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1

[Morphological and functional changes of organs of female and male reproductive systems at change of sex].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to identify the effects of virilizing and feminizing hormone replacement therapy on the morphology and function of the male and female reproductive systems in the application of technology for change of sex. The results of the pathomorphorogic examination of the uterus with appendages, testes, the corpora cavernosa, and biopsies of the prostate and mammary glands at different times of treatment in transsexual patients aged from 22 to 43 years are presented. It was found that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of exogenous hormones in the women and men significantly increases the risk of tumors and tumor-like processes, such as endocervicosis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, metaplasia of the endometrium, endocervical and endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, proliferative processes in tubular epithelium, ovarian polycystic disease, mammary tumors, hyperplasia and metaplasia of the ductal epithelium of the prostate gland. PMID:23987043

Mikha?lichenko, V V; Fesenko, V N; Khmelnitski?, N V; Ozhiganova, I N; Novikov, A I; Korolev, V V; Vasil'ev, V S

2013-01-01

2

No attitude, no standing around: the organization of social and sexual interaction at a gay male private sex party in new york city.  

PubMed

Following the onset of the AIDS epidemic, many jurisdictions have outlawed commercial sex-on-premise venues (bathhouses, adult theaters, sex clubs), greatly changing the culture of public or group sex. Today, in New York City (NYC), private sex parties are the main venues for group sex. Dozens of such events are held on a regular basis in the city, attracting sometimes a few hundred participants. Past research in group sex venues shows that different spaces allow for different kinds of sexual and social interaction. What are the norms of interaction of today's private sex parties? This article answers this question by using data collected ethnographically in one recurring gay male private sex party in NYC. The event was a small organization that brought all its participants together in one space at the same time, thus creating great physical intimacy and leading to convivial socialization and interpersonal bonding. This differs from the model of anonymous and impersonal sex that previous researchers have seen in public and commercial spaces. Private sex parties present risk for the transmission of HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections, but their organization and norms of interaction also present new avenues for prevention. Policy-makers should work to make these places safer rather than outlawing them. PMID:23979786

Meunier, Etienne

2014-05-01

3

Male sex determination: insights into molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Disorders of sex development often arise from anomalies in the molecular or cellular networks that guide the differentiation of the embryonic gonad into either a testis or an ovary, two functionally distinct organs. The activation of the Y-linked gene Sry (sex-determining region Y) and its downstream target Sox9 (Sry box-containing gene 9) triggers testis differentiation by stimulating the differentiation of Sertoli cells, which then direct testis morphogenesis. Once engaged, a genetic pathway promotes the testis development while actively suppressing genes involved in ovarian development. This review focuses on the events of testis determination and the struggle to maintain male fate in the face of antagonistic pressure from the underlying female programme.

McClelland, Kathryn; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

2012-01-01

4

Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynandromorphy, or the development of organisms with a combination of male and female morphological features, is common in Hymenoptera. The underlying mechanism is likely associated with the sex-determination system, and studying this phenomenon should lead to a deeper understanding of both embryonic development and sex determination. The reproductive capabilities of gynandromorphs (hereafter, sex mosaics) remain unclear. We studied gynandromorphy in the Malaysian ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi, which has sex mosaics of queens (gynandromorphs; mosaic of queens and winged male) and workers (ergatandromorphs; mosaic of worker and wingless ergatoid male). These sex mosaics were classified into seven morphological categories. Most individuals had more male than female body areas. Behavioral observations revealed that sex mosaics behave more in accordance with the “sex” of their brain than that of the reproductive organs (gaster). Relative DNA quantities showed that both female and male regions contained haploid and diploid nuclei, irrespective of their phenotypic appearance, indicating that external appearance did not reflect internal tissues. Nearly one third of the adults were sex mosaics and they were not infected with Wolbachia. Our results suggest that the production of sex mosaics in this species does not pose a substantial cost to colonies and that the underlying causes are therefore not strongly selected against.

Yoshizawa, Juri; Mimori, Kohei; Yamauchi, Katsusuke; Tsuchida, Koji

2009-01-01

5

Sex Bias in Traditionally Male Occupational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate potential sources of female sex bias and sex stereotyping within traditionally male occupational programs at the College of DuPage, programs with low female enrollment were selected for study: air conditioning and refrigeration, architectural drafting, auto service, building construction, criminal justice, electronics, fire science,…

Bakshis, Robert; Godshalk, James

6

Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

2006-01-01

7

Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.  

PubMed

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 ?g/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. PMID:21641121

Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

2011-12-01

8

Group Therapy for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many adolescent sex offenders are being referred to residential treatment centers. This article profiles the male adolescent offender, identifies specific treatment needs of the offender, describes a mandatory group therapy model, and presents a case example. The model detailed in this paper emphasizes the use of a multi-disciplinary treatment approach to integrate the young offender's group treatment goals into all

Rebecca Scavo; Bruce D. Buchanan

1990-01-01

9

Human Male Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as

Marieke de Vries; Sanne Vosters; Gerard Merkx; Kathleen DHauwers; Derick G. Wansink; Liliana Ramos; Peter de Boer

2012-01-01

10

Human Male Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation  

PubMed Central

In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G.; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

2012-01-01

11

More Than a Sex Machine: Accomplishing Masculinity Among Chinese Male Sex Workers in the Hong Kong Sex Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated in the masculinity and deviance literature, this article examines a “deviant” masculinity, that of the male sex worker, and presents the ways men who engage in sex work cope with the job. Based on in-depth interviews of Chinese male sex workers (n = 18) in the Hong Kong sex industry, I argue that the stigma management techniques these men employ are

Travis S. K. Kong

2009-01-01

12

Human Sex Ratio and Maternal Immunity to Male Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN two recent publications Renkonen et al.1,2 have investigated data on the human sex ratio to see whether there are grounds for the hypothesis that ``male pregnancies immunize a small portion of mothers against male (Y) antigens, and this immunization is then harmful to subsequent male foetuses''1. This hypothesis leads, in particular, to two expectations: first, that after a male

A. W. F. Edwards

1963-01-01

13

Intimate Violence in Male Same-Sex Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite findings suggesting a high prevalence of violence in male same-sex relationships, little is known about the characteristics of this violence. This study explored the general nature of male same-sex intimate violence. The sample consisted of 69 gay and bisexual men, chosen from a randomly selected community sample, who reported at least 1 violent episode in an interview exploring their

Jessica L. Stanley; Kim Bartholomew; Tracy Taylor; Doug Oram; Monica Landolt

2006-01-01

14

Somatic and Mental Symptoms of Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores whether or not somatic and mental symptoms differentiate male sex offenders from others by self-report. The present study was a part of a comprehensive, seven-year (1986–1993) research project described elsewhere (Miccio-Fonseca, 2000, 1996). In the present study there were three groups: male sex offenders (N = 269), victims (males, N = 19) and family members who were

L. C. Miccio-Fonseca

2002-01-01

15

Sex-Based Sentencing: Sentencing Discrepancies Between Male and Female Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research examines the utility of the evil woman hypothesis by examining sentencing discrepancies between male and female sex offenders. National Corrections Reporting Program data are used to identify sex offenders for the years 1994 to 2004 and the sentences they received for specific sex offenses. Statistical analyses reveal a significant difference in sentence length between men and women,

Randa Embry; Phillip M. Lyons

2012-01-01

16

Female Snake Sex Pheromone Induces Membrane Responses in Vomeronasal Sensory Neurons of Male Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is important for activating accessory olfactory pathways that are involved in sexually dimorphic mating behavior. The VNO of male garter snakes is critically important for detection of, and response to, female sex pheromones. In the present study, under voltage-clamp conditions, male snake VNO neurons were stimulated with female sexual attractive- ness pheromone. Thirty-nine of 139 neurons

Guang-Zhe Huang; Jing-Ji Zhang; Dalton Wang; Robert T. Mason; Mimi Halpern

2006-01-01

17

Male mutation rates and the cost of sex for females  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALTHOUGH we do not know why sex evolved, the twofold cost of meiosis for females provides a standard against which postulated benefits of sex can be evaluated1. The most reliable benefit is sex's ability to reduce the impact of deleterious mutations2,3. But deleterious mutations may themselves generate a large and previously overlooked female-specific cost of sex. DNA sequence comparisons have confirmed Haldane's suggestion that most mutations arise in the male germ line4,5; recent estimates of ?, the ratio of male to female mutation rates, are ten, six and two in humans, primates and rodents, respectively6-8. Consequently, male gametes may give progeny more mutations than the associated sexual recombination eliminates. Here I describe computer simulations showing that the cost of male mutations can easily exceed the benefits of recombination, causing females to produce fitter progeny by parthenogenesis than by mating. The persistence of sexual reproduction by females thus becomes even more problematic.

Redfield, Rosemary J.

1994-05-01

18

Fetal sex and preterm birth: are males at greater risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The existence of a male excess among preterm births is interesting because it could shed light on the aetiology of preterm birth. Possible mechanisms are greater body weight, increased susceptibility to complications of pregnancy, sex-linked biochemical processes and earlier conception in the fertile cycle. METHODS: We measured the association between fetal sex and preterm birth in four original datasets,

Jennifer Zeitlin; Marie-Josephe Saurel-Cubizolles; Jaques de Mouzon; Lucile Rivera; Pierre-Yves Ancel; Monique Kaminski

19

Bone loss, sex steroids and male age related hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Male age-related bone loss is caused at least in part from hypogonadism that occurs with advancing age. Recently, the study of sex steroids on bone physiology in men has highlighted the central role of estrogens on bone pathophysiology. This review focuses on the relative role of sex steroids on bone loss in aging men. PMID:16760625

Rochira, V; Balestrieri, A; Madeo, B; Zirilli, L; Granata, A R M; Carani, C

2005-01-01

20

Childhood trauma and dissociation in male sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen male sex offenders receiving inpatient treatment were assessed for histories of childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms. These subjects were then compared to 97 adult inpatients receiving treatment for childhood sexual trauma. The two groups exhibited remarkably similar trauma histories and symptom profiles. Dissociative disorders were diagnosed by structured interview in 77% of the sex offenders and 92% of the

Joan W. Ellason; Colin A. Ross

1999-01-01

21

Group Therapy for Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article suggests a parallel process in which both sex offender and therapist, facing the task of recovery, feel burdened, frustrated and alone. Adding group psychotherapy to the client's treatment decreases the client's isolation and enables clinicians to work as a team. Strategic interventions involve group members in taking responsibility for supporting each other's recovery, enabling the group therapist to

Wayne Scott

1994-01-01

22

Effects of sex chromosome aneuploidy on male sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in men is as high as 1:500. The predominant conditions are an additional Y chromosome (47,XYY) or an additional X chromosome (47,XXY). Behavioral studies using animal models of these conditions are rare. To assess the role of sex chromosome aneuploidy on sexual behavior, we used mice with a spontaneous mutation on the Y chromosome in which the testis-determining gene Sry is deleted (referred to as Y(-)) and insertion of a Sry transgene on an autosome. Dams were aneuploid (XXY(-)) and the sires had an inserted Sry transgene (XYSry). Litters contained six male genotypes, XY, XYY(-), XXSry, XXY(-)Sry, XYSry and XYY(-)Sry. In order to eliminate possible differences in levels of testosterone, all of the subjects were castrated and received testosterone implants prior to tests for male sex behavior. Mice with an additional copy of the Y(-) chromosome (XYY(-)) had shorter latencies to intromit and achieve ejaculations than XY males. In a comparison of the four genotypes bearing the Sry transgene, males with two copies of the X chromosome (XXSry and XXY(-)Sry) had longer latencies to mount and thrust than males with only one copy of the X chromosome (XYSry and XYY(-)Sry) and decreased frequencies of mounts and intromissions as compared with XYSry males. The results implicate novel roles for sex chromosome genes in sexual behaviors. PMID:18363850

Park, J H; Burns-Cusato, M; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Riggan, A; Shetty, S; Arnold, A P; Rissman, E F

2008-08-01

23

Sex work in Mexico: vulnerability of male, travesti, transgender and transsexual sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico, male sex workers (MSW) and travesti, transgender and transsexual (TTT) sex workers are among the groups most affected by HIV. They suffer from stigma and discrimination, yet are often absent from the design of programmes and HIV prevention campaigns. The objective of this study was to provide an account of the social context in which MSW and TTT

