys to examine outcomes for different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and same-sex cohabiting elders across several key economic and health indicators, as well as other demographic characteristics. The findings suggest that elders in same-sex cohabiting partnerships differ from those in different-sex marriages and different-sex cohabiting relationships in terms of both financial and health outcomes, and that women in same-sex cohabiting partnerships fare worse than men or women in other couple types. The results indicate that financial implications related to the sex of one's partner might be more predictive of economic and health outcomes in old age, rather than solely access to legal marriage. Nonetheless, findings suggest that individuals in same-sex cohabiting partnerships might experience worse outcomes in old age as a result of cumulative effects across the life course from both the sex of their partner (in the case of female couples) as well as their lack of access to benefits associated with marriage. Accordingly, these findings demonstrate that persons in same-sex cohabiting partnerships require unique policy considerations to address health and economic concerns in old age. PMID:24267753

Baumle, Amanda K

2014-01-01

266

Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behaviour in male Japanese quail  

PubMed Central

The sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in Japanese quail has for many years been the focus of intensive investigations into its role in reproductive behaviour. The present paper delineates a sequence of descending pathways that finally reach sacral levels of the spinal cord housing motor neurons innervating cloacal muscles involved in reproductive behaviour. We first retrogradely labeled the motor neurons innervating the large cloacal sphincter muscle (mSC) that forms part of the foam gland complex (Seiwert and Adkins-Regan, 1998, Brain Behav Evol 52:61–80) and then putative premotor nuclei in the brainstem, one of which was nucleus retroambigualis (RAm) in the caudal medulla. Anterograde tracing from RAm defined a bulbospinal pathway, terminations of which overlapped the distribution of mSC motor neurons and their extensive dorsally directed dendrites. Descending input to RAm arose from an extensive dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM-ICo), electrical stimulation of which drove vocalizations. POM neurons were retrogradely labeled by injections of tracer into DM-ICo, but POM projections largely surrounded DM, rather than penetrated it. Thus, although a POM projection to ICo was shown, a POM projection to DM must be inferred. Nevertheless, the sequence of projections in the male quail from POM to cloacal motor neurons strongly resembles that in rats, cats and monkeys for the control of reproductive behaviour, as largely defined by Holstege and co-workers (e.g., Holstege et al., 1997, Neuroscience 80: 587–598). PMID:23225613

Wild, J Martin; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

267

Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.  

PubMed

Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect. PMID:22958428

Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

2013-01-01

268

Behavioural response of female dark-eyed juncos to the experimental removal of their mates: implications for the evolution of male parental care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemah.s, are monogamous and normally help females leed nestlings. We removed males at hatching of their eggs and examined female parental behaviour in response to male removal. We compared parental behaviour of unaided females (experimentals) with that of (l) lemales aideci by their matcs (control females) and (2) females and their mates working together (control pairs).

LICIA WOLF; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; V NOLANJR

1990-01-01

269

Effect of Bombax ceiba L. on spermatogenesis, sexual behaviour and erectile function in male rats.  

PubMed

A number of herbal drugs are advocated in the traditional Ayurvedic literature for the improvement of overall sexual function. Young roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Fam. Bombacaceae) [correction added after online publication 1 August 2011: the family of Bombax ceiba was incorrectly mentioned as Orchidaceae. It has been corrected to Bombacaceae] also known as Semal Musli are used traditionally in Indian subcontinent as sexual stimulant. Its juice is considered nutritive and restorative tonic. Lyophilised aqueous extract of roots was studied for effect on sexual behaviour and spermatogenesis in male albino rats. Administration of 100 mg Kg(-1) body weight of aqueous extract influenced the five parameters evaluated in vivo. Sexual behaviour analysis in the presence of a female rate, serum testosterone level, anabolic effects, epididymal sperm count and seminal fructose level were the parameters evaluated. In B. ceiba extract-treated animals, a gain in body and sexual organ weights was observed. Mount, intromission and ejaculation frequencies were significantly improved (P < 0.05). An increase in serum testosterone levels was also observed, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Seminal fructose content and epididymal sperm count were significantly improved as well. Penile erection index was also higher compared to control group animals. Hesitation time was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), and copulatory rate was doubled in treated animals compared with control group animals. PMID:21806665

Bhargava, C; Thakur, M; Yadav, S K

2012-05-01

270

Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

2008-01-01

271

A Clear Stand: Religious Schools Are Being Pressed to Spell Out Their Policies Regarding Gay Students and the Children of Same-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…

Zehr, Mary Ann

2006-01-01

272

‘It was as useful as a chocolate kettle’: sex education in the lives of same?sex?attracted young people in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same?sex?attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex education be

Lynne Hillier; Anne Mitchell

2008-01-01

273

Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between College Students with Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Experience: Results from a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to identify differences in the sexual health behaviors (condom use and number of sexual partners) between college students with same-sex sexual experiences and those with only opposite-sex partners. Data from a random sample of American university students were gathered as part of the 1997 College Alcohol Study. Odds ratios were estimated for consistent condom

Marla Eisenberg

2001-01-01

274

Intergenerational Transmission of Dating Aggression as a Function of Witnessing Only Same Sex Parents vs. Opposite Sex Parents vs. Both Parents as Perpetrators of Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association between witnessing interparental violence as a child, and the risk for perpetrating and being the victim of dating aggression as an adult, in an undergraduate sample. Specifically, this study tested a modeling hypothesis whereby witnessing a same sex parent vs. an opposite sex parent exclusively in the aggressor role would be more highly associated

M. Kay Jankowski; Harold Leitenberg; Kris Henning; Patricia Coffey

1999-01-01

275

Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…

Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.

2008-01-01

276

Comparison of Same-Sex Couples Who Were Married in Massachusetts, Had Domestic Partnerships in California, or Had Civil Unions in Vermont  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support, politics, and leisure activities.

Esther D. Rothblum; Kimberly F. Balsam; Sondra E. Solomon

2008-01-01

277

Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

2011-01-01

278

Ageing alters behavioural function and brain arginine metabolism in male Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of L-arginine and its metabolites in the ageing and neurodegenerative processes. The present study assessed behavioural performance in 4- (young), 12- (middle-aged) and 24- (aged) month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated age-related changes in the activity of two key arginine metabolic enzymes, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase, and the levels of L-arginine and its downstream metabolites in a number of memory-related brain structures. Aged rats were less anxious and performed poorly in the water maze task relative to the young and middle-aged rats, and both middle-aged and aged rats displayed reduced exploratory activity relative to the young ones. There were significant age-related changes in NOS and arginase activities, and the levels of L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-ornithine, agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and glutamate, but not ?-aminobutyric acid, in the CA1, CA2/3 and dentate gyrus sub-regions of the hippocampus and the prefrontal, entorhinal, perirhinal, postrhinal and temporal (an auditory cortex) cortices in a region-specific manner. Cluster analyses revealed that the nine related neurochemical variables formed distinct groups, which changed as a function of ageing. Multiple regression analyses revealed a number of significant correlations between the neurochemical and behavioural variables. The present study further supports the involvement of arginine metabolism in the ageing process, and provides further evidence of the effects of animals' behavioural experience on arginine metabolism. PMID:22989918

Gupta, N; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Zhang, H; Liu, P

2012-12-13

279

Effects of different angling practices on post-release behaviour of nest-guarding male black bass, Micropterus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated how different angling practices affect the short-term post-release behaviour of nest-guarding male black bass, Micropterus spp. Male largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepede), and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu (Lacepede), were angled from their nests and subjected to treatments designed to simulate a variety of common angling practices associated with catch-and-release angling, including fishing tournaments. In addition, some nests

K. C. H ANSON; S. J. C OOKE; D. P. P HILIPP

280

Sexual behaviour and neuronal activation in the vomeronasal pathway and hypothalamus of food-deprived male rats.  

PubMed

As feeding and mating are mutually-exclusive goal-orientated behaviours, we investigated whether brief food deprivation would impair the display of sexual behaviour of male rats. Analysis of performance in a sexual incentive motivation test revealed that, similar to fed males, food-deprived males preferred spending time in the vicinity of receptive females rather than nonreceptive females. Despite this, food-deprived males were more likely to be slow to mate than normally-fed males, and a low dose of the satiety peptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone attenuated the effect of hunger. Using Fos immunocytochemistry, we compared neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway in response to oestrous cues from receptive females between food-deprived and fed males. As in fed males, more Fos expression was seen in the rostral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the medial preoptic area in food-deprived males, confirming that food-deprived males can recognise and respond to female oestrous cues. However, although there was also an increase in Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the accessory tract and in the posteromedial amygdala in fed males, no increases were seen in these areas in food-deprived rats. We also found selective attenuation in the activation of lateral posterior paraventricular nucleus (lpPVN) oxytocin neurones in food-deprived males. Taken together, the data show that, although food-deprived males can still become sexually motivated, copulation is delayed, and this is accompanied by variations in neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway. We propose that, in hungry rats, the lpPVN oxytocin neurones (which project to the spinal cord and are involved in maintaining penile erection) facilitate the transition from motivation to intromission, and their lack of activation impairs intromission, and thus delays mating. PMID:22309296

Caquineau, C; Leng, G; Douglas, A J

2012-04-01

281

Concurrent modulation of neuronal and behavioural olfactory responses to sex and host plant cues in a male moth.  

PubMed

Mating has profound effects on animal physiology and behaviour, not only in females but also in males, which we show here for olfactory responses. In cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis, odour-mediated attraction to sex pheromone and plant volatiles are modulated after mating, producing a behavioural response that matches the physiological condition of the male insect. Unmated males are attracted by upwind flight to sex pheromone released by calling females, as well as to volatiles of lilac flowers and green leaves of the host plant cotton, signalling adult food and mating sites, respectively. Mating temporarily abolishes male attraction to females and host plant odour, but does not diminish attraction to flowers. This behavioural modulation is correlated with a response modulation in the olfactory system, as shown by electro-physiological recordings from antennae and by functional imaging of the antennal lobe, using natural odours and synthetic compounds. An effect of mating on the olfactory responses to pheromone and cotton plant volatiles but not to lilac flowers indicates the presence of functionally independent neural circuits within the olfactory system. Our results indicate that these circuits interconnect and weigh perception of social and habitat odour signals to generate appropriate behavioural responses according to mating state. PMID:25621329

Kromann, Sophie H; Saveer, Ahmed M; Binyameen, Muhammad; Bengtsson, Marie; Birgersson, Göran; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Becher, Paul G

2015-01-22

282

Viewing attractive or unattractive same-sex individuals changes self-rated attractiveness and face preferences in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition-dependent mate choice in females, whereby condition or attractiveness influences preferences for markers of male quality, is seen in both fish and humans. Such effects may be explained by (1) genetic linkage between trait and preference, (2) poor-condition females having energetic constraints limiting their choosiness, and (3) females of low mate value benefiting from avoiding high-quality males, based on the

Anthony C. Little; Helena Mannion

2006-01-01

283

Health-seeking behaviour of male foreign migrant workers living in a dormitory in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ?21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p?=?0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p?=?0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning?

2014-01-01

284

Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

2010-01-01

285

Local Impacts of Religious Discourses on Rights to Express Same-Sex Sexual Desires in Peri-Urban Rio de Janeiro1  

PubMed Central

This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation. PMID:20161503

García, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Muñoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

2009-01-01

286

Working With What We've Got: Perceptions of Barriers and Supports Among Small-Metropolitan Same-Sex Adopting Couples.  

PubMed

In seeking to adopt, lesbians and gay men may confront various barriers and obstacles. Ideally they have access to a variety of support resources that can help to buffer the negative effects of these barriers. However, lesbians and gay men living in small-metropolitan communities may have limited access to support resources. The current qualitative study examined the perceptions of 37 same-sex couples who were pursuing adoption while living outside of large metropolitan cities, with attention to the barriers these couples encountered during the adoption process, and the resources they drew upon to cope with such challenges. Findings indicated that same sex couples living in small-metropolitan areas confronted several major barriers in the adoption process, such as a lack of geographically accessible gay-friendly adoption agencies. Despite limited access to support, participants showed evidence of notable resourcefulness. For example, participants with limited access to formal support groups sought out informal supports instead. PMID:21949461

Kinkler, Lori A; Goldberg, Abbie E

2011-10-01

287

Working With What We’ve Got: Perceptions of Barriers and Supports Among Small-Metropolitan Same-Sex Adopting Couples  

PubMed Central

In seeking to adopt, lesbians and gay men may confront various barriers and obstacles. Ideally they have access to a variety of support resources that can help to buffer the negative effects of these barriers. However, lesbians and gay men living in small-metropolitan communities may have limited access to support resources. The current qualitative study examined the perceptions of 37 same-sex couples who were pursuing adoption while living outside of large metropolitan cities, with attention to the barriers these couples encountered during the adoption process, and the resources they drew upon to cope with such challenges. Findings indicated that same sex couples living in small-metropolitan areas confronted several major barriers in the adoption process, such as a lack of geographically accessible gay-friendly adoption agencies. Despite limited access to support, participants showed evidence of notable resourcefulness. For example, participants with limited access to formal support groups sought out informal supports instead. PMID:21949461

Kinkler, Lori A.; Goldberg, Abbie E.

2011-01-01

288

Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning Among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12–16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student sample. Comparisons were made on factors including victimization, social

Ian Rivers; V. Paul Poteat; Nathalie Noret

2008-01-01

289

NEW JERSEY HIGH COURT UNANIMOUSLY FINDS SAME-SEX COUPLES ENTITLED TO EQUAL SPOUSAL RIGHTS, BUT DIVIDES 4-3 OVER MARRIAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long-awaited ruling, the New Jersey Su- preme Court announced by unanimous vote in Lewis v. Harris, 2006 WL 3019750 (Oct. 25, 2006), that the failure of the state to provide same-sex couples with the same rights that opposite-sex couples can obtain under state law by marrying violates the equal protection requirements of the state constitution. How- ever, by

Arthur S. Leonard; Alan J. Jacobs; Bryan Johnson; Sharon McGowan; Tara Scavo; Jeff Slutzky; Ruth Uselton; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong; Eric Wursthorn; Daniel R Schaffer

290

Complex origins of variation in the sexual behaviour of male Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata: interactions between social environment, heredity, body size and age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations have shown that there are inter-population diVerences in the sexual behaviour of male guppies in Trinidad. The greatest diVerences are between guppies that co-exist with diVerent predators. Here, the sexual behaviour of male Trinidadian guppies was studied to determine to what extent these diVerences in behaviour evolved in response to selection pressure by the predators, to what extent

F. HELEN RODD; MARLA B. SOKOLOWSKI

1995-01-01

291

[Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].  

PubMed

Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives. PMID:23034554

Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

2012-10-01

292

Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social stress in rats is known to induce long-lasting, adverse changes in behaviour and physiology, which seem to resemble certain human psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The present experiment was designed to assess the influence of individual or group housing on the vulnerability of male Wildtype rats to long-term effects of inescapable social defeat. Group-housed rats were individually exposed

M. A. W. Ruis; J. H. A. te Brake; B. Buwalda; S. F. de Boer; P. Meerlo; S. M. Korte; H. J. Blokhuis; J. H. Koolhaas

1999-01-01

293

Behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis.  

