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Extradyadic sex is a significant source of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men in same-sex relationships. Nonmonogamous sexual agreements are common among malesame-sex couples and may serve as effective targets for risk reduction interventions; however, there is a dearth of research reporting on the social and cultural determinants of explicit nonmonogamous agreements. In this study, it was
Utilizing six different gay couples this article illustrates salient issues relevant to Latino cross-cultural same-sexmale relationships. It emphasizes issues of both similarities and differences in terms of ethnicity, race, class, language, and other domains of influence. It conveys the potential danger of conceptualizing Latinos as members of a same race group, or as a homogeneous group. Furthermore, it identifies
Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods: Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003–7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. Results: A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003–7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of “sex with a man in last 12 months” between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. Conclusions: A considerable number of new studies with estimates of relevance to understanding sexual behaviour and HIV among MSM were identified, with an encouraging amount of new data coming from sub-Saharan Africa. However, limitations in the quality, utility and comparability of available information persist. At least three measures could be promoted for use in surveillance and academic studies: standardised indicators for MSM studies; standardised operational definitions of, and instructions to describe, variables; and standardised research designs and data gathering strategies. A prerequisite for this all is intense advocacy to ensure a social climate in which research into such matters is prioritised, resources are made available as needed and the human rights of MSM are respected.
Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter.
Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Bush, Stephanie L.; Robison, Bruce H.
To date, there is limited published data on same-sexmale couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sexmale couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sexmale couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sexmale couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. PMID:23768615
Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than
Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health. PMID:21816858
The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of malesame-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362
Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo
This qualitative study examines received social support by analyzing relationship dynamics concerning antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV+ seroconcordant and serodiscordant male couples. Using narrative data from forty participants (20 couples interviewed separately), we describe patterns of relationship dynamics and support preferences. One group viewed adherence as a Personal Responsibility. A second group viewed adherence as a Couple Responsibility and integrated support for medication adherence into the relationship. A third group was in the process of ending their relationships and adherence support was one-sided or withdrawn altogether. Examining support exchanges contexts at cultural, situational, relational, and personal levels illuminated adherence processes. Qualitative methods provided a framework for investigating these complex relationships and their associations with HIV treatment adherence.
Wrubel, Judith; Stumbo, Scott; Johnson, Mallory O.
Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. PMID:22906124
Objective: To examine the relationship between the number of male sexual partners of adolescent males and the frequency of victimization at school, missed school because of fear, used drugs at school, and engagement of fighting and weapon carrying both in and out of school.Study design: Sexually active male adolescents (N = 3886) in 8th through 12th grades were administered the
Robert H. DuRant; Daniel P. Krowchuk; Sara H. Sinal
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However,
David A. Moskowitz; Gerulf Rieger; Michael E. Roloff
Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996
Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E
Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class?type differences. Participants were 546 adolescents (289 males, 257 females) who were in same?sex or coeducational
Legalizing marriage for same-sex couples has become a topic of more and more debate since last summer’s U.S. Supreme Court decision in Lawrence v. Texas. It has even advanced to the stage where many state governments are looking at their legislation and how the term “marriage” is legally defined. In addition, our nation’s president is considering the proposal of an
This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as
This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field. PMID:15189788
This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) malesame-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…
|This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) malesame-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…
Does the fundamental right to marry obligate the state to make the institution of marriage available to samesex couples? I argue yes, it does. The right to marry is unique, composed of both negative and positive liberties. While the government has protected the privacy of samesex couples, this liberty is incomplete without affirmative recognition of the relationship in
|In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…
|Examines three cases of same-sex sexual harassment claims recognized by the courts under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, including both heterosexual and homosexual incidents involving men and women. Focus is on common threads in the three cases, arguments of the traditional courts, and college and university management of same-sex…
Five hundred unmarried male and female college students were administered a questionnaire and instructed to rate the importance of 39 variables in the formation of an intimate, same-sex friendship. Six factors emerged: Initial attraction, personableness, proximity, attitudinal similarity, intimate accessibility, and reciprocal candor. (BD)
At a time when heterosexual marriage rates are declining, many countries and localities are advocating for the rights of lesbians and gay men to enter legalized relationships, including marriage. This article reviews the legal status of same-sex relationships in the U.S. and other countries. Not only does the general public have mixed opinions about same-sex marriage, but so do lesbian
[From Summary] Massachusetts became the first state to legalize marriage between same-sex couples May 17, as a result of a November 2003 decision by the state's highest court that denying gay and lesbian couples the right to marry violated the state's constitution. Currently federal law does not recognize same-sex marriages. This report discusses the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), P.L.
[Excerpt] The recognition of same-sex marriages generates debate on both the federal and state levels. Either legislatively or judicially, same-sex marriage is legal in seven states. Other states allow civil unions or domestic partnerships, which grant all or part of state-level rights, benefits, and\\/or responsibilities of marriage. Some states have statutes or constitutional amendments limiting marriage to one man and
This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage affects the understanding of same-sex romantic relationships for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. Participants (N= 288) responded to an open-ended Web-based survey asking them to describe how legally recognized same-sex marriage influenced their view of their own romantic relationship or romantic relationships in general. Results indicate that
This article addresses the charged slippery slope accusation that permitting same-sex marriage will inevitably lead to the legalization of polygamy. While same-sex marriage advocates generally distance their cause from polygamy and its disparaging history when responding to such accusations, this article determines whether that response is appropriate, or alternatively, whether the same-sex marriage movement could benefit from linkages between polygamy
In the spring of 2009, the legislatures of Connecticut, Maine, \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009New Hampshire, and Vermont became the first in the United States to enact laws \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009recognizing the legality of same-sex civil marriage. The legislation in all four states included \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009provisions designed to protect the freedom of clergy and religious communities \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009that do not want to recognize same-sex marriage. The legislation in
Conventional theory regarding externalities and personal choices implies that in the absence of negative externalities, there is no economic rationale for government to regulate or ban those choices. We evaluate whether legally recognizing (or prohibiting) same-sex marriage has any adverse impact on societal outcomes specifically related to \\
|In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
The Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM) has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure when used with heterosexual participants (Pearl & Galupo, 2007). The present research sought to establish the psychometric properties of the ATSM with a sexual minority population, compare bisexual women and men's ATSM scores with those of lesbians and gay men, and to explore
This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage affects the understanding of same-sex romantic relationships for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. Participants (N = 288) responded to an open-ended Web-based survey asking them to describe how legally recognized same-sex marriage influenced their view of their own romantic relationship or romantic relationships in general. Results indicate that legally recognized same-sex marriage impacted participants' understanding of romantic relationships by making existing relationships seem more real and by serving as a tool through which participants realized their desires for ideal potential partner and relationship characteristics. The results suggest that legally recognized same-sex marriage is seen as both beneficial and challenging for samesex couples. PMID:18032290
Although youthful homoeroticism has been documented by artisans, poets, and historians for thousands of years, it was not\\u000a until the early 1970s that American scientists—primarily medical researchers and mental health professionals—began systematically\\u000a studying a newly recognized clinical group they classified as “gay youth.” Casting doubt on earlier interpretations that adolescent\\u000a same-sex encounters were experimental events that were temporary derailments from
Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…
|We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay malesame-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…
|Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…
The current research examined the hypothesis that males derive greater benefits than females do from cooperation with same-sex peers versus parents. In Study 1, 194 children, early adolescents, older adolescents, and adults from Brussels, Belgium predicted whether parents or same-sex peers would provide more benefits to a typical individual of their same age and sex. Results showed that at all
Joyce F. Benenson; Québec à Montréal; Henry Markovits
This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents' acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents' attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403
Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Merry, Michael S; Sandfort, Theo G M
In this study we interviewed members of a small, predominantly Muslim community in Johannesburg, South Africa, in order to ascertain attitudes towards people who engage in same-sex practices. We were interested in ascertaining whether community perceptions of homosexuality match the common (Western) assumption that Islam is profoundly homophobic. Our research, while preliminary, shows that although most people condemn same-sex practices on the grounds of religious principle, they also in practice did not act upon these views. Respondents held different views on whether a person is gay or lesbian as result of same-sexbehaviour, on the one hand, or same-sex desire, on the other hand. This distinction accords with what was, for them, the difficulty of proving the same-sex practices had occurred given strict Muslim standards of proof. Community attitudes to homosexuality usually involve denial and secrecy in order to maintain the social fabric of daily life and relationships between community members. PMID:22081952
Using multiple regression techniques, this research examines the relationship of gender and of masculinity— femininity to self-reported emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship among male and female college students, a segment of the population for which friendship is thought to be of particular salience. Findings indicate that, as hypothesized, males report significantly lower levels of emotional intimacy in same-sex friendship than
Psychoanalysis should attend to same-sex marriage for two reasons: (1) Exclusion from marriage harms the mental health of same-sex couples and their children and (2) psychoanalysis is the science of irrationality, and the arguments about same-sex marriage are often highly irrational. The arguments against same-sex marriage, made by senior judges in the United States, are best understood by the von
A growing number of countries have introduced a form of marriage or civil partnership registration for samesex couples. Marriage confers health benefits on heterosexual men and women and similar benefits could arise from samesex civil unions. The authors argue that legal and social recognition of samesex relationships may reduce discrimination, increase the stability of samesex relationships, and lead to better physical and mental health for gay and lesbian people.
Limited research has looked at the distribution of multiple categories of children under the age of 18 residing in same-sex unmarried and same-sex spousal households. This paper specifically examines the socio-demographic characteristics of same-sex coupl...
We used 1990 Census data to compare the matching behaviors of four types of cohabiting couples: same-sexmale couples, same-sex female couples, opposite-sex unmarried couples, and married couples. In general, we found evidence of positive assortative mating for all traits and across all types of couples. The positive assortative mating, however, is stronger for non-labormarket traits (e.g., age, education) than
This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957
Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk. PMID:22505839
Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk.
Purpose – Following the landmark 2003 Ontario Court of Appeal decision legalizing same-sex marriage, some same-sex couples sought to formalize their unions through legal marriage. The purpose of this paper is to explore the personal and political reflections of recently married same-sex couples on the meaning of their marriages for themselves, their partners, their community as well as the implications
This paper examines the issue of same-sex marriage in Australia, from both legal and social perspectives. First, it places the marriage debate in its Australian context, noting the ways in which same-sex relationships have been recognised in Australia other than through marriage. Second, it assesses some of the legal constraints on recognition of same-sex marriage, in particular the current statutory
The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927
Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre
Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring–summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles.
Beery, Annaliese K.; Routman, David M.; Zucker, Irving
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics …
The recognition of same-sex marriages generates debate on both the federal and state levels. Either legislatively or judicially, same-sex marriage is legal in seven states. Other states allow civil unions or domestic partnerships, which grant all or part ...
While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage.
Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several states offer partner-benefit programs. Studying the effect of these various forms of unions on children could inform the debate over gay marriage to the benefit of all sides of the argument. PMID:16158732
This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was
Kimberly F. Balsam; Theodore P. Beauchaine; Esther D. Rothblum; Sondra E. Solomon
|This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…
Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:22167814
This study was designed to examine ongoing close friendships among same-sex adults. An analysis of frequency and depth of conversational topics was undertaken. The self-reports of female participants showed that they converse more frequently than the male participants about intimate topics and daily and shared activities. Sex differences on depth of topic discussion also emerged, with females reporting greater depth
|Used data from National Educational Longitudinal Study (with 3,483 and 409 eighth graders living in mother-only and father-only homes, respectively) to test whether children in single-parent homes fare better living with same-sex parent. Of 35 social psychological and educational outcomes studied, found none in which both males and females…
The paper discusses the development and application of a survey questionnaire for researching domestic violence in samesex relationships. A feminist epistemological approach was used to construct an instrument geared to explore how processes of gendering and power might operate in similar or different ways in abusive lesbian, gay male or heterosexual relationships, while taking into account a range of
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents
Thedebateoversame-sexmarriageintheUnitedStatesisfundamentallyadisagreementaboutthenatureofdemocraticcitizenship andthemeaningoffullinclusionofadultcitizensinthepolity.Thefactsthatmarriagehasbothprivateandpublicdimensions,and is described by policy makers as natural and unchanging even as they write laws to define it create confusion among those who publicly contest same-sex marriage. The feminist critique of marriage provides insight on the issue; its critique, along with the questions raised by same-sex marriage, indicates a need to rethink many aspects of the legal regulation of
This article examines sex discrimination arguments in recent same-sex marriage cases. Since 1993, when the Hawaii Supreme Court held in Baehr v. Lewin that denying same-sex couples the right to marry could state a claim of sex discrimination, every state high court to consider the issue has rejected the claim. But many recent decisions have in fact relied upon sex-based
Deborah A. Widiss; Elizabeth Rosenblatt; Douglas NeJaime
The national same-sex marriage debate has been dominated for the past decade by the interstate recognition issue. This article seeks to shift the focus of the debate to same-sex marriage prohibitions themselves and their incompatibility with several limitations of federal constitutional law.\\u000aAfter showing the legal irrelevance of the Defense of Marriage Act to the interstate recognition issue, the article
While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage. PMID:20596244
In many species, male mating behaviour is corre- lated with male body size, with large males often being preferred by females. Small surface-dwelling Poecilia mex- icana males compensate for this disadvantage by being more sexually active and using sneaky copulations. In a cave-dwelling population, however, small males do not show this behaviour. Do small males alter their behaviour in the
This is a cross-cultural ethnographical description of same-sex sexual behavior of male sexuality among slums dwellers (working class) and university students (middle class) in three cities: Florianópolis (Brazil), Istanbul (Turkey), and Bangkok (Thailand). The main goal of this study is to describe the similar aspects and issues of homosexual ghettos in urban environments of developing countries where two basic same-sex
While Canada's Civil Marriage Act assures same-sex couples the right to equality of treatment before the law and challenges provincial authority to make revisions in areas of family policy that abrogate that equality, there is a long way to go before that legislation can ensure equality of treatment by the many professions with legislative mandates to serve families. This study
|This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.
This study investigated the relation of adolescent same-sex attraction to "successful development" (Baltes, P. B., "Am. Psychol." 32:366-380, 1997). Based on a survey of high-school adolescents, four groups were defined according to the nature of self-reported sexual attraction: exclusively heterosexual (EHA; n=3594); mostly heterosexual (MHA;…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony R.
The goal of this article is to analyze the relationship between religion, measured in terms of religious affiliation and religiosity, and public opinion about same-sex marriage, civil unions, and a federal constitutional amendment that would prohibit gay marriage. Copyright (c) 2006 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.
We examine racial differences in support for same-sex marriage, and test whether the emerging black-white gap is a function of religiosity. We explore how religious factors play a crucial role in racial differences, and how secular factors have varying effects on attitudes for whites and African Americans. Copyright (c) 2010 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.
Darren E. Sherkat; Kylan Mattias de Vries; Stacia Creek
The present study provides an investigation into patterns in divorce risks of partners in same-sex marriages, or registered partnerships, in Norway and Sweden. A comparison with patterns in divorce risks in heterosexual marriages is provided. Our study is based on longitudinal information from the population registers of the two countries, covering all persons in partnerships. Our demographic analyses involve information
Gunnar Andersson; Turid Noack; Ane Seierstad; Harald Weedon-Fekjær
Before 2005, the Constitution of Uganda provided in Article 31(1) that ‘men and women of the age of eighteen years and above have the right to marry and to found a family ….’ In 2005, Article 31 was amended by inserting clause (2a) to the effect that ‘marriage between persons of the samesex is prohibited’. The author gives a
|Children in traditional families (i.e., married, 2 biological parents) tend to do better than their peers in nontraditional families. An exception to this pattern appears to be children from same-sex parent families. Children with lesbian mothers or gay fathers do not exhibit the poorer outcomes typically associated with nontraditional families.…
By unanimous vote, the seven justices of the California Supreme Court ruled on August 12 in Lockyer v. City and County of San Francisco, 95 P.3d 459, 17 Cal. Rptr. 3d 225, that local of- ficials in San Francisco could not unilaterally defy the state's marriage law and issue licenses to same-sex couples. Suggesting that \\
Arthur S. Leonard; Ian Chesir-Teran; Allen Drexel; Joseph Griffin; Alan J. Jacobs; Steven Kolodny; Sharon McGowan; Daniel R Schaffer; Audrey E. Weinberger; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong
A second temporal pathway has been composed by social groups concerned with the extension of civil rights law. The social construction of legal meanings that provided expansive equal protection logic to plaintiffs demanding recognition of same-sex marriage has been energetically opposed by some conservative social movements, state legislatures, Congress and the Executive. Where opposition to public recognition of gays and
While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a lesbian, gay,
This report discusses DOMA and legal challenges to it. It reviews legal principles applied to determine the validity of a marriage contracted in another state and surveys the various approaches employed by states to address same-sex marriage. It also exam...
The objective of this study is to develop the first national estimate of the level of housing discrimination based on sexual orientation; that is, discrimination against same-sex couples--men partnering with men and women partnering with women at the init...
A. Reynolds F. R. Brassier M. Ballou R. Campbell S. Friedman S. Scovill
This is a cross-cultural ethnographical description of same-sex sexual behavior of male sexuality among slums dwellers (working class) and university students (middle class) in three cities: Florianopolis (Brazil), Istanbul (Turkey), and Bangkok (Thailand). The main goal of this study is to describe the similar aspects and issues of homosexual ghettos in urban environments of developing countries where two basic same-sex systems stand side by side: the "bugger system" and the "gay system." This survey compares the same-sex sexual behavior and self-declared sexual-identity of those who practice same-sex, opposite-sex, and both-sex behaviors. The quantitative data from this study simply confirms other studies showing commonalities in terms of gender orientation among people who consider themselves homosexuals and those who consider themselves heterosexuals using the Kinsey Scale. PMID:19418335
Adult meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are solitary in the spring-summer reproductive season, but during winter months, females and males are socially tolerant and aggregate in groups. This behavioral difference is triggered by day length: female meadow voles housed in short, winter-like day lengths form same-sex partner preferences, whereas those housed in long, summer-like day lengths are less social. The present study demonstrates that same-sex social attachments in short day lengths are not exclusive; females formed concurrent attachments with more than one individual, and with non-kin as well as siblings. Partner preferences between females were established within one day of cohousing and did not intensify with greater durations of cohabitation. Males also formed same-sex social attachments, but unlike female affiliative behavior, male partner preferences were not significantly affected by day length. These data are discussed in the context of field behavior and the physiological mechanisms supporting social behavior in voles. PMID:19419672
Beery, Annaliese K; Routman, David M; Zucker, Irving
This paper examines the recent Irish High Court case of Zappone and Gilligan v. Revenue Commissioners and Others, a challenge to the constitutionality of the state's interpretation of the Irish Tax Code vis-à-vis the foreign marriage of a same-sex couple and their right to marry each other under Irish law. The right to marry and the nature of marriage are
Conversational topics among same?sex adult friends, co?workers, siblings, parents and children were studied. A self?report questionnaire revealed that women's talk tends to focus on family, relationship problems, men, health, pregnancy and menstruation, food, things they've read, movies, television, clothing, and rape. Men talk more about women, sex, money, news, sports, hunting and fishing. No sex difference was found in the
We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual) and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual). We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the samesex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups.
Drawing on sociology, queer studies, \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009and legal scholarship, this Comment develops a textual methodology to study \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009sexuality in court opinions. In \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009particular, this methodology uses inconsistencies between opinions to highlight \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009how courts rely on cultural assumptions. \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009This Comment applies this methodology to eighteen state same-sex \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009marriage cases, identifying four analytic models of sexuality: sexuality \\u0009\\u0009\\u0009consists only of behaviors; sexuality belongs
This study explored the relationship structure and experiences of 145 people in the United States, aged 50 and above, in long-term, same-sex relationships. A survey assessed relationship satisfaction and roles, caregiving, shared assets, and relationship protection and support. The ENRICH couple scales revealed high scores in communication, conflict resolution, and couple satisfaction. Most participants had taken steps to protect shared assets and assign legal authority to their partners. Participants expressed differing views regarding marriage. This study reveals distinctions based on gender and age that will inform practice with this population. PMID:20972927
Quam, Jean K; Whitford, Gary S; Dziengel, Lake E; Knochel, Kelly Abel
Acknowledging that it will likely cost some of them their jobs, on April 19, Vermont's Senate approved a bill establishing marriage-like civil unions for gay couples by a vote of nineteen to eleven. In the face of numerous hostile letters and phone calls, and even vandalism to their cars, the Senators, including two Republicans, displayed considerable courage in approving a measure simply because they believed it was the right thing to do regardless of the political consequences. The vote followed passage of a similar bill in the House, which was introduced after a ruling by the State Supreme Court in December that same-sex couples were being unconstitutionally denied the benefits of marriage. Provided the House approves the slight changes made by the Senate, Democratic Governor Howard Dean has said he will sign the bill, perhaps as early as June. Among other things, the legislation would allow same-sex couples to form civil unions that entitle them to the approximately 300 rights and benefits available to married couples under state law. These couples would still not be entitled to federal benefits available to married couples in regard to taxes and Social Security, and it is highly unlikely that any other state will recognize the unions, at least for the present time. Still, the bill goes well beyond any present legislation and is widely regarded, by supporters and opponents alike, as a milestone for gay civil rights.