Cesar Infante; Silvia Magali Cuadra

2009-01-01

24

Spermatogenic failure in male mice with four sex chromosomes.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence that meiosis, like mitosis, is monitored by a number of checkpoints. In mammals, the presence of asynapsed chromosomes at pachytene triggers a checkpoint (the pachytene or synapsis checkpoint) that removes cells via a p53-independent apoptotic pathway. In the special case of the sex bivalent in males, it is pseudoautosomal region (PAR) asynapsis that triggers the checkpoint. In male mice with three sex chromosomes (XYY or XYY(*X)) some pachytene spermatocytes achieve full (trivalent) PAR synapsis, but in many cells one sex chromosome remains as a univalent, thus triggering the checkpoint. Sperm counts in these males have been shown to be positively correlated with trivalent frequencies. In the present study sperm production and levels of sex chromosome synapsis were studied in mice with four sex chromosomes (XYYY(*X)) and XYY(*X)Y(*X)). These mice proved to be more severely affected than XYY or XYY(*X) mice. Nevertheless, pachytene synaptonemal complex analysis revealed that full PAR synapsis was achieved through the formation of radial quadrivalents or through the formation of two sex bivalents in 21%-49% of cells analysed. Given these levels of full PAR synapsis, the sperm counts were consistently lower than would have been predicted from the relationship between levels of PAR synapsis and sperm counts in mice with three sex chromosomes. It has been suggested that the inactivation of the asynapsed non-PAR X and Y axes of the XY bivalent of normal males (MSCI), which occurs during meiotic prophase, may be driven by Xist transcripts originating from the X. If this is the case, the non-PAR Y axes of YY and YY(*X) bivalents would fail to undergo MSCI. This could be cell lethal, either because of 'inappropriate' Y gene expression, or because the non-PAR Y axis may now trigger the synapsis checkpoint. PMID:11453555

Rodriguez, T A; Burgoyne, P S

2001-05-01

25

Economic Transition, Male Competition, and Sex Differences in Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in mortality rates stem from a complex set of genetic, physiological, psychological, and social causes whose interconnections are best understood in an integrative evolutionary framework. We predicted that the transition from centrally planned to market economies in Eastern Europe inflated the discrepancy between male and female mortality rates, because economic uncertainty and increasing variation and skew in social

Daniel J. Kruger; Randolph M. Nesse

2007-01-01

26

Myth Information and Bizarre Beliefs of Male Juvenile Sex Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes mythical beliefs, thinking errors, and faulty attitudes collected from a group of 67 male juvenile sex offenders. Addresses four major thinking errors: pretentiousness, uniqueness, failure to assume responsibility, and distorted values. Notes that therapists need this information to develop effective treatment strategies for replacing…

Lakey, Joyce F.

1992-01-01

27

The Profile and Treatment of Male Adolescent Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines the most prominent characteristics of male adolescent sex offenders including family and school histories, sexual attitudes, social skills and relationships, other delinquent behaviors, psychiatric diagnoses, and most importantly, cognitive distortions based on mythical beliefs and misinformation. Treatment mandates accountability and correcting of thinking errors while building a foundation of morality, remorse and empathy for victims, knowledge about

Joyce F. Lakey

1995-01-01

28

Alleged OEstrogenic Activity of the Male Sex Hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

CORRELATION of molecular structure of the sex hormones with that of the sterols and bile acids is now almost complete, and leads to the conclusion that the hormones are biological degradation products of cholesterol. Adopting the working hypothesis that the male hormone (androsterone) is the immediate precursor of the female hormone (oestrone), a study of the action of various tissue

F. L. Warren

1935-01-01

29

Inheritance and evolution of male response to sex pheromone in Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The evolution of chemical communication in moths has implications for speciation because mate attraction and reproductive isolation are achieved pri- marily by unique blends of female-produced sex pheromones and the specificity of male responses to these signals. For most organisms, the genetics of speci- ation remains an open empirical question, but both major gene effects and additive genetic variation

Maya L. Evenden; Bryan G. Spohn; Allen J. Moore; Richard F. Preziosi; Kenneth F. Haynes

2002-01-01

30

Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys, (Petromyzon marinus), does not affect sex pheromone release  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

2003-01-01

31

Editorial: Y-linked genes and male-sex determination.  

PubMed

An antigen known as the H-Y antigen behaves as if determined by a y-linked gene. The availability of an assay system has provided remarkable new information. On the basis of a finding that males with XXY and XYY/XXYY karytoypes have a greater amount of antigen on leukocytes than normal males, a genetic determinant for the H-Y antigen can be assigned to the human Y chromosome with reasonable confidence. This antigen may serve as a qualitative and quantitative marker for the presence of a Y chromosome or the region containing the H-Y genetic determinant. Persons with 46,XX karyotype but with male development and with testes occur about once in every 15,000 newborn males. When an autosomal dominant condition in the mouse known as sex-reversed (Sxr) occurs, the XX mouse heterozygous for Sxr is said to be H-Y antigen positive which is consistent with the postulate that Sxr is a translocated portion of the Y chromosome. The H-Y antigen in human males might represent the primary male-determining gene. The H-Y antigen adds a new dimension to the understanding of sex determination. PMID:1237090

Gerald, P S

1975-11-20

32

A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy.

Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J.; Brubacher, John L.; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A.

2013-01-01

33

A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.  

PubMed

Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy. PMID:23652002

Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J; Brubacher, John L; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A

2013-01-01

34

Recessive sex-determining genes in human XX male syndrome.  

PubMed

Maleness is normally inherited as a dominant trait (a single copy of the Y chromosome induces testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad), but our genealogic study of three XX males in one pedigree indicated an autosomal recessive mode of male inheritance. Subsequent study revealed the presence of H-Y antigens in the three XX males and in their mothers, and suggested that excess H-Y may be found in the fathers. Inasmuch as H-Y loci have been mapped to the human Y chromosome, these data favor the view that H-Y structural loci comprise a family of testis-determining genes, and that Y autosome (or Y-X) translocation can generate either dominant or recessive modes of XX sex reversal, depending upon the particular portion of H-Y genes transferred. PMID:569552

de la Chapelle, A; Koo, G C; Wachtel, S S

1978-11-01

35

Multiple risks among male and transgender sex workers in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Using data from a qualitative study and a subsequent quantitative survey among 918 male and transgender sex workers (MTSW), we explore the context of multiple risks they face. We show that over one-fifth of MTSW have sex with IDU clients. Combined with high levels of risk behavior and very low levels of risk reduction and knowledge, the extent of sexual networking with men who inject drugs contributes further to the sex workers' health risks. Our findings suggest that isolated interventions with single-risk groups are unlikely to be sufficient to control the spread of the epidemic in Pakistan. We highlight the need for integrated approaches to risk reduction programs among MTSW and IDUs. PMID:19856740

Collumbien, Martine; Chow, Jaime; Qureshi, Ayaz Ahmed; Rabbani, Aliya; Hawkes, Sarah

2008-01-01

36

Mating system and sex ratios of a pollinating fig wasp with dispersing males.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have used sex ratios to quantify the mating systems of organisms, the argument behind it being that more female-biased sex ratios are an indication of higher local mate competition, which goes hand-in-hand with higher levels of inbreeding. Although qualitative tests of the effects of mating systems on sex ratios abound, there is a dearth of studies that quantify both the mating system and the sex ratio. I use a colour dimorphism with a simple Mendelian inheritance to quantify the mating system of an unusual fig-pollinating wasp in which males disperse to obtain matings on non-natal mating patches. In qualitative agreement with initial expectations, the sex ratios of single foundresses are found to be higher than those of regular species. However, by quantifying the mating system, it is shown that the initial expectation is incorrect and this species' sex ratio is a poor predictor of its mating system (it underestimates the frequency of sib-mating). The species has a very high variance in sex ratio suggesting that excess males can simply avoid local mate competition (and hence a lowered fitness to their mother) by dispersing to other patches.

Greeff, Jaco M

2002-01-01

37

The Brain as the Engine of Sex Differences in the Organization of Movement in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in the kinematic organization of non-reproductive behavior are often relegated to byproducts of sex differences\\u000a in body morphology. We review evidence showing not only that male and female rats organize their posture and stepping differently\\u000a during a variety of actions, but that these differences arise from sex differences in the organization of movement in the\\u000a central nervous system

Evelyn F. Field; Sergio M. Pellis

2008-01-01

38

Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective .To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 3 1 male sex workers (MSWs) in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Methods .Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that co v - ered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status , and use of health and social services. Scales

Rodrigo Mariño; Victor Minichiello; Carlos Disogra

2003-01-01

39

The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males  

PubMed Central

Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection.

van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stephanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

2013-01-01

40

Juvenile Female and Male Sex OffendersA Comparison of Offender, Victim, and Judicial Processing Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines 61 juvenile female sex offenders in terms of their offending patterns, demographics, and victim characteristics; these findings are compared to 122 juvenile male sex offenders. Relying on sex offender registration data and criminal history records, bivariate analyses are conducted to assess male-female differences. Logistic regression is also employed to further assess group membership (male and female). Females

Donna M. Vandiver; Raymond Teske

2006-01-01

41

Female and Male Sex OffendersA Comparison of Recidivism Patterns and Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have empirically validated the assertion that female and male sex offenders are vastly different. Therefore, utilizing a matched sample of 780 female and male sex offenders in New York State, the current study explored differences and similarities of recidivism patterns and risk factors for the two offender groups. Results suggested that male sex offenders were significantly more likely

Naomi J. Freeman; Jeffrey C. Sandler

2008-01-01

42

Sex work in Mexico: vulnerability of male, travesti, transgender and transsexual sex workers.  

PubMed

In Mexico, male sex workers (MSW) and travesti, transgender and transsexual (TTT) sex workers are among the groups most affected by HIV. They suffer from stigma and discrimination, yet are often absent from the design of programmes and HIV prevention campaigns. The objective of this study was to provide an account of the social context in which MSW and TTT sex workers live, by focusing on their sexual identities, sexual practices and vulnerability to HIV. Data collection took place in Mexico City and involved observational work together with 36 in-depth interviews. Findings reveal a differentiation of vulnerability by sub-group. In general, vulnerability is influenced by the social context, stigma related to homosexuality and sex work, as well as sex workers' access to scarce social capital and the lack of response in terms of social and health programmes. In order to diminish the vulnerability of MSW and TTT sex workers and reduce their risk of HIV infection, preventive measures are needed which take into account their specific health and social needs, promote meaningful participation and the encourage respect for human rights. PMID:19140056

Infante, Cesar; Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Cuadra, Silvia Magali

2009-02-01

43

The use of the Internet by gay and bisexual male escorts: sex workers as sex educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

While prior studies have targeted street-based male sex workers as potential vectors of disease transmission, the number of men who work independently through Internet chat-rooms and other online endeavors has steadily increased. It is likely that these men differ substantially from their street-based counterparts in terms of sexual risk behaviors with their clients. The purpose of this study was to

J. T. Parsons; J. A. Koken; D. S. Bimbi

2004-01-01

44

Sex and the unspoken in male street prostitution.  