PubMed

We measured the behavioural and hormonal responses to capture stress in male red-sided garter snakes. Four hours of capture stress resulted in no suppression of mating behaviour relative to control individuals. In contrast, the same stress resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone and a significant decrease in plasma levels of testosterone. There was a significant negative correlation between plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone in both control and capture-stress groups, suggesting that the increase in corticosterone directly drives the decrease in testosterone. While there was no relation between body size and initial plasma levels of the two steroids, longer individuals had a significantly greater increase in corticosterone following capture stress than did shorter individuals. Snakes display indeterminate growth, suggesting that older individuals have decreased sensitivity to negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and thus hypersecrete glucocorticoids. These results suggest that male red-sided garter snakes have uncoupled their behavioural stress response from their hormonal stress response to maximize reproductive opportunities. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10715174

Moore; Lemaster; Mason

2000-03-01

294

Behavioural Processes 61 (2003) 101108 Female prairie voles do not choose males based on their  

E-print Network

species of rodents, prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, and meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus alternative hypotheses for the function of frequency of scent marking in male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster: (1) sexual attraction (to advertise male quality for mating); (2) reproductive competition

Dunlap, Aimee Sue

295

Effects of exogenous androgens on parental care behaviour in male bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).  

E-print Network

??Research suggests an androgen mediated trade-off between nurturing and defensive behaviour during parental care. This research, however, comes from species with biparental care, where changes… (more)

Rodgers, Chandra M.C.

2012-01-01

296

Psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids among males. A review.  

PubMed

The psychological and behavioural effects of endogenous testosterone levels and anabolic-androgenic steroids in males have been investigated for over 50 years in both clinical and nonmedical uses, including the influence of anabolic-androgenic steroids on the nervous system and neuromuscular expression as a mechanism for behavioural and ergogenic effects. The relationship between moods, behaviour and endogenous plasma testosterone levels, as well as anabolic steroids and corticosteroid administration has been studied, including psychological dependence, withdrawal effects, and major methodological issues. While a relationship between endogenous testosterone levels and aggressive behaviour has been observed in various animal species, it is less consistent in humans. It can be concluded that, although the use of exogenous anabolic-androgenic steroids may have psychological and behavioural effects in some patients and athletes, the effects are variable, transient upon discontinuation of the drugs, and appear to be related to type (17 alpha-alkalated rather than 17 beta-esterified), but not dose, of anabolic-androgenic steroids administered. The roles of genetic factors, medical history, environmental and peer influences, and individual expectations are likewise unclear. In general, the evidence at present is limited and much additional research will be necessary for a complete understanding of this relationship. PMID:2263798

Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Wright, J E

1990-11-01

297

Sex and the sinner: comparing religious and nonreligious same-sex attracted adults on internalized homonegativity and distress.  

PubMed

Homonegative prejudice has long been connected with poor psychological outcomes. These have often been purported to include internalized homonegativity (IH), an outcome regarded as especially detrimental given its association with a large number of adverse mental health correlates. Given the evidence that homonegative prejudice often prevails most strongly within many mainstream religious contexts, the current study examined whether religious lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals would possess higher levels of internalized homonegativity than their nonreligious, and formerly religious, LGB counterparts. To test this hypothesis, Christian, formerly Christian, and nonreligious Australian LGB respondents (N = 579), recruited through social media platforms and a diverse range of community groups, completed an online survey assessing IH; religion-sexuality distress; religious and familial homonegativity; sense of self; and outness. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed that Christian LGB respondents possessed significantly more IH than nonreligious respondents. Furthermore, perceiving greater homonegativity in one's religious and familial environments predicted higher levels of distress and IH among Christians specifically. Despite having apostatized, former Christians still reported greater religion-sexuality distress than nonreligious individuals, suggesting that the psychological effects of homonegative religious environments are potentially enduring. Across all respondents, IH was also greater for males, those who were less "out," and those who possessed a weaker sense of self. Findings generally support the premise that religious homonegativity places LGB Christians at additional psychological risk, with particular regard to IH and religion-sexuality identity conflict, and that both personal and interpersonal characteristics may exacerbate this risk. PMID:25265218

Sowe, Babucarr J; Brown, Jac; Taylor, Alan J

2014-09-01

298

Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

1992-01-01

299

Vigilance patterns of wintering Eurasian Wigeon: female benefits from male low-cost behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased vigilance in male animals has been attributed to mate guarding (male investment hypothesis), to secondary sexual\\u000a characteristics increasing predation risk (male constraint hypothesis) or for the benefit to the female (female benefits\\u000a hypothesis). We studied Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) while they grazed on dry land, a ‘risky’ foraging situation, at two points during the winter period (pre- and post-pair

Steven J. Portugal; Matthieu Guillemain

2011-01-01

300

The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63?±?4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18?±?1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39?±?3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20?±?2 s) or male's rejection (22?±?2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7?±?0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs. PMID:25487029

Benelli, Giovanni

2014-12-10

301

Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.  

PubMed

Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling. PMID:24481497

Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

2014-04-01

302

Condom use behaviours among 18–24 year-old urban African American males: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations. PMID:17852001

KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.

2007-01-01

303

School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…

Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

2011-01-01

304

Female competition and male territorial behaviour influence female chimpanzees' ranging patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models of chimpanzee social structure differ in the extent to which females range with the males and are loyal to a particular social group. We tested these models by analysing 18 years of observational data on the Gombe chimpanzees to investigate the relationship between female space use patterns and both female feeding competition and changes in the male-defended range

Jennifer M. Williams; Anne E. Pusey; John V. Carlis; Brian P. Farm; Jane Goodall

2002-01-01

305

Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The male-to-female transgender (waria) is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviours (getting, carrying, and offering a condom) and two condom use behaviours (during receptive and insertive anal sex) were assessed. Methods The study involved 209 waria, recruited from five districts in Jakarta and interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Specific measures were developed to study attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in order to predict intentions and behaviours. Results The explained variance between intentions with regard to three preparatory behaviours and two condom uses ranged between 30 and 57%, and the variance between the actual preparatory behaviours of three preparatory and two condom uses ranged between 21 and 42%. In our study, as with several previous studies of the TPB on HIV protection behaviours, the TPB variables differed in their predictive power. With regard to intention, attitude and PBC were consistently significant predictors; attitude was the strongest predictor of intention for all three preparatory behaviours, and PBC was the strongest predictor of intention for condom use, both during receptive and insertive anal sex. TPB variables were also significantly related to the second parameter of future behaviour: actual (past) behaviour. TPB variables were differentially related to the five behaviours. Attitude was predictive in three behaviours, PBC in three behaviours and subjective norms in two behaviours. Conclusions Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted. PMID:25529498

Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Hartana Tb, Gagan

2014-01-01

306

The effects of male mating behaviour and food provisioning on breeding success in snow buntings Plectrophenax nivalis in the high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

For passerine birds breeding in the Arctic, paternal effort in parental care is necessary for successful breeding. Behavioural\\u000a strategies, such as mate guarding, to ensure paternity should therefore also be common in this environment. In order to investigate\\u000a the relation between such behaviour and breeding success, when controlling for the effect of environmental factors, we recorded\\u000a male mate-guarding behaviour, parental

Katrine S. Hoset; Yngve Espmark; Marie Lier; Tommy Haugan; Morten I. Wedege; Arne Moksnes

2009-01-01

307

Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat.  

PubMed

Social stress in rats is known to induce long-lasting, adverse changes in behaviour and physiology, which seem to resemble certain human psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The present experiment was designed to assess the influence of individual or group housing on the vulnerability of male Wildtype rats to long-term effects of inescapable social defeat. Group-housed rats were individually exposed to an aggressive, unfamiliar male conspecific, resulting in a social defeat. Defeated rats were then either individually housed or returned to their group. The changes in their behaviour and physiology were then studied for 3 weeks. Results showed that individually housed rats developed long-lasting, adverse behavioural and physiological changes after social defeat. Their body growth was significantly retarded (p < .05) between 7 and 14 days after defeat. When individually and group-housed rats were exposed to a mild stressor (sudden silence) 2 days after defeat, both groups became highly immobile. However, when exposure was repeated at day 21, individually housed rats were still highly immobile compared to group-housed rats which regained their normal mobility after only 7 days. In an open field test, also regularly repeated, individually housed rats took significantly longer to leave their home base and were also significantly less mobile than group-housed rats over the entire 3-week test period as well as at specific timepoints. When the rats were placed in an elevated plus-maze 14 days after defeat, those that were individually housed were significantly more anxious than those that were group-housed. When tested at 21 days after defeat in a combined dexamethasone (DEX)/corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) test, results showed that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity in individually housed rats was higher. This was evidenced in the latter animals by the fact that DEX was significantly less able to suppress the secretion of ACTH and corticosterone, and by a significantly higher release of ACTH after administration of CRF. Although the weights of the spleen and testes of the two groups did not differ, the adrenals of individually housed rats were larger and the thymus and seminal vesicles were smaller. We conclude that when rats are isolated after defeat, they show long-lasting, adverse behavioural and physiological changes that resemble symptoms of stress-related disorders. In contrast, when familiar rats are housed together these effects of a social defeat are greatly reduced. These findings show that housing conditions importantly influence the probability of long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat in male Wildtype rats. PMID:10101734

Ruis, M A; te Brake, J H; Buwalda, B; De Boer, S F; Meerlo, P; Korte, S M; Blokhuis, H J; Koolhaas, J M

1999-04-01

308

Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats  

PubMed Central

Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6) once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders. PMID:15530165

Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

2004-01-01

309

Arrival timing in subadult and adult Black Redstart males: competition-dependent behaviour?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The different arrival times of 1-year-old and older males is a widely recognised phenomenon in most migrating passerines. The converse pattern, i.e. the yearlings arriving at the breeding grounds at the same time as adults, has been reported only exceptionally. Two hypotheses have been formulated to explain the delayed arrival of yearling males: investment reduction, and energetic constraint hypotheses, respectively.

L. Schwarzová; P. Štros; D. Frynta; R. Fuchs

2010-01-01

310

Better mate in the shade: enhancement of male mating behaviour in the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in a UV-rich environment.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet (UV) vision is widespread in a variety of animals, playing important roles in behaviours such as foraging and reproduction. Despite accumulated information about UV vision and UV-dependent behaviours of animals, little is known about the effect of temporal changes and local variations in UV light on UV-dependent behaviour. Here we report the mating behaviour of male cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, in environments with varying content of UV light. We first confirmed that the relative UV content is higher in shaded places than in sunny places. We furthermore arranged experimental areas with varying UV contents in the field, where we compared three aspects of male mating behaviour: visual localization of females, female-searching flight and copulation success rate. In all aspects males performed more actively in UV-rich environments: males searched females for longer, approached females preferentially in the shade and copulated there more frequently. Apparently, female-searching males detect females more easily in a UV-rich environment. The present findings should be taken into consideration when UV-dependent behaviours, visual mate choice in particular, are studied. PMID:19011209

Obara, Yoshiaki; Koshitaka, Hisaharu; Arikawa, Kentaro

2008-12-01

311

Effect of early life housing manipulation on baseline and drug-induced behavioural responses on neurochemistry in the male rat.  

PubMed

Employing environmental enrichment (EE) provides continual sources of dynamic interaction for animals. Though an established discipline in behavioural science, the consequences of EE on behavioural pharmacological tests have not been extensively examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of EE (or isolation housing) on a range of behavioural pharmacological tests and brain monoamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat. Male rats were randomly assigned to IC (isolation), SC (standard group-housed) or EE conditions. IC and SC animals were housed singly or in groups of four in standard cages, whilst the EE group were housed in groups of four in larger cages enriched with a variety of wooden, cardboard and plastic objects. After 5weeks of housing, its impact on the effects of diazepam (DZP) in the elevated plus maze (EPM); desipramine (DMI) in the forced swim test (FST) and amphetamine (AMP) effects on homecage activity were assessed. Post-mortem monoamine and BDNF levels were analysed using HPLC and ELISA. EE rats displayed reduced activity in the OFT, however no other differences were found in baseline behaviours. DMI reduced immobility time in the FST, but only for rats housed in IC, while AMP effects were somewhat greater for socially-housed animals than those in IC. There were no housing effects on monoamine or BDNF levels in discreet brain regions. The results suggest that post-weaning enrichment had no significant effect on baseline behaviours or monoamine and BDNF levels, thus it is suitable to implement as a commonplace husbandry practice, however, caution must be taken when investigating responsiveness to psychotropic drugs. PMID:22391435

Simpson, Joy; Bree, Dara; Kelly, John P

2012-06-01

312

Female pigeons, Columba livia, respond to multisensory audio\\/video playbacks of male courtship behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple signals from different sensory channels can enhance, diminish, or have no effect on one another when they are combined into a multisensory signal. Simultaneous auditory and visual signals are known to be important in avian courtship behaviour, but less is known about how the signal components from the two sensory channels interact and which channel is relied upon more.

Sarah Partan; Sylvana Yelda; Virginia Price; Toru Shimizu

2005-01-01

313

Maternal adrenal hormone secretion mediates behavioural alterations induced by prenatal stress in male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal stress in rats has been shown to impair the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and predispose to anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviour. In a previous study, abolition of excess corticosterone (COR) release during stress by maternal adrenalectomy prevented the dysregulation of the HPA axis. In the present study, we determined whether excess maternal COR is also responsible

Gal Zagron; Marta Weinstock

2006-01-01

314

Female puberty acceleration by male odour in mice: neural pathway and behavioural consequences.  

PubMed

In female mice, exposure to male chemosignals results in early puberty onset characterized by advanced vaginal opening and higher uterine weight. Evidence suggests that the male chemosignals responsible for acceleration of female puberty are androgen-dependent, but not all of the compounds that contribute to puberty acceleration have been identified. The male chemosignals are primarily detected and processed by the vomeronasal system including the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory bulb and the medial amygdala. By contrast, the mechanism by which this olfactory information is integrated in the hypothalamus is poorly understood. In this context, the recent identification of the neuropeptide kisspeptin as a gatekeeper of puberty onset may provide a good candidate neuropeptide system for the transmission of chemosensory information to the gonadotrope axis. PMID:25109972

Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Szymanski, Laura A; Keller, Matthieu

2014-08-01

315

Enriched cages for groups of laboratory male rats and their effects on behaviour, weight gain and adrenal glands.  