Summary How do animals integrate internal drives and external environmental cues to coordinate behaviours? We address this question studying mate-searching behaviour in C. elegans. C. elgans males explore their environment in search of mates (hermaphrodites) and will leave food if mating partners are absent. However, when mates and food coincide, male exploratory behaviour is suppressed and males are retained on the food source. We show that the drive to explore is stimulated by male specific neurons in the tail, the ray neurons. Periodic contact with the hermaphrodite detected through ray neurons changes the male’sbehaviour during periods of no contact and prevents the male from leaving the food source. The hermaphrodite signal is conveyed by male-specific interneurons that are post-synaptic to the rays and that send processes to the major integrative center in the head. This study identifies key parts of the neural circuit that regulates a sexual appetitive behaviour in C. elegans.
Barrios, Arantza; Nurrish, Stephen; Emmons, Scott W.
Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as "minority stress," with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934
Studied the relationship between the science career commitment and the science teacher models of 141 female and 129 male high school students. On the basis of earlier findings, it was predicted that Ss with same-sex teacher models would indicate a higher science career commitment. Furthermore, it was predicted that perceived teacher attractiveness and amount of science-related teacher contact would affect
For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277
...2, 2010 Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Federal Employees Memorandum...in order to extend benefits to the same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees...where applicable, to the children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal...
...Presumption of Insurable Interest for Same-Sex Domestic Partners AGENCY: Office of Personnel...amend its regulations to include same-sex domestic partners to the class of persons...to relieve federal employees with same-sex domestic partners from the evidentiary...
|The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
|From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
This paper uses data from the two waves of the UK Retirement Survey to present a detailed descriptive analysis of the retirement behaviour of older men. The main motivation for doing this is the fall in the employment rates of older men over the last 20 years. A comparison of the labour market behaviour of men with and without an
Male and female twins with opposite-sex co-twins were compared to twins with same-sex co-twins on three independent dimensions of masculinity-femininity, in order to examine the hypothesis that the hormones of the co-twin might have an effect on prenatal masculinization. The analysis was originally carried out for an older cohort from the Australian Twin Registry (2647 pairs, mean age 41.2), and
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624
Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female–female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female–female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.
Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890
Three hundred-forty lesbians and 62 gay males, largely from North America and in partnered relationships, completed online surveys that explored what handholding means to same-sex couples. The data suggest that lesbians in the United States are more likely now than ¼ century ago to hold hands in public spaces. Younger lesbians are more likely to hold hands in public than older lesbians, and Canadian lesbians hold hands more often in public than American lesbians. In response to the question, "What does handholding mean to you?," 26% of the female respondents from North America overtly referred to public handholding as either a political act or a risky behavior. The number of comments of that nature was similar, regardless of whether the lesbians resided in the United States or Canada. Data suggest that full acceptance of same-sex couples in public spaces has not yet occurred, even in jurisdictions where same-sex couples have the same legal rights as heterosexual couples. Although the sample size for males was too small to analyze the influence of age or political jurisdiction on public handholding, males, in general, were significantly less likely than females to view handholding as a means of staying "connected" with their partners. PMID:24147591
Che, Alison; Siemens, Isaac; Fejtek, Monika; Wassersug, Richard J
Several reproductive barriers exists within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioural isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioural sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviours, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared to wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviourally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than non-functional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioural sterility, and indicated that Wolbachia induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioural sterility and spermatogenic infertility.
Clark, Michael E.; O'Hara, F. Patrick; Chawla, Ankur; Werren, John H.
What explains why the US and Canada, two countries with similar socio-cultural and political systems, have diverged so dramatically over same-sex unions policy? In 2005, Canada became one of four countries to open marriage to same-sex couples. In that same year the US Congress held votes on a constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriage. I argue that these outcomes
This paper explores policy and legal debates over same-sex marriage in the United States, focusing on the indirect effects of the struggle over same-sex marriage and how these implicate the interests of women, including women in heterosexual relationships. The paper highlights the effects of the institutional structures of American politics, which have shaped the same-sex marriage debate in particular ways,
The issue of same-sex marriage has ignited a raucous debate over the contours of the institution of marriage. But lost in the noise are a host of real and very practical concerns faced by employers over the impact of same-sex marriage on employer-sponsored benefit plans and employment practices. Are same-sex spouses entitled to benefits, and under what circumstances? To what
In this paper, I seek to determine the effect that the current debate on same-sex marriage has on citizens’ attitudes towards homosexuals. The research to date, centers on what actors and institutional characteristics lead to state restrictions on same-sex marriage. Some researchers have even found that ballot measures regarding same-sex marriage have caused a slight increase in voter turnout among
This article links recent trends in romantic comedy to the debate about same-sex marriage. By comparing contemporary heterosexual romantic comedies to same-sex romantic comedies, it argues that Hollywood colludes with efforts by the state and the conservative Right to ensure that heterosexuality remains the privileged mode of desire and marriage, the sanctioned form of bonding. The unarticulated anxiety over same-sex
From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be strong in communities characterized by the predominance of traditional
Same-sex relationships have already significantly altered family law, by leading to new formal relationship statuses and incorporation of the principle that both of a child’s legal parents can be of the samesex. This essay explores further changes that may lie ahead as same-sex marriage debates increasingly affect both family law and the social meanings of marriage. Marriage as an
The case for accommodating religious objectors to same-sex marriage has met significant resistance on a number of fronts. Some believe that religious exemptions permit objectors to dodge legal duties to serve same-sex couples that would otherwise apply. Critics charge that, if extended to public employees, such exemptions would burden the ability of same-sex couples to marry. Others argue that exemptions
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex marriage was passed by a voter referendum. In
Julie L. Shulman; Gabrielle Gotta; Robert-Jay Green
This questionnaire study investigated the prevalence of, and interrelationships among, self-reported same-sex sexual orientation, childhood sexual abuse, and suicidal behavior in 1262 university students in Turkey. Approximately 7% of the sample reported lifetime or current same-sex sexual attractions, 5% reported that they engaged in same-sex sexual behavior, and almost 2% self-identified as either homosexual or bisexual. Overall, almost 10% of
Most studies on cohabitation have focused on opposite-sex partners. This study seeks to explore the use of census data in examining same-sex cohabitation and to examine same-sex cohabitation in comparative terms. We use the 1990 US census 5% sample from the New York metropolitan area to focus on unmarried partners. The descriptive socio-economic profile suggests that same-sex cohabiting householders have
Marriage is a mental health protective factor and homosexuality is sometimes a risk factor. The combined effect of these factors on mental health was examined in this study. We conducted a secondary analysis of an international, cross-sectional survey completed in 2000 (N = 7,616). We examined risks of suicide ideations and attempts, behavioral problems, and treatment histories for male and
Robin M. Mathy; Shelly K. Kerr; Barbara A. Lehmann
Reproductive character displacement--the evolution of traits that minimize reproductive interactions between species--can promote striking divergence in male signals or female mate preferences between populations that do and do not occur with heterospecifics. However, reproductive character displacement can affect other aspects of mating behaviour. Indeed, avoidance of heterospecific interactions might contribute to spatial (or temporal) aggregation of conspecifics. We examined this possibility in two species of hybridizing spadefoot toad (genus Spea). We found that in Spea bombifrons sympatric males were more likely than allopatric males to associate with calling males. Moreover, contrary to allopatric males, sympatric S. bombifrons males preferentially associated with conspecific male calls. By contrast, Spea multiplicata showed no differences between sympatry and allopatry in likelihood to associate with calling males. Further, sympatric and allopatric males did not differ in preference for conspecifics. However, allopatric S. multiplicata were more variable than sympatric males in their responses. Thus, in S. multiplicata, character displacement may have refined pre-existing aggregation behaviour. Our results suggest that heterospecific interactions can foster aggregative behaviour that might ultimately contribute to clustering of conspecifics. Such clustering can generate spatial or temporal segregation of reproductive activities among species and ultimately promote reproductive isolation. PMID:21177683
Reproductive character displacement—the evolution of traits that minimize reproductive interactions between species—can promote striking divergence in male signals or female mate preferences between populations that do and do not occur with heterospecifics. However, reproductive character displacement can affect other aspects of mating behaviour. Indeed, avoidance of heterospecific interactions might contribute to spatial (or temporal) aggregation of conspecifics. We examined this possibility in two species of hybridizing spadefoot toad (genus Spea). We found that in Spea bombifrons sympatric males were more likely than allopatric males to associate with calling males. Moreover, contrary to allopatric males, sympatric S. bombifrons males preferentially associated with conspecific male calls. By contrast, Spea multiplicata showed no differences between sympatry and allopatry in likelihood to associate with calling males. Further, sympatric and allopatric males did not differ in preference for conspecifics. However, allopatric S. multiplicata were more variable than sympatric males in their responses. Thus, in S. multiplicata, character displacement may have refined pre-existing aggregation behaviour. Our results suggest that heterospecific interactions can foster aggregative behaviour that might ultimately contribute to clustering of conspecifics. Such clustering can generate spatial or temporal segregation of reproductive activities among species and ultimately promote reproductive isolation.
Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
If humans faced recurrently over evolutionary history the adaptive problem of competition with same-sex friends for mates, they may have evolved psychological mechanisms designed to prevent and combat mating rivalry with same-sex friends. Four studies were conducted to test hypotheses about the design of these mechanisms. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 406 and N = 342, respectively) we
Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be to…
The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica
This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.
Same-sex couples are often not seen as a family unit and are excluded from research, including family research on topics such as household division of labor. The author examined division of household labor, using social exchange theory, among 165 survey respondents in a same-sex relationship. Division of labor was measured by the percentage of tasks performed according to the respondent.
|The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…
|This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations…
Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.
|Whether and how civil society should recognize committed relationships between same-sex partners has become a prominent, often divisive, policy issue. The present article reviews relevant behavioral and social science research to assess the validity of key factual claims in this debate. The data indicate that same-sex and heterosexual…
The California Supreme Court ruled in In re Marriage Cases, 2008 WL 2051892 (May 15, 2008), that same-sex couples are entitled to marry in that state, and that same-sex couples married elsewhere are entitled to have their marriages recognized as valid in California. Furthermore, the court held that sexual orienta- tion is a suspect classification under the Cali- fornia Constitution,
Arthur S. Leonard; Chris Benecke; Glenn Edwards; Alan J. Jacobs; Bryan Johnson; Steven Kolodny; Alvin Lee; Ruth Uselton; Eric Wursthorn; Daniel R Schaffer
|Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake would be…
This article examines how same-sex partnership recognition (SSPR) was enacted into policy in Argentina. It begins by looking at the history and structure of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movements to explain why same-sex marriage, and not civil unions, became the primary goal. Next, it considers what the constitutional and statutory law was before the marriage bill passed
This article chronicles the treatment of same-sex couples in England and the Republic of Ireland in recent years in order to ascertain (i) the impact that incorporation of the European Convention into the domestic law of each State has had on the rights of same-sex couples, (ii) what the introduction of civil partnership legislation might mean for the future of
For only the second time, a state has legislated to provide significant legal recognition for same-sex partners without being under court order to take such an action, as Connecticut en- acted a Civil Union Act (substitute Senate Bill 963, as amended by the House) that essentially provides all the state law rights and responsi- bilities of spouses for those same-sex
Arthur S. Leonard; Alan J. Jacobs; Sharon McGowan; Tara Scavo; Daniel R Schaffer; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong
In the United States, the state and federal courts often has been the first port of call for activists hoping to advance the cause of same-sex couples. State courts, in particular, have ruled on occasion that guarantees of equal rights or due process contained in state constitutions require recognition of same-sex marriage or civil unions. These court decisions, in turn,
|Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…
In this study we interviewed members of a small, predominantly Muslim community in Johannesburg, South Africa, in order to ascertain attitudes towards people who engage in same-sex practices. We were interested in ascertaining whether community perceptions of homosexuality match the common (Western) assumption that Islam is profoundly homophobic. Our research, while preliminary, shows that although most people condemn same-sex practices
In this study we interviewed members of a small, predominantly Muslim community in Johannesburg, South Africa, in order to ascertain attitudes towards people who engage in same-sex practices. We were interested in ascertaining whether community perceptions of homosexuality match the common (Western) assumption that Islam is profoundly homophobic. Our research, while preliminary, shows that although most people condemn same-sex practices
Dominant discourses on sexualities construct limited representations and understanding of same-sex attracted young people, often resulting in material and detrimental effects for young people who do not fit the heterosexual mould. Traditionally, social work theory and practice with same-sex attracted young people has relied on ethnic and essentialised models for understanding sexual difference. In the present article, the author reviews
The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and
This research details the development of a new instrument designed to measure attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Participants were 615 heterosexual women and men, drawn from both student and nonstudent adult populations. Four studies were conducted for the purpose of developing the scale and to establish its psychometric properties. The resulting Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM) consists of 17 items,
We examine how religious and political factors structure support for same-sex marriage in the United States over the last two decades. Using data from the General Social Surveys, we show that respondents who identify more strongly with the Republican Party, sectarian denominations, and those who subscribe to biblical fundamentalism and political conservatism are substantially more opposed to same-sex marriage than
Darren E. Sherkat; Melissa Powell-Williams; Gregory Maddox; Kylan Mattias de Vries
This study draws on the social stress model from the sociology of mental health to examine the impact of same-sex attraction on depressed mood and suicidal tendencies. Specifically, we hypothesize that across multiple contexts, adolescents with same-sex attractions are likely to experience more social stress and less social support than heterosexual adolescents. In turn, these experiences increase the likelihood of
This article argues that the proper starting point is to provide protection for gay men and lesbians against discrimination and harassment. Until there is such protection, any attempt to use Title VII to regulate same-sex sexual harassment will intensify the privileging of one kind of same-sex interaction over another: straight subordinates will be protected from gay supervisors, while gay subordinates
The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity. PMID:23837556
This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed. PMID:18826168
Social workers have an ethical and professional responsibility to promote social justice and equality for oppressed groups, including sexual minorities. Advocating for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage is one way to enact this responsibility. The legal recognition of same-sex marriage is a significant accomplishment toward equality for gay and lesbian Canadians—one in which the social work profession played a
Michael R. Woodford; Peter A. Newman; Shari Brotman; Bill Ryan
This study examines same-sex couples' attractions to marriage, obstacles that challenged them when considering marriage, and the ways they overcame such obstacles. Participants (N = 263) were members of same-sex couples that were either legally married or engaged to be married. A Web-based survey asked participants to describe the discussions between them and their partners when deciding to marry. Inductive
This article serves as an informational and resource tool on the policy topic of same-sex marriage. The authors begin by distinguishing between benefit levels of marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships. Chronological and global overviews of same-sex marriage history along with a review of applicable U.S. Constitution amendments that apply to marriage recognition are included. The social, political, and economic
The present study investigates the demographics of same-sex marriages—that is, registered partnerships—in Norway and Sweden.\\u000a We give an overview of the demographic characteristics of the spouses of these partnerships, study patterns of their divorce\\u000a risks, and compare the dynamics of same-sex couples with those of heterosexual marriages. We use longitudinal information\\u000a from the population registers of the two countries that
Gunnar Andersson; Turid Noack; Ane Seierstad; Harald Weedon-Fekjaer
The article explores the threat posed by the same-sex marriage to the traditional institution of marriages. It provides a brief overview of the manners of the U.S. courts' legal recognition of same-sex marriage and is contrasted with the approach of the German Federal Constitutional Court. It regarded German's judicial approach of the traditional institution argument, which provides a clearly explained
Recently, gay and lesbian couples have gone to court to force the government to allow same-sex couples to marry. Largely unnoticed during the debates surrounding same-sex marriages are their economic consequences, including the impact on government tax collections. It is well-known that a couple's joint income tax burden can change with marriage. Many couples, especially two- earner couples with similar
James Robert Alm; M. V. Lee Badgett; Leslie A. Whittington
Is telling stories politically effective? Recent debates around the efficacy of storytelling have challenged the view that narratives are an effective means of political persuasion. This article empirically examines the persuasiveness of narratives through the lens of recent controversies over same-sex marriage. Through a survey-experiment, I test the effects of different kinds of arguments on heterosexuals' views on same-sex marriage.
At a time when heterosexual marriage rates are declining, many countries and localities are advocating for the rights of lesbians and gay men to enter legalized relationships, including marriage. This article reviews the legal status of same-sex relationships in the U.S. and other countries. Not only does the general public have mixed opinions about same-sex marriage, but so do lesbian
This article examines how Wisconsin courts will treat the marriages of same-sex couples who were validly married in other states; specifically focusing on recognition of the incidents—such as divorce, property ownership, and inheritance—stemming from those marriages. After examining Wisconsin conflict-of-laws jurisprudence, the article describes the public policy problems that may result if Wisconsin courts do not recognize out-of-state same-sex marriages.
This study examines the ways in which legally recognized same-sex marriage (SSM) has impacted the lives of cross-sexual orientation same-sex couples. Twenty-six, female-female couples, consisting of one bisexual and one lesbian partner, who were married or engaged to be married in Massachusetts participated in instant messenger interviews about their experiences with SSM. Results indicated that SSM impacted participants' views of
This study examined fairness and balance in the coverage of same-sex marriage by 5 U.S. newspapers, and how source use, newspaper working context, and media frames affect fairness and balance of the coverage. A content analysis of 209 stories found that overall coverage of same-sex marriage was fair and balanced and stories framed as thematic were more likely to be
This study explores whether third graders verbalize gender differences in dominance in mixed- and same-sex interaction. We tape-recorded the conversations of 43 pairs of Caucasian working-class children playing checkers in same- or mixed-sex conditions. Children appear to develop gender-differentiated speech styles. Boys brag and insult their opponents in both mixed- and same-sex conditions more often than do girls. Girls talk
This article examines the existing scholarship on the relationship between various religion-related concepts and support for same-sex marriage. From this literature, this paper argues that research examining the influence of religion on attitudes about same-sex marriage must attend not only to religious tradition and religiosity, but also to the everyday theologies (Moon, 2004) that people of faith use to construct
A general model for estimating the organizational costs of workplace sexual harassment is applied to same-sex sexual harassment incidence data for the Army gathered as part of a large-scale survey of the US military services. Results indicate that the total annual cost of same-sex sexual harassment in the US Army was over $95,000,000. Organizational implications are discussed.
Robert H. Faley; Deborah Erdos Knapp; Gary A. Kustis; Cathy L. Z. Dubois; Jill Young; Brian Polin
An unexplained excess of overweight has been reported among lesbians. In contrast, reports suggest that gay men may be, on average, slightly lighter and shorter than heterosexual men. We studied associations between weight, length, and body mass index (BMI) at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood among 818,671 Danes. We used linear regression to calculate differences in mean body measures at birth and Poisson regression analysis to calculate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of same-sex marriage according to body measures at birth. Overall, 739 persons entered same-sex marriage at age 18-32 years during 5.6 million person-years of follow-up. Birth year-adjusted mean body measures at birth were similar for same-sex married and other women. However, same-sex marriage rates were 65% higher among women of heavy birth weight (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.18-2.31, for > or =4000 vs. 3000-3499 g, p = .02), and rates were inversely associated with birth length (p (trend) = .04). For same-sex married men, birth year-adjusted mean weight (-72 g, p = .03), length (-0.3 cm, p = .04), and BMI (-0.1 kg/m(2), p = .09) at birth were lower than for other Danish men. Same-sex marriage rates were increased in men of short birth length (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.08, for < or =50 vs. 51-52 cm), although not uniformly so (p (trend) = .16). Our population-based findings suggest that overweight in lesbians may be partly rooted in constitutional factors. Novel findings of smaller average body measures at birth in same-sex marrying men need replication. Factors affecting intrauterine growth may somehow influence sexual and partner-related choices in adulthood. PMID:18780174
Since the 1980s, the United States has seen several instances of legislative action on the topic of same-sex marriages and civil unions. As some studies explored public reactions to such laws, the perspectives of social workers and social work students have mostly been ignored. In addressing part of this oversight, this paper looks at the approval of same-sex relationship rights
This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and rela- tionship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. Normative analyses
Jennifer L. Wainright; Stephen T. Russell; Charlotte J. Patterson
This paper examines sociocultural factors that influence how same-sex intimate partner violence is viewed, studied, reported\\u000a and treated, with a specific focus on the effects of gender-role socialization and heterosexism. Further it summarizes the\\u000a similarities and differences experienced by heterosexual and same-sex couples in order to provide a framework for understanding\\u000a the unique factors that must be considered when working
This study draws on the social stress model from the sociology of mental health to examine the impact of same-sex attraction on depressed mood and suicidal tendencies. Specifically, we hypothesize that across multiple contexts, adolescents with same-sex attractions are likely to experience more social stress and less social support than heterosexual adolescents. In turn, these experiences increase the likelihood of negative mental health outcomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,911), we find that adolescents with same-sex attraction are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report depressed mood and suicidal tendencies. Moreover, stress and social support were found to mediate a substantial part of the relationship between same-sex attraction and depressed mood. In addition, stress and social support mediated about one third of the relationship between same-sex attraction and suicidal tendencies. These findings give strong support for the social stress model. We conclude with a discussion of the role that alienation plays in same-sex-attracted adolescent mental health. PMID:20390994
A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations. PMID:23446120
Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth
This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. PMID:22789462
OBJECTIVES: Recent national attention to hate crimes committed against lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths has highlighted the need to understand this group's experiences of violence. Using nationally representative data, we examine the associations between romantic attraction and experiences of violence, as well as the risk of witnessing violence and perpetrating violence against others. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were examined. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions were compared with those reporting other-sex attractions. Survey logistic regression was used to control for sample design effects. RESULTS: Youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are more likely to experience extreme forms of violence than youths who report other-sex attraction. Youths reporting same-sex and both-sex romantic attractions are also more likely to witness violence. The higher incidence of violence perpetrated by youths attracted to the samesex is explained by their experiences of violence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide strong evidence that youths reporting same-sex or both-sex romantic attraction are at greater risk for experiencing, witnessing, and perpetrating violence.