PubMed

Although the overwhelming majority of male prostitutes work through agencies or by placing their own ads, most studies of male prostitution focus upon young men who work on the street. Remarkably, these studies seldom identify the dynamics of poverty and street-level violence as important elements of their examination. Investigations of male sex work-few though they are-focus almost exclusively upon sexual aspects of "the life." Despite the importance of these networks in shaping the contours of street life, and often in enabling one's very survival, the primary research focus has remained on questions of sexual identity, sexual practices with clients, and sexual abuse as a causative factor. Meanwhile, studies that do examine the dynamics of male street life typically do not examine questions of prostitution or other issues related to sexuality. A dominant theme within this literature consists of specifying the social mores of the most aggressive and socially problematic participants within street society, particularly gang members and drug dealers. The dissimilar nature of these images relates directly to the political projects of the dominant culture, which, in a very general way, seeks to "rescue" (reintegrate) deviant white youth, while controlling and excluding deviant youth of color. The political aim of reintegrating runaways into middle-class trajectories has the effect of authorizing certain discourses regarding their behavior on the streets, while marginalizing or completely disallowing others. This article seeks to examine and challenge these trends of representation. PMID:18019069

Kaye, Kerwin

2007-01-01

45

Sex-specific dispersal and evolutionary rescue in metapopulations infected by male killing endosymbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Male killing endosymbionts manipulate their arthropod host reproduction by only allowing female embryos to develop into infected females and killing all male offspring. Because the resulting change in sex ratio is expected to affect the evolution of sex-specific dispersal, we investigated under which environmental conditions strong sex-biased dispersal would emerge, and how this would affect host and endosymbiont metapopulation

Dries Bonte; Thomas Hovestadt; Hans-Joachim Poethke

2009-01-01

46

Sex ratio and male sexual characters in a population of blue tits, Parus caeruleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex allocation theory proposes that parents should bias the sex ratio of their offspring if the reproductive value of one sex is greater than that of the other. In the monogamous blue tit (Parus caeruleus), males have a greater variance in reproductive success than females, and high-quality males have higher reproductive success than high-quality females due to extrapair paternity. Consequently,

A. Dreiss; M. Richard; F. Moyen; J. White; A. P. Møller; E. Danchin

2006-01-01

47

Sex ratio and male sexual characters in a population of blue tits, Parus caeruleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex allocation theory proposes that parents should bias the sex ratio of their offspring if the reproductive value of one sex is greater than that of the other. In the monogamous blue tit (Parus caeruleus), males have a greater variance in reproductive success than females, and high-quality males have higher reproductive success than high-quality females due to extrapair paternity. Consequently,

A. Dreiss; M. Richard; F. Moyen; J. White; A. P. Møller; E. Danchind

2005-01-01

48

The Cost of Sex: Quantifying Energetic Investment in Gamete Production by Males and Females  

PubMed Central

The relative energetic investment in reproduction between the sexes forms the basis of sexual selection and life history theories in evolutionary biology. It is often assumed that males invest considerably less in gametes than females, but quantifying the energetic cost of gamete production in both sexes has remained a difficult challenge. For a broad diversity of species (invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, birds, and mammals), we compared the cost of gamete production between the sexes in terms of the investment in gonad tissue and the rate of gamete biomass production. Investment in gonad biomass was nearly proportional to body mass in both sexes, but gamete biomass production rate was approximately two to four orders of magnitude higher in females. In both males and females, gamete biomass production rate increased with organism mass as a power law, much like individual metabolic rate. This suggests that whole-organism energetics may act as a primary constraint on gamete production among species. Residual variation in sperm production rate was positively correlated with relative testes size. Together, these results suggest that understanding the heterogeneity in rates of gamete production among species requires joint consideration of the effects of gonad mass and metabolism.

Hayward, April; Gillooly, James F.

2011-01-01

49

Targeted metabolomics reveals a male pheromone and sex-specific ascaroside biosynthesis in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a class of small molecule signals called ascarosides regulate development, mating and social behaviors. Ascaroside production has been studied in the predominant sex, the hermaphrodite, but not in males, which account for less than 1% of wild-type worms grown under typical laboratory conditions. Using HPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomics, we show that males also produce ascarosides and that their ascaroside profile differs markedly from that of hermaphrodites. Whereas hermaphrodite ascaroside profiles are dominated by ascr#3, containing an ?,?-unsaturated fatty acid, males predominantly produce the corresponding dihydro-derivative ascr#10. This small structural modification profoundly affects signaling properties: hermaphrodites are retained by attomole-amounts of male-produced ascr#10, whereas hermaphrodite-produced ascr#3 repels hermaphrodites and attracts males. Male production of ascr#10 is population density-dependent, indicating sensory regulation of ascaroside biosynthesis. Analysis of gene expression data supports a model in which sex-specific regulation of peroxisomal ?-oxidation produces functionally different ascaroside profiles.

Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Srinivasan, Jagan; Campbell, Sydney L.; Jo, Yeara; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Genoff, Margaux C.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Schroeder, Frank C.

2012-01-01

50

When is a male not a male? Sex recognition and choice in two sex-changing species  

Microsoft Academic Search

For dioecious species, choosing a mate of the same sex can have reproductive costs. For sex-changing animals, however, a lack\\u000a of sex recognition may not carry a reproductive cost, as pairs that were initially same-sex can become opposite-sex pairs\\u000a as one partner changes sex. The strength of sex discrimination in sex changers, then, should depend on the duration of mating

Olivia V. Ambrogio; Jan A. Pechenik

2008-01-01

51

Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver  

PubMed Central

Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration.

FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

2011-01-01

52

A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers\\u000a in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were\\u000a evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A “snowball” sampling procedure was used to\\u000a access this

Fernanda Cestaro Prado Cortez; Douglas Pieter Boer; Danilo Antonio Baltieri

53

Sex Role Orientations of Male and Female Collegiate Athletes from Selected Individual and Team Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the Bem Sex Role Inventory to compare the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes. Results indicate no significant differences for team sports players, but higher femininity scores for females in individual sports. (FMW)

Wrisberg, Craig A.; And Others

1988-01-01

54

The sex hormone profile of male patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The mean total serum oestradiol level was found to be significantly increased in 8 patients with carcinoma of the breast when compared with 8 healthy reference subjects matched for race, sex and age. The calculated mean free oestradiol index was also higher in these patients. There were no significant differences, however, between the levels of LH, FSH, prolactin. DHEA-S, testosterone and SHGB in the 2 groups. The patients showed a significantly increased LH response to GnRH while there was no difference in the FSH response. Only 1/7 patients had a tumour devoid of steroid hormone receptors. It may be that an increased level of circulating oestradiol-17 beta is an important factor in the aetiology of hormone-dependent male breast cancer.

Nirmul, D.; Pegoraro, R. J.; Jialal, I.; Naidoo, C.; Joubert, S. M.

1983-01-01

55

The sex hormone profile of male patients with breast cancer.  

PubMed

The mean total serum oestradiol level was found to be significantly increased in 8 patients with carcinoma of the breast when compared with 8 healthy reference subjects matched for race, sex and age. The calculated mean free oestradiol index was also higher in these patients. There were no significant differences, however, between the levels of LH, FSH, prolactin. DHEA-S, testosterone and SHGB in the 2 groups. The patients showed a significantly increased LH response to GnRH while there was no difference in the FSH response. Only 1/7 patients had a tumour devoid of steroid hormone receptors. It may be that an increased level of circulating oestradiol-17 beta is an important factor in the aetiology of hormone-dependent male breast cancer. PMID:6684472

Nirmul, D; Pegoraro, R J; Jialal, I; Naidoo, C; Joubert, S M

1983-09-01

56

Both male and female novel traits promote the correlated evolution of genitalia between the sexes in an arthropod.  

PubMed

The correlated evolution of genitalia between sexes has been demonstrated in many taxa. However, it remains unclear whether female rather than male genitalia can play a key role in the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia. We conducted an extensive cross-population analysis of the divergence patterns of genital structures, weights of whole genital organs, and the bodies of both sexes, and male genital length in a group of xystodesmid millipedes showing diverse genital morphologies. We demonstrate that the correlated evolution of male and female genitalia toward exaggerated states has occurred in the millipedes, which have evolved novel traits in both males (forceps-like gonopods) and females (retractable bellows). Enlargement and elongation of forceps-like gonopods may be advantageous in sperm competition, whereas enlargement and elongation of the bellows may facilitate acceptance/rejection of insemination for ensuring the female's fitness. These male and female genital parts have affected the correlated evolution in the opposite sex, resulting in diversification and exaggeration of genital morphology. Our study suggests that evolutionary novel traits in not only males but also in females could play an important role in the correlated evolution of genitalia between the sexes. PMID:24116383

Tanabe, Tsutomu; Sota, Teiji

2014-02-01

57

A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male

Vandiver, Donna M.

2006-01-01

58

Male Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence: A Descriptive Review and Call for Further Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of all known publicly available research addressing the extent of men's experiences of same-sex intimate partner violence. Overall, it would seem that intimate partner violence is not just a problem for heterosexual couples. Violence between male same-sex male intimates also occurs at an alarmingly high rate, help is rarely sought from community service providers or

Samantha Jeffries; Matthew Ball

59

The Value of Phallometry in the Assessment of Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviant sexual interests such as pedophilia (interest in prepubescent children), biastophilia (interest in forced sex), and peo-deiktophilia (interest in exposing one's penis to strangers) are important to consider in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders. Phallometry, the measurement of erectile responses to sexual stimuli, is the best available measure of male sexual interests. This article summarizes the research

Michael C. Seto

2001-01-01

60

Sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes from selected individual and team sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the sex role orientations of male and female collegiate athletes were more similar in team sports than in individual sports. It was predicted that females in masculine-oriented team sports (basketball and volleyball) would exhibit sex role orientations more similar to those of their male counterparts than would females in individual

Craig A. Wrisberg; M. Vanessa Draper; John J. Everett

1988-01-01

61

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US – Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors

Yasmina Katsulis; Alesha Durfee

2012-01-01

62

From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

2010-01-01

63

The Vomeronasal Organ of the Male Ferret  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is known to play a major role in sexual behavior in many mammals. This study is the first report that the adult male ferret has a VNO, which is considerably smaller and morphologically different from the usually crescent- shaped epithelium in several mammalian species, particularly rodents. There were no differences in the size or structure of

Elke Weiler; Raimund Apfelbach; Albert I. Farbman

1999-01-01

64

Oleic acid is a precursor of linoleic acid and the male sex pheromone in Nasonia vitripennis.  

PubMed

Linoleic acid (C18:2(?9,12), LA) is crucial for many cell functions in organisms. It has long been a paradigm that animals are unable to synthesize LA from oleic acid (C18:1(?9), OA) because they were thought to miss ?(12)-desaturases for inserting a double bound at the ?(12)-position. Today it is clear that this is not true for all animals because some insects and other invertebrates have been demonstrated to synthesize LA. However, the ability to synthesize LA is known in only five insect orders and no examples have been reported so far in the Hymenoptera. LA plays a particular role in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, because it is the precursor of the male sex pheromone consisting of (4R,5R)- and (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolides. Here we demonstrate by stable isotope labeling that N. vitripennis is able to incorporate externally applied fully (13)C-labeled OA into the male sex pheromone suggesting that they convert initially OA into LA. To verify this assumption, we produced fly hosts (Lucilia caesar) which were experimentally enriched in (13)C-labeled OA and reared male parasitoids on these hosts. Chemical analysis of transesterified lipid raw extracts from hosts and parasitoids revealed that N. vitripennis but not L. caesar contained (13)C-labeled LA methyl ester. Furthermore, male wasps from the manipulated hosts produced significant amounts of (13)C-labeled sex pheromone. These results suggest that N. vitripennis possesses a ?(12)-desaturase. The additional fitness relevant function as pheromone precursor might have favored the evolution of LA biosynthesis in N. vitripennis to make the wasps independent of the formerly essential nutrient. PMID:24874439

Blaul, Birgit; Steinbauer, Robert; Merkl, Philipp; Merkl, Rainer; Tschochner, Herbert; Ruther, Joachim

2014-08-01

65

Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: akjro@food.dtu.dk [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)] [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)] [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)] [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark)] [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)] [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)

2013-01-01

66

Effects of sex of judge and sex of victim on recommended punishment of a male murderer in a mock scenario.  

PubMed

Two samples of undergraduates (36 women, 7 men; 44 women, 45 men) read a mock transcript in which a murderer's victim was a man or a woman, after which they made prison sentence and death penalty judgments. Female judges gave longer sentences for the female victim than for the male victim, whereas male judges gave longer sentences for the male victim than for the female victim. This same-sex bias suggests that extralegal factors can affect judgments about sentencing. PMID:12416848

McKelvie, Stuart J

2002-10-01

67

Sex Combs are Important for Male Mating Success in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex comb is one of the most rapidly evolving male-specific traits in Drosophila, making it an attractive model to study sexual selection and developmental evolution. Drosophila males use their sex combs to grasp the females’ abdomen and genitalia and to spread their wings prior to copulation. To test\\u000a the role of this structure in male mating success in Drosophila

Chen Siang Ng; Artyom Kopp

2008-01-01

68

MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

Rosen, M.; And Others

1971-01-01

69

Sex hormones and stress in the human male.  

PubMed

Six blood samples were obtained from each of a group of 33 healthy males between the ages of 19 and 31, following which radioimmunoassays were used to determine the serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (E2). In addition, the free testosterone (Tsal) was also measured using saliva samples provided by 23 of the subjects. A questionnaire of our own design was administered together with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF-Test) at the time of the first blood sample in order to check the long-term stress loads of our subjects as well as their abilities to deal with stress. During the investigational period, subjects kept daily records of their sleeping and working hours and noted the appearance of stressful situations. Weather data for Hamburg was also included as a variable in this study. A number of significant relationships between sex hormones and stress could be ascertained; however, it should be kept in mind that the correlation coefficients are low and explain only a small percentage of the variance between the variables. The stress variables "weather condition" and the "Q4" factor of the 16 PF-Test are significantly related to E2 (intersubject correlations). For all samples of all subjects, psychic stress correlates positively with the ratio of Tsal/Tser. There is a significant positive intersubject relationship between Tsal and long-term plus concurrent somatic stress, while somatic stressors on the day preceding a blood and saliva sample (acute somatic stress) correlate positively with Tsal and Tser. PMID:4085996

Christiansen, K; Knussmann, R; Couwenbergs, C

1985-12-01

70

'In different situations, in different ways': male sex work in St. Petersburg, Russia.  