PubMed

We investigated if there were any negative effects on the behaviour and physiology of rats housed in groups of five in two types of enriched cages and compared them with paired-housed rats housed in traditional cages. Eighty-four male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were housed in an enriched rat cage (ERC), a rebuilt rabbit cage (RRC) or a Makrolon III cage (MC) system from 5-16 weeks of age with access to different enrichments. Recordings of behaviour and cage use (3?×?24?h video recording), weekly weighing, measuring food consumption four days/week and water consumption two days/week, were carried out. The rats' muscle strength was assessed using the 'inclined plane' at the end of the study, and after euthanasia the adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Being in the shelter was the most common behaviour in the ERC and RRC groups. In the MC group, which lacked a shelter, rats performed the highest percentage of lying, grooming, rearing, play fighting and manipulating paper shreds. Rats in the RRC had the highest percentage of standing and manipulating gnawing sticks. Water consumption was higher in MC than in ERC and RRC rats. Rats from the RRC managed to remain at a steeper angle on the 'inclined plane' than rats from the MC. There were no significant effects of cage type on weight gain, food consumption or relative weights of adrenal glands. In conclusion, male rats kept in groups of five in larger enriched cages benefited from the enrichments, and no negative effects were found in the larger groups. PMID:24080597

Lidfors, L; Wichman, A; Ewaldsson, B; Lindh, A-S

2014-01-01

316

The effects of isolated and enriched housing conditions on baseline and drug-induced behavioural responses in the male rat.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment (EE) involves enhancing an animal's environment, with the goal of improving animal welfare. Though a well-established discipline, the consequences of EE on behavioural pharmacological tests have not been extensively examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of EE (or isolation) housing on a range of behavioural pharmacological tests in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the 3 housing conditions; IC (isolation) and SC (standard group-housed, 4/cage) were housed in standard cages (42 cm×25.5 cm×20 cm), while the EE group was housed in groups of 4 in larger cages (54 cm×38 cm×19 cm) enriched with a variety of wooden, cardboard and plastic toys/objects. After 4 weeks, housing effects were examined in the following pharmacological tests: diazepam (DZP) effects on anxiolytic behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM); desipramine (DMI) effects on immobility time in the forced swim test (FST) and amphetamine (AMP) effects on homecage activity. Dose-response assessments demonstrated that rats housed in EE showed reduced sensitivity to the behavioural effects of DZP and DMI but increased sensitivity to the locomotor-enhancing effects of AMP compared to SC and IC; while IC animals exhibited the clearest dose-response effects to increasing doses of DMI. It may be concluded that environmental manipulation can vary along a continuum and its intensity may be crucial to observable effects. Nonetheless, environmental factors can influence sensitivity to psychotropic drugs and should be considered when implementing EE protocols in such evaluations. PMID:22732260

Simpson, Joy; Kelly, John P

2012-10-01

317

Mortality Risks Among Persons Reporting Same-Sex Sexual Partners: Evidence From the 2008 General Social Survey—National Death Index Data Set  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation–associated health risks. Methods We used data from the 1988–2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17 886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17 033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer–related mortality. Results The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation–associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

2014-01-01

318

Mortality risks among persons reporting same-sex sexual partners: evidence from the 2008 general social survey-national death index data set.  

PubMed

Objectives. We investigated the possibility that men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) may be at higher risk for early mortality associated with suicide and other sexual orientation-associated health risks. Methods. We used data from the 1988-2002 General Social Surveys, with respondents followed up for mortality status as of December 31, 2008. The surveys included 17?886 persons aged 18 years or older, who reported at least 1 lifetime sexual partner. Of these, 853 reported any same-sex partners; 17?033 reported only different-sex partners. Using gender-stratified analyses, we compared these 2 groups for all-cause mortality and HIV-, suicide-, and breast cancer-related mortality. Results. The WSW evidenced greater risk for suicide mortality than presumptively heterosexual women, but there was no evidence of similar sexual orientation-associated risk among men. All-cause mortality did not appear to differ by sexual orientation among either women or men. HIV-related deaths were not elevated among MSM or breast cancer deaths among WSW. Conclusions. The elevated suicide mortality risk observed among WSW partially confirms public health concerns that sexual minorities experience greater burden from suicide-related mortality. PMID:25033136

Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M

2015-02-01

319

Relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of the common bream Abramis brama L. in an aquarium environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common\\u000a bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified\\u000a by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay\\u000a procedures. The results revealed that

P. Poncin; B. Nzau Matondo; C. Termol; P. Kestemont; J. C. Philippart

2011-01-01

320

In three brain regions central to maternal behaviour, neither male nor female Phodopus dwarf hamsters show changes in oestrogen receptor alpha distribution with mating or parenthood.  

PubMed

Oestrogen receptor (ER)alpha immunoreactivity in three brain regions relevant to maternal behaviour (medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala) was measured in two species of dwarf hamster that both mate during a postpartum oestrous but differ in expression of paternal behaviour. Male and female Phodopus campbelli and Phodopus sungorus were sampled as sexually naive adults, following mating to satiety, and as new parents. In all brain regions, females expressed higher levels of ER alpha than males. Species did not have an effect on ER alpha distribution except in the medial amygdala, where P. sungorus females had higher expression levels than all other groups. Behavioural status was not associated with altered ER alpha expression. These results were not expected for females and suggest that a primary activational role for oestrogen, acting through ER alpha in these regions, does not generalize to maternal behaviour in Phodopus. In males, these results are consistent with previous manipulations of the ER alpha ligand, oestrogen, and suggest that paternal behaviour in P. campbelli is likely to be regulated by developmental effects of oestrogen on the brain during early life (similar to Microtus ochrogaster), rather than through activation by oestrogen at the time of fatherhood (similar to Peromyscus californicus). PMID:19094078

Timonin, M E; Cushing, B S; Wynne-Edwards, K E

2008-12-01

321

"They Didn't Have 'Out There' Gay Parents--They Just Looked Like "Normal" Regular Parents": Investigating Teachers' Approaches to Addressing Same-Sex Parenting and Non-Normative Sexuality in the Elementary School Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we draw on queer theoretical and critical literacy perspectives to investigate elementary school teachers' pedagogical approaches to addressing same-sex parenting and non-normative sexuality in the elementary classroom. Through undertaking case study research, we examine two Australian elementary school teachers' reflections on…

Martino, Wayne; Cumming-Potvin, Wendy

2011-01-01

322

Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly  

PubMed Central

Protandry (prior emergence of males) in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once), males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip) in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males) consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (?44%) of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (?3%) emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source) populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects). PMID:25648908

Saccheri, Ilik J.

2015-01-01

323

The Prevalence and Determinants of HIV Risk Behaviours and Perceived Threat of Infection in Canadian Federal Penitentiaries: Results from a National Survey of Male Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the extent to which HIV\\/AIDS has entered correctional facilities has been documented, less is known about the prevalence of HIV\\/AIDS high-risk behaviours among inmates: intravenous drug use, unprotected sex, tattooing, and piercing. The Correctional Service of Canada's National Inmate Survey provided a unique opportunity to gather this information. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of 4,500 male

Michel A. S. Larivière; David Robinson

1999-01-01

324

Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAudio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and

Elisabeth M. van der Elst; Haile Selassie Okuku; Phellister Nakamya; Allan Muhaari; Alun Davies; R. Scott McClelland; Matthew A. Price; Adrian D. Smith; Susan M. Graham; Eduard J. Sanders; Nitika Pant Pai

2009-01-01

325

Could Dromedary Camels Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by Different Management Systems  

PubMed Central

Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females. PMID:24586522

Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

2014-01-01

326

Males call more from wetter nests: effects of substrate water potential on reproductive behaviours of terrestrial toadlets.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of terrestrial-breeding frogs have demonstrated that wetter substrates produce fitter offspring but the relevance of substrate wetness to adult reproductive strategies is unknown. I hypothesized that male toadlets (Pseudophryne bibronii) would select wetter areas for nesting and would advertise wet nests strongly, and tested these predictions by manipulating water potentials at a breeding site. Males preferred to nest in the wettest areas, and called at greater rates on almost twice as many nights as males occupying drier nests. Overall, males that mated called on significantly more nights than unmated males. Hence, because males occupying wet nests called more, they also mated more and in 19 out of 20 cases, oviposition occurred in wet nests that were suitable for embryonic development. Males occupying drier nests may have risked dehydration by calling, and so were less able to signal to females. Hydration states therefore have the potential to influence the reproductive success of terrestrial male frogs. PMID:12123303

Mitchell, N J

2001-01-01

327

Social grouping and maternal behaviour in feral horses ( Equus caballus ): the influence of males on maternal protectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of infant injury or mortality influences maternal behaviour, particularly protectiveness. Mares are found in bands with a single stallion or bands with more than one stallion in which paternity is less certain. We investigated maternal behaviour in relation to band type. Mares in bands with more than one stallion were more protective of their foals, particularly when stallions

Elissa Z. Cameron; Wayne L. Linklater; Kevin J. Stafford; Edward O. Minot

2003-01-01

328

HIV Risk among MSM in Senegal: A Qualitative Rapid Assessment of the Impact of Enforcing Laws That Criminalize Same Sex Practices  

PubMed Central

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law. PMID:22194906

Poteat, Tonia; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ndaw, Marieme; Traore, Cheikh; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

2011-01-01

329

Male More than Female Infants Imitate Propulsive Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few experimental studies investigate the mechanisms by which young children develop sex-typed activity preferences. Gender self-labeling followed by selective imitation of same-sex models currently is considered a primary socialization mechanism. Research with prenatally androgenized girls and non-human primates also suggests an innate male

Benenson, Joyce F.; Tennyson, Robert; Wrangham, Richard W.

2011-01-01

330

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and

JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman

2011-01-01

331

The relationship between social status, behaviour, growth and steroids in male helpers and breeders of a cooperatively breeding cichlid  

E-print Network

2006 Available online 19 April 2006 Abstract We tested whether subordinate helper males of the Lake Tanganyika cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher show elevated excretion levels of the stress

332

HIV vulnerabilities and coercive sex at same-sex sexual debut among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined coercive sex and HIV vulnerabilities among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The present study seeks to compare individual characteristics between MSM who did and did not experience coercive sex at their MSM sexual debut and to identify HIV risk factors correlated with coercive sex at MSM sexual debut. In 2007, we recruited 167 MSM in Beijing, China by peer-referred social network sampling. Each participant then completed self-administered questionnaires regarding their sexual experiences and practices. Results show that 14% of participants reported coercive sex at MSM sexual debut, of whom 48% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Coercive sex at MSM sexual debut was significantly associated with UAI [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.95-14.87] and lifetime number of male sex partners (AOR: 7.25, 95% CI: 2.39-22.01). Coercive sex is harming MSM in China and should be immediately addressed by researchers, public health officials, and MSM community stakeholders. PMID:24099311

Pan, Stephen W; Ruan, Yuhua; Spittal, Patricia M; Pearce, Margo E; Qian, Han-Zhu; Li, Dongliang; Zhang, Zheng; Shao, Yiming

2014-01-01

333

Between harm and dangers. Oral snuff use, cigarette smoking and problem behaviours in a survey of Swedish male adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (moist snuff) in Sweden is among the highest world-wide, and snuff is gaining popularity as a less harmful alternative to cigarettes. Methods: Patterns of current tobacco use and indicators of behavioural problems were analysed in a sample of 6287 boys participating in a census survey among 9th graders in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results:

M. ROSARIA GALANTI; SEPPO WICKHOLM; HANS GILLJAM

2001-01-01

334

The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality.  

PubMed

Male homosexuality has been viewed by evolutionary psychologists as a Darwinian paradox, and by other social scientists as a social construction. We argue that it is better understood as an evolutionary social construction. Male homosexuality as we now know it is an 18th-century invention, but nonexclusive same-sex sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history. According to the alliance-formation hypothesis, same-sex sexuality evolved by natural selection because it created or strengthened male-male alliances and allowed low-status males to reposition themselves in the group hierarchy and thereby increase their reproductive success. This hypothesis makes sense of some odd findings about male homosexuality and helps to explain the rise in exclusive male homosexuality in the 18th century. The sociohistorical conditions around 1700 may have resulted in an increase in same-sex sexual behavior. Cultural responses to same-sex sexuality led to the spread of exclusive homosexual behavior and to the creation of a homosexual identity. Understanding male homosexuality as an evolutionary social construction can help us move beyond the traditionally polarized debate between evolutionary psychologists and social constructionists. PMID:17146141

Adriaens, Pieter R; De Block, Andreas

2006-01-01

335

Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour  

PubMed Central

According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-evolution between traits involved in mating and parental care as a result of costs associated with these social interactions (i.e. sexual conflict). In burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides), we use artificial selection on a paternity assurance trait, and crosses within and between selection lines, to show that selection acting on females, not males, can drive the co-evolution of paternity assurance traits and parental care. Males do not care more in response to selection on mating rate. Instead, patterns of parental care change as an indirect response to costs of mating for females. PMID:24766255

Head, Megan L; Hinde, Camilla A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

2014-01-01

336

Rethinking Sexual Initiation: Pathways to Identity Formation among Gay and Bisexual Mexican Male Youth  

PubMed Central

The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation-- one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice-- which inform the men’s interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

2010-01-01

337

HIV behavioural risks and the role of work environment among Chinese male sex workers in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers. PMID:22293067

Wong, William C W; Leung, Phil W S; Li, C W

2012-01-01

338

Mating Behaviour in Laevicaudatan Clam Shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and Functional Morphology of Male Claspers in a Phylogenetic Context: A Video-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable “finger” of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable “finger”, possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the “finger” position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding. PMID:24392104

Sigvardt, Zandra M. S.; Olesen, Jørgen

2014-01-01

339

Differential effects of CB1 receptor agonism in behavioural tests of unconditioned and conditioned fear in adult male rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of the highly selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA and the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 on two behavioural tests of unconditioned fear, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), as well as on the recall and extinction of a conditioned auditory fear. Both ACEA and AM251 increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM and OFT. There was no effect of either drug on recall of the conditioned fear, and ACEA enhanced and AM251 impaired fear extinction. Further, though both the low (0.1mg/kg) and high (0.5mg/kg) dose of ACEA facilitated fear extinction, the low dose attenuated, and the high dose potentiated, fear induced corticosterone release suggesting independent effects of the drug on fear and stress responses. Although the extent to which cannabinoids are anxiogenic or anxiolytic has been proposed to be dose-dependent, these results indicate that the same dose has differential effects across tasks, likely based in differences in sensitivities of CB1 receptors to the agonist in the neural regions subserving unconditioned and conditioned fear. PMID:25446756

Simone, Jonathan J; Green, Matthew R; Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

2015-02-15

340

Same-Sex Marriage and Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the forthcoming issues of the Journal of Homosexuality a listing of gay and lesbian related Websites will be published. Each listing will address a different theme, accompanied by a short description of the contents of the Websites. Comments, ideas for next themes, and suggestions for Websites can be sent to Caspar A. Itz at itzle@dds.nl.

2002-01-01

341

Effects of inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion on the response to novel objects in young male and female sheep.  