The social organization of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) imposes a high-cost reproductive strategy on bulls, which adopt a 'roving male' tactic. Our observations on wild giraffes confirm that bulls indeed have unsynchronized rut-like periods, not unlike another tropical megaherbivore, the elephant, but on a much shorter timescale. We found profound changes in male sexual and social activities at the scale of about two weeks. This so far undescribed rutting behaviour is closely correlated with changes in androgen concentrations and appears to be driven by them. The short time scale of the changes in sexual and social activity may explain why dominance and reproductive status in male giraffe in the field seem to be unstable. PMID:23925833
Seeber, Peter A; Duncan, Patrick; Fritz, Hervé; Ganswindt, André
In Drosophila melanogaster, the causal links among a complex behaviour, single neurons and single genes can be demonstrated through experimental manipulations. A key player in establishing the male courtship circuitry is the fruitless (fru) gene, the expression of which yields the FruM proteins in a subset of male but not female neurons. FruM probably regulates chromatin states, leading to single-neuron sex differences and, consequently, a sexually dimorphic circuitry. The mutual connections among fru-expressing neurons - including primary sensory afferents, central interneurons such as the P1 neuron cluster that triggers courtship, and courtship motor pattern generators - probably form the core portion of the male courtship circuitry. PMID:24052176
Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera.
In this study, a spectrographic analysis was designed to improve the description of the shape, the modulations, the rate, length and frequencies of BALB/c mouse calls in different behavioural situations. Male and female calls emitted during investigation of cages with clean bedding, soiled with male or female bedding, and during same-sex encounters, were recorded and described. BALB/c male mice uttered different types of vocalisations both when investigating counterpart odour cues and when interacting with same-sex counterparts. BALB/c female mice vocalised solely during same-sex counterpart encounters and it appeared that calls were uttered mainly by the resident females. Male and female mice present a complex array of calls, which seem to be linked to particular behavioural situations. Further studies using this technology may help to improve our understanding of the role of vocal communication in natural rodent populations.
Gourbal, Benjamin E. F.; Barthelemy, Mathieu; Petit, Gilles; Gabrion, Claude
We used data from the National Survey on Violence against Women in France carried out in 2000 on a representative sample of 6970 women to compare the social characteristics of women who had sex with women (WSW) and women who had sex only with men (WSM). The WSW were more likely to be of a high socio-economic level and living
Aim: To gain insight into the client's experiences of the counsellor and the therapeutic encounter in same-sex couple counselling. Method: Opportunity sampling using e-mail and agency contacts and advertising in a journal and magazines resulted in nine respondents being interviewed. The transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Respondents were sensitive to the way in which the counsellor related to
With intimate partner violence (IPV) among same-sex couples largely ignored by policy makers and researchers alike, accurately estimating the size of the problem is important in determining whether this minimal response is justified. As such, the present study is a secondary data analysis of the National Violence Against Women Survey and…
An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…
Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…
In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the samesex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors, concerns and
|This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…
In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the samesex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors,…
Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…
In this study the author uses content analysis of newspaper articles to analyze the frames used in debates over constitutional amendments that legally prohibit same-sex marriage and other relationship recognition. The findings from this analysis contradict previous research on mediated public discussion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights that find polarization by values of equal rights versus traditional morality.
Social policy surrounding same-sex marriage has resulted in subsequent changes to public policy. Over the past 15 years, increased discussion surrounding the issue has emerged, inciting the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA). It is particularly salient for social workers to keep abreast of legislation that is impacting vulnerable and disenfranchised populations. Since the
Jill M. Chonody; Kenneth Scott Smith; Melanie A. Litle
Focusing on the decision to enter into a marriage and\\/or to conduct a commitment ceremony, this paper explores how same-sex couples negotiate their relationships with both family and friends at the point at which they make decisions about who to invite to their ceremony. The ceremony is argued to be a 'fateful moment' at which point lesbians and gay men
|Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…
The essay positions current same-sex marriage advocacy as an assimilationist\\/conformist, reformist movement and articulates the need for a more radical argument for marriage equality, one based not merely in queer politics but also in queer forms of relationship structure. Drawing from the realm of the personal, the author fashions a queer image of relationships that challenges the boundaries of mainstream
“Seriality” is a useful critical heuristic for engaging the contours of identity politics, as it recognizes the limits of essentialism and simultaneously acknowledges its frequent necessity for accomplishing goals and building coalitions. Using contemporary debates about same-sex marriage, this essay places seriality into conversation with rhetorical theory to explore the discursive possibilities of this conceptual practice. While seriality focuses explicitly
Late last year the Constitutional Court of South Africa decided that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the common law definition of marriage and the statutory marriage formula was unconstitutional as it violated the rights of such couples to equality. The Court suspended the declaration of invalidity for one year to allow Parliament to enact new legislation to correct the
In the summer of 2005, with the passage of the Civil Marriage Act, Canada became the third country to extend full rights to same-sex marriages. This article explores passage of the CMA, focusing on parliamentary voting behavior on the free vote used in the House of Commons. Using multivariate empirical analysis we find unusually strong evidence of constituency characteristics influencing
L. Marvin Overby; Christopher Raymond; Zeynep Taydas
|Examines the American Association for Marital and Family Therapy's Code of Ethics to explore ways in which marriage and family therapists can provide services within the framework of existing ethical principles and standards for accountability and professionalism to families with an adolescent child experiencing same-sex attraction. (Author/MKA)|
In Baehr v. Lewin, the Supreme Court of Hawaii sparked a controversy that has potential nationwide implications. The court held that three same-sex couples were entitled to an evidentiary hearing to determine if the State can demonstrate that denying the couples the right to marry under the Hawaii Marriage Law furthers compelling state interests. If the State fails its burden,
|The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…
In state-wide referenda held in eleven states during the national elections on November 2, voters approved proposed state constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage by com- fortable margins. The new amendments were approved by voters in Arkansas, Georgia, Ken- tucky, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon and Utah. Advanced speculation that the Oregon measure might be narrowly defeated
Arthur S. Leonard; Allen E. Drexel; Joseph Griffin; Alan J. Jacobs; Sharon McGowan; Tara Scavo; Daniel R Schaffer; Audrey E. Weinberger; Robert Wintemute; Leo Wong
|Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…
Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological
From 1990 through 2004, samesex marriage emerged as a major policy issue. In responding to this controversial policy issue, many state legislatures demonstrated unusual behavior. A substantial minority of state legislatures continued to introduce new legislative bills on this topic long after the legal position of the respective state would indicate that the state had articulated a recognized and
|This article illustrates a teaching case in which a marriage and family therapy (MFT) trainee learned to develop cultural sensitivity toward same-sex couples despite religious beliefs that put her at risk of discriminating against that population. The case took place during a marriage and family therapy ethics course in the spring of 2003. From…
Charles, Laurie L.; Thomas, Dina; Thornton, Matthew L.
The last decade has witnessed a polemical debate over the merits of same-sex marriage. The crux of this acrimonious debate, the question of legalization, has entered the political vernacular, manifesting in Canada in form of the Civil Marriage Act (2005) and in the United States in form of the recently defeated Federal Marriage Amendment (2006). In this paper, I endeavor
With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Security benefits are currently paid to the spouses of disabled, retired, or deceased workers entitled to Social Security. However, under current law,
Drawing from critical-cultural scholarship, this quantitative content analysis systematically interrogates national network television news coverage of the same-sex marriage debate in 2003 and 2004. Analysis of sourcing patterns and sound bite length indicate the debate was dominated by conventionally “straight” perspectives. While gay and lesbian couples were visually prevalent in news stories, they were largely seen and not heard. Scrutinizing
Andrew Koppelman's book presents the legal and moral case for gay equality. He contends that various arguments, such as privacy and sex discrimination, justify the equal treatment of gay men and lesbians. By analogizing the struggle for equality to the debate surrounding same-sex marriage, Koppelman suggests that although change will come, the courts are presently too far ahead of public
New York became the sixth state to legalize same-sex marriage with the affirmative vote by the state senate on June 24, 2011. However, grass roots efforts to pass such a law began many years earlier. In fact, it could be said that Upstate NY and the City of Rochester played a key part, and had a unique leadership role in
This article explores how the legal arguments in favour of same-sex marriage recognition in the United States and Canada have been taken up in two recent documentaries on the subject: Tying the Knot: The Union Thatâ€™s Dividing America (USA, 2004) and The End of Second Class (Canada, 2006). My interest in these films lies in how they represent the legal
The article is concerned with the policy implications of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships. It is represented by an extrapolation from the decision of Chang J. of the Hawaii Circuit Court in Baehr and Others v. Miike as well as a consideration of the reaction to that case in the United States and of the literature surrounding the policy
|Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…
This article traces much of the history of marriage as the legal civil institution has changed over the centuries, resulting in the growing recognition of same-sex unions in various forms including marriage. The author posits that while marriage had it origins in religious concepts it has over the last few centuries evolved into a civil institution. In the United States
|Explores teen-initiated communication with parents about same-sex attraction, coming out, and adolescent sexuality. Reports the findings of a qualitative study on teen and parent reactions as well as a number of strategies which emerged that may help maintain healthy relationships in the face of developing sexuality. (Author/SD)|
|This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…
Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.
|The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …
Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.
|Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent…
|While a great deal has been written on domestic violence, the focus has been primarily on the violence of men against their current or former wives or girlfriends. Yet studies have shown that partner abuse is as common and severe among same-sex couples as among heterosexual couples. This book examines a broad range of issues that confront victims…
This research compares responses by adult Finns (N=38) and Japanese (N=105) after they appraised 50 potential conversation topics and rated them in terms of degree of truthfulness toward a same-sex friend. Three topics show no significant difference. Finns rate four topics lower, which deal with money and one's closest relationships. Japanese report 42% less willingness to 'frankly and directly express
The effects of male and female body size, and correlated characteristics, on male mating behaviour were investigated in the western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Because larger females typically have larger broods in Gambusia sp., it was predicted that males would attempt more copulations with larger females. Two-way ANOVA showed that female body size was a significant predictor of male mating behaviour
Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli. PMID:23128082
Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard
Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments
We examined the relations between group context and self- and other-perceptions of aggressive behavior in an ethnically-diverse sample of 168 male and female grade 7 adolescents. We used self- and peer-reports of aggression in high- and average-aggressive mixed-sex and same-sex cliques to examine whether group members would assimilate their self-report of aggression to the aggression report of their peers by
Ley A. Killeya-Jones; Philip R. Costanzo; Patrick Malone; Nicole Polanichka Quinlan; Shari Miller-Johnson
The stereotyped mating behaviour of the Caenorhabditis elegans male is made up of several substeps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion and sperm transfer. The complexity of this behaviour is reflected in the sexually dimorphic anatomy and nervous system. Behavioural functions have been assigned to most of the male-specific sensory neurons by means of cell ablations; for example, the
One topic covered in Australian queer university student print media is the legalization of same-sex marriage. The legalization of same-sex marriage is currently generating much debate in Western queer communities. This paper explores Australian queer university student activists' media representation of same-sex marriage, and the debates surrounding its legalization. It uses discourse analysis to examine a selection of queer student
The purpose of this Internet-based study was to determine differences between women in their first same-sex relationships and women who have had same-sex relationships prior to their current relationship. Participants included 754 women within the United States and Canada who were at least 18 years of age and were in an ongoing same-sex relationship of at least six months. Women
It was examined whether early adolescents’ involvement in a romantic relationship would be differentially related to adjustment, depending on their relations with the same-sex peer group. Three hundred and twelve 7th graders were assessed with respect to their social acceptance by same-sex peers, involvement in reciprocal same-sex friendships, involvement in romantic relationships, selfesteem, antisocial behavior, and academic performance. Social acceptance
Mara Brendgen; Frank Vitaro; Anna-Beth Doyle; Dorothy Markiewicz; William M. Bukowski
Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a significant problem that affects the physical and mental health and the safety of sexual minority women. A mixed-methods study was conducted to (a) identify risk and protective factors for victimization and perpetration of repeat violence in abusive same-sex relationships and (b) examine participant experiences with system responses (by domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services) to FSSIPV. The purpose of the article is to report the findings from the qualitative component (e.g., focus groups and individual interviews) of the parent study that are specific to survivors’ perceptions of and experiences with domestic violence services, criminal justice systems, and health care services. The findings indicate a significant need across all systems for increased awareness, enhanced understanding, and provision of services specific to survivors of FSSIPV.
Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. Methods. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II
Twenty-eight same-sex couples were interviewed regarding advance planning documents (e.g., wills and powers of attorney).\\u000a Results revealed motivating and inhibiting factors in decisions whether to execute documents. Couples who had executed advance\\u000a planning documents were motivated by their desire for protection, by their commitment to their relationships, by their families\\u000a of origin, by their friends and life experiences, and by
Ellen D. B. Riggle; Sharon Scales Rostosky; Russell Couch; Carolyn Brodnicki; Jessica Campbell; Todd Savage
The aim of this study was to investigate young women's retrospective narratives of their experiences of same-sex sexual desire in adolescence. Seven women aged 19–25 were interviewed. An across-narrative analysis was conducted, producing five major themes. It is anticipated that this research will help to redress the missing discourse of desire in social constructions of younger women's sexuality and contribute
This paper examines the racial dynamics of antigay activism, and the particular, disproportionate impact of antigay family\\u000a policies on Black and Latino same-sex couple families. Starting in the mid-1990s, antigay activists have passed dozens of\\u000a laws and constitutional amendments banning and repealing state recognition of gay and lesbian relationships. For two decades\\u000a the antigay movement has portrayed sexual orientation nondiscrimination
The great political philosopher John Stuart Mill once asked, “Was there any domination which did not appear natural to those that possessed it?” (Mill 1984, 269–270). For same-sex couples seeking access to the institution of marriage, the public sense that marriage is naturally and obviously meant only for opposite-sex couples has been a formidable barrier. The first state supreme courts
Did Barack Obama?s successful candidacy for President in 2008 contribute to the passage of Florida?s Amendment 2 by turning out newly registered African Americans who voted for Obama and then cast ballots in favor of constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage? If one looks at reportage by in the mainstream media, punditry in the blogosphere, and self-reflection within the gay community
Gains for lesbian and gay adults demanding the rights to privacy and marriage that they consider their due as U.S. citizens\\u000a do not hold the same promise for young people. Both the 2003 Lawrence v. Texas Supreme Court decision and 2004 successes of the same-sex marriage movement in the United States fail to alter the oppressive\\u000a social conditions in which
The case of the opposition to legalizing same-sex marriage in Canada is an example of the limits of what will and will not\\u000a be tolerated in the name of multiculturalism. This case offers an interesting perspective on the topic of multiculturalism,\\u000a because it deals with a conflict between those seeking to expand human rights and those seeking to prevent such
Third-person perception (TPP) refers to the belief that others are more influenced by the media than you yourself are. This theory was extended to people’s perceptions of the effects of legalizing same-sex marriage (SSM). It was predicted that people might believe that legalizing SSM would affect others’ marriages, but not their own. It was also predicted that high right-wing authoritarians
In the context of Herbert Blumer's seminal work, “Social Problems as Collective Behavior,” symbolic interaction theory is synopsized and then applied to explore the emergence of same-sex marriage as an issue in American legal and legislative systems. Since 1965, a series of key U.S. Supreme Court decisions has more fully defined constitutionally guaranteed rights of privacy, equal protection, and self-determination.
Family is a cornerstone of U.S. immigration policy. The United States grants green cards to every immigrant who is validly married to a U.S. citizen—unless the marriage is to someone of the samesex. The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) denies federal recognition of so-called samesex marriages. Recent social, political, judicial, and legislative trends suggest the eventual abrogation of DOMA.
Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22029563
The author extended the proposition (V. J. Derlega, R. J. Lewis, S. Harrison, B. A. Winstead, & R. Costanza, 1989) that the fear of being seen as homosexual accounts for the common finding that U.S. women engage in more same-sex touch than do U.S. men. The author proposed a theoretic model positing that the magnitude of homophobia's influence on behavior
The purpose of the study was to investigate how young adult men's and women's goals for interacting with peers changed as a function of the social situation (working with a same-sex or other-sex peer on a collaborative task). In a within-subjects design, 40 men and 40 women (Mean age = 19.5 years, SD = 2.10) worked with a man and
Secondary data analysis examined factors contributing to successful long-term same-sex relationships in older adults. An online survey of couple satisfaction and life factors provided data from 156 participants. Constructivist grounded theory methods were applied to analyze responses to open-ended questions regarding perceived supports and threats and ‘people or things’ contributing to relationship longevity. The resulting Resilience Constellation model identified concepts
The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data
Henny M. W. Bos; Theo G. M. Sandfort; Eddy H. de Bruyn; Esther M. Hakvoort
The legal debate over sexual harassment (SH) has taken an interesting turn concerning the controversial issue of same-sex sexual harassment (SSSH). Disagreement among circuit courts' decisions propelled the U.S. Supreme Court to grant full review to the SSSH case of Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al. (1996) [83 F.3d 118 (5th Cir. 1996) [on-line]. Available: http:\\/\\/laws.findlaw.com\\/5th\\/9530510cvl.html]. In a
The legal debate over sexual harassment (SH) has taken an interesting turn concerning the controversial issue of same-sex sexual harassment (SSSH). Disagreement among circuit courts' decisions propelled the U.S. Supreme Court to grant full review to the SSSH case of Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., et al. (1996) [83 F.3d 118 (5th Cir. 1996) [online]. Available: http:\\/\\/laws.findlaw.com\\/5th\\/9530510cvl.html]. In a
This article proposes that recent normative, economic and legal changes in the United States have made it more likely for American adults, especially women, to select a sex partner of their own sex.Data from the GSS and NHSLS (n = 18,170) were used to examine gender differences in trends in same-sex sexual partnering between 1988 and 2002.The proportion of both
Religious involvement has been found to be associated with higher levels of commitment and relationship satisfaction among heterosexually married individuals (Mahoney et al., 1999). Little is known, however, about the religiosity of gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) individuals, and virtually nothing is known about religious involvement in same-sex couples. The purpose of this qualitative interview study was to examine couples' experiences of incorporating religious involvement into their committed relationships. In a sample of 14 same-sex couples, we found that couples used their spiritual/religious values to understand and undergird their relationships. In this process, they negotiated intra-couple differences in religious practices, involved themselves in activities that have religious or spiritual meaning to them, created religious social support for their relationships, and experienced some non-supportive or rejecting interpersonal interactions with religious family members, congregants, and strangers. These findings are instructive to therapists who work with same-sex couples and the family members of GLB individuals. We conclude with specific suggestions for practitioners. PMID:18831314
Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Riggle, Ellen D B; Brodnicki, Carolyn; Olson, Amber
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, ? and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT) ? over a in C. neoformans populations limits ?–a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between ? isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural ?AD? hybrids that arose by fusion between two ? cells of different serotypes (A and D) were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1? was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed ?AD? strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.