PubMed

We conducted a qualitative study of male sex work in St. Petersburg Russia with a focus on social vulnerabilities, HIV-risk perception and HIV-related behaviours. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals knowledgeable about male sex work through their profession and with male sex workers themselves. Male sex work involves a variety of exchanges, including expensive vacations, negotiated monetary amounts or simply access to food. Methods of finding clients included the Internet, social venues (e.g. gay clubs and bars) and public places (e.g. parks). Use of the Internet greatly facilitated male sex work in a variety of ways. It was used by both individuals and agencies to find clients, and appeared to be increasing. Men often reported not being professionally connected to other male sex workers and limited disclosure about their work. Many were aware of the work-related risks to personal safety, including violence and robbery by clients. Perceived risk for HIV was mostly abstract and several exceptions to condom use with clients were noted. Alcohol use was reported as moderate but alcohol was consumed frequently in association with work. These data suggest that the most salient risks for male sex workers include professional isolation, threats to personal safety, limited perceived HIV risk and sub-optimal levels of condom use. PMID:23464743

Niccolai, Linda M; King, Elizabeth J; Eritsyan, Ksenia U; Safiullina, Liliya; Rusakova, Maia M

2013-01-01

71

"In different situations, in different ways": Male sex work in St. Petersburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

We conducted a qualitative study of male sex work in St. Petersburg Russia with a focus on social vulnerabilities, HIV risk perception, and HIV-related behaviours. In-depth interviews were conducted with individuals knowledgeable about male sex work through their profession (n=8) and with male sex workers themselves (n=12). Male sex work involves a variety of exchanges including expensive vacations, negotiated monetary amounts, or simply access to food. Methods to find clients included the Internet, social venues (e.g. gay clubs and bars), and public places (e.g. parks). Use of the Internet greatly facilitated male sex work in a variety of ways. It was used by both individuals and agencies to find clients, and appeared to be increasing. Men often reported not being professionally connected to other male sex workers and limited disclosure about their work. Many were aware of the work-related risks to personal safety including violence and robbery by clients. Perceived risk for HIV was mostly abstract, and several exceptions to condom use with clients were noted. Alcohol use was reported as moderate but consumed frequently in association with work. These data suggest that the most salient risks for male sex workers include professional isolation, threats to personal safety, limited perceived HIV risk, and sub-optimal levels of condom use.

Niccolai, Linda M; King, Elizabeth J; Eritsyan, Ksenia; Safiullina, Liliya; Rusakova, Maia M

2013-01-01

72

Male Sex Roles in Magazine Advertising, 1959-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advertising featuring men appears to be moving gradually toward a decrease in sex-role stereotyping, although the progress is obviously slow. Of the 660 advertisements examined, only 13 were in the category showing men performing nonstereotypic roles capably or acknowledging that the sexes are fully equal. (PD)

Skelly, Gerald U.; Lundstrom, William J.

1981-01-01

73

Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Public health and human right issues are challenging in low and middle income countries. The main objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence, extramarital sex, and spousal communication among male. Methods A cross-sectional study among 2466 married males in Kathmandu, Nepal was conducted using random sampling method. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of associated factors were estimated by stepwise backward likelihood ratio method. Results Prevalence of domestic violence was 63.14% (95% CI 61.20-65.05), extramarital sex was 32.12% (95% CI 30.27-34.00), and spousal communication was 48.87% (95% CI 46.85-50.90). Nearly one in five male (18.20%) had not used condom during extramarital sex. Interestingly, male who had more than three or equal children were less likely to have perpetrated domestic violence compared with those who had less children. Older male aged 25 and above were more likely (AORs?=?1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) to have extramarital sex compared with male aged 24 or below. Those male who had studied secondary or higher level of education were less likely to have extramarital sex compared to those who had primary level or no education. Male who had higher income were more likely to have spousal communication compared to those who had less income. Surprisingly, those male who had extramarital sex were less likely to have spousal communication compared with those was not involved in extramarital sex. Conclusion Practice of domestic violence and extramarital sex is quite common among married male in Nepal, where spousal communication is sparse. These findings can be used to advocate for immediate attention and activities needs to be endorsed by policymakers and programmers.

2014-01-01

74

No Need to Discriminate? Reproductive Diploid Males in a Parasitoid with Complementary Sex Determination  

PubMed Central

Diploid males in hymenopterans are generally either inviable or sterile, thus imposing a severe genetic load on populations. In species with the widespread single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), sex depends on the genotype at one single locus with multiple alleles. Haploid (hemizygous) individuals are always males. Diploid individuals develop into females when heterozygous and into males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. Our comparison of the mating and reproductive success of haploid and diploid males revealed that diploid males of the braconid parasitoid Cotesia glomerata sire viable and fertile diploid daughters. Females mated to diploid males, however, produced fewer daughters than females mated to haploid males. Nevertheless, females did not discriminate against diploid males as mating partners. Diploid males initiated courtship display sooner than haploid males and were larger in body size. Although in most species so far examined diploid males were recognized as genetic dead ends, we present a second example of a species with sl-CSD and commonly occurring functionally reproductive diploid males. Our study suggests that functionally reproductive diploid males might not be as rare as hitherto assumed. We argue that the frequent occurrence of inbreeding in combination with imperfect behavioural adaptations towards its avoidance promote the evolution of diploid male fertility.

Elias, Jan; Mazzi, Dominique; Dorn, Silvia

2009-01-01

75

Organization and Administration of Sex Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses trends, principles, methods, and techniques for curriculum development in sex education. While sex education in the school curriculum is a controversial issue, many professionals in the field agree that it is important in meeting student's social, psychological, and emotional needs. Recent trends in sex education include…

Whiteside, Patricia W.

76

Sex Ratios, Marriageability, and the Marginalization of Black Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an economic analysis of the status of African-American males, arguing that the precarious economic position of African-American males is the leading cause of single female-headed households in African-American communities. Marginalization processes based on low employment have pushed African-American males away from marriage. (SLD)

Darity, William, Jr.; Myers, Samuel

1992-01-01

77

46, XX male sex reversal syndrome: a case report and review of the genetic basis.  

PubMed

Sex reversal syndrome is a kind of human genetic disease about gender dysplasia, which is characterised by inconsistency between gonadal sexuality and chromosome sexuality; the incidence rate was about 1:20,000-100,000. The clinical manifestations, hormonal levels and cytogenetic findings in a patient of 46, XX male sex reversal syndrome retrospectively were analysed and related published reports were reviewed. The DNA fragments of sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene from the patient was found by polymerase chain reaction, but the fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis revealed that the SRY translocated from Y to X chromosome. We concluded that the Y chromosomal SRY gene is required for the regulation of male sex determination. The detection of SRY is important for the clinical diagnosis of sex reversal syndrome. Translocation of SRY to X chromosome or other autosomes would be one of the key factors that induced XX male SRS. PMID:19143733

Wang, T; Liu, J H; Yang, J; Chen, J; Ye, Z Q

2009-02-01

78

Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.  

PubMed

Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime. PMID:24495052

Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

2014-05-01

79

Administrator's Overview: Questions and Answers on Issues Related to the Incarcerated Male Sex Offender.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Administrator's Overview is intended for correctional administrators, planners, and others responsible for dealing with incarcerated male sex offenders. The Overview discusses treatment techniques that are proving effective in reducing the extremely ...

B. Schwartz H. Cellini

1988-01-01

80

Functional development of sex accessory organs of the male rat. Use of oestradiol benzoate to identify the neonatal period as critical for development of normal protein-synthetic and secretory capabilities.  

PubMed Central

Functional development of the sex accessory tissues was studied in the male rat. Three potentially crucial developmental periods (neonatal, prepubertal and pubertal) were examined, and then the functional integrity of the accessory tissues was investigated in the adult, when the animals would have been expected to display normal function. Four accessory tissues (the seminal vesicles, ventral prostate and caput and cauda epididymides) were used because of their different embryological origins and responses to androgens in the adult. Synthesis and secretion of previously characterized tissue-specific androgen-dependent proteins were taken as indicators of normal function. Development was perturbed by using oestradiol benzoate, since this was known to affect gross development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate when given to neonatal rats. Treatment during the first 5 days after birth severely restricted development of the seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Protein secreted by the former was only 1% of the normal amount, and in many cases several major secretory proteins were essentially missing. Prostatic protein secretion was less than 20% of normal, but all the major proteins were detectable. In both tissues overall protein synthesis per cell was quantitatively normal, but the proportion devoted to specific major secretory proteins was markedly depressed, i.e. the response is differential. In contrast, treatment during the prepubertal period was without noticeable effects. Development of the seminal vesicles and prostate was somewhat inhibited by treatment at puberty, but these changes were minor compared with those after neonatal exposure to oestradiol benzoate. No effects on epididymal protein synthesis or secretory proteins were observed, and epididymal weight and DNA content were only moderately decreased regardless of when oestradiol benzoate was administered during sexual maturation. Hence the neonatal period is not so critical for epididymal development. The substantial changes elicited by oestrogen treatment during neonatal life in seminal-vesicle and prostatic protein synthesis and secretion were compared with those evoked in sexually mature males by either oestrogen treatment or castration. Both these latter treatments resulted in a general decrease in seminal-vesicle protein synthesis and secretion, but the marked differential effects on major proteins after neonatal exposure were absent. Castration did, however, evoke a differential prostatic response, but this was not seen after oestrogen treatment of adults. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Higgins, S J; Brooks, D E; Fuller, F M; Jackson, P J; Smith, S E

1981-01-01

81

Determinants of safer sex patterns among gay\\/bisexual male adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive-behavioral (health-belief, social cognitive, peer support), risk-taking, and stress\\/coping models were examined as predictors of safer sex practices among (141 gay and bisexual male adolescents seeking services at a gay-identified social service agency. Safer sex practices, defined as abstinence or 100% consistent condom use during oral and anal sex, were practised by 47% of youths; 24% used condoms only

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Helen Reid; Margaret Rosario; Stephanie Kasen

1995-01-01

82

The sex ratio and male-on-female intimate partner violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two divergent perspectives have been articulated in the literature regarding the effect that an unbalanced sex ratio is speculated to have on male-on-female intimate partner violence. Evolutionary psychology proffers that a high sex ratio (i.e., more men than women in the population) propagates competition among males for female mates. This competition for female mates is thought to engender sexual jealousy

Stewart J. D'Alessio; Lisa Stolzenberg

2010-01-01

83

HIV Infection, Syphilis, and Behavioral Risks in Brazilian Male Sex Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe the epidemiology of HIV and syphilis infection and sexual practices among male sex workers, we studied 434 transvestites and 96 “hustlers” recruited by peers in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1992 to 1998. Participants were young adults with low education levels who had recently immigrated to São Paulo and supported themselves primarily through sex work.

João Luiz Grandi; Samuel Goihman; Mirtes Ueda; George W. Rutherford

2000-01-01

84

Identification of SOX3 as an XX male sex reversal gene in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Sex in mammals is genetically determined and is defined at the cellular level by sex chromosome complement (XY males and XX females). The Y chromosome-linked gene sex-determining region Y (SRY) is believed to be the master initiator of male sex determination in almost all eutherian and metatherian mammals, functioning to upregulate expression of its direct target gene Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9 (SOX9). Data suggest that SRY evolved from SOX3, although there is no direct functional evidence to support this hypothesis. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations in SOX3 do not affect sex determination in mice or humans. To further investigate Sox3 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Sox3. Here, we report that in one of these transgenic lines, Sox3 was ectopically expressed in the bipotential gonad and that this led to frequent complete XX male sex reversal. Further analysis indicated that Sox3 induced testis differentiation in this particular line of mice by upregulating expression of Sox9 via a similar mechanism to Sry. Importantly, we also identified genomic rearrangements within the SOX3 regulatory region in three patients with XX male sex reversal. Together, these data suggest that SOX3 and SRY are functionally interchangeable in sex determination and support the notion that SRY evolved from SOX3 via a regulatory mutation that led to its de novo expression in the early gonad. PMID:21183788

Sutton, Edwina; Hughes, James; White, Stefan; Sekido, Ryohei; Tan, Jacqueline; Arboleda, Valerie; Rogers, Nicholas; Knower, Kevin; Rowley, Lynn; Eyre, Helen; Rizzoti, Karine; McAninch, Dale; Goncalves, Joao; Slee, Jennie; Turbitt, Erin; Bruno, Damien; Bengtsson, Henrik; Harley, Vincent; Vilain, Eric; Sinclair, Andrew; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Thomas, Paul

2011-01-01

85

XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication.  