PubMed

This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific). To determine the effects of agonist treatment on the reproductive axis blood samples were collected for measurement of testosterone in the males and progesterone in the females. In addition the volume of the scrotum was determined. The present study aimed to determine whether there are sexually differentiated behavioural responses to a novel object at different stages of brain development (8, 28 and 48 weeks of age) and whether these responses are altered by GnRHa treatment. Approach behaviour towards and interactions with the novel object were monitored as was the number of vocalisations per unit time during the test period. GnRHa treatment suppressed testosterone concentrations and testicular growth in the males and progesterone release in the females. Sheep vocalised significantly more prior to weaning (8 weeks of age) than post weaning (28 and 48 weeks of age) suggesting stress on separation from their dams. Our current study shows that males are more likely to leave their conspecifics to approach a novel object than females. As this behaviour was not altered by suppression of the reproductive axis we suggest that, although sex differences are more obviously expressed in the phenotype after puberty, these may be developed during adolescence but not primarily altered during puberty by sex hormones. PMID:24485485

Robinson, Jane E; Evans, Neil P; Dumbell, Rebecca; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ropstad, Erik; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2014-02-01

342

Increased density and male–male interactions reduce male longevity in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of adult density on male and female longevity and behavioural interactions in a mass-reared strain of the medfly. Male survival decreased significantly, and male–male behavioural interactions increased significantly, with increasing male density (males were kept at 1, 2, 6 and 10 flies per 285cm2in pots of 5.5cm in diameter and 12cm high). No such effects were

Tom Gaskin; Peter Futerman; Tracey Chapman

2002-01-01

343

Behavioural vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: the role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duck.  

PubMed

Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from apparent panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet, these studies often found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure, which was often attributed to male-biased gene flow, a common behaviour within this family. An alternative explanation for this 'conflict' is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative to nuDNA lead to different signals of population structure. We tested these alternatives by sequencing 12 nuDNA introns for a Holarctic pair of waterfowl subspecies, the European goosander (Mergus merganser merganser) and the North American common merganser (M. m. americanus), which exhibit strong population structure in mtDNA. We inferred effective population sizes, gene flow and divergence times from published mtDNA sequences and simulated expected differentiation for nuDNA based on those histories. Between Europe and North America, nuDNA ?(ST) was 3.4-fold lower than mtDNA ?(ST) , a result consistent with differences in sorting rates. However, despite geographically structured and monophyletic mtDNA lineages within continents, nuDNA ?(ST) values were generally zero and significantly lower than predicted. This between- and within-continent contrast held when comparing mtDNA and nuDNA among published studies of ducks. Thus, male-mediated gene flow is a better explanation than slower sorting rates for limited nuDNA differentiation within continents, which is also supported by nonmolecular data. This study illustrates the value of quantitatively testing discrepancies between mtDNA and nuDNA to reject the null hypothesis that conflict simply reflects different sorting rates. PMID:22582867

Peters, Jeffrey L; Bolender, Kimberly A; Pearce, John M

2012-07-01

344

The development of male-oriented behavior in rams.  

PubMed

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same-sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Kaufman, Katherine R

2011-04-01

345

A comparison of pectoral fin contact behaviour for three distinct dolphin populations.  

PubMed

Tactile exchanges involving the pectoral fin have been documented in a variety of dolphin species. Several functions (e.g., social, hygienic) have been offered as possible explanations for when and why dolphins exchange pectoral fin contacts. In this study, we compared pectoral fin contact between dolphin dyads from three distinct dolphin populations: two groups of wild dolphins; Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas and Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan; and one group of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) residing at the Roatan Institute for Marine Sciences, Anthony's Key Resort. A number of similarities were observed between the captive and wild groups, including; rates of pectoral fin contact, which dolphin initiated contact, posture preference, and same-sex rubbing partner preference. Unlike their wild counterparts, however, dolphins in the captive study group engaged in petting and rubbing at equal rates, females were more likely to contact males, males assumed the various rubbing roles more frequently than females, and calves and juveniles were more likely to be involved in pectoral fin contact exchanges. These results suggest that some aspects of pectoral fin contact behaviour might be common to many dolphin species, whereas other aspects could be species specific, or could be the result of differing environmental and social conditions. PMID:20176094

Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Gregg, Justin D; Paulos, Robin D; Kuczaj, Stan A

2010-06-01

346

Behavioural and endocrine predictors of dominance and tolerance in female common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of social subordination, female common marmosets undergo suppression of ovulation and inhibition of sexual behaviour. This study examined the possibility that subordination also results in decreased aggressiveness and increased submissiveness towards same-sex strangers. Thirty-two adult females were pre-assigned to eight mixed-sex social groups. The females' behavioural and adrenocortical responses to brief confrontations with each of three female

WENDY SALTZMAN; NANCY J. SCHULTZ-DARKEN; DAVID H. ABBOTT

1996-01-01

347

The effects of simultaneous or separate infusions of some pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides (beta-endorphin, melanocyte stimulating hormone, and corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptide) and their acetylated derivatives upon sexual and ingestive behaviour of male rats.  

PubMed

Intraneuronal post-translational cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin yields a variety of peptides including beta-endorphin, melanocyte stimulating hormone and corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptide, some of which are subsequently N-acetylated. Such peptides may be co-released from neuronal terminals, and so these experiments explored the effects of co-administration of some of them on sexual behaviour in the male rat, which is known to be sensitive to hypothalamic infusions of beta-endorphin. Peptides were infused into the pre-optic-anterior hypothalamic area bilaterally in doses up to 320 pmol, and males allowed access to a sexually receptive female and/or a sweet solution (0.1% Acesulfame-K) for 15 min, so that both sexual and ingestive behaviour could be studied. beta-Endorphin(1-31) by itself inhibited sexual interaction, confirming our previous data. Acesulfame-K ingestion was inhibited in control-infused rats in the presence of a female, but this inhibition was released when sexual behaviour was itself diminished by beta-endorphin(1-31). Both the acetylated and non-acetylated forms of melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone) stimulate sexual behaviour; latencies both to ejaculation and to resumption of copulatory behaviour after an ejaculation (post-ejaculatory interval) were reduced. However, infusion of either corticotrophin-like intermediate peptide or N-acetylated beta-endorphin (1-31) had no effect on either sexual or ingestive behaviour. Infusion of either acetylated melanocyte stimulating hormone or des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone mixed with beta-endorphin(1-31) prevented the inhibitory effect of the latter on sexual behaviour. Dose-response studies showed that the behavioural effect of such mixtures depended upon the molar ratios of the two peptides, rather than their absolute concentrations. The higher the ratio in favour of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone or des-acetyl melanocyte stimulating hormone, the greater the display of sexual behaviour. Infusing either corticotrophin-like intermediate polypeptides or N-acetyl beta-endorphin(1-31) with beta-endorphin(1-31) did not prevent the inhibition of sexual activity expected with beta-endorphin(1-31) alone. These results are discussed in terms of the functional consequences of co-release of proopiomelanocortin peptides from hypothalamic nerve terminals. PMID:2851118

Hughes, A M; Everitt, B J; Herbert, J

1988-11-01

348

The effects of two situational variables on the self-confidence of males and females in achievement settings  

E-print Network

- peting with opposite-sex opponents, one group competing with same- sex opponents, and one group not competing. Results indicated. that males and females performed equally well on the actual task and were ewiually affected by both availability... of feedback and type of . eoapetit1on. There was a signii'icant interact1on between availa- bility of feedback and. type of competition on ths self-confid. ence measure, with subjects who received clear feedback showing sore self-confidence in same-sex...

Smith, Susan Marilyn Hartman

2012-06-07

349

Self-grooming as a sexually dimorphic communicative behaviour in meadow voles,Microtus pennsylvanicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-grooming may provide a means for broadcasting scent to conspecifics. Four experiments investigated this hypothesis in meadow voles. In the first experiment, male voles but not female voles groomed more in response to scent from an opposite-sex conspecific than a same-sex conspecific. In the second experiment, male voles groomed more in response to ovariectomized females receiving replacement oestradiol than to

MICHAEL H. FERKIN; EVAN S. SOROKIN; ROBERT E. JOHNSTON

1996-01-01

350

Male homosexual behavior in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques at minoo, Japan.  

PubMed

We documented nine male homosexual consortships within three different male-male dyads in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), at Minoo, Japan. A total of 63 male-male mounts were observed during these consortships. Male homosexual interactions shared most of the behavioral components that have been reported to characterize heterosexual and female homosexual consortships in this species. Convergent behavioral data, including analysis of male-male solicitations, mounting postures, body orientations, inter-mount activities, and third-party male intrusions supported the conclusion that male-male consortships are a sexual phenomenon. We discussed a series of proximate and ultimate hypotheses that purport to account for the occurrence of male homosexual behavior in all-male groups of primates, including humans. This first report of male homosexual interactions in an all-male group of Japanese macaques contributes to the growing database used to provide insights into the developmental processes, causal mechanisms, adaptive significance, and phylogenetic pathways of same-sex sexual behavior. PMID:24867180

Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

2014-07-01

351

Relative abundance of males to females affects behaviour, condition and immune function in a captive population of dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative numbers of males and females in breeding groups may vary from expected values owing to a variety of factors. To determine how sex ratio might influence individual phenotypes in a captive population of dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis during the breeding season, we established three treatment groups: a male-biased (2:1), equal (1:1), and female-biased group (1:2). Within-group density (birds\\/m2) was

Timothy J. Greives; Joseph M. Casto; Ellen D. Ketterson

2007-01-01

352

Characteristics of elite male and female ski racers.  

PubMed

Fifty-four members of the U.S. Ski Team who competed in the alpine, cross-country, or Nordic combined events were studied to learn more about the characteristics of elite ski racers in each of the events. Variables examined were percent body fatness, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal ventilation, isometric knee extension strength, power, agility, balance, and response time. In addition, isokinetic knee extension strength and endurance were measured on the alpine skiers. Cross-country skiers had higher Vo2max adjusted for weight or lean body weight than alpine skiers of the same sex. Male skiers had larger VO2max with or without adjustments for weight or lean body weight than female skiers in the same events. Alpine skiers had significantly more isometric knee extension strength (males = 3078 N, females = 2194 N) and power during the Margaria-Kalamen stair run (males = 1791 W, females = 1131 W) than cross-country skiers of the same sex. Differences in isokinetic knee extension strength at slow rates of contraction (30 degrees/s) between male and female alpine skiers were not significant when strength was expressed as strength x kg LBW-1. Male alpine skiers produced more power and had more isokinetic leg strength x kg LBW-1 at high contraction rates (180 degrees/s) than female alpine skiers. PMID:7402049

Haymes, E M; Dickinson, A L

1980-01-01

353

The effects of feeding leaf sap from oats and wheat, with and without soybean trypsin inhibitor, on feeding behaviour and digestive physiology of adult males of Melanoplus sanguinipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly-fledged adult male grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes Fab.) were fed measured quantities of freshly prepared sap from the leaves of seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Katepwa) or oats (Avenu sativa L. cv. Harmon), or sap from each plant to which soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) was added. Different patterns of feeding with respect to movement and position of the antennae

C. F. Hinks; D. Hupka

1995-01-01

354

Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as ‘obscure’. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance

Danny Wotherspoon; Shelley Burgin

2011-01-01

355

Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised\\u000a incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, alcohol measures have been poorly standardised, with many ill-suited\\u000a to eliciting, with adequate precision, the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour. This study investigates\\u000a which alcohol indicator - single-item measures of frequency

Scott Geibel; Masila Syengo; Daniel Lango; Nzioki King’ola; Marleen Temmerman; Matthew F Chersich

2011-01-01

356

Short-term social isolation induces depressive-like behaviour and reinstates the retrieval of an aversive task: Mood-congruent memory in male mice?  

PubMed Central

Background Although mood-congruent memory (MCM), or the tendency to recall information consistent with one’s mood, is a robust phenomenon in human depression, to our knowledge, it has never been demonstrated in animals. Methods Mice were subjected to social isolation (SI) or crowding for 12 hours and had their depressive-like behaviour (evaluated by the forced swim, tail suspension, sucrose preference and splash tests) or their serum corticosterone concentrations evaluated. In addition, we determined the temporal forgetting curve of the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT) and examined the effects of SI or crowding on memory retrieval in the PM-DAT. Finally, we verified the effects of metyrapone pretreatment on reinstatement of memory retrieval or on the increase of corticosterone levels induced by SI. Results Twelve hours of SI produced depressive-like behaviour, enhanced corticosterone concentration and reinstated retrieval of a forgotten discriminative aversive (i.e., negatively valenced) task. Depressive-like behaviour was critical for this facilitative effect of SI because 12 hours of crowding neither induced depressive-like behaviour nor enhanced retrieval, although it increased corticosterone levels at the same magnitude as SI. However, corticosterone increase was a necessary condition for MCM in mice, in that the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone abolished SI-induced retrieval reinstatement. Limitations Our study did not investigate the effects of the social manipulations proposed here in a positively valenced task. Conclusion To our knowledge, the present paper provides the first evidence of MCM in animal models. PMID:23182303

Takatsu-Coleman, André L.; Patti, Camilla L.; Zanin, Karina A.; Zager, Adriano; Carvalho, Rita C.; Borçoi, Aline R.; Ceccon, Liliane M.B.; Berro, Laís F.; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L.; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

2013-01-01

357

Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird\\u000a species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure\\u000a to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations\\u000a between digit ratios and diverse

N. Saino; D. Rubolini; M. Romano; G. Boncoraglio

2007-01-01

358

Natural and sexual selection on male behaviour and morphology, and female choice in a wild field cricket population: spatial, temporal and analytical components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used multiple regression, path analysis and non-parametric selection surface visualisation to investigate natural and sexual\\u000a selection and, in addition, cross-sectional female choice statistics to analyse female choice in a wild population of the\\u000a field cricket Gryllus campestris L. in central Germany. Adults (167 males, 75 females) were individually marked and followed daily over the entire adult stage.\\u000a Two morphological

Markus S. Ritz; Günter Köhler

2010-01-01

359

Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.  

PubMed

The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. PMID:21236651

Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

2011-02-01

360

Plasticity in adult development: experience with young males enhances mating competence in adult male cowbirds, Molothrus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The social environment can play an important role in organizing organisms' behavioural development. We studied the effect on adult male cowbirds' communication and mating- related behaviour of being housed in social groups with juvenile males. In two large outdoor aviaries, we housed adult males, juvenile females and adult females either with or without juvenile males. Conditions remained intact from

David J. White; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2002-01-01

361

Behaviour of dispersing deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The behaviour of dispersing and resident deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was compared in three laboratory tests to determine if dispersers differed behaviourally from residents.2.The hypothesis that behavioural differences have a genetic basis was examined by correlating genotype at three electrophoretically detectable blood protein loci with scores on the behaviour tests. Among resident males, level of aggression (as measured in neutral

Daphne J. Fairbairn

1978-01-01

362

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

Bauermeister, José A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

2011-01-01

363

Male mating biology  

PubMed Central

Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

2009-01-01

364

Males under attack: sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology  

E-print Network

success, males may be under sexual selection through male­male competition, female choice and/or sexual behaviour in this group. Here, we investigate sexual selection on male body size, leg length and copulation, Argiope aurantia, copulation duration, sexual cannibalism, sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, shape

Foellmer, Matthias

365

First Same-Sex Partner and the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the first episode of anal intercourse of young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) who were in the midst\\u000a of their coming-out. Cross-sectional data regarding the first episode of anal intercourse were extracted from Outcomes, a\\u000a longitudinal study on coming-out and sexual behavior of YGBM in the Netherlands. Overall, 45% of respondents reported unprotected\\u000a anal intercourse (UAI)

Dirk Franssens; Harm J. Hospers; Gerjo Kok

2010-01-01

366

Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?  