Lin, Xiaorong; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Nielsen, Kirsten; Patel, Sweta; Floyd, Anna; Mitchell, Thomas G; Heitman, Joseph
Individual variation in behavioural expression and behavioural plasticity exist in all species, and early experiences are critical determinants of both. The leopard gecko is a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination, and in this species, embryonic incubation temperature (IncT) affects the display of social behaviours. For example, adult males hatched from eggs incubated at an IncT that produces predominantly males (male-biased
This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother's former same-sex partner. As more states
Beginning with Massachusetts in 2003, the courts and legislatures of many states have had to decide whether same-sex marriage is or should be a fundamental right under their respective constitutions. Although only five states and the District of Columbia legally perform same-sex marriages, a few other jurisdictions are in the process of proposing laws moving in that direction. However, the
Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex…
As public opinion has become more supportive of lesbian and gay rights some states have recognized samesex marriage. In this paper we seek to evaluate the relationship between mass media slant, public attitudes and state action. We measure newspaper opinion and state level public opinion on samesex marriage. And we employ statistical methods to determine whether state courts
On May 17, 2004, same-sex marriage was legalized in the commonwealth of Massachusetts. This event had a profound impact not only on the legal status of same-sex couples but also on our emotional and psychic lives. With the option to marry legally comes a set of internal conflicts about belonging and rejection that many of us began to encounter more
This article analyzes the implicit white racial normativity underpinning the socio-legal struggle for same-sex marriage in Canada. I argue that discursive representations of ‘ordinary lives’ require alignment with terms of neoliberal citizenship – the privacy of property and intimacy – that hold whiteness as the unspoken yet aspirational ideal. As a contestation of heteronormative citizenship, same-sex marriage is not simply
The legal recognition of same-sex relationships has been a legislative Gordian knot for almost three decades in the United States of America. Few issues have been so polarising as the debate surrounding the opening of marriage to same-sex couples. The aim of this article is to provide a clear picture of the current state of affairs in the United States
|Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward same-sex…
Context Although the sex difference in eating disorder prevalence has typically been attributed to psychosocial factors, biological factors may also play a role. Prenatal testosterone exposure is a promising candidate, as it masculinizes behavior in animals and humans via its permanent effects on the central nervous system. Objective We examined whether in utero testosterone exposure has masculinizing effects on disordered eating (DE) by comparing opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins. Twin type (SS versus OS) is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure, as females from OS pairs are exposed to more testosterone in utero than females from SS pairs. A linear trend in mean levels of DE was predicted based on expected prenatal testosterone exposure, with SS female twins exhibiting the highest levels of DE followed by OS female twins, OS male twins, and SS male twins. Participants Participants included 304 SS female twins, 59 OS female twins, 54 OS male twins, and 165 SS male twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Main Outcome Measures Overall levels of disordered eating were assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey. Results Confirming hypotheses, DE exhibited significant linear trends with SS female twins exhibiting the highest levels of DE followed by OS female twins, OS male twins, and SS male twins. This linear trend could not be accounted for by levels of anxiety or socialization effects. Indeed, OS female twins exhibited lower levels of DE compared to an independent sample of undergraduate women (N = 69) who were raised with one or more brothers. Conclusions The masculinization of DE in OS female twins is unlikely to be due to socialization effects alone. Biological factors, such as the masculinization of the central nervous system by prenatal testosterone, may also contribute to sex differences in DE prevalence.
Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.
In the long history of the West's encounter with Hawaiian culture, which began in the late 1700s with Captain Cook, translators and translations have often been the tools of intentional falsehood, thus demonstrating the truth of the Italian proverb, Traduttore, traditore ("the translator is a traitor")--particularly with regard to same-sex texts. The standards of truth have often been subverted in translation by the demands of foreign religion, hegemony, business, and academe. This subversion continues to this day in the form of the "missionary mentality" in politics and law. The way out of this situation is a brutally honest cleaning-off of the besmirched Hawaiian texts. PMID:17135122
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM’s (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665
Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P
While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed `personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.
Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.
Previous work has shown that under elevated predation risk, male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) switch from courtship to less conspicuous coercive mating attempts. This behavioural transition is traditionally interpreted as a 'risk-sensitive' response that makes males less conspicuous to predators. However, predation risk leads to behavioural changes (such as schooling and predator inspection) in females that may result in coercive mating
Jonathan P. Evans; Jennifer L. Kelley; Indar W. Ramnarine; Andrea Pilastro
The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course perspective that emphasizes historical and biographical contexts, the authors examine how couples conceptualize and form committed relationships despite being denied the right to marry. Although previous studies suggest that commitment ceremonies are a way to form same-sex unions, this study finds that because of their unique social, historical, and biographical relationship to marriage and ceremonies, long-term same-sex couples do not follow normative commitment-making trajectories. Instead, relationships can transition more ambiguously to committed formations without marriage, public ceremony, clear-cut act, or decision. Such an understanding of commitment making outside of marriage has implications for theorizing alternative forms of union making. PMID:21814298
Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy. PMID:21919272
Legal recognition of same-sex couple relationships provides at least some material benefits to couple members; however, few studies have examined the associations between legal recognition and psychological distress or well-being. Using an online survey sample of 2,677 lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB) individuals, participants were placed in 4 groups: single, dating, in a committed relationship, and in a legally recognized relationship. Analyses revealed that participants in committed or legally recognized relationships reported less psychological distress (i.e., internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and stress) and more well-being (i.e., the presence of meaning in life) than single participants. Significant group differences and multivariate analyses indicated that participants in a legally recognized relationship reported less internalized homophobia, fewer depressive symptoms, lower levels of stress, and more meaning in their lives than those in committed relationships, even after controlling for other factors. The need for further research on the psychological benefits of legal relationship recognition for same-sex couples is discussed. PMID:20175612
Riggle, Ellen D B; Rostosky, Sharon S; Horne, Sharon G
The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data were collected from 866 Dutch high school students (mean age 13.61 years) by means of a computer-based questionnaire. Of the participants, 74 (8.5%) reported having feelings of SSA. The participants with SSA rated the quality of their relationships with their fathers and their peers lower than did those without SSA. Participants with SSA also had poorer mental health (higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem) and lower school performance. A mediation analysis revealed that differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of the same-sex attracted youths' social relationships, especially with fathers and peers. PMID:18194005
Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M; de Bruyn, Eddy H; Hakvoort, Esther M
Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. Methods. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II by sexual orientation. Results. Both adolescent boys and adolescent girls with both-sex attractions or relationships were significantly more likely than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships to be current smokers. Adolescent boys and girls with both-sex attractions or relationships who were nonsmokers at Wave I were more likely to be current smokers at Wave II than those with opposite-sex attractions or relationships. Conclusions. Our findings support previous research on smoking among youths who report same-sex or both-sex romantic attractions or relationships and demonstrate the increased risk bisexual youths have for smoking initiation and smoking prevalence. Tobacco use prevention programs targeting gay and bisexual youths are warranted, particularly among adolescent girls and boys who have had both-sex romantic attractions or relationships.
In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay-identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar or club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: a) avoiding certain venues, b) attending venues away from home, c) meeting partners on the Internet, d) preferring venues that have potential nonsexual uses, e) having sex at the partner's place, and f) limiting their onsite sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205
Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Siegel, Karolynn
Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used interchangeably by individual males, but the degree to which either is used may depend on the social environment into which males are born. Here we show that male mating behaviour varies according to the rearing sex ratio: when reared in male-biased groups, males performed more forced copulations and fewer courtship displays but showed the opposite pattern of behaviour when reared in female-biased groups. Our prediction, based on sperm competition theory, that stripped sperm number would reflect social structure was not supported by our results. Instead, the overall level of sexual activity (gonopodial thrusts+sigmoid displays) was a better predictor of sperm number in the different groups of males. Rearing density, where sex ratio was controlled, did not significantly affect male mating behaviour or sperm traits. Males reared under the different sex ratios continued to show their characteristic behaviour patterns when placed in equal sex ratio tanks. We conclude, therefore, that males adopt mating strategies to suit their social environment, and that these strategies remain fixed, for short periods at least, if population structure changes. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564602
In an extension of previous studies, 88 presumably normal Ss were given the Draw-A-Person Test and were asked to make Semantic Differential ratings of their same-sex and opposite-sex figure drawings, as well as their real, ideal, and least-liked selves. Significant positive correlations were found between same-sex figure ratings and ratings of both real self and ideal self, and there was a significant negative correlation between ratings of same-sex figure drawings and ratings of least-liked self. There were no significant correlations between ratings of opposite-sex figure drawings and actual, ideal, or least-liked self ratings. Thus a significant relationship among three components of self-concept and normal Ss' perceptions of their human figure drawings emerged, but only for same-sex figures. PMID:355265
Debates over same-sex marriage have reached the main stage of contemporary U.S. politics. The purpose of this essay is to identify and examine how sexual ideologies in U.S. LGBT communities inform and influence relationship construction in general and same-sex marriage in particular. To accomplish this, we first discuss the nature of sexual ideologies. Next, we identify current sexual ideologies in LGBT communities and examine some of their fundamental features and their implications for relationship construction with a focus on same-sex marriage. We conclude with a discussion of what is potentially gained and lost by same-sex matrimonial bonds and explore some of the prospects of relationship construction within LGBT communities in the future. PMID:14567653
Inequities in marriage laws and domestic partnership benefits may have implications for who bears the burden of health care costs. We examined a recent period in California to illuminate disparities in health insurance coverage faced by same-sex couples. Partnered gay men are less than half as likely (42 percent) as married heterosexual men to get employer-sponsored dependent coverage, and partnered lesbians have an even slimmer chance (28 percent) of getting dependent coverage compared to married heterosexual women. As a result of these much lower rates of employer-provided coverage, partnered lesbians and gay men are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as married heterosexuals. The exclusion of gay men and women from civil marriage and the failure of domestic partnership benefits to provide insurance parity contribute to unequal access to health coverage, with the probable result that more health spending is pushed onto these individuals and onto the public. PMID:20576694
Ponce, Ninez A; Cochran, Susan D; Pizer, Jennifer C; Mays, Vickie M
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with
Katarina Alanko; Pekka Santtila; Katarina Witting; Markus Varjonen; Patrik Jern; Ada Johansson; Bettina von der Pahlen; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
This Article examines the legal and policy implications that arise when a state that expressly prohibits recognition or enforcement of any rights arising from a same-sex relationship is confronted with a request to register and enforce a child custody order issued by another state that gives custody or visitation rights to a biological mother’s former same-sex partner. As more states
This paper reveals how Canadian sexually diverse proponents of same-sex marriage and their allies engaged in a restricted debate based on equality in the lead-up to the legalization of same-sex marriage in Canada. A critical liberationist perspective is injected to expand the narrowed frameworks of this subject. Equality-based arguments are analytically deconstructed, illuminating their implications on Canadian relationship recognition. By
Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement “gay marriage should be abolished.” This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one’s attitude toward same-sex marriage after its legalization (FNB2003; N = 2,124). Parents’ attitudes toward
Debates over same-sex marriage have reached the main stage of contemporary U.S. politics. The purpose of this essay is to identify and examine how sexual ideologies in U.S. LGBT communities inform and influence relationship construction in general and same-sex marriage in particular. To accomplish this, we first discuss the nature of sexual ideologies. Next, we identify current sexual ideologies in
I have discussed the conservative and progressive critiques of same-sex marriage in prior publications and have maintained that neither progressives nor conservatives have yet produced a convincing response to my argument that the principle of formal equality requires the state to recognize same-sex unions on the same terms as which it recognizes different-sex unions. In this Essay, I not only
This thesis explores how LGBT marriage activists and lawyers have employed a racial interpretation of due process and equal protection in recent same-sex marriage litigation. Special attention is paid to the Supreme Court's opinion in Loving v. Virginia, the landmark case that declared anti-miscegenation laws unconstitutional. By exploring the use of racial precedent in same-sex marriage litigation and its treatment
This Article examines the parental rights of a same-sex partner\\/spouse who is neither biologically related to, nor an adoptive parent of, a child being raised by the couple. Using a hypothetical example of a same-sex couple with one child, this Article explores whether the parental rights granted to a non-biological parent by marriage, civil union, or domestic partnership can and
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the AIDS-related high risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) who ever exchanged money for the samesex. METHODS: Target sampling for cross-sectional study and valid anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare the differences of AIDS-related high risk behaviors between MSM with the experience of exchanging money for the samesex and those without that experience. 1959 rstadied samples were recruited in nine cities. SPSS 13.0 was used and t, ?(2) and Mann-Whitney tests were taken for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Compared to corresponding ones without "buying" the samesex experience, MSM who ever engaged in "buying" sex had the characteristics of being prone to in marriage and living in larger cities with older age and higher income (P < 0.01). They also had a significant larger number in the following events: total sexual partners, anal sex and oral sex episodes with samesex, number of sexual partners, anal sex and oral sex in the previous six months, with the figure of median 50.0, 20.0, 20.0, 5.0, 4.0, 5.0 respectively. 31.5% had ever participated in 'group sex', 48.0% had sex with male partners away from his own region in the previous year, 70.5% had sexual intercourse with strangers at MSM avenues in the last six months. The OR (95%CI) values were 2.288 (1.702 - 3.077), 3.231 (2.462 - 4.241), 2.840 (2.140 - 3.770). All the above mentioned figures were higher than those without the experience, with significant differences. They had a significant lower rate of 45.7% of condom use while having sex with female partners (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: MSM with the experience of exchanging money for the samesex would have more AIDS-related high risk behaviors, AIDS preventative measures should be taken to target different subgroups. PMID:21176680
Chen S.-H., Yu H.-Y., Hsu H.-Y., Lin F.-C. & Lou J.-H. (2012) Journal of Nursing Management Organisational support, organisational identification and organisational citizenship behaviour among male nurses Aims? The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification, and organisational citizenship behaviour and the predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour in Taiwanese male nurses. Background? The turnover rate among male nurses is twice that of female nurses. Organisational citizenship behaviour is the predictor of turnover intention. Little information is available on the relationship between organisational support, organisational identification and organisational citizenship behaviour, particularly for male nurses. Methods? Data were collected in 2010 from a questionnaire mailed to 167 male nurses in Taiwan. A cross-sectional survey with simple sampling was used in this study. Results? The results showed that organisational identification and organisational support were correlated with organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness, organisational support of work conditions and the type of organisation were the main predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. Together they accounted for 40.7% of the total variation in organisational citizenship behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness was the most critical predictor, accounting for 29.6% of the variation. Conclusion? Organisational support and organisational identification have positive relationships with organisational behaviour. Organisational distinctiveness is an important factor in explaining organisational citizenship behaviour in male nurses. Implications for nursing management? This finding provides concrete directions for managers to follow when providing organisational identification, in particular, the organisational distinctiveness will help male nurses to display increasingly more organisational citizenship behaviour. PMID:23409728
This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se. PMID:19343579
Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N
The effects ofEurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Sexually normal male rats were treated twice daily with 500 mg kg?1 of different fractions ofE. longifolia Jack for 10 days prior to test and were then observed for their copulatory behaviour with a receptive female in a copulation\\u000a cage. Results showed that was a significant
Variation in sex ratio can affect mating behaviour, with more intense competition predicted at biased sex ratios. In species with alternative mating behaviours, sex ratio variation can induce switches between be- haviour types and this, together with the consistency with which behaviours are expressed, may also affect the intensity of sexual selection. All these factors can be combined to elucidate
|According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…
Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.
Social interactions have lasting effects on behaviour and physiology in a variety of organisms. In the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, social experience alters neural metabolism and elevates circulating concentrations of androgens. In this study, we assessed the effects of social experience (housing with females versus housing in isolation) on the expression of social behaviours in male geckos (1) when gonadally
Jon T Sakata; Ajay Gupta; Chien-Pei Chuang; David Crews
According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…
Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.
Summary The possible effects of Adenosine (AD), locally applied into the ventral Hippocampus (HPCv) on the expression of general motor activity and some stereotyped behaviours were studied in adult male rats. Locomotion display was recorded in a hole-board equiped with automatic infrared animal activity detectors. Stereotyped behaviours were measured by direct inspection by two observers. Animals were implanted with microinjection
This study sought to explore the grief experience of samesex couples. To date, the majority of research in this area has focused on the bereavement experience of individuals whose partner has died from an AIDS/HIV-related illness. The research design used was descriptive exploratory. A multi-pronged sampling strategy was employed to generate participants. Seven people underwent in-depth interviews once the study had received ethical approval. Data were analysed by coding, comparing, and merging codes into higher order themes. Five themes subsequently emerged that captured the essence of the bereavement experience, namely:'tacit acknowledgement'; 'sculpting the distress'; 'multiple losses'; 'seeking support'; and 'journeying anew.' While not all bereaved gay or lesbian partners experience 'disenfranchized grief', particularly if their relationship with the deceased was not hidden, it is clear from the findings of this study that many of the participants did (Doka, 1989;Wallbank, 1998). Health care professionals need to consider their approach to people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, if they are to provide support structures (formal and informal) to meet their unique needs. PMID:18928134
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals with same-sex sexual partners. METHODS: Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative household survey. Respondents were asked the number of women and men with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 5 years. Psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R) criteria were assessed with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: A total of 2.1% of men and 1.5% of women reported 1 or more same-sex sexual partners in the past 5 years. These respondents had higher 12-month prevalences of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and of suicidal thoughts and plans than did respondents with opposite-sex partners only. Decomposition showed that the elevated same-sex 12-month prevalences were largely due to higher lifetime prevalences. Ages at onset and persistence of disorders did not differ between the same-sex and opposite-sex subsamples. CONCLUSIONS: Homosexual orientation, defined as having same-sex sexual partners, is associated with a general elevation of risk for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and for suicidal thoughts and plans. Further research is needed to replicate and explore the causal mechanisms underlying this association.
Gilman, S E; Cochran, S D; Mays, V M; Hughes, M; Ostrow, D; Kessler, R C
Males in many taxa are known to exhibit behavioural plasticity in response to the perceived intensity of sperm competition, reflected in Drosophila melanogaster by increased copulation duration following prior exposure to a rival. We tested the prediction that males do not adjust their copulation effort in response to the presence of a competitor in Drosophila species where there is little or no sperm competition. Contrary to expectations, male plasticity in copulation duration was found in both Drosophila subobscura and Drosophila acanthoptera, species in which females rarely remate. These results are discussed in relation to the adaptive basis of plasticity in these species.
Lize, Anne; Doff, Rowan J.; Smaller, Eve A.; Lewis, Zenobia; Hurst, Gregory D. D.
Although many studies have examined the effects of male size on attractiveness and mating behaviour, few have taken genetic background into consideration. Phenotypic manipulation permits the experimental adjustment of morphological traits while keeping genetic background constant. Here, male guppies, Poecilia reticulata, an ideal model for this type of manipulation, were raised at different temperatures to produce sibling pairs that differed
Kit Magellan; Lars B. Pettersson; Anne E. Magurran
The direct and indirect consequences of female copulatory behaviour for copulation success have seldom been quantified. In feral fowl, most copulations were forced by males and copulation success was determined by two factors. First, female differential resistance and solicitation directly affected copulation success and were displayed non-randomly with respect to male social status. Second, another female copulatory behaviour, the distress call, had an indirect effect on both copulation success and the quality of copulation partners. Distress calls triggered male attention to a copulation, which increased the probability of higher-ranking males than the copulating male disrupting the copulation and inseminating the calling female. Females preferentially uttered distress calls when mounted by low-ranking males. Both copulation resistance and distress calling influenced copulation success, but only distress calling increased the probability of copulation disruption by other males. Consistent with the effect of direct selection, differential distress calling indirectly biased copulation success in favour of dominant males. Female fowl may thus ameliorate the effect of male sexual coercion by manipulating malebehaviour.
Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male shore crab Carcinus maenas was investigated, as well as differences in sensitivity between red and green colour morphs. The results show that copper exposure clearly altered the response of C. maenas males to a pheromone stimulus (pre-moult female urine) presented alone, together with a dummy female (a sponge injected with pre-moult female urine) or with a real female. Crabs exposed to the highest copper treatment took more than twice as long to initiate search activity after pheromone introduction and their search behaviour was less directed. When offered a dummy female, male crabs showed decreased pheromone discrimination in both copper treatments. Stroking was the only mating behaviour significantly affected, with a 90% reduction in red crabs in the highest copper treatment. Additionally, crabs of the highest copper treatment more often pinched the dummy female (non-mating behaviour). Finally, male crabs exposed to copper more often pinched pre-moult females and it took about three times longer to establish cradle-carrying. Thus, copper affects the ability of males to detect female pheromones, perform specific mating behaviours and to form pairs. PMID:16942808
A free-ranging bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) population was observed over a period of 3 years, thereby enabling long-term observations on object-horning behaviour (“horn-rubbing”,\\u000a “ground-horning” and “horn-thrashing”) in male bushbuck. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether object-horning\\u000a in male bushbuck serves as demarcation of a territory. Of the three male age classes investigated (territorial males, young-adult\\u000a bachelors, sub-adult males)
Torsten Wronski; John D. Kabasa; Martin Plath; Ann Apio
In mice, pheromone detection is mediated by the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory epithelium. Male mice that are deficient for Trpc2, an ion channel specifically expressed in VNO neurons and essential for VNO sensory transduction, are impaired in sex discrimination and male-male aggression. We report here that Trpc2-\\/- female mice show a reduction in female-specific behaviour, including maternal aggression
The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…
|Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use…
This series of studies extended procedural justice research to the informal domain of dispute resolution in intimate same-sex friendship. The first study identified the types of disputes that occur between friends and the concerns that friends have when choosing dispute resolution procedures. Seven dispute types and 11 procedural criteria were found relevant to dispute resolution in friendship. Study 2 assessed
This study extends research on sex differences and similarities in communication values by examining (a) the influence of sex of friend on ratings of functional communication skills in same-sex and cross-sex friendships, (b) the moderating role of friend's sex in sex differences in evaluations, and (c) the mediating role of psychological gender in sex differences in communication values. Participants (144
|The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…
This study examines the unidimensionality and internal consistency of the Dyadic Trust Scale (DTS; Larzelere & Huston, 1980) with individuals in same-sex romantic relationships. A sample of 141 participants, consisting of 30 gay men and 111 lesbians of various ages, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds, responded to the questionnaire. Participants were recruited by posters and pamphlets distributed throughout the Canadian capital.