PubMed

Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome-linked gene SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss-of-function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have shown that ectopic expression of Sox3 in the bipotential gonad results in upregulation of Sox9, resulting in testicular induction and XX male sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which these rearrangements cause sex reversal and the frequency with which they are associated with disorders of sex development remains unclear. Rearrangements of the SOX3 locus were identified recently in three cases of human XX male sex reversal. We report on a case of XX male sex reversal associated with a novel de novo duplication of the SOX3 gene. These data provide additional evidence that SOX3 gain-of-function in the XX bipotential gonad causes XX male sex reversal and further support the hypothesis that SOX3 is the evolutionary antecedent of SRY. PMID:22678921

Moalem, Sharon; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Stavropolous, Dmitri J; Wherrett, Diane; Bägli, Darius J; Thomas, Paul; Chitayat, David

2012-07-01

86

Using Lod Scores to Detect Sex Differences in Male-Female Recombination Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human recombination fraction (RF) can differ between males and females, but investigators do not always know which disease genes are located in genomic areas of large RF sex differences. Knowledge of RF sex differences contributes to our understanding of basic biology and can increase the power of a linkage study, improve gene localization, and provide clues to possible imprinting. One

B. Feenstra; D. A. Greenberg; S. E. Hodge

2004-01-01

87

Differences of Personality, Defensiveness, and Compliance Between Admitting and Denying Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed predicted psychological differences between denying (n = 30) and admitting (n = 72) male sex offenders within the framework of Eysenck's theory on the personality of criminals. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Gudjonsson's Compliance Questionnaire (CQ) were administered to consenting participants who were probationers in court-ordered group therapy at an outpatient clinic. Denying sex offenders were

GUNNAR HRAFN BIRGISSON

1996-01-01

88

Outpatient group therapy with adult male sex offenders: Clinical issues and concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outpatient group treatment of adjudicated male sex offenders presents multifaceted clinical challenges. Major goals of treatment are (a) elimination of inappropriate sexual ideation and behaviors in the offender and (b) development and practice of relapse prevention skills. Pertinent clinical concerns of a sex offender population include personal losses and external pressures at the outset of treatment, ongoing intevace with the

Kathleen Diane Rich

1994-01-01

89

The Relationship of Trauma Exposure to Sex Offending Behavior among Male Juvenile Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study identifies ways that traumatic experiences and trauma-associated feelings can be offense triggers for juvenile sex offenders. Researchers interviewed the treating clinicians of 40 male juvenile sex offenders. Overall, clinicians identified prior trauma exposure as being related to the offense triggers in 85% of offenders. Implications for…

McMackin, Robert A.; Leisen, Mary Beth; Cusack, John R.; LaFratta, Joseph; Litwin, Peter

2002-01-01

90

Occupational Perceptions of Males and Females as a Function of Sex Ratios, Salary, and Availability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined undergraduate students' willingness to explore, enter, and predict success in three occupations as a function of subject sex and information about occupational sex ratio, salary, and position availability. Results indicated males were more likely to report an interest in further exploration of and entry into the occupations, as well as to…

Subich, Linda Mezydlo; And Others

1986-01-01

91

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships. PMID:22304493

Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha

2012-01-01

92

Discordant Sexual Identity in Some Genetic Males with Cloacal Exstrophy Assigned to Female Sex at Birth  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cloacal exstrophy is a rare, complex defect of the entire pelvis and its contents that occurs during embryogenesis and is associated with severe phallic inadequacy or phallic absence in genetic males. For about 25 years, neonatal assignment to female sex has been advocated for affected males to overcome the issue of phallic inadequacy, but data on outcome remain sparse. METHODS We assessed all 16 genetic males in our cloacal-exstrophy clinic at the ages of 5 to 16 years. Fourteen underwent neonatal assignment to female sex socially, legally, and surgically; the parents of the remaining two refused to do so. Detailed questionnaires extensively evaluated the development of sexual role and identity, as defined by the subjects' persistent declarations of their sex. RESULTS Eight of the 14 subjects assigned to female sex declared themselves male during the course of this study, whereas the 2 raised as males remained male. Subjects could be grouped according to their stated sexual identity. Five subjects were living as females; three were living with unclear sexual identity, although two of the three had declared themselves male; and eight were living as males, six of whom had reassigned themselves to male sex. All 16 subjects had moderate-to-marked interests and attitudes that were considered typical of males. Follow-up ranged from 34 to 98 months. CONCLUSIONS Routine neonatal assignment of genetic males to female sex because of severe phallic inadequacy can result in unpredictable sexual identification. Clinical interventions in such children should be reexamined in the light of these findings.

Gearhart, John P.

2006-01-01

93

47,XXY males: sex chromosomes and tooth size.  

PubMed

Permanent tooth crowns of 47,XXY males were found to be generally larger than those of control males and females and their first-degree male and female relatives. These results suggest that tooth-size increase in 47,XXY males is due to a direct genetic effect and support the concept of the presence of a specific growth gene (or genes) in the human X and Y chromosomes. The effect of this gene (or genes) seems to be the promotion of tooth growth, and the Y chromosome is more effective than the X chromosome in this respect. PMID:7446531

Alvesalo, L; Portin, P

1980-11-01

94

Hormonal control of sex differences in the electric organ discharge (EOD) of mormyrid fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies have demonstrated that several species of mormyrid fish from Gabon, West Africa have a sex difference in the pulse-like waveform of their Electric Organ Discharge (EOD). Administration of androgen hormones (testosterone or dihydrotestosterone) to a female or juvenile can induce the EOD typical of a sexually mature male. Data for two such species —Brienomyrus brachyistius (triphasic) andStomatorhinus corneti

Andrew H. Bass; Carl D. Hopkins

1985-01-01

95

Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes.

Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

2013-01-01

96

The sicker sex: understanding male biases in parasitic infection, resource allocation and fitness.  

PubMed

The "sicker sex" idea summarizes our knowledge of sex biases in parasite burden and immune ability whereby males fare worse than females. The theoretical basis of this is that because males invest more on mating effort than females, the former pay the costs by having a weaker immune system and thus being more susceptible to parasites. Females, conversely, have a greater parental investment. Here we tested the following: a) whether both sexes differ in their ability to defend against parasites using a natural host-parasite system; b) the differences in resource allocation conflict between mating effort and parental investment traits between sexes; and, c) effect of parasitism on survival for both sexes. We used a number of insect damselfly species as study subjects. For (a), we quantified gregarine and mite parasites, and experimentally manipulated gregarine levels in both sexes during adult ontogeny. For (b), first, we manipulated food during adult ontogeny and recorded thoracic fat gain (a proxy of mating effort) and abdominal weight (a proxy of parental investment) in both sexes. Secondly for (b), we manipulated food and gregarine levels in both sexes when adults were about to become sexually mature, and recorded gregarine number. For (c), we infected male and female adults of different ages and measured their survival. Males consistently showed more parasites than females apparently due to an increased resource allocation to fat production in males. Conversely, females invested more on abdominal weight. These differences were independent of how much food/infecting parasites were provided. The cost of this was that males had more parasites and reduced survival than females. Our results provide a resource allocation mechanism for understanding sexual differences in parasite defense as well as survival consequences for each sex. PMID:24194830

Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Munguía-Steyer, Roberto

2013-01-01

97

Male and Female Suicide Bombers: Different Sexes, Different Reasons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the motivations and recruitment of female suicide terrorists. Biographical accounts of 30 female and 30 male suicide terrorists were coded for method of recruitment, motivation for attack, and outcome of attack. A log-linear analysis found that female suicide terrorists were motivated more by Personal events, whereas males were motivated more by Religious\\/nationalistic factors. Females were equally likely

Karen Jacques; Paul J. Taylor

2008-01-01

98

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Darryl Leja N:Leja;Darryl ORG:National Human Genome Research Institute REV:2005-04-14 END:VCARD

2005-04-14

99

Exploring the desires and sexual culture of men who have sex with male-to-female transgender women.  

PubMed

Men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) currently constitute a gap in the research community's understanding of male sexuality and sexual desire. In an effort to address this lack of knowledge, an ethnographic study of MSTW in New York City was conducted between December 2005 and May 2007, including in-depth interviews with MSTW (n = 15), key informant interviews (n = 13), and ethnographic observation of semi-private "tranny" parties held at various venues throughout New York City. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the sex marketplaces and the sexual experiences of an ethnographic sample of MSTW in New York City and (2) describe the ways MSTW construct their sexual partnering practices and the meanings attributed to those practices in relation to varying social contexts (in and outside the sex marketplace). In this analysis, we described the MSTW sex market landscape in New York and identified three major recurrent themes in the ways that MSTW organized their sexual desire for TW transitioning from sex marketplaces to social spaces in their lives: (1) phallus-centric trade sex market focus; (2) relational-companionship market focus; and (3) specialized market focus. Although the findings from the study are not representative of the broader MSTW population, they represent an important step in amassing a body of knowledge about an understudied and underserved sex market upon which future research is needed. PMID:23572267

Mauk, Daniel; Perry, Ashley; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel

2013-07-01

100

Mapping of sex hormone receptors and their modulators along the nephron of male and female mice.  

PubMed

Renal functions are regulated by steroid sex hormones, but the exhaustive identification of their receptors along the nephron is still lacking. Here, we have localized all known nuclear or membrane-bound sex hormone receptors and some of their activators along the nephron of male and female mice. Almost all receptors are present in male and female kidney, some of them having very restricted localization. Only one gene tested among 11 (ARA54) exhibits a gender difference in the level of its expression. This first "renal map" of sex steroid receptor expression may serve as a pre-requisite for investigating the role of these hormones on kidney functions. PMID:19401201

Grimont, Adrien; Bloch-Faure, May; El Abida, Boutaïna; Crambert, Gilles

2009-05-19

101

Sex hormone-binding globulin and male sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The masculinization of the brain, reproductive tract and many other structures is critically dependent on the testicular hormone, testosterone (T). In many species, T circulates bound with high affinity to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). This protein has a wide phylogenetic distribution and SHBG or SHBG-like proteins are produced by the liver, testes, placenta, brain and other tissues. SHBG activity is

D. A. Damassa; J. M. Cates

1995-01-01

102

Sex Hormones Pattern in Male Patients Suffering from Viral Hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver plays a key role in the biotransformation and clearance of steroid hormones particularly sex hormones. The question whether their metabolism could be deranged in liver diseases is studied in 52 individuals (30 patients with type B viral hepatitis infection and 22 control). The same patients were followed up for a period of 2 months after the appearance of

A. A. Hafiez; T. I. El-Serafy; M. M. Hassan; S. R. Saleh

1990-01-01

103

Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone  

SciTech Connect

Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.

Kim, Young C. [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: youckim@snu.ac.kr; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S. [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae H. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Y. [College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Shinyong-Dong, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2007-08-15

104

The C. elegans Male Exercises Directional Control during Mating through Cholinergic Regulation of Sex-Shared Command Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Background Mating behaviors in simple invertebrate model organisms represent tractable paradigms for understanding the neural bases of sex-specific behaviors, decision-making and sensorimotor integration. However, there are few examples where such neural circuits have been defined at high resolution or interrogated. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we exploit the simplicity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to define the neural circuits underlying the male’s decision to initiate mating in response to contact with a mate. Mate contact is sensed by male-specific sensilla of the tail, the rays, which subsequently induce and guide a contact-based search of the hermaphrodite’s surface for the vulva (the vulva search). Atypically, search locomotion has a backward directional bias so its implementation requires overcoming an intrinsic bias for forward movement, set by activity of the sex-shared locomotory system. Using optogenetics, cell-specific ablation- and mutant behavioral analyses, we show that the male makes this shift by manipulating the activity of command cells within this sex-shared locomotory system. The rays control the command interneurons through the male-specific, decision-making interneuron PVY and its auxiliary cell PVX. Unlike many sex-shared pathways, PVY/PVX regulate the command cells via cholinergic, rather than glutamatergic transmission, a feature that likely contributes to response specificity and coordinates directional movement with other cholinergic-dependent motor behaviors of the mating sequence. PVY/PVX preferentially activate the backward, and not forward, command cells because of a bias in synaptic inputs and the distribution of key cholinergic receptors (encoded by the genes acr-18, acr-16 and unc-29) in favor of the backward command cells. Conclusion/Significance Our interrogation of male neural circuits reveals that a sex-specific response to the opposite sex is conferred by a male-specific pathway that renders subordinate, sex-shared motor programs responsive to mate cues. Circuit modifications of these types may make prominent contributions to natural variations in behavior that ultimately bring about speciation.