PubMed

This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity. PMID:19197645

Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

2009-01-01

367

MODERNIZING DIVORCE JURISDICTION: SAME-SEX COUPLES AND MINIMUM CONTACTS  

E-print Network

at the AALS Women Rethinking Equality Midyear Conference, the Emerging Family Law Scholars and Teachers Annual to recent calls to challenge the myth of family law exceptionalism by critically analyzing the domicile rule of normative proposals to ensure that all spouses have a forum in which to divorce. INTRODUCTION The story

Finzi, Adrien

368

Same-sex marriage and context-specific kinship terms.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude. PMID:21902493

Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie

2011-01-01

369

Same-Sex Marriage and Context-Specific Kinship Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are

Patricia Ould; C. Julie Whitlow

2011-01-01

370

Overruling Dred Scott: The Case for Same-Sex Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dred Scott v. Sandford is widely acknowledged to be the worst decision ever rendered by the United States Supreme Court. Its specific holdings-that Congress had no authority to regulate slavery in the territories and that no black person, whether slave or free, was a citizen of the United States entitled to bring suit in federal courts2-were overruled by the Thirteenth

Robert A Burt

2007-01-01

371

Same-Sex Relationships and Women with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Limited existing research looking at homosexuality and people with intellectual disabilities has identified a low level of knowledge, homophobic attitudes and negative experiences for gay men. Mainstream research has identified traditional gender role beliefs to be highly associated with negative attitudes towards homosexuality. This…

Burns, Jan; Davies, Danielle

2011-01-01

372

The Economic Value of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples  

E-print Network

also clearly an economic value. 168 The added nonpecuniaryeconomic efficiencies, cost savings, and added cultural and social valueadded “value” to couples over marriage-like alternatives, giving the choice of marriage over an alternative an economic

Badgett, M.V. Lee

2010-01-01

373

Limited mating opportunities and male monogamy: a field study of white widow spiders, Latrodectus pallidus (Theridiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive success of a male is thought to be a function of the number of females he fertilizes. Nevertheless, various naturally occurring male behaviours seem to reduce dramatically the probability of obtaining additional matings. Such behaviours are expected when mating opportunities are limited for males and when males compete strongly for females or fertilizations. In widow spiders, males cohabit

Michal Segoli; Ally R. Harari; Yael Lubin

2006-01-01

374

Dreams and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study sought to determine how portentous of future events dreams are perceived by University-level educated subjects in Nigeria. Additionally, it examined how much causality is ascribed to dreams by the Ss, and how much influence dreams have on their subsequent behaviour. A total of 400 subjects (367 males and 33 females) participated in the study. Data were collected

Azubike Uzoka

1988-01-01

375

Constructing Family Among Same-sex Couples: A Comparative Study of Same-sex Latino and White Couples  

E-print Network

Gender Expectations and Identity Formation…………………………….. 109respondents. Gender Expectations and Identity Formationidentity formation, Hanly-Hackenbruck (1989) takes into consideration larger possible issues that may arise as a result of race, gender,

Loughrin, Sandra Marie

2011-01-01

376

Decreased prevalence of left-handedness among females with male co-twins: Evidence suggesting prenatal testosterone transfer in humans?  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies of singletons suggest that right-handed individuals may have higher levels of testosterone than do left-handed individuals. Prenatal testosterone levels are hypothesised to be especially related to handedness formation. In humans, female members from opposite-sex twin pairs may experience elevated level of prenatal exposure to testosterone in their intra-uterine environment shared with a male. We tested for differences in rates of left-handedness/right-handedness in female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs. Our sample consisted of 4736 subjects, about 70% of all Finnish twins born in 1983–1987, with information on measured pregnancy and birth related factors. Circulating testosterone and estradiol levels at age 14 were available on 771 and 744 of these twins, respectively. We found significantly (p<.006) lower prevalence of left-handedness in females from opposite-sex pairs (5.3%) compared to females from same-sex pairs (8.6%). The circulating levels of neither testosterone nor estradiol related to handedness in either females or males. Nor were there differences in circulating testosterone or estradiol levels between females from opposite-sex and same-sex twin pairs. Birth and pregnancy related factors for which we had information were unrelated to handedness. Our results are difficult to fully explain by postnatal factors, but they offer support to theory that relates testosterone to formation of handedness, and in a population-based sample, are suggestive of effects of prenatal testosterone transfer. PMID:20570052

Vuoksimaa, Eero; Peter Eriksson, C. J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

2010-01-01

377

Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism  

PubMed Central

Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration. PMID:22298805

Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

2012-01-01

378

Male contraception.  

PubMed

To share contraceptive measures between partners is a goal which should be reached in the future. The possibilities on the male side are still limited in comparison with the techniques available for women. During the last 20 years many efforts have been undertaken to study and evaluate possible methods for fertility control in the male, based on interaction with the hormonal axis, sperm maturation and sperm transport. The requirements for such a method in the male are the same as in female: high efficacy, little or almost no side-effects, high practicability and compliance and the possibility for easy reversibility in a high percentage of men. Despite their increasing acceptability worldwide, the existing male methods, condom and vasectomy, do not fully meet these requirements and therefore a search for alternative male methods is warranted. At present, the following medical approaches to male fertility control have been tested or are under consideration: (i) selective inhibition of FSH: antibodies, inhibin; (ii) inhibition of pituitary-gonadal axis: steroids such as testosterone, progestin-testosterone combinations, LHRH analogues with and without testosterone substitution; and (iii) selective inhibition of spermatogenesis by gossypol, a phenolic compound from cotton plant. Whether one of these methods will reach the desired goal for male fertility control has yet to be determined. PMID:3281961

Frick, J; Aulitzky, W

1988-02-01

379

Social Exclusion: More Important to Human Females Than Males  

PubMed Central

Theoretical models based on primate evidence suggest that social structure determines the costs and benefits of particular aggressive strategies. In humans, males more than females interact in groups of unrelated same-sex peers, and larger group size predicts success in inter-group contests. In marked contrast, human females form isolated one-on-one relationships with fewer instrumental benefits, so social exclusion constitutes a more useful strategy. If this model is accurate, then human social exclusion should be utilized by females more than males and females should be more sensitive to its occurrence. Here we present four studies supporting this model. In Study 1, using a computerized game with fictitious opponents, we demonstrate that females are more willing than males to socially exclude a temporary ally. In Study 2, females report more actual incidents of social exclusion than males do. In Study 3, females perceive cues revealing social exclusion more rapidly than males do. Finally, in Study 4, females’ heart rate increases more than males’ in response to social exclusion. Together, results indicate that social exclusion is a strategy well-tailored to human females’ social structure. PMID:23405221

Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Hultgren, Brittney; Nguyen, Tuyet; Bullock, Grace; Wrangham, Richard

2013-01-01

380

Male-male competition and large size mating advantage in European earwigs, Forficula auricularia.  

PubMed

European earwigs are sexually dimorphic in forceps shape and length. Male forceps are thought to be weapons in male contests for access to females, but recent findings suggest that females choose males on the basis of their forceps length. I investigated sexual selection on forceps length and body size and the occurrence of male-male competition. When I controlled for forceps length experimentally and statistically, relatively heavy males had greater copulation success than relatively light males. When I controlled for body size, males with relatively longer forceps had no tendency for greater copulation success than males with shorter forceps. Relatively heavy males more often took over copulations from smaller males than vice versa. Male contests were important for the outcome of mate competition, as males commonly interrupted and took over copulations. My results therefore suggest that intrasexual selection is significant in competition for copulations in male earwigs, and acts on body size. This contrasts with previous findings, which have shown intersexual selection on forceps length to be important. However, both modes of sexual selection may be acting through a two-stage process, where male-male competition first determines which males have access to females, and then through female choice among available males. Morphological measurements supported the conclusion that forceps length and body size are male secondary sexual characters, as these characters had large variance and skewed distributions in males, but were normally distributed in females. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10792930

Forslund

2000-04-01

381

Male Sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of pollen fertility is central to the production of F1-hybrid seed in self-pollinating crops, and is potentially\\u000a applicable to the containment of transgenes deployed in crop plants. Pollen sterility can be achieved through cytoplasmic\\u000a male sterility (CMS) encoded by the plant mitochondrial genome, or through genic male sterility encoded by the nuclear genome.\\u000a Both routes have been exploited

C. D. Chase; A. Ribarits; E. Heberle-Bors

382

Male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if the infant's condition is stable and healthy. Male circumcision should be performed by tra

2012-09-01

383

Male work and sex ratio in social crab spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Biased sex ratios may alter the contribution that individuals of either sex make to group living. Such a possibility has not been examined in social spiders, in part as adult male spider anatomy and behaviour are focussed on mating. Subadult male behaviour was examined in two congener social crab spiders that have similar ecological niches, Diaea ergandros with an

T. A. Evans

2000-01-01

384

The number of subordinates moderates intrasexual competition among males in cooperatively breeding meerkats  

PubMed Central

For dominant individuals in cooperatively breeding species, the presence of subordinates is associated with both benefits (i.e. increased reproductive output and other group-living benefits) and costs (i.e. intrasexual competition on reproduction). The biological market theory predicts that dominant individuals are tolerant to same-sex group members when there are only a few subordinates, so as to maximize their own reproductive success. We investigated factors affecting aggression by dominant males and submission by subordinate males for a cooperatively breeding mammal, meerkats, Suricata suricatta. In this species, reproductive conflict occurs between the dominant male and the non-offspring males. As predicted, the number of subordinates in a group was positively associated with the aggression frequency by the dominant male and with the submission frequency by the subordinate males. Relative to the aggression frequency against male offspring, the frequency of aggression against non-offspring males was comparable in small groups, but was higher in large groups. These results indicate that reproductive conflict is present between the dominant male and the non-offspring males but is moderated in groups with small numbers of subordinates. This study provides an empirical data agreeing with the biological market theory in the context of intrasexual competition in cooperatively breeding species. PMID:17986431

Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2007-01-01

385

The number of subordinates moderates intrasexual competition among males in cooperatively breeding meerkats.  

PubMed

For dominant individuals in cooperatively breeding species, the presence of subordinates is associated with both benefits (i.e. increased reproductive output and other group-living benefits) and costs (i.e. intrasexual competition on reproduction). The biological market theory predicts that dominant individuals are tolerant to same-sex group members when there are only a few subordinates, so as to maximize their own reproductive success. We investigated factors affecting aggression by dominant males and submission by subordinate males for a cooperatively breeding mammal, meerkats, Suricata suricatta. In this species, reproductive conflict occurs between the dominant male and the non-offspring males. As predicted, the number of subordinates in a group was positively associated with the aggression frequency by the dominant male and with the submission frequency by the subordinate males. Relative to the aggression frequency against male offspring, the frequency of aggression against non-offspring males was comparable in small groups, but was higher in large groups. These results indicate that reproductive conflict is present between the dominant male and the non-offspring males but is moderated in groups with small numbers of subordinates. This study provides an empirical data agreeing with the biological market theory in the context of intrasexual competition in cooperatively breeding species. PMID:17986431

Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2008-01-22

386

ORIGINAL PAPER Males do not see only red: UV wavelengths and male  

E-print Network

reflectance, showed less aggressive behaviour towards the UV-reduced one. In male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis), UV chroma was positively correlated with success in acquiring nestboxes (Siefferman and Hill

387

Mouse females devoid of exposure to males during fetal development exhibit increased maternal behavior  

PubMed Central

Many sex differences can be found in the expression of aggression and parental nurturing behaviors. It is important to determine if these are modulated by prenatal conditions. Here, using assisted reproduction technologies, we generated females that were (mixed-sex) or were not (same-sex) exposed to males during fetal development, raised them by cross fostering among fosters’ own female only pups to control for effects of postnatal environment, and compared their reproductive abilities and behavior. There were no differences between females from the two prenatal conditions in estrus cycle length and length of time spent at individual estrus cycle stages. Both types of females had similar ovulation efficiency and bred equally well yielding comparable litter size and progeny sex ratio. Females from the two prenatal conditions were also indistinguishable in social behavior and exhibited normal social responses towards unfamiliar females in the three-chamber social approach and social proximity tests. When urine was collected from both types of females and used as a point source in a scent-marking paradigm, exposed males showed a similar distribution and extent of urinary scent marking to urine from each type of female but tended to engage in higher durations of sniffing the urine from same-sex females. When females were tested in a resident-intruder paradigm three days after giving birth, same-sex females exhibited enhancement of pup grooming and an overall decrease of non-pup activity prior to male intruder introduction, and after introduction were more defensive as evidenced by higher rates of burying, open-mouth threat/lunges, and attacks towards the male, and decreased latencies to display these defensive behaviors. Our results suggest that females devoid of male exposure during fetal development have reproductive abilities similar to those of females from mixed-sex pregnancies, and have normal social interactions with other females. However, they exhibit hyper-maternal behavior both in terms of the care and defense of pups in front of a male intruder, and potentially produce a pheromonal milieu that renders them more attractive to males during olfactory investigations. PMID:21803500

Sugawara, Atsushi; Pearson, Brandon L.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Ward, Monika A.

2011-01-01

388

Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations between digit ratios and diverse phenotypic traits in humans. However, no study has investigated experimentally the effect of prenatal estrogens on digit ratios. We analyzed the effect of estradiol injection in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs on digit ratios. Males from control eggs had higher ratios between the second or third and the fourth digit of the right foot compared to females. Estradiol-treated eggs produced males with lower (feminized) right foot second to fourth digit ratio. Thus, we provided the first experimental evidence that prenatal exposure to physiologically high estrogen levels affects bird digit ratios.

Saino, N.; Rubolini, D.; Romano, M.; Boncoraglio, G.

2007-03-01

389

Increased egg estradiol concentration feminizes digit ratios of male pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).  