Nicolas Gabbay; Marie-France Lafontaine; Leta Bourque
In June 2006, voters in Alabama overwhelmingly approved a statewide referendum that added a prohibition against same-sex marriage to the state's constitution. This research examines the Alabama vote by “placing” the politics of sexuality within the state's multifaceted web of cultural and social space. We fuse a traditional electoral geography approach with an overall postpositivist cultural and social perspective, beginning
This article explores some aspects of the emergence of local debates same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland. Taking up this issue through an analysis of mediatized reactions to the introduction of German gay marriage in 2001, I point to how we can see evidence of a shift away from Irish traditional relationships between the social, politics and religion, which
The literature on state constitutional amendments remains undeveloped despite recent activity in the area of same-sex marriage policy. Previous studies have assumed that the adoption of state constitutional amendments is governed by routine policy considerations, but there are strong theoretical reasons for expecting attributes of state institutions also to affect adoption. In this study, I compare institutional and policy explanations
This article examines the Spanish gay and lesbian movement, and discusses its role in the legalization of same-sex marriages. The main focus is on the interplay between gay and lesbian rights organizations and leftist political parties during a time span that goes back to the late 1970s. In order to shed new light on the links between protest, interest representation
|Relationship satisfaction, affect, and stress were examined in 313 same-sex couples who had had civil unions in Vermont during the first year of this legislation. Similarity between partners on age and on positive/negative affectivity was related to relationship satisfaction whereas there was no association with similarity in income, education,…
Todosijevic, Jelica; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.
Many Americans think that homosexual sex is morally wrong and oppose same-sex marriage. Philosophers trying to defend these views have relied on two strategies. One is to claim that such sex is wrong irrespective of consequences: there is something intrinsic to sex that makes it only licit when it takes place within a heterosexual marriage (in which there is no
|Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…
This study assessed differences in quality of life (QL) between homosexual and heterosexual people and attempted to identify factors accounting for observed differences. Data were collected in a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 18-64 (N = 7,076). Classification as heterosexual or homosexual was based upon reported sexual behavior in the preceding year; 84.8% of the total sample (N = 5,998) could be classified: 2.8% of 2,878 sexually active men and 1.4% of 3,120 sexually active women had had same-sex partners. Differences in QL were tested by analysis of variance. Factors accounting for observed differences in QL were identified by selecting determinants of QL on which homosexual and heterosexual people differed and including them with same-sex sexuality in multiple regression analyses. Homosexual men, but not women, differed from their heterosexual counterparts on various dimensions of QL. Lesser QL in homosexual men was predominantly explained by self-esteem and mastery. Same-sex sexuality contributed independently to some of the observed differences. Although same-sex sexuality is related to QL in men, the lack of association in women suggests that the link is mediated by other factors, indicating the need to explore in what respect the situation of homosexual men and women differs. This study also suggests the importance of finding out how lower sense of self-esteem and of mastery come about in homosexual men. PMID:12597268
Sandfort, Theodorus G M; de Graaf, Ron; Bijl, Rob V
With the 2004 legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts, many have questioned how the legalization of such marriages at the state level may affect the eligibility for and payment of federal Social Security benefits and private pensions. Social Se...
Objectives. This study examined the risk of psychiatric disorders among in- dividuals with same-sex sexual partners. Methods. Data are from the Na- tional Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative household survey. Re- spondents were asked the number of women and men with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 5 years. Psychiatric disorders according to Di- agnostic and Statistical Manual
Stephen E. Gilman; Susan D. Cochran; Vickie M. Mays; Michael Hughes; David Ostrow; Ronald C. Kessler
This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same?sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families are formed, research exploring the emotional and legal dynamics of
Oestrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals released into the environment have the potential to affect animal behaviour. This study examined the relationship between plasma levels of gonadal steroids and behaviour and the effects of exogenous hormonal perturbation on the behaviour of nesting male three-spined stickleback. Plasma gonadal steroid concentrations were related to levels of nesting and aggressive behaviours: levels of oestradiol were negatively
Objectives. We studied overall mortality in a demographically defined, complete cohort of gay men and lesbians to address recent claims of markedly shorter life spans among homosexual persons. Methods. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) starting 1 year after the date of same-sex marriage for 4914 men and 3419 women in Denmark who married a same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004. Results. Mortality was markedly increased in the first decade after same-sex marriage for men who married between 1989 and 1995 (SMR = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.01, 2.50), but much less so for men who married after 1995, when efficient HIV/AIDS therapies were available (SMR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.68). For women who married their same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004, mortality was 34% higher than was mortality in the general female population (SMR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.63). For women, and for men marrying after 1995, the significant excess mortality was limited to the period 1 to 3 years after the marriage. Conclusions. Despite recent marked reduction in mortality among gay men, Danish men and women in same-sex marriages still have mortality rates that exceed those of the general population. The excess mortality is restricted to the first few years after a marriage, presumably reflecting preexisting illness at the time of marriage. Although further study is needed, the claims of drastically increased overall mortality in gay men and lesbians appear unjustified.
|Some writers have suggested that males and females differ not only in influencibility, but also in the strategies which they use to influence others. Although general sex differences in friendships may affect influence strategies, there is little research comparing males' and females' friendships. To explore differences between same- and…
Many crustaceans use pheromones to find mates and induce mating behaviours. If pollutants impair the ability to detect chemosensory cues and respond to pheromone signals, they could profoundly affect mating. In a series of laboratory experiments, the effect of copper (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg Cu(II) per litre for 5 days) on specific components of the mating behaviour of male
In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that males of root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas) of different social ranks display different behavioural strategies. To document be- havioural differences between social ranks, we in- vestigated patterns in the behavioural responses to urine cues from familiar and novel individuals in a choice maze. Ten pairs of male voles were ef- fectively used
Plasticity in behaviour is of fundamental significance when environments are variable. Such plasticity is particularly important in the context of rapid changes in the socio-sexual environment. Males can exhibit adaptive plastic responses to variation in the overall level of reproductive competition. However, the extent of behavioural flexibility within individuals, and the degree to which rapidly changing plastic responses map onto fitness are unknown. We addressed this by determining the behaviour and fitness profiles of individual Drosophila melanogaster males subjected to up to three episodes of exposure to rivals or no rivals, in all combinations. Behaviour (mating duration) was remarkably sensitive to the level of competition and fully reversible, suggesting that substantial costs arise from the incorrect expression of even highly flexible behaviour. However, changes in mating duration matched fitness outcomes (offspring number) only in scenarios in which males experienced zero then high competition. Following the removal of competition, mating duration, but not offspring production, decreased to below control levels. This indicates that the benefit of increasing reproductive investment when encountering rivals may exceed that of decreasing investment when rivals disappear. Such asymmetric fitness benefits and mismatches with behavioural responses are expected to exert strong selection on the evolution of plasticity.
Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Chapman, Tracey
|Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…
1.The free flight behaviour of swarming male Bibionidae (Diptera) has been filmed in the field with two cameras simultaneously at 50 frames\\/s. A method is described which allows the reconstruction of the three-dimensional trajectories of flies from the two films.2.Males track other flies and dummy targets from below and from downwind (Figs. 5–8; 10a). They keep pointing into the wind
Objective To explore the factors that influence help seeking for mental distress by offenders. Design Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with prisoners before and after release. Setting One category B local prison in southern England. Participants 35 male offenders aged 18-52, a quarter of whom had been flagged as being at risk of self harm. Results Most respondents reported that they would not seek help from a general practitioner or other healthcare professional if experiencing mental distress. When followed up after release, none had sought medical help despite the fact that many had considerable emotional problems. Many participants were hesitant to seek help because they feared being given a formal diagnosis of mental illness. Some of these men feared the stigma that such a diagnosis would bring, whereas others feared that a diagnosis would mean having to confront the problem. Lack of trust emerged as the most prominent theme in prisoners' discourse about not seeking help from health professionals. Distrust towards the “system” and authority figures in general was linked to adverse childhood experiences. Distrust directed specifically at healthcare professionals was often expressed as specific negative beliefs: many perceived that health professionals (most often doctors) “just don't care,” “just want to medicate,” and treat patients “superficially.” Those men who would consider going to a general practitioner reported positive previous experiences of being respected and listened to. Conclusions Distrust is a major barrier to accessing health care among offenders. Like most people, the respondents in this study wanted to feel listened to, acknowledged, and treated as individuals by health professionals. By ensuring that a positive precedent is set, particularly for sceptical groups such as ex-prisoners, general practitioners and prison doctors may be able to encourage future help seeking. Information specifically designed for prisoners is needed to help to de-stigmatise mental illness, and preparation for release should include provision of information about access to health and social services. Awareness training for health professionals is recommended: trust might be fostered in this population by seemingly trivial gestures that indicate respect.
Structural equation modelling was used to assess the strengths of the links between sexual satisfaction and self-reported (a) relationship well-being, (b) mental health, and (c) physical health for women in same-sex (i.e., homosexual, n = 114) versus mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual, n = 208) relationships. Participants came from a large-scale Internet study. Sexual satisfaction was found to be an extremely strong predictor of relational well-being,
[Excerpt] In 1993, new laws and regulations pertaining to homosexuality and U.S. military service came into effect reflecting a compromise in policy. This compromise, colloquially referred to as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in same-sex acts would create an unacceptable risk to the
In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more
Adopting a system justification perspective (Jost and Banaji 1994), we investigated the manner and extent to which gay men\\u000a and lesbians might internalize a sense of inferiority when it comes to parenthood. In an Italian sample of gay and lesbian\\u000a individuals, we found that gay men who scored high (versus low) on system justification and right-wing conservatism regarded\\u000a samesex
Maria Giuseppina Pacilli; Alessandro Taurino; John T. Jost; Jojanneke van der Toorn
Parents can profoundly influence the long-term academic success of their children. Parental involvement with their children's schools has consistently been associated with much better long-term academic and social outcomes. Unfortunately, same-sex parents often feel disconnected and unwelcome in schools. In order to extend the research supporting parent practices and strong family-school collaboration, the present study used the Early Childhood Longitudinal
legal marriage. Approaching marriage from the perspective of same-sex cou-ples, this research demonstrates that the legal and cultural aspects of marriage are deeply intertwined. Cultural enactments of marriage enact legality even in the absence of official law, and many actors ascribe to law a cultural power that transcends its specific benefits and protections, the power to pro-duce social and cultural
It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this paper, I examine what happened to different-sex marriage in the Netherlands after the enactment of two laws: in 1998, a law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage--registered partnership--, and in 2001, a law that legalized
An estimated 35,000 U.S. citizens are living in our country with same-sex foreign partners, but these couples have no right to stay here together on the basis of their relationship. Many of these Americans are faced with a choice between their partners and the country they love. This is true even if the couple is legally married in one of
The conflict between self-identity and religious doctrine is underinvestigated in lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. This article examines the association between religious affiliation and self-esteem in a sample of 150 same-sex-attracted current and former members of the Mormon Church and proposes a Nietzschean perspective for clinical social work in this population. Cross-sectional data were collected through a Web-based 18-item survey
In order to compare the pattern of gender differences for cognitive measures in opposite-sex twin pairs to that in independent\\u000a samples of twins from same-sex pairs, psychometric test data were obtained from four research-identified samples of children:\\u000a (1) 96 pairs of opposite-sex fraternal twins in which at least one member of each pair is reading disabled; (2) 62 pairs of
Valerie S. Knopik; John C. DeFries; Maricela Alarcón
|Background: We investigated the aetiology of language impairment in 579 four-year-old twins with low language performance and their co-twins, members of 160 MZ twin pairs, 131 same-sex DZ pairs and 102 opposite-sex DZ pairs. Methods: Language impairment in 4-year-olds was defined by scores below the 15th percentile on a general factor derived…
Viding, Essi; Spinath, Frank M.; Price, Thomas S.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
This internet study explored the mediating effects of anxious and avoidant attachment on the link between relationship equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction among 75 cohabitating U.S. and Canadian women’s same-sex couples. Multiple regression\\u000a results indicated that both anxious and avoidant attachment were found to mediate the relationship between dyadic equality\\u000a discrepancy and relationship satisfaction, suggesting that the more partners perceived
The focus of this study was the relation between both gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes with gender-related behavior of interacting partners. We observed gender-typed communication behaviors of mixed-sex and same-sex dyads and measured gender role self-concept and gender role attitudes. Thirty mixed-sex dyads, 19 women dyads, and 15 men dyads participated in a behavior observation study. The results
Ursula Athenstaedt; Elisabeth Haas; Stephanie Schwab
In order to evaluate the AIDS related sources of information, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among male young people it was filled in a multi-choice anonymous questionnaire by 2018 subjects, called for the first medical examination to Italian Navy and by 1348 recruits. The data from the latter group were used to make comparisons with our previous survey carried out in
A. Carducci; M. Frasca; A. Grasso; I. Terzi; C. M. Avio
This paper reviews assessment, treatment and supervision issues in relation to a high-risk, borderline functioning, male sex offender with zoosexual interests and behaviours. Mr Z was convicted of multiple sexual offences including rape, indecent assault and indecent exposure as well as actual and threatened bodily harm. He was convicted for two counts of attempted buggery of horses and he received
Aim was to investigate psychological characteristics that may predict suicide ideation and behaviour in male prisoners. Sample consisted of 1117 prisoners detained in jails of the District of Abruzzo-Molise in Italy. All underwent psychiatric interviews and comprehensive psychometric assessments related to different psychological characteristics. Principal component analysis of psychometric variables derived four components. Multivariate logistic regression was designed to test
M. Sarchiapone; N. Jovanovi?; A. Roy; A. Podlesek; V. Carli; M. Amore; M. Mancini; A. Maruši?
This study was undertaken to describe the effect of previous acquaintance on aggressive behaviour in repeatedly regrouped pigs and the nature of interaction between sexes. Four replicates of each 100 pigs (half entire males, half females) were weaned at 4 weeks and kept litterwise until 8 weeks, when they were randomly allocated to 10 pens of 10 pigs each. Random
BACKGROUND: Two related family members, a female and a male balanced carrier of an intrachromosomal insertion on chromosome 7 were referred to our centre for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This presented a rare opportunity to investigate the behaviour of the insertion chromosome during meiosis in two related carriers. The aim of this study was to carry out a detailed genetic analysis
Leoni Xanthopoulou; Anna Mantzouratou; Anastasia Mania; Suzanne Cawood; Alpesh Doshi; Domenico M Ranieri; Joy DA Delhanty
The aim of this study was to investigate social relationships between Przewalski horses at a high density in a bachelor group housed in a 3.5-ha enclosure. The group consisted of 16 males aged 5 to 16. Behavioural data were collected during 18 days, total 216h. Fifteen minute focal animal sampling was used; each horse was observed three times a day
|Examined adolescent intimacy in close friendships and romantic relationships from a systemic perspective. Found qualitative sex-related differences in how partners balance closeness and individuality in the two types of close friendships. Development of an intimate romantic relationship was also found to require greater commitment for males than…
In addition to various reproductive stimuli, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is released both from the neurohypophysial terminal into the blood stream and within distinct brain regions in response to stressful or social stimuli. Brain OXT receptor-mediated actions were shown to be significantly involved in the regulation of a variety of behaviours. Here, complementary methodological approaches are discussed which were utilised to reveal, for example, anxiolytic and anti-stress effects of OXT, both in females and in males, effects that were localised within the central amygdala and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Also, in male rats, activation of the brain OXT system is essential for the regulation of sexual behaviour, and increased OXT system activity during mating is directly linked to an attenuated anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, in late pregnancy and during lactation, central OXT is involved in the establishment and fine-tuned maintenance of maternal care and maternal aggression. In monogamous prairie voles, brain OXT is important for mating-induced pair bonding, especially in females. Another example of behavioural actions of intracerebral OXT is the promotion of social memory processes and recognition of con-specifics, as revealed in rats, mice, sheep and voles. Experimental evidence suggests that, in humans, brain OXT exerts similar behavioural effects. Thus, the brain OXT system seems to be a potential target for the development of therapeutics to treat anxiety- and depression-related diseases or abnormal social behaviours including autism. PMID:18601710
OBJECTIVES: This study examined lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting a history of same-sex sexual partners. METHODS: In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, men aged 17 to 39 years were assessed for lifetime history of affective disorders and sexual behavior patterns. The study classified this subset of men into 3 groups: those reporting same-sex sexual partners, those reporting only female sexual partners, and those reporting no sexual partners. Groups were compared for histories of suicide symptoms and affective disorders. RESULTS: A total of 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3%, 3.1%) of men reported same-sex sexual partners. These men evidenced greater lifetime prevalence rates of suicide symptoms than men reporting only female partners. However, homosexually/bisexually experienced men were no more likely than exclusively heterosexual men to meet criteria for lifetime diagnosis of other affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide further evidence of an increased risk for suicide symptoms among homosexually experienced men. Results also hint at a small, increased risk of recurrent depression among gay men, with symptom onset occurring, on average, during early adolescence.
Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion. PMID:21936232
The incidence of depression is 2-3× higher in women particularly during the reproductive years, an occurrence that has been associated with levels of sex hormones. The age-related decline of testosterone levels in men corresponds with the increased acquisition of depressive symptoms, and hormone replacement therapy can be efficacious in treating depression in hypogonadal men. Although it is not possible to model depression in rodents, it is possible to model some of the symptoms of depression including a dysregulated stress response and altered neuroplasticity. Among animal models of depression, chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) is a common paradigm used to induce depressive-like behaviours in rodents, disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and decrease hippocampal neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hypogonadism, produced by gonadectomy, on the acquisition of depressive-like behaviours and changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 21-day unpredictable CMS protocol was used on gonadectomised (GDX) and sham-operated males which produced an attenuation of weight gain in the GDX males receiving CMS treatment (GDX-CMS). Behavioural analysis was carried out to assess anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours. The combination of GDX and CMS produced greater passive behaviours within the forced swim test than CMS exposure alone. Similarly, hippocampal cell proliferation, neurogenesis and the expression of the neuroplastic protein polysialated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) were all significantly reduced in the GDX-CMS group compared to all other treatment groups. These findings indicate that testicular hormones confer resiliency to chronic stress in males therefore reducing the likelihood of developing putative physiological, behavioural or neurological depressive-like phenotypes. PMID:21481538
Wainwright, Steven R; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M
Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.
Several vole species use scent marked runways radiating from their burrows for foraging and dispersion. These marks are probably\\u000a used for social communication. This 4-day laboratory study investigated the environmental and social causations of marking\\u000a inside pre-existing corridors in male and female common volesMicrotus arvalis (Pallas, 1778). Firstly I tested the novelty and the reinforcement hypotheses in isolated voles, predicting
It is a common belief that male aggressive and sexual behaviour share many of the underlying neurobiological, neurological, pharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Therefore, we studied brain activation patterns in male rat after performance of aggressive and sexual behaviour and compared serotonergic pharmacology in the same paradigms to delineate possible similarities and differences.Patterns of Fos-immunoreactivity induced by aggressive and sexual encounters
Jan G. Veening; Lique M. Coolen; Trynke R. de Jong; Henk W. Joosten; Sietze F. de Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas; Berend Olivier
In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…
Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…
|Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…
Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.
Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years of age and…
Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.
|Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…
|In this paper we present the case for those entering/considering same-sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same-sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils "whatever…
. In double mating experiments, we examined whether and to what extent various male and female behavioural traits influence\\u000a the course of mating and fertilization success in the cellar spider. In males, we focussed on pre-copulatory behaviour and\\u000a on the rhythmic twisting movements that the male performs with his pedipalps during copulation. In females, we investigated\\u000a remating decisions and the
Summary Aggressive behaviour is rarely observed, but may have a large impact on the social struc- ture, relationships and interactions in animal societies. Long-term behavioural study of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay, Australia, suggests that males are more aggressive than females, and use sexual coercion during the breeding season, but age and sex-specific patterns of aggression have not
Erin M. Scott; Janet Mann; Jana J. Watson-Capps; Brooke L. Sargeant; Richard C. Connor
There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason\\u000a is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly\\u000a population-based 2005–2006 survey of all adult twins (20–47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex\\u000a sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed
Niklas Långström; Qazi Rahman; Eva Carlström; Paul Lichtenstein
\\u000a Once the differentiation of our sexual organs into male or female is settled, the next thing to be differentiated is the brain.\\u000a The difference in brain structures resulting from the interaction of sex hormones and developing brain cells, is thought to\\u000a be the basis of sex differences in behaviour, in gender identity, in gender roles, in our sexual orientation (hetero-,
ObjectivesCommercial sex male clients (CSMC) are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. This study reports the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), a history of STI and HIV-related risk behaviours in a sample of 600 CSMC in three urban areas in Sichuan province, China. The risk factors for prevalent syphilis infection are also examined.MethodsA
Cui Yang; Carl Latkin; Rongsheng Luan; Cunling Wang; Kenrad Nelson
Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Massularia acuminata in which the stem has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of M. acuminata stem. Sixty male rats were completely randomized into 4 groups (A–D) of 15 each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1?mL of distilled water (the vehicle) while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume containing 250, 500, and 1000?mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for day 1 (after a single dose), day 3 (after three doses, once daily), and day 5 (after five doses, once daily) by pairing with a receptive female (1?:?1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed proceptive behaviour (ear wiggling, darting, hopping, and lordosis) by the receptive female rats and precopulatory behaviour (chasing, anogenital sniffing and mounting) by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 500, and 1000?mg/kg body weight significantly (P < .05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly prolonged (P < .05). The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced significantly whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the postejaculatory interval of the animals. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract treated animals compared to the distilled water-administered control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P < .05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals except in those administered with 250?mg/kg body weight on days 1 and 3. Data from this study identified that the aqueous extract of Massularia acuminata stem enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats at the doses of 500 and 1000?mg/kg body weight of Massularia acuminata stem may be attributed, at least in part, to the alkaloids, saponins, and/or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant properties.