Sherlekar, Amrita L.; Janssen, Abbey; Siehr, Meagan S.; Koo, Pamela K.; Caflisch, Laura; Boggess, May; Lints, Robyn

2013-01-01

105

Induction of female-to-male sex reversal by high temperature treatment in Medaka, Oryzias latipes.  

PubMed

Medaka, Oryzias latipes, has a firm XX-XY sex-determining system with the sex-determining gene, DMY, on the Y chromosome. However, previous studies have suggested that high water temperature might affect sex determination in Medaka. In the present study, the influence of high water temperature on sex reversal was examined. Fertilized eggs of two inbred strains of Medaka were developed at high water temperature (32 degrees C) until hatching. The hatched fry were kept at normal water temperatures (27 degrees C) until adulthood, and the phenotypic and genotypic sex was examined. As a result, 24% (N=105) and 50% (N=36) of XX fish developed a male phenotype in the Hd-rR and HNI inbred strains, respectively. These XX sex-reversed males had a normal testis and were fully fertile. On the other hand, all XY fish were male in the both strains. These results demonstrate that high water temperatures can induce XX sex reversal and that elevated water temperatures during the embryonic stage is a simple and useful method for getting XX males in Medaka. PMID:16219978

Sato, Tadashi; Endo, Tomokazu; Yamahira, Kazunori; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

2005-09-01

106

Differential sex allocation in sand lizards: bright males induce daughter production in a species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

In sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), males with more and brighter nuptial coloration also have more DNA fragments visualized in restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their major histocompatibility complex class I loci (and, hence, are probably more heterozygous at these loci). Such males produce more viable offspring, with a particularly strong viability effect on daughters. This suggests that females should adjust both their reproductive investment and offspring sex ratio in relation to male coloration (i.e. differential allocation). Our results show that experimental manipulation of partner coloration in the wild results in significantly higher maternal effort and a 10% higher proportion of daughters than sons. This supports the hypothesis that females increase their maternal energetic expenditure and adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to high-quality partners. However, it also suggests that this has probably evolved through natural selection for increased offspring viability (primarily through production of daughters), rather than through increased mate attraction (e.g. sexy sons).

Olsson, Mats; Wapstra, Erik; Uller, Tobias

2005-01-01

107

Quantity matters: male sex pheromone signals mate quality in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory asserts that females are well adapted to sense signals indicating the quality of potential mates. One crucial male quality parameter is functional fertility (i.e. the success of ejaculates in fertilizing eggs). The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that functional fertility of males is reflected by phenotypic traits that influence female mate choice. Here, we show for Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp with haplodiploid sex determination and female-biased sex ratios, that females use olfactory cues to discriminate against sperm-limited males. We found sperm limitation in newly emerged and multiply mated males (seven or more previous matings) as indicated by a higher proportion of sons in the offspring fathered by these males. Sperm limitation correlated with clearly reduced pheromone titres. In behavioural bioassays, females oriented towards higher doses of the synthetic pheromone and were attracted more often to scent marks of males with a full sperm load than to those of sperm-limited males. Our data support the PLFH and suggest that N. vitripennis females are able to decrease the risk of getting constrained to produce suboptimal offspring sex ratios by orienting towards gradients of the male sex pheromone.

Ruther, Joachim; Matschke, Michael; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Steiner, Sven

2009-01-01

108

Female reproductive tactics in a sex-role reversed pipefish: scanning for male quality and number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical studies predict that females should invest in current reproduction according to both the expected payoffs from mating with different-quality males and their future mating prospects. The Syngnathidae family, with its male pregnancy together with the occurrence of varying degrees of sex-role reversal, constitutes an exceptional model to study female allocation strategies. The present work tests for the influence of

K. Silva; V. C. Almada; M. N. Vieira; N. M. Monteiro

2009-01-01

109

Women as Co-Facilitators of Groups for Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a small research project conducted with male participants, and women co-facilitators, of a support group for male sex offenders. The project, which was conducted through the use of group and individual interviews, invited participants to express their opinions about the role of women co-facilitators. The data indicate that women have a valuable role to

Sharon McCallum

1997-01-01

110

The Tyranny of Surveillance: Male Teachers and the Policing of Masculinities in a Single Sex School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on research into male teachers in one single sex high school in the Australian context to highlight how issues of masculinity impact on their pedagogical practices and relationships with boys. The study is situated within the broader international field of research on male teachers, masculinities and schooling in Australia, the UK…

Martino, Wayne; Frank, Blye

2006-01-01

111

Transgenerational Epigenetic Imprinting of the Male Germline by Endocrine Disruptor Exposure during Gonadal Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin at the time of gonadal sex determination was previously found to promote transgenerational disease states. The actions of vinclozolin appear to be due to epigenetic alterations in the male germline that are transmitted to subsequent genera- tions. Analysis of the transgenerational epigenetic effects on the male germline (i.e. sperm) identified 25 candidate DNA

Hung-Shu Chang; Matthew D. Anway; Stephen S. Rekow; Michael K. Skinner

2006-01-01

112

The Male Sex Pheromone of the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana: Towards an Evolutionary Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP) in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z)-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH), hexadecanal (16:Ald ) and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol), and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. Conclusions/Significance This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant to future research. Such a comparison will in turn contribute to understanding the evolution of sex pheromone production and reception in butterflies.

Nieberding, Caroline M.; de Vos, Helene; Schneider, Maria V.; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Estramil, Natalia; Andersson, Jimmy; Bang, Joakim; Hedenstrom, Erik; Lofstedt, Christer; Brakefield, Paul M.

2008-01-01

113

Stabilization of beta-catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal.  

PubMed

During mammalian sex determination, expression of the Y-linked gene Sry shifts the bipotential gonad toward a testicular fate by upregulating a feed-forward loop between FGF9 and SOX9 to establish SOX9 expression in somatic cells. We previously proposed that these signals are mutually antagonistic with counteracting signals in XX gonads and that a shift in the balance of these factors leads to either male or female development. Evidence in mice and humans suggests that the male pathway is opposed by the expression of two signals, WNT4 and R-SPONDIN-1 (RSPO1), that promote the ovarian fate and block testis development. Both of these ligands can activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Duplication of the distal portion of chromosome 1p, which includes both WNT4 and RSPO1, overrides the male program and causes male-to-female sex reversal in XY patients. To determine whether activation of beta-catenin is sufficient to block the testis pathway, we have ectopically expressed a stabilized form of beta-catenin in the somatic cells of XY gonads. Our results show that activation of beta-catenin in otherwise normal XY mice effectively disrupts the male program and results in male-to-female sex-reversal. The identification of beta-catenin as a key pro-ovarian and anti-testis signaling molecule will further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sex determination and the molecular mechanisms that lead to sex-reversal. PMID:18617533

Maatouk, Danielle M; DiNapoli, Leo; Alvers, Ashley; Parker, Keith L; Taketo, Makoto M; Capel, Blanche

2008-10-01

114

Male victims and post treatment risk assessment among adult male sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of actuarial instruments to predict sex offender recidivism has gained increasing credibility in recent years. This paper is one in a series examining the impact of dynamic inpatient group therapy upon the predictive influence of static risk factors on recidivism among adult sex offenders. Successful completion of the Phoenix Program (Alberta Hospital Edmonton) has been shown to ameliorate

Lea H. Studer; A. Scott Aylwin

2008-01-01

115

Patterns of male reproductive success in Crepidula fornicata provide new insight for sex allocation and optimal sex change.  

PubMed

The size-advantage model and sex-allocation theory are frequently invoked to explain the evolution and maintenance of sequential hermaphroditism in many taxa. A test of current theory requires quantitative estimates of reproductive success and knowledge of the relationship between reproduction and size for each gender. Reproductive success can be difficult to measure. In species where polyandry occurs, it can be quantified only by determining paternity of offspring. We employed microsatellite loci to establish paternity for 12 families of Crepidula fornicata, where a family is defined as a single female, her brood, and the males stacked on top of her. Genetic data were analyzed and paternity was assigned to a single potential father for more than 83% of the offspring tested. Estimates of reproductive success revealed that one male within the family fathered the majority of offspring and that he was usually the largest male and the one closest to the brooding female. The dominant male's success also tended to decrease as the number of mature males within the family increased. Our results suggest that sperm competition could be a driving force in determining male reproductive success and the timing of sex change in C. fornicata. PMID:18401001

Proestou, Dina A; Goldsmith, Marian R; Twombly, Saran

2008-04-01

116

Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature  

PubMed Central

Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients.

Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

2010-01-01

117

Gadd45g Is Essential for Primary Sex Determination, Male Fertility and Testis Development  

PubMed Central

In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD), ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD). On a pure C57BL/6 (B6) background, all Gadd45g?/? XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc). The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g?/? XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

Johnen, Heiko; Gonzalez-Silva, Laura; Carramolino, Laura; Flores, Juana Maria; Torres, Miguel; Salvador, Jesus M.

2013-01-01

118

Sex-specific, male-line transgenerational responses in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition or other environmental ‘exposures’ are well recognised, but the possibility of exposure in the male influencing development and health in the next generation(s) is rarely considered. However, historical associations of longevity with paternal ancestors' food supply in the slow growth period (SGP) in mid childhood have been reported. Using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents

Marcus E Pembrey; Lars Olov Bygren; Gunnar Kaati; Sören Edvinsson; Kate Northstone; Michael Sjöström; Jean Golding

2006-01-01

119

The Abuse History of Male Adolescent Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 100 adolescent males incarcerated in a secure residential training school in Florida found no statistical differences in frequency or intensity of sexual or physical victimization between groups divided according to the crimes they committed; all groups had individuals who were repeatedly victimized. Neither sexual nor physical victimization appears to be a necessary or sufficient reason for victimizing

JEFFREY L. BENOIT; WALLACE A. KENNEDY

1992-01-01

120

Timing of male sex pheromone biosynthesis in a butterfly - different dynamics under direct or diapause development.  

PubMed

The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly Pieris napi are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers--who have shorter time for pupal development--need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)--whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies (13)C labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits. PMID:22555771

Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Murtazina, Rushana; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Wiklund, Christer

2012-05-01

121

Sex Reassignment Surgery in the Female-to-Male Transsexual  

PubMed Central

In female-to-male transsexuals, the operative procedures are usually performed in different stages: first the subcutaneous mastectomy which is often combined with a hysterectomy-ovarectomy (endoscopically assisted). The next operative procedure consists of the genital transformation and includes a vaginectomy, a reconstruction of the horizontal part of the urethra, a scrotoplasty and a penile reconstruction usually with a radial forearm flap (or an alternative). After about one year, penile (erection) prosthesis and testicular prostheses can be implanted when sensation has returned to the tip of the penis. The authors provide a state-of-the-art overview of the different gender reassignment surgery procedures that can be performed in a female-to-male transsexual.

Monstrey, Stan J.; Ceulemans, Peter; Hoebeke, Piet

2011-01-01

122

Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India  

PubMed Central

To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year sex and substance use histories. Gender-stratified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between four risky transactional sex behaviors (number of transactional sex partners; alcohol use before transactional sex; anal transactional sex; and transactional sex with a known HIV-infected partner) and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes; logistic regression was used to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported STI. Twenty-nine percent of females and 7% of males reported any unprotected transactional sex episodes in the past 90 days. Thirty-nine percent of females and 12% of males reported past year STI. Among males, a greater number of transactional sex partners was associated with more unprotected transactional sex episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR]=8.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.8–38.4 highest vs. lowest tertile), and any unprotected transactional sex was associated with a higher odds of self-reported STI in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=5.6, 95% CI=1.4–22.4). For women, risky transactional sex behaviors were not associated with condom non-use, and unprotected sex was negatively associated with STI (AOR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2–0.9). Reports of condom use during transactional sex were high for these samples. However, standard predictors of unprotected transactional sex (i.e., greater number of partners) and STI (i.e., unprotected sex) only held true for males. Further research is needed to guide an understanding of sex risk and STI among HIV-infected FSWs in India.

Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J. H.