PubMed

The length ratio between individual digits differs between males and females in humans, other mammals, lizards, and one bird species. Sexual dimorphism in digit ratios and variation among individuals of the same sex may depend on differential exposure to androgens and estrogens during embryonic life. Organizational effects of sex hormones could cause the observed correlations between digit ratios and diverse phenotypic traits in humans. However, no study has investigated experimentally the effect of prenatal estrogens on digit ratios. We analyzed the effect of estradiol injection in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs on digit ratios. Males from control eggs had higher ratios between the second or third and the fourth digit of the right foot compared to females. Estradiol-treated eggs produced males with lower (feminized) right foot second to fourth digit ratio. Thus, we provided the first experimental evidence that prenatal exposure to physiologically high estrogen levels affects bird digit ratios. PMID:17136513

Saino, N; Rubolini, D; Romano, M; Boncoraglio, G

2007-03-01

390

Male Hypogonadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Male hypogonadism results from the failure of the testes to produce an adequate amount of testosterone, spermatozoa, or both.\\u000a The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, and the reproductive and endocrine function of the\\u000a gonads through all phases of life. Hypogonadism can be classified according to the site involved (hypothalamus, pituitary\\u000a gland, or gonads) or by age at presentation (pre-

Aikaterini Theodoraki; Pierre-Marc Gilles Bouloux

391

Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour.  

PubMed

Mice display robust, stereotyped behaviours towards pups: virgin males typically attack pups, whereas virgin females and sexually experienced males and females display parental care. Here we show that virgin males genetically impaired in vomeronasal sensing do not attack pups and are parental. Furthermore, we uncover a subset of galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that are specifically activated during male and female parenting, and a different subpopulation that is activated during mating. Genetic ablation of MPOA galanin neurons results in marked impairment of parental responses in males and females and affects male mating. Optogenetic activation of these neurons in virgin males suppresses inter-male and pup-directed aggression and induces pup grooming. Thus, MPOA galanin neurons emerge as an essential regulatory node of male and female parenting behaviour and other social responses. These results provide an entry point to a circuit-level dissection of parental behaviour and its modulation by social experience. PMID:24828191

Wu, Zheng; Autry, Anita E; Bergan, Joseph F; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Dulac, Catherine G

2014-05-15

392

BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS African cichlid Pseudotropheus spp. males moan to  

E-print Network

by Pseudotropheus spp. males, not previously reported for cichlids. Moans are short tonal sounds often showing for the first time a very low frequency tonal sound (moan) produced during courtship behaviour by cichlid malesBRIEF COMMUNICATIONS African cichlid Pseudotropheus spp. males moan to females during foreplay J. M

393

Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition  

E-print Network

VII.5 Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition Christine W. Miller It is certain that amongst almost often the competing sex and females the choosy sex? 2. The processes of sexual selection 3. Male-male competition in plants 7. Total sexual selection 8. Sexual selection and ecological context Males commonly

Miller, Christine Whitney

394

The transvestite serpent: why do male garter snakes court (some) other males?  

PubMed

In large mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, in Manitoba, male courtship is directed not only to females, but also to other males with female-like skin lipids ('she-males'). We show that 'she-maleness' is an intrinsic property of a male rather than an artefact of lipid transfer from females, and that male-male courtship is very common in the field. She-males were distinctive in terms of appearance (they were heavier than other males and more often covered with mud), behaviour (they were inactive and rarely courted females) and performance (they were slow crawlers, ineffective courters and easily outcompeted by other males in mating trials). 'She-maleness' was not a characteristic of a particular subset of males, as envisaged in previous work; instead, it was a transitory phase that most (perhaps all) male snakes passed through soon after they first emerged from the winter den. Recently emerged males spent their first day or two relatively inactive, while restoring physiological functions (including locomotor performance and courtship ability). Experimental application of female skin lipids on to males dramatically decreased courtship levels of the recipient snakes. Thus, recently emerged males may derive two kinds of benefit from mimicking female skin lipids. First, female mimicry 'switches off' the male's own (energetically expensive) courtship at a time when that courtship would be unproductive. Second, it may disadvantage his rivals by distracting them from females, and increasing their energy expenditure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675257

Shine; Harlow; LeMaster; Moore; Mason

2000-02-01

395

Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

2013-01-01

396

Male hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

Basaria, Shehzad

2014-04-01

397

Activity Predicts Male Reproductive Success in a Polygynous Lizard  

PubMed Central

Activity patterns and social interactions play a key role in determining reproductive success, although this is poorly understood for species that lack overt social behaviour. We used genetic paternity analysis to quantify both multiple paternity and the relative roles of activity and social behaviour in determining reproductive success in a nondescript Australian lizard. During the breeding season we intensively followed and recorded the behaviour of a group of seven males and 13 females in a naturalistic outdoor enclosure to examine the relative roles of body size, activity and social interactions in determining male fertilization success. We found multiple paternity in 42% of clutches. No single behaviour was a significant predictor of male fertilization success in isolation, but male-female association, interactions and courtship explained 41% of the variation in male fertilization success. Males with the highest number of offspring sired invested heavily in interacting with females but spent very little time in interactions with males. These same males also sired offspring from more clutches. When taken collectively, an index of overall male activity, including locomotion and all social interactions, significantly explained 81% of the variation in the total number of offspring sired and 90% of the variation in the number of clutches in which males sired offspring. We suggest that the most successful male strategy is a form of endurance rivalry in which active mate searching and interactions with females have the greatest fitness benefits. PMID:22808016

Keogh, J. Scott; Noble, Daniel W. A.; Wilson, Eleanor E.; Whiting, Martin J.

2012-01-01

398

"Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": Findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age) who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex) was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex) was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands) push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV prevention need to be developed in close collaboration with affected communities and be closely related to policy-making and implementation; to go beyond the limited success of traditional behavioural and biomedical interventions to particularly address the underlying social and structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability in the study communities. PMID:22202562

2011-01-01

399

49,XXXXY syndrome: behavioural and developmental profiles.  

PubMed

Behavioural, psychological, and cognitive profiles of three cases, including a 5 year old male with a 49,XXXXY karyotype and a (3;15) translocation, a 9 year old male with a 49,XXXXY karyotype, and a 32 year old male with 48,XXXY/49,XXXXY mosaicism, are presented. Significant behavioural problems were seen in the two older patients. The degree of mental retardation and impairment of language abilities were shown to be more severe in the older subjects as well. These findings are discussed with respect to the effects of the X chromosome on brain development. PMID:1956059

Lomelino, C A; Reiss, A L

1991-09-01

400

Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens  

E-print Network

provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two

Dunn, Peter O.

401

Mechanisms of copying behaviour in zebra finches.  

PubMed

When an individual is faced with choosing between unfamiliar food options, it may benefit initially by choosing the option chosen by other animals so avoiding potentially poisonous food. It is not clear which cues the naïve forager learns from the demonstrator for choosing between food options. To determine firstly which birds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) would copy a demonstrator's choice, in Experiment 1 we presented each observer with a demonstrator feeding from one of two differently coloured feeders and then tested the observer's feeder colour preference. Of the same-sex/mixed-sex demonstrator-observer pairs tested only females copied male demonstrators. In Experiment 2, birds did not prefer either feeder colour in the absence of demonstrators confirming the social learning effect observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, copying females fed significantly more at the feeder of the demonstrated colour, rather than at the location of the demonstrated feeder. These data point not just to the identity of the individual to be copied but also to the kind of information learned. PMID:25444776

Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

2014-10-01

402

Extraterritorial forays are related to a male ornamental trait in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous studies of extrapair paternity in birds, little is known about the behaviours that males and females use to seek (or avoid) extrapair copulations. We used radiotelemetry to examine the extrater- ritorial movements of both male and female common yellowthroats, Geothlypis trichas, in relation to male ornaments, particularly the black facial mask. We found that many males (62%) and

MARC C. P EDERSEN; PETER O. D UNN; LINDA A. W HITTINGHAM

2006-01-01

403

Male pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

404

INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus). The two-spot ladybird is a naturally pro- miscuous beetle, with both males and females mating consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata; Haddrill et al., 2008). Two-spot ladybird populations are known to Eur. J. Entomol. 110(1): 87­93, 2013

405

Asymmetrical turning during spermatophore transfer in the male smooth newt  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mating, male smooth newts,Triturus vulgarisshowed a population bias for turning left during spermatophore transfer. This is the first demonstration of asymmetrical sexual behaviour in an amphibian population. An experiment with a perfect female model showed that it was due to male rather than female lateralization. Left turning bias decreased progressively as more spermatophores were deposited, and no significant bias

ANDY J. GREEN

1997-01-01

406

Sharing of Potential Nest Sites by Etheostoma olmstedi Males Suggests Mutual Tolerance in an Alloparental Species  

PubMed Central

When reproductive competitors tolerate or cooperate with one another, they may gain particular benefits, such as collectively guarding resources or attracting mates. Shared resources may be those essential to reproduction, such as a breeding site or nest. Using the tessellated darter, a species where males but not females compete over potential nest sites, we examined site use and sharing under controlled conditions of differing competitor density. Sharing was observed even when competitor density was low and individuals could have each occupied a potential nest site without same-sex sharing. Males were more likely to share a nest site with one other when the difference in size between them was larger rather than smaller. There was no evidence that female sharing was dependent on their relative size. Fish were generally more likely to use and share larger sites, in accordance with the greater relative surface area they offered. We discuss how one or both sharing males may potentially benefit, and how male sharing of potential nest sites could relate to female mating preferences. Tessellated darter males are known to provide alloparental care for eggs but this occurs without any social contact between the alloparent and the genetic father of the young. Thus, the suggestion that they may also share sites and maintain social contact with reproductive competitors highlights the importance of increased focus on the potential complexity of reproductive systems. PMID:23468853

Stiver, Kelly A.; Wolff, Stephen H.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

2013-01-01

407

Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all types (regular, paying, and causal) of male partners, and need to reach MSM across all age groups. In addition to enhancing interventions that focus on individual level risk reduction, it is important to undertake structural interventions that promote social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and address contextual barriers to condom use such as alcohol use. PMID:24020613

2013-01-01

408

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

409

Phylogenetic constraint on male parental care in the dabbling ducks  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic constraint and inertia, i.e. limitations on future evolutionary trajectories imposed by previous adaptation, are often invoked to explain behavioural, morphological and physiological traits that defy explanation in an adaptive context. We reconstructed historical changes in male parental care behaviour in the dabbling ducks (family: Anatidae; tribe: Anatini) using a phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Male parental care is observed in many tropical and Southern hemisphere dabbling ducks but is lacking in all Northern hemisphere species. Southern hemisphere species that are very recently derived from Northern hemisphere ancestors, however, are exceptions to this general pattern. Lack of male parental care in these species can be attributed to phylogenetic constraint.

Johnson, K. P.; McKinney, F.; Sorenson, M. D.

1999-01-01

410

Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?  

PubMed Central

Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality. PMID:18410986

Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sánchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

2010-01-01

411

Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.  

PubMed

Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. PMID:24932897

Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

2014-07-01

412

Office of Human Resources, SDP001, rev. 3/14 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership, Page 1 of 1 Affidavit of Same-Sex Domestic Partnership  

E-print Network

are at least 18 years of age and mentally competent to consent to this contract. 6. We are not related by blood on a residential lease Joint ownership of an automobile Joint bank or credit account Joint liabilities (e with a legal/tax advisor regarding these implications. · We certify that the information provided in all parts

413

Male dwarf chameleons assess risk of courting large, aggressive females  

PubMed Central

Conflict between the sexes has traditionally been studied in terms of costs of mating to females and female resistance. However, courting can also be costly to males, especially when females are larger and aggressively resist copulation attempts. We examined male display intensity towards females in the Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, in which females are larger than males and very aggressive. We assessed whether aggressive female rejection imposes potential costs on males and whether males vary their display behaviour with intensity of female rejection, female size or relative size differences. Males persisted in courtship after initial female rejection in 84% of trials, and were bitten in 28% of trials. Attempted mounts were positively associated with males being bitten. Males reduced courtship with increased intensity of female rejection. Male courtship behaviour also varied with female size: males were more likely to court and approach smaller females, consistent with the hypothesis that larger females can inflict more damage. These results suggest that, in addition to assessing female willingness to mate, male dwarf chameleons may use courtship displays to assess potential costs of persistence, including costs associated with aggressive female rejection, weighed against potential reproductive pay-offs associated with forced copulation. PMID:17148174

Stuart-Fox, Devi M; Whiting, Martin J

2005-01-01

414

Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.  

PubMed

Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection. PMID:22984503

Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

2012-01-01

415

Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles  

PubMed Central

Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

2013-01-01

416

Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles.  

PubMed

Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal's territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G

2013-11-01

417

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHIATRY & BEHAVIOURAL NEUROSCIENCES LILLIAN ROSE STEGNE MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP $5, pursuing studies related to Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences. Deadline Four copies of the completed: Psychiatry Education Office c/o Nancy Devlin Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences St. Joseph

Hitchcock, Adam P.

418

Testosterone Affects Reproductive Success by Influencing Extra-Pair Fertilizations in Male Dark-Eyed Juncos (Aves: Junco hyemalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogamous male birds typically allocate less effort to courtship and more to parental behaviour than males of polygynous species. The seasonal pattern of testosterone (T) secretion varies accordingly. Monogamous males exhibit a spring peak in plasma T followed by lower levels during the parental phase, while males of polygynous species continue to court females and maintain T at higher levels.

Samrrah A. Raouf; Patricia G. Parker; Ellen D. Ketterson; Val Nolan; Charles Ziegenfus

1997-01-01

419

Moult speed predicts pairing success in male harlequin ducks.  

PubMed

The bright plumage of male ducks in sexually dichromatic species is thought to have evolved through intense sexual selection. This study examined the relationship between the timing and speed of moult into this bright plumage and subsequent mating success of male harlequin ducks, Histrionicus histrionicus. Males that moulted relatively slowly had a lower chance of establishing a pair bond than others. The timing of moult was unrelated to whether a male obtained a mate. Moult speed and timing were not correlated within individual males, but were significantly repeatable in individual males over 2 years. Moult speed probably reflects the condition of males, whereas timing of moult is more likely to be related to the distance to an individual's breeding area, which determines the timing of arrival to the moulting grounds. In waterfowl species that have been studied, males usually form dominance hierarchies before pairing and females tend to choose dominant males. We suggest that male harlequin ducks that moult slowly are poor-quality individuals, which are relegated to subordinate status and are unlikely to attract a mate the following autumn. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9642011

Robertson; Cooke; Goudie; Boyd

1998-06-01

420

Male pattern baldness (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

421

Males achieve greater reproductive success through multiple broods than through extrapair mating in house wrens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In polygynous species, it is unclear whether extrapair matings provide a better reproductive payoff to males than additional social mates. Male house wrens, Troglodytes aedon, show three types of social mating behaviour: single-brooded monogamy, sequential monogamy (two broods) and polygyny. Thus, male reproductive success can vary depending on the number of mates, the number of broods and the number of

Nicole E. Poirier; Linda A. Whittingham; Peter O. Dunn

2004-01-01

422

Female social networks influence male vocal development in brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has found that adult female brown-headed cowbirds, who do not sing, shape male vocal structure when in restricted housing. The present work extends this finding to a flock setting to examine the role of social behaviour in shaping male vocal development. We housed juvenile males with either adult or juvenile females in large flocks. Over the course of

Jennifer L. Miller; Andrew P. King; Meredith J. West

2008-01-01

423

Age, musth and paternity success in wild male African elephants, Loxodonta africana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male African elephants experience intense intrasexual selection in gaining access to oestrous females, who represent a very scarce and highly mobile resource. An unusual combination of behavioural and physio- logical traits in males probably reflects this intense selection pressure. Males show prolonged growth, grow- ing throughout much or perhaps all of their long life span (ca. 60e65 years), and they

Julie A. Hollister-Smith; Joyce H. Poole; Elizabeth A. Archie; Eric A. Vance; Nicholas J. Georgiadis; Cynthia J. Moss; Susan C. Alberts

2007-01-01

424

Is Sperm Really so Cheap? Costs of Reproduction in Male Adders, Vipera berus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction is energetically expensive for males as well as for females, but evolutionary biologists have typically regarded the energy costs of sperm production as trivial compared to the energy costs of overt reproductive behaviours, such as mate-searching, courtship, copulation and male-male combat. Adders (Vipera berus) offer an ideal model system in which to quantify the relative costs of spermatogenesis (and

Mats Olsson; Thomas Madsen; Richard Shine

1997-01-01

425

Infanticide by male house sparrows: gaining time or manipulating females?  