Male songbirds typically mate-guard by closely following the female during her fertile period. At dawn, males may sing near the nest or roost to direct their chorus at mates. Recent evidence suggests males may also be involved in singing interactions with neighbours during the dawn chorus. We used a 16- channel acoustic location system to examine the movement behaviour of
Jennifer R. Foote; Lauren P. Fitzsimmons; Daniel J. Mennill; Laurene M. Ratcliffe
This study examines the relationship between having other-sex versus same-sex best friends and antisocial behavior throughout early adolescence. Participants (N = 955) were recruited in 6th grade and followed longitudinally through 7th, 8th, and 11th grades. Participants were 58% ethnically diverse youth and 48% girls. Results indicate that the frequency of other-sex best friendship remained stable from 6th to 7th grade but significantly increased from 8th to 11th grade. Higher rates of concurrent antisocial behavior were related to having other-sex best friends in 6th grade but not in 7th grade. In 8th grade, there was an interaction between friendship and the sex of friends. Boys with only same-sex best friends and girls with other-sex best friends endorsed higher rates of antisocial behavior. Having other-sex best friends predicted antisocial behavior from 6th to 7th grade and 8th to 11th grade, especially for girls. Implications for the development of early adolescent friendship and antisocial behavior are discussed.
Background In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity) whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. Methodology/Principal Findings Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females), but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis) owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.
Johannesson, Kerstin; Saltin, Sara H.; Duranovic, Iris; Havenhand, Jon N.; Jonsson, Per R.
Much the most common models of HIV-related risk behaviour are those psychosocial models derived from studies of health behaviour and tested on large interview samples of American gay men. These models were not appropriate for understanding risk behaviour among 32 Glasgow male prostitutes. Whereas psycho-social models conceive of risk behaviour as volitional and individualistic, ethnographic data indicate that the male
M. J. Bloor; N. P. McKeganey; A. Finlay; M. A. Barnard
Sperm competition theory suggests that female remating rate determines the selective regime that dictates the evolution of male ejaculate allocation. To test for correlated evolution between female remating behaviour and male ejaculate traits, we subjected detailed experimental data on female and male reproductive traits in seven-seed beetle species to phylogenetic comparative analyses. The evolution of a larger first ejaculate was positively correlated with the evolution of a more rapid decline in ejaculate size over successive matings. Further, as predicted by theory, an increase in female remating rate correlated with the evolution of larger male testes but smaller ejaculates. However, an increase in female remating was associated with the evolution of a less even allocation of ejaculate resources over successive matings, contrary to classic sperm competition theory. We failed to find any evidence for coevolution between the pattern of male ejaculate allocation and variation in female quality and we conclude that some patterns of correlated evolution are congruent with current theory, whereas some are not. We suggest that this may reflect the fact that much sperm competition theory does not fully incorporate other factors that may affect the evolution of male and female traits, such as trade-offs between ejaculate expenditure and other competing demands and the evolution of resource acquisition. PMID:18205777
Paternal behaviour and pair-bond formation are defining characteristics of social monogamy. However, in comparison to pair-bonding, the endocrine factors associated with the male care of young are not well studied. In the present study, plasma concentrations of oxytocin, vasopressin and corticosterone (CORT) were measured in reproductively naïve male prairie voles as a function of exposure to an infant or control manipulations (i.e. handling or exposure to a wooden dowel). Plasma oxytocin concentrations were transiently elevated within 10 min of pup exposure. Although plasma CORT concentration typically increases after handling, after 10 min of pup exposure, the concentration of plasma CORT was not increased, suggesting an attenuation of CORT release by pup exposure. Group differences in the concentrations of plasma hormones were no longer detected at 20 or 60 min after treatment. These patterns of rapid change in the concentrations of plasma oxytocin and CORT were observed in both juvenile and adult males but not detected after control procedures. Plasma vasopressin, assessed only in adult males, did not vary as a function of pup exposure or other manipulations. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, pup exposure also increased activation (as assessed by the measurement of c-Fos) of neurones that stained for either oxytocin or vasopressin, whereas it decreased c-Fos expression in neurones stained for corticotrophin-releasing hormone. In addition, brief pup exposure (20 min) facilitated subsequent partner preference formation when alloparental males and pup attackers were considered as a group. In the context of other studies, these data support the hypothesis that neuroendocrine changes associated with male alloparental behaviour are related to those implicated in pair-bonding. PMID:22356098
Kenkel, W M; Paredes, J; Yee, J R; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, H; Bales, K L; Carter, C S
Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female artists. Male artists tended to enhance the
This article uses social movement theory to explain variation in local support for proposed constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage in 22 states during 2004 and 2006. Copyright (c) 2009 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.
The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns. PMID:8197895
Previous research has documented that sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexual people to experience mental health problems, but little is known about how these disparities emerge. Analysis of data from Miami-Dade County, Florida, shows that young adults reporting same-sex contact have higher levels of depressive symptoms and drug use than those without such contact, but that different processes explain the disparities in the two outcomes. A substantial portion of the gap in depressive symptoms is explained by sexual minorities' higher levels of stress exposure and their lower levels of family support and psychological resources. The gap in drug use is not explained by these processes, but is partially explained by self-exploratory attitudes and permissiveness of drug use in social networks. This study highlights the importance of using multiple outcome measures in research that examines mechanisms underlying mental health disparities across social groups. PMID:21131617
Abstract Background Lesbians and bisexual women are more likely than other women to evidence a unique mix of common breast cancer risk factors. It is not known if this results in greater breast cancer mortality risk. We investigate possible sexual orientation-related differences in risk for fatal breast cancer in a large representative U.S. sample of married and cohabiting women. Methods Between 1997 and 2003, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) interviewed married or cohabiting female participants, aged 18–80 years inclusively, who reported either a male (n=136,174) or female (n=693) coresidential relationship partner. These records are linked to the National Death Index to provide information on mortality status as of December 31, 2006. Employing these data, we estimated the age-adjusted relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for mortality attributed to breast cancer using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results Women in same-sex couples, compared to women in different-sex relationships, had greater age-adjusted risk for fatal breast cancer (RR=3.2, CI 1.01-10.21) but did not differ in their overall risk for mortality. Conclusions Our findings provide tentative support that sexual orientation is differentially linked to risk of fatal breast cancer. These findings underscore the need to investigate further breast cancer morbidity and mortality risk among women with minority sexual orientation.
Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to\\u000a taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour:\\u000a invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial\\u000a defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur,
Ashish D. Tiple; Sonali V. Padwad; Leonardo Dapporto; Roger L. H. Dennis
The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051
Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) describe how an individual's behaviour-which is influenced by his or her genotype-can affect the behaviours of interacting individuals. IGE research has focused on dyads. However, insights from social networks research, and other studies of group behaviour, suggest that dyadic interactions are affected by the behaviour of other individuals in the group. To extend IGE inferences to groups of three or more, IGEs must be considered from a group perspective. Here, I introduce the 'focal interaction' approach to study IGEs in groups. I illustrate the utility of this approach by studying aggression among natural genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. I chose two natural genotypes as 'focal interactants': the behavioural interaction between them was the 'focal interaction'. One male from each focal interactant genotype was present in every group, and I varied the genotype of the third male-the 'treatment male'. Genetic variation in the treatment male's aggressive behaviour influenced the focal interaction, demonstrating that IGEs in groups are not a straightforward extension of IGEs measured in dyads. Further, the focal interaction influenced male mating success, illustrating the role of IGEs in behavioural evolution. These results represent the first manipulative evidence for IGEs at the group level. PMID:24068359
Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed
Antonina Govic; Elizabeth A. Levay; Agnes Hazi; Jim Penman; Stephen Kent; Antonio G. Paolini
In this paper we present the case for those entering\\/considering same?sex relationships to be included in sex and relationship education in schools. The Government's Guidance on Sex and Relationship Education provides a rationale for including same?sex relationships when it says that schools should meet the needs of all their pupils ‘whatever their developing sexuality’. Research on sex education and domestic
This paper is a qualitative exploration of the experiences of marriage policies among people in same-sex relationships living in non-metropolitan United States areas. Although numerous studies have investigated the financial and legal costs and benefits of same-sex marriage policies, research examining experiences of the relational effects of these policies is limited. Using a grounded theory methodology, a core category, “the
The equal right to marry for same-sex couples in the United States has garnered increasing public support over time, with a number of state-level laws passed and others currently in contention. Beyond being a couples’ issue, arguments in support of legally recognizing same-sex marriage strike at the heart of LGBT civil rights and antidiscrimination efforts. This interview with Matt Coles,
The reproductive success of most fish depends partly on their ability to perform correct courtship behaviour. Alteration of this behaviour due to xenooestrogens can potentially affect the reproductive output and consequently population dynamics. In this lifetime study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to environmentally realistic (0.05, 0.50 and 5.00 ng L(-1)) nominal concentrations of 17alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) in a flow-through system for 4 months, from egg until sexual maturity. At 0.05 ng EE2L(-1), the secondary sexual characteristics of the males were significantly feminised with development of urogenital papillae and change in body colour. At 0.50 ng EE2L(-1), the sex ratio was altered from 69% males in the control groups to 59% males. The courtship behaviour of the male zebrafish was not affected by these two lower EE2 concentrations. Only at the highest concentration of 5.00 ng EE2L(-1), where only 5% of the group developed into males, was a change in behaviour recorded, and these few males were unable to induce spawning. Accordingly, the courtship behaviour of zebrafish is more resistant to oestrogenic exposure than secondary sexual characteristics and gonad development. This study provides the first quantitative measure of zebrafish courtship behaviour. PMID:18359522
Larsen, Mia G; Hansen, Katrine B; Henriksen, Per G; Baatrup, Erik
Summary The aim of this survey study with 7,083 male respondents was to examine the association between socioeconomic, health and\\u000a health behavioural risk indicators and fractures. In the multivariate regression model, fractures were associated strongest\\u000a with frequency of drunkenness, regular sports training, frequent use of health care services and obesity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction Little is known about the risk factors for fractures in young
V. M. Mattila; V. Jormanainen; T. Sahi; H. Pihlajamäki
Background The brain levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) are partially regulated through the Glu–Gln cycle. Astrocytes play a role in regulating the Glu–Gln cycle, and loss of astrocytes has been associated with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that levels of Glu and Gln would be affected by astrocyte loss and dysregulation of the Glu–Gln cycle and that depressive-like behaviours would be closely related to the level of changes in Glu and Gln. Methods We used liquid chromatography to measure Glu and Gln concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of male mice infused with L-? aminoadipic acid (L-AAA), a specific astrocyte toxin, in the prelimbic cortex. Methionine sulfoximine, a Gln synthetase inhibitor, and ?-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid, a blocker of neuronal Gln transporters, were used to disturb the Glu–Gln cycle. We assessed the behavioural change by drug infusion using the forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Results The Glu and Gln levels were decreased on the fifth day after L-AAA infusion, and the infused mice showed longer durations of immobility in the FST and lower sucrose preference, indicative of depressive-like behaviour. Mice in which Gln synthetase or Gln transport were inhibited also exhibited increased immobility in the FST. Direct infusion of L-Gln reversed the increased immobility induced by astrocyte ablation and Glu–Gln cycle impairments. Limitations Genetically modified animal models and diverse behavioural assessments would have been helpful to solidify our conclusions. Conclusion Neuronal Gln deficiency in the pre-frontal cortex may cause depressive behaviours.
Lee, Younghyurk; Son, Hyeonwi; Kim, Gyeongwha; Kim, Sujeong; Lee, Dong Hoon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kim, Hyun Joon
The release of genetically-modified or sterile male mosquitoes offers a promising form of mosquito-transmitted pathogen control, but the insights derived from our understanding of male mosquito behaviour have not fully been incorporated into the design of such genetic control or sterile-male release methods. The importance of aspects of male life history and mating behaviour for sterile-male release programmes were investigated by projecting a stage-structured matrix model over time. An elasticity analysis of transient dynamics during sterile-male releases was performed to provide insight on which vector control methods are likely to be most synergistic. The results suggest that high mating competitiveness and mortality costs of released males are required before the sterile-release method becomes ineffective. Additionally, if released males suffer a mortality cost, older males should be released due to their increased mating capacity. If released males are of a homogenous size and size-assortative mating occurs in nature, this can lead to an increase in the abundance of large females and reduce the efficacy of the population-suppression effort. At a high level of size-assortative mating, the disease transmission potential of the vector population increases due to male releases, arguing for the release of a heterogeneously-sized male population. The female population was most sensitive to perturbations of density-dependent components of larval mortality and female survivorship and fecundity. These findings suggest source reduction might be a particularly effective complement to mosquito control based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). In order for SIT to realize its potential as a key component of an integrated vector-management strategy to control mosquito-transmitted pathogens, programme design of sterile-male release programmes must account for the ecology, behaviour and life history of mosquitoes. The model used here takes a step in this direction and can easily be modified to investigate additional aspects of mosquito behaviour or species-specific ecology.
The occurrence of male-care behaviour directed from juvenile and adult males to infants was studied in a free-ranging troop\\u000a of Stumptail macaques. The study period lasted two months comprising about 140 hours of recorded observations.\\u000a \\u000a Infants were a focal subgroup and their interactions with older males were recorded. The following variables were examined\\u000a in relationship to the sending and receiving
Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky malebehavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture–mark–recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation—winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the ‘risky malebehaviour’ hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism.
Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M
Differences in the rate of maternal behaviours received by rodent offspring are associated with differential programming of molecular and behavioural components of anxiety and stress-related functions. To determine the degree to which maternal behaviours are sensitive to environmental conditions, Long–Evans rat dams were exposed to the odour of a predator (cat) at two different time points during the first week
Rahia Mashoodh; Christopher J. Sinal; Tara S. Perrot-Sinal
Summary This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
|Although Western mass media aimed at juvenile audiences aggressively eliminates any references to same-sex desire and behavior, it inspires a tremendous amount of homoerotic fan art. To determine how same-sex potential is portrayed in juvenile fan art, a content analysis was conducted of 872 male homoerotic images by 442 juvenile male and female…
Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air. PMID:23178457
Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R
SUMMARY 13 male homosexuals who approached us for treatment were studied. They came from unusual family back-grounds, had early homosexual experiences which were repeated and later became pleasurable. They showed a variety of homoerotic activity. Belonging to a marriageable age group, the social disadvantages of their homosexual behaviour prompted them to seek treatment. It was observed that early childhood experiences are important in the causation of homosexuality, early channelization of the sexual drive or to objects of the samesex by homosexual seduction and subsequent habituation also played an important part.
Women's same-sex attraction is rarely raised within general practice consultations, despite a common desire for its inclusion. Same-sex attracted women are significantly more likely than heterosexual women to suffer a range of health inequalities, making disclosure of sexual orientation often clinically relevant. This research explored the influences on disclosure from the perspectives of GPs and their regular same-sex attracted female patients. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews between mid 2005 and late 2006 with 33 same-sex attracted Australian women, 27 GPs and 1 psychiatrist, including 24 patient-GP pairs. Analysis revealed three disclosure patterns by same-sex attracted women with their preferred GPs, which we labelled open (telling), passive (waiting to be asked) and private (not telling). The three main influences on disclosure patterns were women's sexual identity experience, the risk of disclosure perceived by women and GPs, and the quality of the patient-doctor relationship. We developed the Identity Disclosure model to explain the interactions between these three influences. The more important a woman's sexual identity, the more likely she was to prefer an open disclosure approach, while a lower level of identity importance led to a passive or private approach. Risk and relationship then counterbalanced the disclosure decision. A high level of perceived risk for women or GPs would reduce women's openness, or GPs' willingness to facilitate disclosure. Reciprocal knowing within the relationship would attenuate risk and increase openness. Reciprocity had the capacity to increase GPs' shared responsibility for disclosure, which was desired by many women. We suggest that the Identity Disclosure model will facilitate GPs' understanding of the complex influences on disclosure, and ultimately transform their consultations with same-sex attracted women beyond the habitual silence to a new level of sensitivity. PMID:22503834
Testosterone concentrations were measured in blood samples collected weekly over a 5 year period from six adult (19-40 year old) male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus maximus) living in captivity in Sri Lanka (7 degrees N), to investigate the relationship between androgen secretion and the occurrence of musth (temporal gland secretion, drip urination and aggressive behaviour). The testosterone profiles were very variable both within and between animals. Long-term phasic changes in blood concentrations of testosterone, associated with periods of musth, occurred in three of the six elephants, with the most pronounced cyclicity in the oldest animal. Musth occurred annually after periods of high androgen secretion and there was a positive correlation between the duration of musth and mean concentrations of testosterone during the previous 2 months. The time of musth, while consistent for an individual, was variable between animals. In four bulls living within one social group, there was a positive correlation between social rank and mean concentrations of testosterone over the 5 year study, and only the dominant animal showed periodic musth. Short-term changes in testosterone concentrations occurred in blood samples collected every 15 min for 7 h, and following the injection of 20 micrograms GnRH, consistent with regulation through the pulsatile secretion of LH. Overall, the results support the view that fully mature male Asian elephants living near the equator express an asynchronous, cyclical, circannual pattern of gonadal activity, with the cyclical pattern developing progressively from 20 to 40 years of age. The periodic increase in testosterone secretion during the gonadal cycle induces the development of musth; however, androgen withdrawal following a period of hypersecretion may be the cause of some aspects of musth behaviour (aggression, unpredictability, disobedience) which make bull elephants very difficult to manage in captivity. PMID:8958836
The present study examined the consequences of being a self-reported transsexual male and HIV risk behaviours in a state penal system. The specific research question was whether or not sexual orientation of inmates influences the level to which they evidence HIV risk behaviours. A total of 153 participants volunteered to participate in the study of which 31 described themselves as being transsexual. Based on risk ratios and using transsexual inmates (TIs) as the reference group, they were 13.7 times more likely to have a main sex partner while in prison [95% CI=5.28, 35.58]. Moreover, TIs were 5.8 times more likely than non-transsexual inmates (NTIs) to report having more than one sex partner while in prison [95% CI=2.18, 15.54]. It is obvious from these findings that TIs require more preventive support than their NTI confederates. In addition to TIs being protected from assault and battery by NTIs, they need social support and carefully developed preventive informational materials. PMID:10215126
When fighting is costly, avoiding contests with superior opponents should confer fitness advantages. Black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, produce loud calls that reliably indicate the minimum number of male group members. Using playback recordings, I manipulated ‘numeric odds’ (number of defending to intruding males) to examine whether alpha males use loud calls to assess relative fighting ability, and whether they
Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…
In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…
This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…
Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.
The goal of this discussion is to examine some of the variables that impact black men who have sex with men (MSM) embracing the institution of same-sex marriage. At the cornerstone of this discussion is the notion that one must embark upon a contextual analysis if one hopes to understand human behavior and attitudes. This contextual analysis explores socio-cultural influences,
|This study compared 55 men and 78 women who had same-sex marriages in Massachusetts, 101 men and 120 women who had domestic partnerships in California, and 35 men and 86 women who had civil unions in Vermont, all in 2004. Couples were surveyed on demographic and relationship information, conflict, contact with family of origin, social support,…
Rothblum, Esther D.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Solomon, Sondra E.
|Health disparities related to sexual orientation are well documented and may be due to unequal access to a partner's employer-sponsored insurance (ESI). We provide the literature's first evaluation of legislation enacted by California in 2005 that required private employers within the state to treat employees in committed same-sex relationships…
Whether an individual has a right to marry another person of the samesex has garnered tremendous judicial, political and scholarly attention in the past decade, and it certainly will continue to do so in the years to come, for such a right is one which sexual minority rights activists consider to be part and parcel of their struggle for
Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same?sex?attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex education be
|Sex education is a contested site in the school curriculum as communities grapple with who should teach young people about sex and how it should be taught. In this paper we ask whether same-sex-attracted young people are being exposed to appropriate and relevant sex education at school, and if they are not whether it is necessary that sex…
|This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…
Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.
|In this article, the author reports how religious schools are being pressed to spell out their policies regarding gay students and the children of same-sex couples. As homosexuality has become one of the fiercest battlefronts in the "culture wars," religious schools have found it harder to exclude gays or their children without lawsuits or…
Therapist and client values play an important role in the therapeutic process. When these values conflict, the process can be inhibited. One scenario in which clear value conflicts can be seen is when individuals in same-sex relationships work with therapists who have differing values, stemming from their religious convictions. This paper discusses Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Service, Inc., a
Men and women differ in temperament and personality traits, such as aggression and sensation seeking. The sex hormone testosterone could play a role in the origin of these differences, but it remains unclear how and when testosterone could have these effects. One way to investigate the prenatal exposure effect of testosterone is to compare opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) female
Celina C. C. Cohen-Bendahan; Jan K. Buitelaar; Stephanie H. M. van Goozen; Jacob F. Orlebeke; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
Objectives. We explored factors influencing sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices among Black bisexual men. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 Black men in Atlanta, Georgia, who reported having had oral, vaginal, or anal sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months. Results. Participants described approaches to disclosure of same-sex behavior as part of a complex decisional balance influenced by both situational and individual factors and ranging from full disclosure to total secrecy. Influences on sexual behavior and condom-use practices included: (1) type of relationship, (2) gender-specific considerations, (3) perceptions of comfort or trust, and (4) fear of disease or pregnancy. Conclusions. Disclosure of same-sex behavior was not a major influence on the sexual behavior and condom-use practices of the Black bisexual men in our study, who demonstrated heterogeneity in approaches to sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices. Additional research is needed to assess the social determinants of sexual risk for this population. Future HIV-prevention efforts should include initiatives to encourage accuracy in risk assessment and in taking sexual histories in clinical settings.