2013-01-01

123

HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To establish the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and sexual risk behaviour among three groups of men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to investigate sexual links between these men and broader heterosexual populations.Methods: Anonymous, cross sectional surveys among community recruited transgender and male sex workers and self recognised men who have sex with men (MSM) were

E Pisani; P Girault; M Gultom; N Sukartini; J Kumalawati; S Jazan; E Donegan

2004-01-01

124

Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where both sexes invest substantially in o¡spring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential bene¢ts to be gained. We measured o¡spring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipe¢sh, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a

Maria Sandvik; Gunilla Rosenqvist; Anders Berglund

2000-01-01

125

Family Size, Birth Order, and Parental Age Among Male Paraphilics and Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order,\\u000a and parents’ ages at the time of the probands’ births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada.\\u000a The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics

Ron Langevin; Mara Langevin; Suzanne Curnoe

2007-01-01

126

Being male or living with a female: fear for partners by sex and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

While substantial research attention has been paid to the disproportionately high levels of fear of crime among women relative to men, less attention has been paid to the apparent mirror of this: that men have disproportionately more concern for female partners than women do for male partners. The work that does exist on fear for partners has focused exclusively on different-sex partnerships. The present article proposes and explores several explanations for sex differences in fear for partners among different-sex as well as same-sex partnerships. The analysis uses a sample of persons who live with a partner (155 in same-sex and 2,817 in different-sex partnerships) from a Seattle survey that includes measures of altruistic fear, as well as measures of personal, familial, sexual assault, and sexual identity bias victimizations. Results suggest that female partners inspire more fear regardless of the sex of the respondents, that sex differences persist even after perceptions of danger are accounted for, and that personal fears and fears for children are positively associated with fears for partners and do not explain sex differences in such fears. These results are more consistent with explanations rooted in gendered perceptions of vulnerability and the shadow of sexual assault than explanations rooted in the differential gender socialization of men as protectors or of a limited capacity for fear. PMID:23277470

Drakulich, Kevin M; Rose, Kristin

2013-06-01

127

Personality characteristics of male clients of female commercial sex workers in Australia.  

PubMed

The personality characteristics of male clients of female sex workers and their motivations for seeking the services of sex workers were examined. It was hypothesized that clients of sex workers would differ from nonclients in that they would adopt less feminine sex roles, exhibit lower social-sexual effectiveness, and show higher levels of sensation-seeking behavior. Sixty-six clients of sex workers and 60 nonclients volunteered to complete a short questionnaire to assess demographic characteristics, sex role, social-sexual effectiveness, and sensation-seeking behavior. Clients and nonclients did not differ on demographic variables such as age, education, marital status, or occupation. However, clients were significantly less feminine in sex-role orientation, scored lower in social-sexual effectiveness, and scored higher on sensation seeking. Closer analysis of the client group revealed the existence of two distinct subgroups. The first was characterized by low social-sexual effectiveness and appeared motivated to visit sex workers because of an interpersonal need for intimacy. The second was characterized by high sensation seeking and appeared motivated to visit sex workers because of a need for novelty and variety in sexual encounters. PMID:10842724

Xantidis, L; McCabe, M P

2000-04-01

128

A cause for concern: male couples' sexual agreements and their use of substances with sex.  

PubMed

Substance use is strongly associated with HIV risk among gay men. Many gay couples establish sexual agreements. However, little is known about gay couples' use of substances with sex, and whether substance use is associated with couples' agreements. The present study assessed whether gay couples' use of substances with sex was associated with their establishment of, type of, and adherence to, a sexual agreement. Dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative US gay couples were collected online in a nation-wide, cross-sectional study, and analyzed at the couple-level. Findings revealed that couples with an established agreement, and a recently broken agreement, were more likely to have used amyl nitrates and marijuana with sex within their relationship. This same trend was also noted, but for alcohol use with sex outside of couples' relationships. Further research is urgently needed to examine the fluidity of HIV-negative gay male couples' sexual agreements and substance use with sex. PMID:24584415

Mitchell, Jason W; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean; Stephenson, Rob

2014-07-01

129

The microstructure of white matter in male to female transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A DTI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDiffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to be sensitive in detecting white matter differences between sexes. Before cross-sex hormone treatment female to male transsexuals (FtM) differ from females but not from males in several brain fibers. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether white matter patterns in male to female (MtF) transsexuals before commencing cross-sex hormone treatment

Giuseppina Rametti; Beatriz Carrillo; Esther Gómez-Gil; Carme Junque; Leire Zubiarre-Elorza; Santiago Segovia; Ángel Gomez; Antonio Guillamon

2011-01-01

130

Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer  

PubMed Central

Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods.

Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

2012-01-01

131

Sex chromosome meiotic drive in hybrid males of the common shrew (Sorex araneus).  

PubMed

Patterns of sex chromosome segregation in six homozygous males of the common shrew (Sorex araneus LINNAEUS, 1758) belonging to two chromosomal races, as well as in 16 interracial hybrids were studied. Based on their karyotypes the hybrids can be subdivided into two groups: (a) complex heterozygotes, which form meiotic quadrivalents in chain and chain + ring configurations, and (b) complex heterozygotes, which form meiotic pentavalents in chain configurations. Random (1:1) segregation of sex chromosomes was found in homozygous as well as those heterozygous males which form meiotic complexes of four chromosomes. However, in some hybrids with meiotic pentavalents we observed a strong preferential segregation in favour of X chromosomes. PMID:19058534

Fedyk, Stanis?aw; Bajkowska, Urszula; Chetnicki, W?odzimierz

2005-01-01

132

STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: evaluating a pilot peer education programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot peer education STI prevention programme with male sex workers.Design: A process and outcome evaluation of the pilot programme undertaken in three London male escort agencies, using a quasi-experimental design.Subjects: Workers in three London escort agencies, including 88 who completed a questionnaire, five peer educators, and a further 16 men (including management) working

A Ziersch; J Gaffney; D R Tomlinson

2000-01-01

133

Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype\\u000a in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). The primer OPA8 generates a set of bands, most of which polymorphic among all the individual plants tested, and 1 of\\u000a which, named OPA8400, present in all male

G. Mandolino; A. Carboni; S. Forapani; V. Faeti; P. Ranalli

1999-01-01

134

Bile Acid Secreted by Male Sea Lamprey That Acts as a Sex Pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that reproductively mature male sea lampreys release a bile acid that acts as a potent sex pheromone, inducing preference and searching behavior in ovulated female lampreys. The secreted bile acid 7alpha,12alpha,24-trihydroxy-5alpha-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate was released in much higher amounts relative to known vertebrate steroid pheromones and may be secreted through the gills. Hence, the male of this fish species

Weiming Li; Alexander P. Scott; Michael J. Siefkes; Honggao Yan; Qin Liu; Sang-Seon Yun; Douglas A. Gage

2002-01-01

135

Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis.  

PubMed

Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. PMID:23142464

Rosenmai, A K; Nielsen, F K; Pedersen, M; Hadrup, N; Trier, X; Christensen, J H; Vinggaard, A M

2013-01-01

136

Male gonadal function in coeliac disease: 2. Sex hormones.  

PubMed Central

Hypogonadism, infertility, and sexual dysfunction occur in some men with coeliac disease. We have measured plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin, oestradiol, and serum luteinising hormone in 41 men with coeliac disease and have related these findings to jejunal morphology, fertility, semen quality, and sexual function. To determine the specificity of these observations in coeliacs we also studied 19 nutritionally-matched men with Crohn's disease, and men with chronic ill-health due to rheumatoid arthritis and Hodgkin's disease. The most striking endocrine findings in untreated coeliacs were increased plasma testosterone and free testosterone index, reduced dihydrotestosterone (testosterone's potent peripheral metabolite), and raised serum luteinising hormone, a pattern of abnormalities indicative of androgen resistance. As jejunal morphology improved hormone levels appeared to return to normal. This specific combination of abnormalities was not present in any of the disease control groups and, to our knowledge, androgen resistance has not been described previously in any other non-endocrine disorder. Plasma oestradiol concentration was modestly raised in 10% of coeliacs and 11% of patients with Crohn's disease. Unlike plasma androgens and serum luteinising hormone in coeliacs, plasma oestradiol was not clearly related to jejunal morphology. Androgen resistance and associated hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction appear to be relatively specific to coeliac disease and cannot be explained merely in terms of malnutrition or chronic ill-health. In addition, our findings suggest that this endocrine disturbance may be related to sexual dysfunction in coeliac disease but its relationship to disordered spermatogenesis in this condition has not been clearly established.

Farthing, M J; Rees, L H; Edwards, C R; Dawson, A M

1983-01-01

137

Behavioral evidence for the presence of a sex pheromone in male Phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae).  

PubMed

Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the Old World sand fly vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida), a debilitating and disfiguring protist parasitic disease prevalent throughout southern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, as well as southern and eastern European countries, where it is regarded as a serious public health problem. Little is known of the mating ecology of P. papatasi, and, in particular, the role (if any) of pheromones is not known. In this laboratory- and field-based study, we have shown that a male-produced sex pheromone exists in P. papatasi. Young female P. papatasi are attracted to the headspace volatiles of small groups of males, males and females together, but not females alone. Males were not attracted to males, females, or mixed groups of males and females in the laboratory. Larger groups of males or males and females together were repellent in the laboratory study. Field experiments showed that Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps baited with small groups of males and females together were attractive to females, but not males. CDC traps baited with large groups of males and females together caught significantly fewer females and males than the control traps; however, the proportion of females caught compared with males overall was much higher than with CDC traps baited with small numbers of males and females. These results suggest that females may be attracted in preference to males to the vicinity of the baited traps and are highly sensitive to the concentration of male pheromone. It also suggests that P. papatasi mating behavior is fundamentally different from that of Lutzomyia longipalpis, where large mating aggregations of males and females occur. PMID:21661311

Chelbi, I; Zhioua, E; Hamilton, J G C

2011-05-01

138

Aggressive behavior of the male parent predicts brood sex ratio in a songbird.  

PubMed

Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies. PMID:24973871

Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöll?si, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs

2014-08-01

139

Do sex-changing male snails use mate choice to get a jump on their “size advantage”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of species that change sex from male to female may gain a “size advantage” from that sex change; that is, as males\\u000a become larger, they become female, thus increasing their fecundity with their size. However, males could also gain an early\\u000a and different reproductive size advantage by choosing large females as mates. While male preference for large females has

Olivia V. Ambrogio; Jan A. Pechenik

2009-01-01

140

Differences of Personality, Defensiveness, and Compliance between Admitting and Denying Male Sex Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed predicted psychological differences between denying (n=30) and admitting (n=72) male sex offenders within the framework of Eysenck's theory on the personality of criminals. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Gudjonsson's Compliance Questionnaire (CQ) were administered to consenting participants who were probationers in…

Birgisson, Gunnar Hrafn

1996-01-01

141

Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.  

PubMed

To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. PMID:23768615

Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

2013-08-01

142

Teacher Sex Role Perceptions and Male Enrollment Patterns in Home Economics Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major purpose of this study was to determine if the enrollment percentages of males in first-year vocational home economics courses differed significantly among teachers classified as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. (Author/CT)

Knowles, Ginny Anne; Martin, Ruth E.

1982-01-01

143

Factors Associated with Satisfaction or Regret Following Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined factors associated with satisfaction or regret following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in 232 male-to-female transsexuals operated on between 1994 and 2000 by one surgeon using a consistent technique. Participants, all of whom were at least 1-year postoperative, completed a written questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes. Participants reported overwhelmingly that they were happy with their SRS results

Anne A. Lawrence

2003-01-01

144

Osteoporosis and male age-related hypogonadism: role of sex steroids on bone (patho)physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male age-related bone loss is caused, at least in part, by hypogonadism that occurs with advancing age. The study of the effects of sex steroids on bone physiology in men has recently highlighted the central role of estrogens on bone pathophysiology. This review focuses on particular aspects of bone physiology and pathophysiology in aging men, noting both the similarities to

V Rochira; A Balestrieri; B Madeo; L Zirilli; A R M Granata; C Carani

2006-01-01

145

Attraction between sexes: male-female gametocyte behaviour within a Leucocytozoon toddi (Haemosporida).  