PubMed Central

The killing of genetically unrelated young by males has been viewed as a strategy that forces victimized females to advance the onset of their next fertile period, thus infanticidal males gain a time advantage that may be crucial to maximize reproductive success. Among females that may raise several broods in a year, a failure occurring relatively earlier in the time-course of the previous breeding attempt may result in an increased investment in the next breeding attempt. This female strategy may be exploited by males in their own interest, and may strongly select for male infanticidal behaviour. I demonstrate that, in the house sparrow, females mated with infanticidal males re-laid earlier, initiated more breeding attempts and fledged more offspring than females mated with non-infanticidal males. These results suggest that both the time saving and the manipulation of female investment are independent mechanisms conferring advantages that may have selected for male infanticide in the studied population. PMID:12952645

Veiga, José P

2003-01-01

426

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

2001-01-01

427

Patterns of behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and sexual behaviour during postpartum oestrus in prairie voles was monitored using time-lapse videotaping over a period of at least 24 h. Behaviour was measured as a function of the familiarity and social history of the male partner and as a function of the presence or absence of pups. In general, postpartum oestrus was shorter than male-induced oestrus. When

D WITT; C. SUE CARTER; R CHAYER; K ADAMS

1990-01-01

428

Male mate preferences in mutual mate choice: finches modulate their songs across and within male-female interactions.  

PubMed

Male songbirds use song to advertise their attractiveness as potential mates, and the properties of those songs have a powerful influence on female mate preferences. One idea is that males may exert themselves maximally in each song performance, consistent with female evaluation and formation of mate preferences being the primary contributors to mate choice. Alternatively, males may modulate their song behaviour to different degrees in the presence of different females, consistent with both male and female mate preferences contributing to mutual mate choice. Here we consider whether male Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata domestica, express mate preferences at the level of individual females, and whether those preferences are manifest as changes in song behaviour that are sufficient to influence female mate choice. We tested this idea by recording songs performed by individual unmated males during a series of 1 h interactions with each of many unmated females. Across recording sessions, males systematically varied both the quantity and the quality of the songs that they performed to different females. Males also varied their song properties throughout the course of each interaction, and behavioural tests using female birds revealed that songs performed at the onset of each interaction were significantly more attractive than songs performed by the same male later during the same interaction. This demonstration of context-specific variation in the properties of male reproductive signals and a role for that variation in shaping female mate preference reveals that male mate preferences play an important role in mutual mate choice in this species. Because these birds thrive so well in the laboratory and are so amenable to observation and experimentation across generations, these results yield a new model system that may prove especially advantageous in disentangling the role of male and female mate preferences in shaping mutual mate choice and its long-term benefits or consequences. PMID:25242817

Heinig, Abbie; Pant, Santosh; Dunning, Jeffery; Bass, Aaron; Coburn, Zachary; Prather, Jonathan F

2014-10-01

429

Male-male contests for mates, sexual size dimorphism, and sex ratio in a natural population of a solitary parasitoid.  

PubMed

Understanding how different behavioural and life history traits interact is fundamental to developing ethological theory. Here we study the interaction of male-male competition for mates and sexual size dimorphism in a solitary wasp, with implications for sex allocation. In Hymenoptera, females are normally larger than males suggesting that males do not benefit as much as females from larger size. However, in our focal species, a solitary Eurytoma wasp, males compete for mates by pairwise contests at female emergence sites, suggesting that male size may strongly affect fitness. In contests observed in the field, larger males were more likely to win fights, and males fighting at female emergence sites were much larger than average males. Males showed higher variance in body size than females, such that all the smallest individuals were males, a majority of medium-to-large individuals were female, but the majority of largest individuals were male. Our data suggest that sexual size dimorphism in this species has been affected by intra-sexual selection for male size, which may have implications for sex allocation. PMID:23872503

Macedo, Margarete V; Monteiro, Ricardo F; Silveira, Mariana P; Mayhew, Peter J

2013-11-01

430

Modelling behavioural contagion  

PubMed Central

The last decade has seen much work on quantitative understanding of human behaviour, with online social interaction offering the possibility of more precise measurement of behavioural phenomena than was previously possible. A parsimonious model is proposed that incorporates several observed features of behavioural contagion not seen in existing epidemic model schemes, leading to metastable behavioural dynamics. PMID:21325317

House, Thomas

2011-01-01

431

Behavioural characteristics of rapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of past research on rapists has focused on their motives. This paper reports on two studies that investigated the behavioural characteristics of rapists. The first study gathered behavioural data from police rape files to determine the types of behaviours exhibited by 130 men charged with rape. The second study was designed to validate the behavioural clusters found

Marita P. McCabe; Michelle Wauchope

2005-01-01

432

Group courtship, mating behaviour and siphon sac function in the whitetip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed video records of three mating events involving nine free-living whitetip reef sharks in Cocos Islands, Costa Rica to examine reproductive behaviour in this species. We describe several behaviours never before documented in this species, and four behaviours never before documented in any elasmobranch. Here, we also present the first hypothesis for the function of the male's paired reproductive

Nicholas M. Whitney; Harold L. Pratt Jr.; Jeffrey C. Carrier

2004-01-01

433

Behavioural Repertoire of Working Donkeys and Consistency of Behaviour over Time, as a Preliminary Step towards Identifying Pain-Related Behaviours  

PubMed Central

Background The donkey has a reputation for stoicism and its behavioural repertoire in clinical contexts is under-reported. Lack of understanding of the norms of donkey behaviour and how it may vary over time can compromise use of behavioural measures as indicators of pain or emotional state. The objective of this study was to find out whether the behaviour of working donkeys was influenced by gender, the time of day or differed between days with a view to assessing how robust these measures are for inclusion in a working donkey ethogram. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency and consistency of postural and event behaviours were measured in 21 adult working donkeys (12 females; 9 males). Instantaneous (scan) and focal sampling were used to measure maintenance, lying, ingestive and investigative behaviours at hourly intervals for ten sessions on each of two consecutive days. High head carriage and biting were seen more frequently in male donkeys than females (P<0.001). Level head carriage, licking/chewing and head-shaking were observed more frequently in female donkeys (P<0.001). Tail position, ear orientation, foot stamping, rolling/lying and head-shaking behaviours were affected by time of day (P<0.001). However, only two variations in ear orientation were found to be significantly different over the two days of observations (P<0.001). Tail swishing, head shaking, foot stamping, and ears held sideways and downwards were significantly correlated (P<0.001) and are assumed to be behaviours to discourage flies. Conclusions/Significance All donkeys expressed an extensive behavioural repertoire, although some differences in behaviour were evident between genders. While most behaviours were consistent over time, some behaviours were influenced by time of day. Few behaviours differed between the two test days. The findings can be used to inform the development of a robust, evidence-based ethogram for working donkeys. PMID:25076209

Regan, Fran H.; Hockenhull, Jo; Pritchard, Joy C.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Whay, Helen R.

2014-01-01

434

Social experience modulates ocular dominance plasticity differentially in adult male and female mice.  

PubMed

Environmental factors have long been known to regulate brain plasticity. We investigated the potential influence of social experience on ocular dominance plasticity. Fully adult female or male mice were monocularly deprived for four days and kept a) either alone or in pairs of the same sex and b) either in a small cage or a large, featureless arena. While mice kept alone did not show ocular dominance plasticity, no matter whether in a cage or in an arena, paired female mice in both environmental conditions displayed a shift of ocular dominance towards the open eye. Paired male mice, in contrast, showed no plasticity in the cage, but a very strong ocular dominance shift in the arena. This effect was not due to increased locomotion, since the covered distance was similar in single and paired male mice in the arena, and furnishing cages with a running wheel did not enable ocular dominance plasticity in cage-housed mice. Confirming recent results in rats, the plasticity-enhancing effect of the social environment was shown to be mediated by serotonin. Our results demonstrate that social experience has a strong effect on cortical plasticity that is sex-dependent. This has potential consequences both for animal research and for human education and rehabilitation. PMID:25173416

Balog, Jenny; Matthies, Ulrike; Naumann, Lisa; Voget, Mareike; Winter, Christine; Lehmann, Konrad

2014-12-01

435

Joan of Arc meets Mary Poppins: maternal re-nurturing approaches with male patients in Ego-State Therapy.  

PubMed

Many patients with posttraumatic fragmentation demonstrate a positive response to the corrective possibilities provided through Ego-State Therapy. However, full resolution of presenting symptoms may not occur for individuals with significant childhood histories of parental abuse and neglect without opposite sex, as well as same sex, re-nurturing interventions. This presentation emphasizes the use of maternal re-nurturing methods with men who struggle with the effects of significant attachment deficits in early life. Case examples feature male patients with long-term difficulties in their adult relationships with women that had proved refractory to other therapy methods. Following Ego-State Therapy interventions with maternal symbolic figures, however, these problems improved dramatically. Therapeutic implications for cross-gender re-nurturing with patients who report different types of maternal attachment trauma are explored and discussed. PMID:15376604

Phillips, Maggie

2004-07-01

436

Context Consistency and Seasonal Variation in Boldness of Male Two-Spotted Gobies  

PubMed Central

In order to attribute the behaviour of an animal to its personality it is important to study whether certain behavioural traits show up consistently across a variety of contexts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether breeding state males of the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, showed consistent degree of boldness when tested in four different behaviour assays. We also wanted to investigate whether boldness varied over the breeding season in accordance with changes in male-male competition for matings. We used two standard assays (the emergence test and the open field test), and two simple assays related to threat response. Repeated runs of each of the tests were highly correlated, and we found significant correlations between all four assays. Thus, we have documented both a within and a between-context consistency in risk-taking behaviour. Furthermore, we found that goby males studied during the middle of the breeding season were bolder than males studied at the end of the season. Since male two-spotted gobies face strongly decreasing male-male competition as the season progresses, the benefit of being bold for the mating success of the males may differ over the time of the breeding season. The difference in behaviour found over the season thus corresponds well with the sexual dynamics of this model species. PMID:24671255

Magnhagen, Carin; Wacker, Sebastian; Forsgren, Elisabet; Cats Myhre, Lise; Espy, Elizabeth; Amundsen, Trond

2014-01-01

437

Paternal care enhances male reproductive success in pine engraver beetles.  

PubMed

Male pine engravers, Ips pini, assist their mates during reproduction by clearing debris from breeding galleries constructed beneath the bark of host trees. I measured duration of parental care provided by individual male pine engravers in the field, as well as the reproductive success of these males as indicated by the total number of eggs laid in their galleries and the mean distance between the eggs. Males remained in their galleries for 13-54 days (N=78, X+/-SE=33.0+/-0.9 days). Male residence time was positively correlated with the mean distance between eggs in a gallery, as well as the total number of eggs laid in a gallery when the effect of male length was controlled statistically. Male-removal experiments corroborated these effects of male care on reproductive success, and showed that female mortality was higher in galleries from which the male had been removed than in controls. Duration of male care was inversely related to breeding density and male length. Despite remaining for less time in their galleries, larger males acquired the biggest harems. There was a positive correlation between the length of a male and the number of eggs laid per female, but this was not due to size-assortative mating. Because large male size is associated with a number of traits that are advantageous for securing mating opportunities, earlier departure from the gallery by larger males may be a consequence of those males having greater opportunities for future reproduction. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784207

Robertson

1998-09-01

438

Alternative reproductive tactics in the territorial damselfly Calopteryx maculata : sneaking by older males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We conducted daily censuses on a marked population of the damselflyCalopteryx maculata for two complete breeding seasons to document the reproductive tactics of individual males. Overall, 78% of the 600 males\\u000a studied defended territories and 14% of those territorial males were also observed engaged in sneaking behaviour on some days.\\u000a When sneaking, males did not defend territories but attempted to

Adrian Forsyth; Robert D. Montgomerie

1987-01-01

439

Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.  

PubMed

Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

2008-05-01

440

Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23853554

Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

2013-01-01

441

High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.  

PubMed

Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n?=?493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n?=?68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species. PMID:23285226

Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

2012-01-01

442

High Proportion of Male Faeces in Jaguar Populations  

PubMed Central

Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n?=?493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n?=?68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species. PMID:23285226

Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

2012-01-01

443

Frequency matching, overlapping and movement behaviour in diurnal countersinging interactions of black-capped chickadees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal signalling contests are used by males to advertise to choosy females and to repel male competitors. During countersinging interactions in songbirds, males vary the type and timing of songs with respect to their opponent's behaviour. In black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus, frequency matching and song overlapping appear to be important in territory defence and mate attraction. We studied frequency matching

Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Jennifer R. Foote; Laurene M. Ratcliffe; Daniel J. Mennill

2008-01-01

444

A Meta-Analysis of Developmental Outcomes for Children of Same-Sex and Heterosexual Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there has been a recent upsurge in the number of studies related to children raised by gay and lesbian parents, the literature in this area continues to be small and wrought with limitations. This study presents a meta-analysis of the existing research and focuses on the developmental outcomes and quality of parent–child relationships among children raised by gay and

Alicia Crowl; Soyeon Ahn; Jean Baker

2008-01-01

445

76 FR 11684 - Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...relationship that would constitute a common-law marriage in jurisdictions recognizing common-law marriages; (2) For purposes of this section, the...were of opposite sex, would prohibit legal marriage in the U.S. jurisdiction in which...

2011-03-03

446

The Fiscal Impact of Extending Federal Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners  

E-print Network

Office of Personnel Management website, FERS -- Federal Employees Retirement System (Office of Personnel Management website, FERS -- Federal Employees Retirement System (System can be found at the Office of Personnel Management

Goldberg, Naomi G; Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee

2008-01-01

447

Same-Sex Schooling. The Progress of Education Reform, 2007. Volume 7, Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In November 2006, the U.S. Department of Education issued new rules making it easier for schools and districts to use gender-separate classes, programs and activities as a strategy for enhancing educational achievement and opportunity. Education Secretary Margaret Spellings described the revised Title IX regulations as part of a greater effort to…

Weiss, Suzanne

2007-01-01

448

Between same-sex marriages and the Large Hadron Collider: making sense of the precautionary principle.  