As feeding and mating are mutually-exclusive goal-orientated behaviours, we investigated whether brief food deprivation would impair the display of sexual behaviour of male rats. Analysis of performance in a sexual incentive motivation test revealed that, similar to fed males, food-deprived males preferred spending time in the vicinity of receptive females rather than nonreceptive females. Despite this, food-deprived males were more likely to be slow to mate than normally-fed males, and a low dose of the satiety peptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone attenuated the effect of hunger. Using Fos immunocytochemistry, we compared neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway in response to oestrous cues from receptive females between food-deprived and fed males. As in fed males, more Fos expression was seen in the rostral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the medial preoptic area in food-deprived males, confirming that food-deprived males can recognise and respond to female oestrous cues. However, although there was also an increase in Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the accessory tract and in the posteromedial amygdala in fed males, no increases were seen in these areas in food-deprived rats. We also found selective attenuation in the activation of lateral posterior paraventricular nucleus (lpPVN) oxytocin neurones in food-deprived males. Taken together, the data show that, although food-deprived males can still become sexually motivated, copulation is delayed, and this is accompanied by variations in neuronal activity in the vomeronasal projection pathway. We propose that, in hungry rats, the lpPVN oxytocin neurones (which project to the spinal cord and are involved in maintaining penile erection) facilitate the transition from motivation to intromission, and their lack of activation impairs intromission, and thus delays mating. PMID:22309296
Summary After mating, the females of many species of moths become depleted of sex pheromone, calling behaviour is terminated, and they become transiently or permanently unreceptive to additional matings. In the corn earworm moth, Helicoverpa zea, we have found that the male accessory gland\\/duplex is required for evoking the post-mating depletion of sex pheromone but apparently not for the cessation
BACKGROUND: The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually
Tajuddin; Shamshad Ahmad; Abdul Latif; Iqbal Ahmad Qasmi
A 6-wk. cognitive behavioural program administered to 24 adolescent male offenders assigned to open custody and 5 to probation showed no mean differences on the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. Significant correlations were found for the personality measures with pretreatment and posttreatment scores on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. PMID:7568580
Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood. PMID:23430085
Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte
Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas. Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent's sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12 years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24.5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives was confirmed when 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would 'flog' them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalized sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents. PMID:1845614
Background The “biological susceptibility” model posits that some individuals, by genetic predisposition, are highly sensitive to environmental stimuli. Exposure to adverse stimuli leads to negative outcomes, and better outcomes follow favourable stimuli. Recent studies indicate that individuals carrying the low-activity (short; s) variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) show an enhanced vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Simultaneously, they respond poorly to exposure therapy, the first-line treatment to enhance fear extinction in individuals with PTSD. Given that s-allele carriers also show improved adaptive responding when exposed to positive stimuli, we hypothesized that this trait could be used to offset impaired fear extinction. Methods We explored this hypothesis preclinically using wild-type and 5-HTT knockout (5-HTT?/?) male rats (n = 36) that share behavioural similarities with 5-HTTLPR s-allele carriers. Subsequent to cued fear conditioning, animals were tested for short- (1 and 2 days postconditioning) and long-term (6 days postconditioning) fear extinction in the absence or presence of a secondary “distracting” stimulus predicting the delivery of sucrose pellets. Results Introducing a secondary stimulus predicting sucrose pellets that distracts attention away from the fear-predicting stimulus led to a long-lasting improvement of impaired fear extinction in 5-HTT?/? male rats. Limitations The context-dependency of the efficacy of the “distraction therapy” was not tested. In addition, it remains to be clarified whether the positive valence of the distracting stimulus is critical for the distraction of attention or whether a neutral and/or novel stimulus can induce similar effects. Finally, although of lesser importance from a therapeutic perspective, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Conclusion These data indicate that positive environmental stimuli can be used to offset heightened responses to negative stimuli, particularly in individuals characterized by inherited 5-HTT downregulation and high sensitivity to environmental stimuli.
Nonkes, Lourens J.P.; de Pooter, Maaike; Homberg, Judith R.
Condition-dependent mate choice in females, whereby condition or attractiveness influences preferences for markers of male quality, is seen in both fish and humans. Such effects may be explained by (1) genetic linkage between trait and preference, (2) poor-condition females having energetic constraints limiting their choosiness, and (3) females of low mate value benefiting from avoiding high-quality males, based on the
Morphometric changes in body condition, liver, sonic muscle and gonadal development associated with the annual reproductive cycle and behaviour of the intertidal-nesting male plainfin midshipman Porichthys notatus were investigated. Body condition of type I males rapidly increased during the pre-nesting (PN) period, peaked at the beginning of the summer nesting cycle and then gradually declined to lowest levels during the non-reproductive (NR) period. The gonado-somatic index of type I males peaked during PN and then declined during the summer nesting cycle to lowest levels at the end of the nest cycle and during NR. Indices of sonic muscle and liver of type I males were lowest during NR, gradually increased during PN and then peaked during the summer nesting cycle. Results indicate that body condition and fecundity of type I males were positively correlated with body mass at the end of the nest cycle. These findings as they relate to the annual reproductive cycle and behaviour of the type I male P. notatus are discussed. PMID:20735522
Field observations have shown that there are inter-population diVerences in the sexual behaviour of male guppies in Trinidad. The greatest diVerences are between guppies that co-exist with diVerent predators. Here, the sexual behaviour of male Trinidadian guppies was studied to determine to what extent these diVerences in behaviour evolved in response to selection pressure by the predators, to what extent
The sexual behaviour and HIV risks among Chinese MSM in rural areas are grossly under-researched. The aims of this study were to explore the process and formation as well as the factors in an initiation of sexual relationship or act in among MSM in this cultural setting. Twenty-four in-depth interviews and observation were conducted in Dali prefecture in two field
Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host planttrack distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species' habitats. PMID:21289445
Tiple, Ashish D; Padwad, Sonali V; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dennis, Roger L H
In seeking to adopt, lesbians and gay men may confront various barriers and obstacles. Ideally they have access to a variety of support resources that can help to buffer the negative effects of these barriers. However, lesbians and gay men living in small-metropolitan communities may have limited access to support resources. The current qualitative study examined the perceptions of 37 same-sex couples who were pursuing adoption while living outside of large metropolitan cities, with attention to the barriers these couples encountered during the adoption process, and the resources they drew upon to cope with such challenges. Findings indicated that samesex couples living in small-metropolitan areas confronted several major barriers in the adoption process, such as a lack of geographically accessible gay-friendly adoption agencies. Despite limited access to support, participants showed evidence of notable resourcefulness. For example, participants with limited access to formal support groups sought out informal supports instead.
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors, and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the authors identified how sexual rights were constructed within religious discourses and conducted ethnographic interviews with 45 religious leaders. In the low-income and violent urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, religious leaders and institutions play key roles in molding community inclusion and exclusion. A comparison of the 3 major religious denominations shows a diversity of discourses about same-sex sexual desires and their impacts on community formation.
Garcia, Jonathan; Laboy, Miguel Munoz; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard
This article reports on a study that examined how religious discourses of inclusion and exclusion—in Roman Catholic, evangelical\\u000a Protestant, and Afro-Brazilian religious traditions—affected people’s rights to express same-sex sexual desires, behaviors,\\u000a and identities in the socioeconomically marginalized urban periphery of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using extended ethnographic\\u000a observation of institutions and religious events over a period of 2 years, the
Jonathan García; Miguel Muñoz Laboy; Vagner de Almeida; Richard Parker
Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives. PMID:23034554
Androgens regulate sperm production, the expression of secondary sex characters and behavior in males and also vice versa, androgens are modulated by the male's interactions with his social environment. In search for a regular internal \\
Background Sexual behaviours among HIV-positive male patients in Cambodia have not been fully evaluated. Objectives The patterns of sexual behaviours and social factors were compared between married and single men. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional survey of 174 male HIV patients was undertaken during March 1999–June 2000 in Phnom Penh. Results Many participants (61%) reported that they were unaware that their sexual behaviours may have put them at risk of HIV infection. Sexual behaviours included having sex with a sex worker (90%), multiple sexual partners (41%), and both of these behaviours (37%). Two-thirds (69%) reported using a condom when having sex with a sex worker. Condom use with multiple sexual partners was low (24%). A history of condom use with a sex worker was less likely to be reported among married men than single men (P = 0.008). Always using condoms with a sex worker did not differ between married men and single men. Social factors that influenced visiting a sex worker included invitation by a friend (88%), alcohol consumption (74%), and having extra spending money (72%). Multivariate analysis suggests that alcohol consumption (P = 0.008) and having extra spending money (P = 0.02) were strongly associated with visiting a sex worker. Conclusions In Cambodia, HIV-infected men frequently reported a history of using sex workers. Having multiple sex partners or using a sex worker and multiple sexual partners were not rare. Interventions should target men in settings where alcohol is consumed and to encourage married men to use condoms.
Sok, Phan; Harwell, Joseph I.; Dansereau, Lynne; McGarvey, Stephen; Lurie, Mark; Mayer, Kenneth H.
The purpose of this pilot project was to develop, administer and assess a brief male-focused and behavioural-driven condom promotion programme for young adult African American males in an urban setting. To achieve the aims of this study, linkages with local community centres were initially fostered and both quantitative and qualitative research methods were employed. Based on relevant tenets of the social cognitive theory and the stages of change model, a series of focus groups were conducted among the target population, recruited from non-traditional urban settings, to identify and further explore their perceived condom use barriers and facilitators in order to support programme development. Specifically, the topical items addressed those young men’s perceptions of sexuality and condom use within three broad contexts: general sexual behaviours, condom use behaviours, and the relationship between condoms and substance use. The focus group discussions were audiotaped and the transcribed data summarized and analysed based on those thematic topics. The findings revealed that significant myths, misconceptions and knowledge gaps exist regarding HIV/STD-related prevention, condom promotion and substance use. The findings imply that there is a critical need to develop target group suitable condom promotion programmes in order to successfully promote, foster and sustain condom use among high-risk populations.
KENNEDY, S. B.; NOLEN, S.; APPLEWHITE, J.; WAITERS, E.; VANDERHOFF, J.
This study examined HIV testing behaviours, perceived vulnerability to HIV and correlates of sexual risk behaviours of young adult Latino and African American male gang members in Los Angeles, California. Data were collected from 249 gang members aged 18-26 years. The majority (59%) of gang members reported unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) in the past 12 months. Only one-third (33.2%) of gang members had ever been tested for HIV. In our multivariate analysis, gang members who reported UVI were more likely to have engaged in the following behaviours: had sex with someone they just met (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.51), had sex with someone they think or know had a sexually transmitted infection (STI; AOR = 4.67) or had sex while incarcerated (AOR = 8.92). In addition, gang members with a higher perceived vulnerability to HIV were less likely to report UVI in the previous 12 months (AOR = 0.75). These findings offer implications for development of an HIV prevention intervention for young Latino and African American male gang members. PMID:21364062
In the present study adult male mice were housed for 21 days in a housing modules of the Mice Drawer System (MDS). MDS is the facility that will support the research on board the International Space Station (ISS). Our investigation focused on: circadian rhythmicity of wide behavioural categories such as locomotor activity, food intake/drinking and resting; emotionality in the elevated plus maze (EPM); body weight. Housing in the MDS determined a strong up-regulation of activity and feeding behaviour and a concomitant decrease in inactivity. Importantly, housing in the MDS disrupted circadian rhythmicity in mice and also determined a decrease in body weight. Finally, when mice were tested in the EPM a clear hyperactivity (i.e. increased total transitions) was found, while no evidence for altered anxiety was detected. In conclusion, housing adult male mice in the MDS housing modules may affect their behaviour, circadian rhythmicity while having no effect on anxiety. It is suggested that to allow adaptation to the peculiar housing allowed by MDS a longer housing duration is needed.
Male Pacific treefrogs, Hyla regilla , use advertisement and encounter calls to regulate intermale spacing within breeding choruses. When either type of call produced by a neighbour is detected above a particular amplitude, a resident frog responds aggressively by producing encounter calls. These ‘aggressive thresholds’ differ for the two call types and are plastic: males rapidly resume advertisement calling (accommodate)
Since natural populations of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, often differ from one another in social structure, the intensity of sperm competition is likely to vary between localities. Guppies are promiscuous, with female choice for colourful males playing a central role in the mating system. In addition, male guppies use forced copulations to circumvent female choice. Both methods of copulation are used
In the variable field cricket,Gryllus lineaticeps, females prefer higher chirp rates and longer chirp durations in male calling song. Higher chirp rates are energetically more expensive to produce, but the energetic cost of calling does not vary with chirp duration. We tested the hypothesis that nutrition affects male chirp rate and chirp duration. Full-sibling brothers of similar age were placed
Current models of chimpanzee social structure differ in the extent to which females range with the males and are loyal to a particular social group. We tested these models by analysing 18 years of observational data on the Gombe chimpanzees to investigate the relationship between female space use patterns and both female feeding competition and changes in the male-defended range
Jennifer M. Williams; Anne E. Pusey; John V. Carlis; Brian P. Farm; Jane Goodall
Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the ?2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. PMID:22444623
This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N?=?2,149 first-year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same-sex and heterosexual victim-perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim-perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite-sex and same-sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. PMID:23629691
Although it is well known that brain sensory information processing is a highly modulated phenomenon, how this brain function is shaped by experience and social context remains a question to explore. In this paper, we present the first attempt to investigate this problem using a songbird acoustic communication paradigm. Social context is well known to influence acoustic communicating behaviours in
In most countries, HIV and AIDS rates are higher among inmates than in the general population. As part of a series of studies aimed at examining the plausible links between HIV and incarceration in a State prison system in the United States (US), the present study examined pre-incarceration sexual and injection drug use behaviours of inmates and their demographic correlates.
T. C. Abiona; J. A. Balogun; A. S. Adefuye; P. E. Sloan
PRESENT-DAY advances in psychotherapy have added impetus to investigations into the actions of drugs which affect the central nervous system and thus cause changes in behaviour patterns. One such psychomimetic agent, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), exerts both peripheral and central actions1. Some of these effects in various animals and humans are nausea, vertigo, hyperhydrosis, hypersalivation, mydriasis, vasodilation or vasospasm, hypotension
|Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine…
Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.
Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S.
Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695
Female-limited polymorphism is often attributed to selection to avoid excessive male mating attempts. It is encountered in\\u000a various taxonomic groups, but is particularly common in damselflies, where one female morph (andromorph) typically resembles\\u000a the conspecific male in colour pattern, while the other(s) (gynomorph(s)) do not. Two sets of theories have been proposed\\u000a to explain the phenomenon in damselflies, which can
Janice J. Ting; Jessica Bots; Felipe Pérez Jvostov; Hans van Gossum; Thomas N. Sherratt
Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6) once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.
Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad
We examined the relationship between HIV prevention beliefs related to male circumcision and sexual behaviour/sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition among traditionally circumcised men in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-negative men (n = 304), circumcised for cultural/religious reasons, attending a health clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, completed cross-sectional surveys. Generalized linear models were used to analyse the relationships between unprotected vaginal sex acts, number of female sexual partners, STI diagnoses and male circumcision-related beliefs and risk perceptions. Men who were aware that circumcision offers protection against HIV (relative risk [RR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.32, P < 0.01), endorsed risk compensation related to male circumcision (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11-1.12, P < 0.01) and perceived lower risk of HIV infection when circumcised (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, P < 0.01) were more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex acts. Similar patterns were also identified when predicting number of female sexual partners. Men who were more likely to endorse risk compensation related to male circumcision were also more likely to be diagnosed with a chronic STI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.06-2.53, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that we must not overlook the effects of beliefs towards male circumcision for HIV prevention among men traditionally circumcised; doing so may undermine current efforts to reduce HIV transmission through male circumcision. PMID:22096055
Eaton, L A; Cain, D N; Agrawal, A; Jooste, S; Udemans, N; Kalichman, S C
Objective To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Methods Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Results Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians’ own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). Conclusions The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China.
This study was undertaken to determine whether non-circumcised men have inferior standards of genital hygiene behaviour, as measured by reported washing of the whole penis, compared with circumcised men. Male attenders at a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic at Ealing Hospital, London had routine STI tests and examinations performed and were asked about the frequency and thoroughness of genital washing. One hundred and fifty non-circumcised and 75 circumcised men were enrolled. Not always washing the whole penis, including retracting the foreskin in non-circumcised men every time they washed (defined as inferior genital hygiene behaviour) was more common in non-circumcised (26%) than circumcised men (4%) (crude odds ratio = 8.43, 95% confidence interval: 2.51-28.3, P<0.001) and those with balanitis (42% and 5%, P=0.036). Circumcised men were more likely than non-circumcised men to wash the genital area more than once a day (37% and 19%, P=0.011). Studies investigating the relationship between male circumcision status and other outcomes, for example HIV infection, should include assessment of genital hygiene. PMID:16105191
The environment is profoundly important in shaping many aspects of animal phenotype, including courtship and mating behaviours.\\u000a Courtship displays rely upon the transmission of visual information from the signaller to the receiver, which means they are\\u000a likely to be less effective in visually poor conditions such as at low light or in turbid ecosystems. One might therefore\\u000a predict that in
Many animal species hoard food by carrying it to their home area. In this experiment we evaluated the interaction between persistent (formalin) pain and food-hoarding behaviour. A food-hoarding apparatus, consisting of a home cage connected with an alley at the end of which were placed food pellets, was used to test (60 min each day) food-restricted rats which had been
Swiss mice of differing ages (juvenile and adult) and sexes were fed four specially formulated, pelleted diets containing respectively 8% saturated vegetable fat, 8% soya oil, 8% olive oil and 2% soya oil (with identities hidden from the experimenter) or a local commercial chow (3% crude fat) for 3 or 6 weeks. Subjects were individually housed and were assessed under red lighting for behaviour in a modified 'open field' (a 30 x 20 cm box with a black floor). Videotaped records were analysed using 'The Observer' system, quantifying transitions between inner and outer zones, rearing, freezing, grooming and defaecation as well as location in the two equal-sized zones. Clearly, these non-isocaloric diets differed in palatability, producing complex effects on growth as well as physiological and behavioural measures. Many indices were influenced by age, sex, and the duration of dietary exposure. Interactions between factors were common. Defaecation does not seem to provide a useful index of 'emotionality' in this type of study and investigations lacking a wide range of indices seem unlikely to provide unequivocal support for postulated links between dietary lipids and behaviour. The study broadly supports the contention that dietary fats subtly influence mood in mice. PMID:12869285
|Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)|
Environmental enrichment (EE) involves enhancing an animal's environment, with the goal of improving animal welfare. Though a well-established discipline, the consequences of EE on behavioural pharmacological tests have not been extensively examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the consequences of EE (or isolation) housing on a range of behavioural pharmacological tests in the rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the 3 housing conditions; IC (isolation) and SC (standard group-housed, 4/cage) were housed in standard cages (42 cm×25.5 cm×20 cm), while the EE group was housed in groups of 4 in larger cages (54 cm×38 cm×19 cm) enriched with a variety of wooden, cardboard and plastic toys/objects. After 4 weeks, housing effects were examined in the following pharmacological tests: diazepam (DZP) effects on anxiolytic behaviour in the elevated plus maze (EPM); desipramine (DMI) effects on immobility time in the forced swim test (FST) and amphetamine (AMP) effects on homecage activity. Dose-response assessments demonstrated that rats housed in EE showed reduced sensitivity to the behavioural effects of DZP and DMI but increased sensitivity to the locomotor-enhancing effects of AMP compared to SC and IC; while IC animals exhibited the clearest dose-response effects to increasing doses of DMI. It may be concluded that environmental manipulation can vary along a continuum and its intensity may be crucial to observable effects. Nonetheless, environmental factors can influence sensitivity to psychotropic drugs and should be considered when implementing EE protocols in such evaluations. PMID:22732260
During courtship, the male Drosophila melanogaster sends signals to the female through two major sensory channels: chemical and acoustic. These signals are involved in the stimulation of the female to accept copulation. In order to determine the respective importance in the courtship of these signals, their production was controlled using genetical and surgical techniques. Males deprived of the ability to emit both signals are unable to mate, demonstrating that other (e.g. visual or tactile) signals are not sufficient to stimulate the female. If either acoustic or chemical signals are lacking, the courtship success is strongly reduced, the lack of the former having significantly more drastic effects. However, the accelerated matings of males observed with males bearing wild-type hydrocarbons compared with defective ones, whichever the modality of acoustic performance (wing vibration or playback), strongly support the role of cuticular compounds to stimulate females. We can conclude that among the possible factors involved in communication during courtship, acoustic and chemical signals may act in a synergistic way and not separately in D. melanogaster.
Global gray matter brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been associated to disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors. Global white matter brain tissue volume decreases were related to genetic risk factors for the disease. However, which focal gray and white matter brain regions best reflect the genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia remains unresolved. 1.5-T MRI brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared to 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic healthy control twin-pairs using voxel-based morphometry. Linear regression analysis was done in each voxel for the average and difference in gray and white matter density separately, in each twin-pair, with group (discordant, healthy) and zygosity (monozygotic, dizygotic) as between subject variables, and age, sex and handedness as covariates. The t-maps (critical threshold value mid R:tmid R: > 6.0, P < 0.05) revealed a focal decrease in gray matter density accompanied by a focal increase in white matter density in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and a focal decrease in white matter density in the left sensory motor gyrus in twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia as compared to healthy twin-pairs. Focal changes in left medial (orbito)frontal and left sensory motor gyri may reflect the increased genetic risk to develop schizophrenia. Focal changes in the left anterior hemisphere may therefore be particularly relevant as endophenotype in genetic studies of schizophrenia. PMID:16497519
Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Schnack, Hugo G; Mandl, René C W; Brans, Rachel G H; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Baaré, Wim F C; van Oel, Clarine J; Collins, D Louis; Evans, Alan C; Kahn, René S
Artificial traits such as coloured leg bands may affect an individual's mating success, as shown for some birds. One explanation is that colour-matching with a sexual ornament affects the individual’s sexual attractiveness. This study reports a colour-band experiment with free-living bluethroats,Luscinia s. svecicaa species where males have a distinct blue and chestnut throat and upper breast. There was no apparent
1. Genetic selection for growth to enhance production may be associated with stress and with modified physiological and behavioural phenotypes which depress male primary broiler breeder fertility. 2. We hypothesised that male serum testosterone (T) and corticosterone (C) concentrations might correlate with fertility, sexual behaviour, and testicular, comb and wattle size. 3. Cockerels from two genetic strains (A and B) of primary broiler breeder were penned individually with an average of 10 females across 5 age periods (30 to 51 weeks) to evaluate male fertility, behaviour, serum T and C, and comb, wattle and testicular dimensions. 4. Strain A males had higher T at age periods 2, 4 and 5 than Strain B. Both strains had basal concentrations of C, apart from an elevated concentration for Strain B in period 5. 5. Strain B had a weak but significant, positive correlation between sexual behaviour and T and C, while Strain A males with higher C had larger combs and wattles. 6. Neither T nor C correlated with fertility. We conclude that evaluation of these endocrine factors (quantifiable measurements with the potential to correlate with fertility) alone seems insufficient to predict male fertility potential in these strains of primary broiler breeder. PMID:16359118
The meiotic cytology and fine structure of the sex multiples in males from two species of the genus Alouatta are presented and compared with descriptions from other species of this genus. As shown in pachytene by synaptonemal complex analysis and in metaphase I by spreading, there is a quadrivalent in male meiosis in A. caraya, which is formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1)Y(2) complex, while in A. palliata there is a trivalent formed by an X(1)X(2)Y(1) complex. Chromosome painting with human probes shows that A. caraya sex multiples share the same components as those of A. seniculus sara and A. seniculus arctoidea. However, as shown here for A. palliata and by others in A. fusca, there are differences among the multiples of some species. It is shown that in this genus there are several varieties of sex multiples that share some features, and that the origin of these multiples is most probably a primitive development in the genus Alouatta. PMID:15545739
Background Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Conclusion/Significance Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae.
Kindl, Jiri; Kalinova, Blanka; Cervenka, Milan; Jilek, Milan; Valterova, Irena
Aim To investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter, family relations and maltreatment\\/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among male adolescents. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of a randomized sample of 66 male individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county. Boys, who volunteered
Kent W. Nilsson; Rickard L. Sjöberg; Hanna-Linn Wargelius; Jerzy Leppert; Leif Lindström; Lars Oreland
In this study, relationships between circulating androgens, aggressive behaviour and breeding tubercles in males of common\\u000a bream Abramis brama were examined in an aquarium environment. The breeding tubercles of fish were counted, the number of attacks was quantified\\u000a by male status and circulating rates of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone from blood plasma were analysed using radioimmunoassay\\u000a procedures. The results revealed that
P. Poncin; B. Nzau Matondo; C. Termol; P. Kestemont; J. C. Philippart
ObjectivesThe present work sought to evaluate different worksite smoking control policies and their associations with employees' smoking behaviours and attitudes among Chinese male workers.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered standardised questionnaire, conducted among seven production workplaces of one multinational company in Shanghai in 2008. In total, 1043 male workers were involved. Current smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, quitting
JiaNing Gao; PinPin Zheng; JunLing Gao; Simon Chapman; Hua Fu
This article discusses the use and abuse of religious beliefs and their role in divide-and-conquer strategies. Divide-and-conquer strategies are engaged to disrupt potential coalitions between and among marginalized group members, specifically sexual minority groups and people of color. Tensions between these groups have been exacerbated by the debate on same-sex marriage and comparisons between the discriminatory treatment of each group. A component of this discussion includes a brief exploration of one of the historical abuses of religious doctrine used to legitimize the marginalization of people of color and sexual minorities in the United States. For African Americans, one form of marginalization was reflected in criminalizing interracial marriage, and for members of sexual minority groups, a form of marginalization is denying group members the right to marry. The author also explores culturally competent and respectful disciplinary and clinical responses to religiously derived prejudice against sexual minority group members and people of color and discusses the implications for multicultural discourse. PMID:19899873
BACKGROUND: The risks for Chinese male university students who have sex with other men (MSM) have not been compared with those for non-MSM students. This information is important for the development of targeted HIV prevention programmes for this population. METHODS: Sexually active MSM and non-MSM students were compared for demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and related psychosocial variables using bivariate analyses.
To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion. PMID:11222130
Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[alpha]P) is a neurotoxic pollutant which is also able to affect some behaviour and cognitive function. Here we report that a subacute oral exposure to B[alpha]P increases aggressiveness and affects copulatory behaviour in male mice. Indeed, after 3 weeks of exposure to B[alpha]P at 0.02 and 0.2mg/kg, we have observed that B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated male mice are more aggressive than control mice in resident-intruder test because a significant decrease in the latency time of the first attack and a significant increase in the number of attacks in B[alpha]P 0.02 mg/kg-treated mice were found. On the other hand, we have found that subacute exposure (4 weeks) to B[alpha]P, does not affect the appetitive aspects and sexual motivation in copulatory behaviour because the latency to the first mount between control and B[alpha]P-treated male mice was not significantly different. We have nevertheless, surprisingly found that B[alpha]P (0.02-0.2)mg/kg-treated mice have performed significantly more sexual behavioural acts including mounting, intromission latency and intromission frequency than control mice. Although these last results suggest that B[alpha]P improves the consummatory aspects of sexual behaviour, we cannot conclude that this neurotoxic pollutant has advantage of sexual function because B[alpha]P has been shown to alter the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system and causes endocrine dysregulation via toxic effect. PMID:19414216
Four hypotheses were tested by having American undergraduates respond to a Guttman scale of social distance toward male and female homosexuals. Respondents had higher degrees of discomfort toward same-sex homosexuals than toward opposite-sex homosexuals. Results indicated comfort around homosexuals to be negatively associated with the frequency of religious participation and positively associated with having had a friend who was believed
While the extent to which HIV\\/AIDS has entered correctional facilities has been documented, less is known about the prevalence of HIV\\/AIDS high-risk behaviours among inmates: intravenous drug use, unprotected sex, tattooing, and piercing. The Correctional Service of Canada's National Inmate Survey provided a unique opportunity to gather this information. Questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected sample of 4,500 male
BackgroundAudio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and
Elisabeth M. van der Elst; Haile Selassie Okuku; Phellister Nakamya; Allan Muhaari; Alun Davies; R. Scott McClelland; Matthew A. Price; Adrian D. Smith; Susan M. Graham; Eduard J. Sanders; Nitika Pant Pai
The set of mating behaviours expressed by an individual may depend upon the state of that individual and local environmental conditions. Understanding how these factors affect mating behaviours may elucidate how a mating system operates, and its consequences for the form and strength of sexual selection. We conducted two experiments on the water striderGerris buenoi to (1) determine the effect
The risk of infant injury or mortality influences maternal behaviour, particularly protectiveness. Mares are found in bands with a single stallion or bands with more than one stallion in which paternity is less certain. We investigated maternal behaviour in relation to band type. Mares in bands with more than one stallion were more protective of their foals, particularly when stallions
Elissa Z. Cameron; Wayne L. Linklater; Kevin J. Stafford; Edward O. Minot
In this study, we examined the impact of a male opponent's pre-match body language and clothing (general vs. sports-specific) on how his performances were judged by an observer. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a male target tennis player warming up and then observed playing footage of the target. Each participant viewed the target player warming up displaying one
Richard Buscombe; Iain Greenlees; Tim Holder; Richard Thelwell; Matt Rimmer
|This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of
Tonia Poteat; Daouda Diouf; Fatou Maria Drame; Marieme Ndaw; Cheikh Traore; Mandeep Dhaliwal; Chris Beyrer; Stefan Baral
Summary 1. Variance in competitive ability among males should lead to a corresponding skew in reproductive success. Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) males form dominance hierarchies during spawning, such that the dominant individuals are predicted to realize the highest reproductive success. However, the degree to which this occurs depends on various genetic and environmental factors. 2. We investigated the
LAURA K. WEIR; JEFFREY A. HUTCHINGS; IAN A. FLEMING; SIGURD EINUM
Background:WhiletheCentersforDiseaseControland Prevention recommends at least annual human immu- nodeficiencyvirus(HIV)screeningformenwhohavesex withmen(MSM),alargenumberofHIVinfectionsamong this population go unrecognized. We examined the as- sociation between disclosing to their medical providers (eg,physicians,nurses,physicianassistants)same-sexat- tractionandself-reportedHIVtestingamongMSMinNew York City, New York. Methods: All men recruited from the New York City NationalHIVBehavioralSurveillance(NHBS)projectwho reported at least 1 male sex partner in the past year and self-reported as HIV seronegative were included in
Kyle T. Bernstein; Kai-Lih Liu; Elizabeth M. Begier; Beryl Koblin; Adam Karpati; Christopher Murrill
Background: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use (moist snuff) in Sweden is among the highest world-wide, and snuff is gaining popularity as a less harmful alternative to cigarettes. Methods: Patterns of current tobacco use and indicators of behavioural problems were analysed in a sample of 6287 boys participating in a census survey among 9th graders in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results:
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV in Senegal, with a prevalence of 21.5%. In December 2008, nine male HIV prevention workers were imprisoned for “acts against nature” prohibited by Senegalese law. This qualitative study assessed the impact of these arrests on HIV prevention efforts. A purposive sample of MSM in six regions of Senegal was recruited by network referral. 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in July–August 2009. 14 key informants were also interviewed. All participants reported pervasive fear and hiding among MSM as a result of the December 2008 arrests and publicity. Service providers suspended HIV prevention work with MSM out of fear for their own safety. Those who continued to provide services noticed a sharp decline in MSM participation. An effective response to the HIV epidemic in Senegal should include active work to decrease enforcement of this law.
The objective was to assess levels of high-risk sexual behaviour, condom use, sexually transmitted disease (STD) history and AIDS-related perceptions among Hong Kong men returning from China by land; 1,254 systematically sampled subjects were interviewed. Of respondents, 32.5% had sexual intercourse with a commercial sex worker (CSW) in China in the past six months; 11.2% have done so on this
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the antidepressant bupropion on anxiety and novelty-seeking in adolescent mice of different ages and adults. Behavioural differences between early adolescent, late adolescent and adult NMRI mice were measured both in the elevated plus-maze and the hole-board tasks following acute administration of bupropion (5, 10, 15, 20mg/kg) or saline. In the plus maze test, early and late adolescent mice treated with bupropion (10, 15mg/kg, respectively) had lower percentages of entries in the open-arms compared to their vehicle controls. Adult mice treated with bupropion did not differ from their vehicle controls. These results suggest that the effect of this drug on anxiety-like behaviour in mice depends on the age, showing adolescents an anxiogenic-like profile. In the hole-board, adolescents showed more elevated levels of novelty-seeking than adults, exhibiting shorter latency to the first head-dip (HD) and a higher number of HD's. Bupropion increases the latency to the first HD and decreases the number of HD's in all age-groups, indicating a decline in exploratory tendency. Findings reveal that the age can modulate the behaviour displayed by mice in both animal models, and that adolescents are more sensitive to bupropion's anxiogenic effects. PMID:23727544
Thirty-four civilly committed male sex offenders against children (SOs) chose from a list of traits to describe self, mother, father, best friend, past lover, victim and therapist. Cluster analysis (INDCLAS) uncovered five patterns (i.e. schemas) in Sos’ social perception data: “sexual lover” (past lover described as sexual, arousing, etc. as well as anxious, lonely and worried), “benevolent parent” (mother and
Male sex workers are a highly marginalised group in Hong Kong and it is increasingly so with an influx of them travelling from mainland China to work as "freelance" sex workers. This study aimed to measure important work environment variables that might affect the likelihood of condom use among male sex workers working in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey of 161 participants recruited by snowball and convenience sampling methods through outreach workers of a local non-governmental organization was conducted in 2007-2008. Only 27.4%, 54.7% and 42.6% reported consistent condom use when engaging in oral, anal and vaginal sex, respectively. Logistic regression shows unsafe sex was nearly four times (OR=3.41; 95%CI 1.51-7.69) as common in institutionalised male sex workers as among their independent counterparts. Lack of condoms provided at workplaces was a major barrier in this socio-legal context and was strongly associated with condom non-use amongst institutionalised sex workers (OR= 10.86; 95%CI 2.94-40.17). The present study finds that when compared with independent Male sex workers (MSWs), institutionalised MSWs were older, less educated, earned a higher income but more likely to engage in unsafe sex with their clients and their partners. Public health physicians must work with law-enforcing authorities to provide clear guidelines to remove these HIV prevention barriers. PMID:22293067
While birdsong is a model system for animal communication studies, our knowledge is derived primarily from the study of only one sex and is therefore incomplete. The study of song in a role-reversed species would provide a unique opportunity to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females, and to test the robustness of current theories in an empirically novel manner. We investigated function of female song in stripe-headed sparrows (Aimophila r. ruficauda), a Neotropical, duetting passerine, and found that during simulated territorial intrusions by a female, male or duetting pair, females: (i) sang more than males to same-sex and duet playback, (ii) played a leading singing role in all contexts, and (iii) showed a longer term song response than males. These results suggest that females sing competitively against other females, and that intrasexual selection may be greater among females than among males. This is the first songbird study to show a stronger vocal role in territory defence for females than males. Stripe-headed sparrows are group-living cooperative breeders, and preliminary data suggest that polyandry and/or resource defence may explain strong female singing behaviour. Stripe-headed sparrows may be a useful study species for expanding our knowledge of vocal communication in female animals. PMID:19129129
Sexually experienced male rats display penile erections when exposed to faeces from mammalian females in oestrus (Rampin et al., Behav Brain Res, 172:169, 2006), suggesting that specific odours indicate female receptiveness across species. However, it is unknown to what extent the sexual response observed results from an odorous conditioning acquired during sexual experience. We tested the behavioural response of male Brown Norway rats both when sexually naïve and experienced to four odours, including oestrous rat faeces and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (methylheptenone; a molecule found in higher concentrations during oestrus in female rats, foxes and horses). Odour had a significant effect on the sexual response of the naïve rats, with oestrus faeces provoking significantly more erections than herb odour, and with methylheptenone and di-oestrus faeces being intermediate. This indicates that sexually naïve male rats have an unconditioned ability to detect oestrous mediated via odour. After gaining sexual experience, the response to methylheptenone, di- and oestrus faeces was significantly higher than that observed with herb odour. These results strongly suggest that methylheptenone is part of the odorous bouquet of oestrus and contributes to the olfactory determination of female receptiveness. PMID:23911690
Administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulates the immune and endocrine systems inducing an acute phase of sickness and stress responses in adult and neonatal rats. Neonatal LPS exposure has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult animal. Early developmental stress, such as maternal separation, causes similar acute as well as long-term behavioural changes in adults, including altered sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Moreover, results of studies have shown evidence of a direct link between immune activation and sensitivity to dopamine-based drugs of abuse. The current study examined the effects of neonatal LPS treatment on subsequent locomotor sensitization to the dopamine (D(2)/D(3)) agonist, quinpirole, in adult rats as an index of drug sensitivity. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Locomotor sensitization was then examined in the adult rats (postnatal day 70). Animals were injected with quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) or saline every other day for a total of 10 injections and locomotor activity was assessed for 60min immediately following injections 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10. Animals also received a 'challenge' injection of 0.5mg/kg quinpirole 28 days after injection 10, to assess persistence of behavioural sensitization. Locomotor activity progressively increased with repeated administration of quinpirole, indicating locomotor sensitization in all of the drug-treated groups. There was an overall sex difference, with females showing significantly greater sensitization than males. Moreover, neonatal LPS treatment potentiated both the level and the rate of development of locomotor sensitization to quinpirole administration in females, but not in males. Thus, the current study revealed that neonatal exposure to bacterial infection increases dopamine (D(2)/D(3)) agonist sensitivity in a sex-specific manner. These findings have important implications for the sexually dimorphic development of addictions to both natural and artificial rewards. PMID:17449223
Tenk, Christine M; Foley, Kelly A; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter
Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and
JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman
Background The risks for Chinese male university students who have sex with other men (MSM) have not been compared with those for non-MSM students. This information is important for the development of targeted HIV prevention programmes for this population. Methods Sexually active MSM and non-MSM students were compared for demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and related psychosocial variables using bivariate analyses. The data were a subset drawn from a large-scale cross-sectional questionnaire survey of sexually active male students conducted at two universities in a large city in Zhejiang Province, China, in 2003. Results Of 1824 sexually active male students, 68 (3.7%) reported having had sex with a man at least once; 33.8% of these 68 men had also had female partners. Compared with non-MSM students, MSM students were 3–6.5 times more likely to have had sexual encounters with casual or commercial sex partners and were three times less likely to have protected sex in the past year or during their lifetime. They were three to five times more likely to have had multiple partners and 15 times more likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease (STD). In addition, the MSM students knew half as much about HIV and had less condom-decision than did non-MSM students and were two times more accepting of commercial sex. However, the MSM students were twice as aware of the risks for HIV infection. Conclusion MSM composed 3–4% of the male sexually active university student population studied and was found to be at greater risk than non-MSM students for STD/HIV infection. There is an urgent need for STD/HIV programmes in university health services that take into consideration the sexuality and psychosocial issues of MSM students.
We have studied the possible interaction between the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 (1 and 50 microg/kg) and the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mg/kg) in the modulation of plus-maze and holeboard activity in Wistar adult male rats. In the plus-maze, the higher dose of CP 55,940 induced an anxiogenic-like effect, whereas the lower dose induced anxiolytic-like responses. The 5-HT1A antagonist, which was silent in this test, attenuated the anxiogenic, but not the anxiolytic, effect of CP 55,940. In the holeboard, the higher dose of CP 55,940 significantly decreased head-dipping duration, and WAY 100635, which did not affect exploratory head-dipping when administered alone, antagonized this effect. The administration of WAY 100635 significantly increased grooming behaviour, and this effect was inhibited by the two doses of CP 55,940, which did not exert any effect, per se, on this parameter. We provide the first evidence implicating 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety-related behavioural responses to a cannabinoid agonist. PMID:15075623
Marco, E M; Pérez-Alvarez, L; Borcel, E; Rubio, M; Guaza, C; Ambrosio, E; File, S E; Viveros, M P
Background Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p?=?0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p?=?0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p?=?0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills. Conclusions/Significance About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.
van der Elst, Elisabeth M.; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R. Scott; Price, Matthew A.; Smith, Adrian D.; Graham, Susan M.; Sanders, Eduard J.
The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican malesame-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869
The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzed the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican malesame-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation-- one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice-- which inform the men’s interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cul