PubMed

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

2010-09-01

449

Something Old, Something New: Civic Virtue and the Case for Same-Sex Marriage  

E-print Network

of marriage and the family on the relationship that existsrelationships and to pursue goods associated with family life and marriage." 'relationships are affirmatively good and should be legitimized in the law. II: FAMILY LIFE, MARRIAGE, AND

Graham, Tiffany C.

2008-01-01

450

Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

2007-01-01

451

Technical report: coparent or second-parent adoption by same-sex parents.  

PubMed

A growing body of scientific literature demonstrates that children who grow up with 1 or 2 gay and/or lesbian parents fare as well in emotional, cognitive, social, and sexual functioning as do children whose parents are heterosexual. Children's optimal development seems to be influenced more by the nature of the relationships and interactions within the family unit than by the particular structural form it takes. PMID:11826220

Perrin, Ellen C

2002-02-01

452

Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of scientific literature demonstrates that children who grow up with 1 or 2 gay and\\/or lesbian parents fare as well in emotional, cogni- tive, social, and sexual functioning as do children whose parents are heterosexual. Children's optimal develop- ment seems to be influenced more by the nature of the relationships and interactions within the family unit than

Ellen C. Perrin

453

?AD? Hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: Evidence of Same-Sex Mating in Nature and Hybrid Fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types\\/sexes, ? and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT) ? over a in C. neoformans populations limits ?–a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans

Xiaorong Lin; Anastasia P Litvintseva; Kirsten Nielsen; Sweta Patel; Anna Floyd; Thomas G Mitchell; Joseph Heitman

2007-01-01

454

Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects

Jorge Gato; Anne Marie Fontaine

2012-01-01

455

Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genealogy can illuminate the evolutionary path of important human pathogens. In some microbes, strict clonal reproduction predominates, as with the worldwide dissemination of Mycobacterium leprae, the cause of leprosy. In other pathogens, sexual reproduction yields clones with novel attributes, for example, enabling the efficient, oral transmission of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. However, the roles of clonal or sexual propagation in

James A. Fraser; Steven S. Giles; Emily C. Wenink; Scarlett G. Geunes-Boyer; Jo Rae Wright; Stephanie Diezmann; Andria Allen; Jason E. Stajich; Fred S. Dietrich; John R. Perfect; Joseph Heitman

2005-01-01

456

Suspicious Closets: Strengthening the Claim to Suspect Classification and Same-Sex Marriage Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since gay marriage was legalized in Massachusetts in 2003, the gay marriage debate has consumed much of the American political conscience. While many important questions concerning equal protection, the institution of marriage, and modern conceptions of family have been asked, few have stopped to question what (aside from Judeo-Christian moral issues) makes homosexuals so wrong—so undeserving of the right

Margaret Bichler

2008-01-01

457

The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal  

E-print Network

Why bother with fully rigorous proofs when one can very quickly get semi-rigorous ones? Yes, yes, we know how to get a "rigorous" proof of the result stated in the title of this article. One way is the boring, human one, citing some heavy guns of theorems that already exist in the literature. We also know how to get a fully rigorous proof automatically, using the methods in this http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/mamarim/mamarimhtml/georgy.htm neat article (but it would be a little more complicated, since the probability generating polynomial is not "closed form" but satisfies a second-order recurrence gotten from the Zeilberger algorithm), otherwise the same method would work, alas, it is not yet implemented. Instead, we chose to use the great Maple package http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/tokhniot/HISTABRUT">HISTABRUT(in fact, a very tiny part of it, procedure AlphaSeq), explained in this other http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/mamarim/mamarimhtml/histabrut.html">neat article, and get a semi-rig...

Ekhad, Shalosh B

2011-01-01

458

Secularism, Multiculturalism and Same-Sex Marriage: A Comment on Brenda Almond's "Education for Tolerance"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Almond argues that the contemporary West has lost touch with the value of tolerance, I argue that that value applied to those of different religions and sexual orientations is too minimal a standard for a pluralistic society. I suggest, in the spirit of the work of Charles Taylor and Tariq Modood, the more robust standard of respect and…

Blum, Lawrence

2010-01-01

459

Internalized Heterosexism and Same-Sex Attraction as Predictors of Sexual Orientation Identity  

E-print Network

Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals in America continue to face discrimination and prejudice. As a consequence, many LGB individuals internalize negative thoughts and feelings about homosexuality, known as internalized ...

LaFollette, Alison

2013-01-01

460

Then and Now: Recruitment, Definition, Diversity, and Positive Attributes of Same-Sex Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not my intent to critique individual contributions in this special issue but to assess scholarly progress since the last special issue devoted to sexual orientation in Developmental Psychology (Patterson, 1995). Because not all steps forward can be catalogued in this limited forum, I focus on several long-standing challenges faced by…

Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

2008-01-01

461

Male child sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Up to 92,000 male children report sexual abuse each year, and as many as 31% of all male children under age 18 years experience sexual molestation. Male child sexual abuse is now believed to be a far more common occurrence than it once was. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a key position to prevent and recognize the sexual exploitation of male children. This article addresses the incidence of male child sexual abuse, the psychological and physical ramifications for the child, and the roles and responsibilities of the clinician, including interview, physical and psychological assessment, legal aspects of reporting, and referral. Prevention techniques in a primary care setting are also discussed. PMID:10531903

Moody, C W

1999-01-01

462

Proteomic Changes between Male and Female Worms of the Polychaetous Annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata before and after Spawning  

PubMed Central

The Neanthesacuminata species complex (Polychaeta) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Neanthesarenaceodentata, Southern California member of the N. acuminata complex, has been widely used as toxicological test animal in the marine environment. Method of reproduction is unique in this polychaete complex. Same sexes fight and opposite sexes lie side by side until egg laying. Females lose about 75% of their weight and die after laying eggs. The male, capable of reproducing up to nine times, fertilizes the eggs and incubates the embryos for 3-4 weeks. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any set of proteins that influences this unique pattern of reproduction. Gel-based two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and gel-free quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify differential protein expression patterns before and after spawning in both male and female N. arenaceodentata. Males showed a higher degree of similarity in protein expression patterns but females showed large changes in phosphoproteme before and after spawning. There was a decrease (about 70%) in the number of detected phosphoproteins in spent females. The proteins involved in muscular development, cell signaling, structure and integrity, and translation were differentially expressed. This study provides proteomic insights of the male and female worms that may serve as a foundation for better understanding of unusual reproductive patterns in polychaete worms. PMID:24023665

Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Ravasi, Timothy; Reish, Donald; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2013-01-01

463

Rates of Self-Reported Delinquency among Western Australian Male and Female High School Students: The Male-Female Gender Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (ASDS) was administered to 328 adolescents (174 males and 154 females) from eight high schools in Perth, Western Australia. The ages of the sample ranged from 13 to 17 years. Males reported a greater percentage level of involvement than females in 36 of 40 individual delinquent behaviours comprising the…

Houghton, Stephen; Tan, Carol; Khan, Umneea; Carroll, Annemaree

2013-01-01

464

Effects of acute corticosterone treatment on partner preferences in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).  

PubMed

Stress alters physiology and behavior across species. Most research on the effects of stress on behavior uses chronic stressors, and most are correlational. The effects of acute stressors on physiology and behavior have been mixed. Here, we use zebra finches, a highly gregarious species that forms long-term pair bonds, to test the effects of an acute corticosterone (CORT) on opposite-sex partner preferences over a same-sex individual or a group (the latter is a highly appealing option). We had two competing hypotheses. First, we predicted that acute CORT would alter preferences for the opposite sex bird in both conditions in both sexes. However, since there is a sex difference in the effects of CORT on partner preferences in voles, these effects may be more pronounced in males than in females. To test our hypotheses, we administered 2 doses of CORT (10?g and 20?g) or vehicle (control) using a repeated measures design. In the male vs. female test, there was a significant Sex by Treatment interaction, such that in males, 10?g CORT increased preferences for a female over the male compared to when these same males were treated with saline at baseline. There were no effects of treatment in females. In the opposite-sex vs. group condition, there was an overall effect of Treatment, such that the 10?g dose increased preference for the opposite-sex individual over both saline treatments, regardless of sex. These findings further our understanding of the effects of an acute stressor on sexual partner preferences. PMID:24530631

LaPlante, Kimberly A; Huremovic, Enida; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

2014-04-01

465

Forebrain gene expression predicts deficits in sensorimotor gating after isolation rearing in male rats  

PubMed Central

Compared to socially housed (SH) rats, adult isolation-reared (IR) rats exhibit phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia (SZ), including reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle. PPI is normally regulated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAC). We assessed PPI, auditory-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) and expression of 7 PPI- and SZ-related genes in the mPFC and NAC, in IR and SH rats. Buffalo (BUF) rats were raised in same-sex groups of 2–3 (SH) or in isolation (IR). PPI was measured early (d53) and later in adulthood (d74); LFPs were measured approximately on d66. Brains were processed for RT-PCR measures of mPFC and NAC expression of Comt, Erbb4, Grid2, Ncam1, Slc1a2, Nrg1 and Reln. Male IR rats exhibited PPI deficits, most pronounced at d53; male and female IR rats had significantly elevated startle magnitude on both test days. Gene expression levels were not significantly altered by IR. PPI levels (d53) were positively correlated with mPFC expression of several genes, and negatively correlated with NAC expression of several genes, in male IR but not SH rats. Late (P90) LFP amplitudes correlated significantly with expression levels of 6/7 mPFC genes in male rats, independent of rearing. After IR that disrupts early adult PPI in male BUF rats, expression levels of PPI- and SZ-associated genes in the mPFC correlate positively with PPI, and levels in the NAC correlate negatively with PPI. These results support the model that specific gene-behavior relationships moderate the impact of early-life experience on SZ-linked behavioral and neurophysiological markers. PMID:24076151

Swerdlow, Neal R.; Light, Gregory A.; Trim, Ryan S.; Breier, Michelle R.; Hines, Samantha R.; Powell, Susan B.

2013-01-01

466

Males on guard: paternity defences in violet-green swallows and tree swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity-defence behaviour in two congeners, violet-green swallows,Tachycineta thalassina, and tree swallows,T. bicolor, was compared to identify ecological factors that influence how males avoid being cuckolded. Measurements of the proportion of time that mates spent together, their following behaviour and the rate of within-pair copulations revealed that male violet-green swallows allocated more time to guarding mates than nests and copulated with

BARBARA A. BEASLEY

1996-01-01

467

Testosterone a¡ects reproductive success by in£uencing extra-pair fertilizations in male dark-eyed juncos (Aves: Junco hyemalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Monogamous male birds typically allocate less e¡ort to courtship and more to parental behaviour than males of polygynous species. The seasonal pattern of testosterone (T) secretion varies accordingly. Mono- gamous males exhibit a spring peak in plasmaT followed by lower levels during the parental phase, while males of polygynous species continue to court females and maintain T at higher

SAMRRAH A. RAOUF; PATRICIA G. PARKER; ELLEN D. KETTERSON; VAL NOLAN JR; CHARLES ZIEGENFUS

468

Song predicts immunocompetence in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis, sexually selected characteristics predict immune function and this relationship is mediated by testosterone. In the present study, we investigated whether bird song could predict immunity in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We recorded the singing and reproductive behaviours of 16 adult male starlings in an outdoor aviary and then assessed their cell-mediated and humoral immunity

Deborah L. Duffy; Gregory F. Ball

2002-01-01

469

Early maternal investment in male and female African elephant calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suckling behaviour of 130 freeranging elephant calves aged between birth and 4.5 years old was examined in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Analyses of frequencies of suckling and durations of suckling bouts showed that males attempted to suckle more often, were more successful at their attempts, and as a result were estimated to have a higher milk intake than did

Phyllis C. Lee; Cynthia J. Moss

1986-01-01

470

Prenatal Testosterone Levels in XXY and XYY Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that behavioural differences between normal males and those with an additional X or Y chromosome may be related to pre- or postnatal hormonal variations. The prenatal hormone status was investigated using amniotic fluid obtained at antenatal diagnosis between 16 and 20 weeks gestation from fetuses with sex chromosome abnormalities and from controls of the same gestational

Shirley G. Ratcliffe; Graham Read; Huiqi Pan; Claudine Fear; Richard Lindenbaum; Jennifer Crossley

1994-01-01

471

Short Amplexus Duration in a Territorial Anuran: A Possible Adaptation in Response to Male-Male Competition  

PubMed Central

Mating duration is a reproductive behaviour that can impact fertilization efficiency and offspring number. Previous studies of factors influencing the evolution of mating duration have focused on the potential role of internal sperm competition as an underlying source of selection; most of these studies have been on invertebrates. For vertebrates with external fertilization, such as fishes and frogs, the sources of selection acting on mating duration remain largely unknown due, in part, to the difficulty of observing complete mating behaviours in natural conditions. In this field study, we monitored breeding activity in a population of the territorial olive frog, Rana adenopleura, to identify factors that affect the duration of amplexus. Compared with most other frogs, amplexus was short, lasting less than 11 min on average, which included about 8 min of pre-oviposition activity followed by 3 min of oviposition. We evaluated the relationship between amplexus duration and seven variables: male body size, male condition, operational sex ratio (OSR), population size, clutch size, territory size, and the coverage of submerged vegetation in a male’s territory. We also investigated the influence of these same variables, along with amplexus duration, on fertilization rate. Amplexus duration was positively related with clutch size and the degree of male-bias in the nightly OSR. Fertilization rate was directly related to male body size and inversely related to amplexus duration. Agonistic interactions between males in amplexus and intruding, unpaired males were frequent. These interactions often resulted in mating failure, prolonged amplexus duration, and reduced fertilization rates. Together, the pattern of our findings indicates short amplexus duration in this species may be an adaptive reproductive strategy whereby males attempt to reduce the risks of mating and fertilization failures and territory loss resulting from male-male competition. PMID:24340089

Chuang, Ming-Feng; Bee, Mark A.; Kam, Yeong-Choy

2013-01-01

472

Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulating effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by a conventional mobile phone (MP) on male sexual behaviour have not yet been analyzed. Therefore, we studied these effects in 18 male rabbits that were randomly divided into phone and control groups. Six female teasers were taken successively to the male's cage and the copulatory behavior was recorded. Serum total

N Salama; T Kishimoto; H-o Kanayama; S Kagawa

2010-01-01

473

Multiple mating in Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Calopterygidae) and the advantage of non-contact guarding by males  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. (1)Both males and females in a population of Calopteryx maculata mated more than once in the course of a single afternoon. The possibility that females might mate with an intruder or with a neighbouring territory owner may have favoured the evolution of guarding behaviour by males. Territorial males employed non-contact guarding of their mates. They perched on vegetation overlooking

John Alcock

1979-01-01