PubMed

Understanding the breeding systems of Plasmodium, and the closely related Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida), is fundamental to virulence and transmission research. We report an unusual binding behaviour between gametocytes of Leucocytozoon toddi. This aggregative behaviour was notably characterised by a disparity in the likelihood of clustering by female and male gametocytes. Thus, indicating a possible difference in the 'stickiness' of gametocytes per sex. Overall, 12% of gametocytes in this high-parasitaemia infection (0.269 gametocytes per 100 red blood cells (RBCs)) were incorporated into aggregations involving substantial contact. The gametocyte sexual combinations within aggregations varied significantly from expected according to the background 0.49 sex ratio within this sample, with female-female contacts occurring more and male-male contacts occurring less frequently than expected. A second L. toddi (identical for 709 bp of the cyt b mitochondrial gene) with lower parasitemia (0.035 gametocytes per 100 RBCs) showed no significant binding. Interestingly, the ratios of male gametocytes in both of these parasites were greater than expected under sex-ratio theory and similar to the 50% observed in species with syzygy breeding strategies. We discuss the ramifications of this observation in terms of sex-ratio theory and breeding strategies and provide speculative explanations for this unusual gametocyte behaviour. PMID:18297311

Barraclough, Rosemary K; Duval, Linda; Talman, Arthur M; Ariey, Frédéric; Robert, Vincent

2008-05-01

146

Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

2013-01-01

147

Sexual selection in an isopod with Wolbachia-induced sex reversal: males prefer real females  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of genetic elements encode traits beneficial to their own transmis- sion. Despite their 'selfish' behaviour, most of these elements are often found at relatively low frequencies in host populations. This is the case of intracytoplasmic Wolbachia bacteria hosted by the isopod Armadillidium vulgare that distort the host sex ratio towards females by feminizing the genetic males they infect.

J. Moreau; A. Bertin; Y. Caubet; T. Rigaud

2001-01-01

148

Testosterone, Sexual Offense Recidivism, and Treatment Effect Among Adult Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between serum testosterone and sexual violence was examined in a sample of 501 convicted adult male sex offenders attending an intensive in-hospital group psychotherapy treatment program. It was found that men with higher testosterone tended to have committed the most invasive sexual crimes (p mean = 8.9 years) was found. When the sample was separated into one group

Lea H. Studer; A. Scott Aylwin; John R. Reddon

2005-01-01

149

Hegemony and discourse: Reconstruing the male sex offender and sexual coercion by men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers issues related to hegemony and discourse and how dominant constructions of the male sex offender conceal wider issues pertaining to the hegemony of men. Initially outlining competing approaches to understanding power, the paper then seeks to link the Gramscian concept of hegemony to Foucaldian perspectives on power and language and justify the use of the term “hegemonic

Malcolm Cowburn

2005-01-01

150

Issues in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders with mild learning disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological assessment and treatment of male sex offenders has been of increasing interest in recent years, and a substantial literature, primarily cognitive-behavioural in orientation, now exists. However, there is little information about the application of this literature to men with mild learning disabilities (previously known as mild ‘mental handicap’), who have impaired intellectual and social functioning and are at

Isabel C. H. Clare

1993-01-01

151

A case study of a male sex offender with zoosexual interests and behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews assessment, treatment and supervision issues in relation to a high-risk, borderline functioning, male sex offender with zoosexual interests and behaviours. Mr Z was convicted of multiple sexual offences including rape, indecent assault and indecent exposure as well as actual and threatened bodily harm. He was convicted for two counts of attempted buggery of horses and he received

D. T. Wilcox; C. M. Foss; M. L. Donathy

2005-01-01

152

Assessing Criminal Thinking in Male Sex Offenders With the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 543 male inmates undergoing sex offender treatment completed the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). As predicted, the PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Proactive (P), and Reactive (R) scores correlated with sexual risk as measured by the total score on the Static-99. However, only the GCT and P scores correlated with sentence length, and none of

Glenn D. Walters; Adam Deming; William N. Elliott

2009-01-01

153

Male Sex Offenders: A Distorted Masculinity? A Theological Exploration of Possible Links  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with an enquiry into male sex offenders' understanding of masculinity to establish whether there exists a link between their view of masculinity and their sexual offending behaviour. The enquiry concerned twenty-five sexual offenders serving prison sentences. A short discussion follows and it is suggested that a sexuality and spirituality support group could be piloted within the

Rosa Monk-Shepherd

2003-01-01

154

Principles, virtues and care: ethical dilemmas in research with male sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers ethical dilemmas associated with research with male sex offenders. It examines two particular areas in detail: dealing with the disclosure of previously undisclosed offences and managing the distress of research participants during interview. Within these areas there is discussion of ethical approaches to research. Principle-based approaches offer abstract guidelines that help to resolve certain issues, but at

Malcolm Cowburn

2010-01-01

155

Sex difference in alcohol-related organ injury.  

PubMed

This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chairs were Nobuhiro Sato and Kai O. Lindros. The presentations were (1) Sex differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics, by E. Baraona; (2) Estrogen regulates the sensitivity to endotoxin in hepatic Kupffer cells, by K. Ikejima; (3) Sex difference in alcohol-related organ injury, by E. Mezey; (4) Aggravated ethanol-induced liver injury in female rats: Protection by the antiestrogen toremifene, by Harri A. Järveläinen; and (5) Alcohol metabolism in Asian subjects: Sex differences and flushing response, by V. A. Ramchandani. PMID:11391047

Sato, N; Lindros, K O; Baraona, E; Ikejima, K; Mezey, E; Järveläinen, H A; Ramchandani, V A

2001-05-01

156

Sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for language  

Microsoft Academic Search

A much debated question is whether sex differences exist in the functional organization of the brain for language *RF 1-4*. A long-held hypothesis posits that language functions are more likely to be highly lateralized in males and to be represented in both cerebral hemispheres in females (5,6), but attempts to demonstrate this have been inconclusive (7- 17). Here we use

R. Todd Constable; Pawel Skudlarski; Robert K. Fulbright; Richard A. Bronen; Jack M. Fletcher; Donald P. Shankweiler; Leonard Katz; John C. Gore

1995-01-01

157

Sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster: production of male clones in XX females  

PubMed Central

Sex determination and dosage compensation in Drosophila are implemented by the ratio of X-chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A ratio). Our aim was to change this X:A ratio during development, and to assess the response of the affected cells in sexually dimorphic structures. For this purpose, clones of XO constitution were produced in female embryos and larvae of two genotypes in which almost the entire euchromatic arm of one X-chromosome was translocated to the third chromosome. Genotype I was heterozygous for the X-linked recessive mutations SxlfLS, genotype II was homozygous for Sxl+. The Sxl+ gene (sex-lethal) is involved in mediating sex determination and dosage compensation. In genotype I (SxlfLS), male clones could be generated up to 48 h in genitalia and analia, up to 72 h in the sex comb region and up to 96 h in 5th and 6th tergites. In genotype II (Sxl+), male clones only appeared in the tergites, and only up to 24 h. The difference in these results is ascribed to the presence of SxlfLS in genotype I: when homozygous, this mutation causes XX clones to differentiate male structures; most of the male clones produced in genotype I must therefore be XX. In contrast, male clones produced in genotype II must be XO. Since these were only found when generated in embryos we conclude that the X:A ratio expresses itself autonomously in clones by setting the state of activity of the Sxl gene around blastoderm stage. Once this is achieved, the X:A signal is no longer needed, and the state of activity of the Sxl+ gene determines sex and dosage compensation. ImagesFig. 3.

Sanchez, L.; Nothiger, R.

1983-01-01

158

Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers?  

PubMed Central

Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality.

Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sanchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo

2010-01-01

159

The Influence of the Status and Sex Composition of Occupations on the Male-Female Earnings Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study of alternative theories of sex discrimination which imply ambiguous predictions about the relation between the male/female earnings ratio and the status and sex composition of the occupation. Notes that about one-half of the earnings gap between the sexes can be attributed to direct discrimination in the labor market, with…

Gunderson, Morley

1978-01-01

160

An Evolutionary Witness: the Frog Rana rugosa Underwent Change of Heterogametic Sex from XY Male to ZW Female  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two basic types of heterogamety for genetic sex determination in animals and plants: male heterogamety (XX\\/XY) and female heterogamety (ZZ\\/ZW). Although apparently in opposition, the two distinct types may in fact be interchangeable. For example, in amphibians it has been shown that the heterogametic sex was originally female and may have become male at some branching point in

I. Miura

2007-01-01

161

Homeoproteins Six1 and Six4 regulate male sex determination and mouse gonadal development.  

PubMed

The Y-linked gene Sry regulates mammalian sex determination in bipotential embryonic gonads. Here, we report that the transcription factors Six1 and Six4 are required for male gonadal differentiation. Loss of Six1 and Six4 together, but neither alone, resulted in a male-to-female sex-reversal phenotype in XY mutant gonads accompanied by a failure in Sry activation. Decreased gonadal precursor cell formation at the onset of Sry expression and a gonadal size reduction in both sexes were also found in mutant embryos. Forced Sry transgene expression in XY mutant gonads rescued testicular development but not the initial disruption to precursor growth. Furthermore, we identified two downstream targets of Six1/Six4 in gonadal development, Fog2 (Zfpm2) and Nr5a1 (Ad4BP/Sf1). These two distinct Six1/Six4-regulated pathways are considered to be crucial for gonadal development. The regulation of Fog2 induces Sry expression in male sex determination, and the regulation of Nr5a1 in gonadal precursor formation determines gonadal size. PMID:23987514

Fujimoto, Yuka; Tanaka, Satomi S; Yamaguchi, Yasuka L; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kuroki, Shunsuke; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinomura, Mai; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

2013-08-26

162

Neonatal MeCP2 is important for the organization of sex differences in vasopressin expression.  

PubMed

Several neurodevelopmental disorders are marked by atypical Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression or function; however, the role of MeCP2 is complex and not entirely clear. Interestingly, there are sex differences in some of these disorders, and it appears that MeCP2 has sex-specific roles during development. Specifically, recent data indicate that a transient reduction in MeCP2 within developing amygdala reduces juvenile social play behavior in males to female-typical levels. These data suggest that MeCP2 within the amygdala is involved in programming lasting sex differences in social behavior. In the present study, we infused MeCP2 or control siRNA into the amygdala of male and female rats during the first three days of postnatal life in order to assess the impact of a transient reduction in MeCP2 on arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neural marker that is expressed differentially between males and females and is linked to a number of social behaviors. The expression of AVP, as well as several other genes, was measured in two-week old and adult animals. Two-week old males expressed more AVP and galanin mRNA in the amygdala than females, and a transient reduction in MeCP2 eliminated this sex difference by reducing the expression of both gene products in males. A transient reduction in MeCP2 also decreased androgen receptor (AR) mRNA in two-week old males. In adulthood, control males had more AVP-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) cells than females in the centromedial amygdala (CMA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and in the fibers that project from these cells to the lateral septum (LS). A transient reduction in MeCP2 eliminated this sex difference. Interestingly, there were no lasting differences in galanin or AR levels in adulthood. Reducing MeCP2 levels during development did not alter estrogen receptor?, neurofilament or Foxg1. We conclude that a transient reduction in MeCP2 expression in the developing male amygdala has a transient impact on galanin and AR expression but a lasting impact on AVP expression, highlighting the importance of MeCP2 in organizing sex differences in the amygdala. PMID:22430799

Forbes-Lorman, Robin M; Rautio, Jared J; Kurian, Joseph R; Auger, Anthony P; Auger, Catherine J

2012-03-01

163

Osteoporosis and male age-related hypogonadism: role of sex steroids on bone (patho)physiology.  

PubMed

Male age-related bone loss is caused, at least in part, by hypogonadism that occurs with advancing age. The study of the effects of sex steroids on bone physiology in men has recently highlighted the central role of estrogens on bone pathophysiology. This review focuses on particular aspects of bone physiology and pathophysiology in aging men, noting both the similarities to and the differences from female counterparts. In particular, the role of sex steroids on bone sexual dimorphism in health and disease has been analyzed. PMID:16452530

Rochira, V; Balestrieri, A; Madeo, B; Zirilli, L; Granata, A R M; Carani, C

2006-02-01

164

Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours ( n = 4 in L. dimidiatus; n = 2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs ( n = 1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species.

Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

2011-12-01

165

Reversed sex change by widowed males in polygynous and protogynous fishes: female removal experiments in the field.  

PubMed

Sex change, either protogyny (female to male) or protandry (male to female), is well known among fishes, but evidence of bidirectional sex change or reversed sex change in natural populations is still very limited. This is the first report on female removal experiments for polygnous and protogynous fish species to induce reversed sex change in the widowed males in the field. We removed all of the females and juveniles from the territories of dominant males in the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) and the rusty angelfish Centropyge ferrugata (Pomacanthidae) on the coral reefs of Okinawa. In both species, if new females or juveniles did not immigrate into the territories of the widowed males, some of them emigrated to form male-male pairs. When a male-male pair formed, the smaller, subordinate partner began to perform female sexual behaviours (n?=?4 in L. dimidiatus; n?=?2 in C. ferrugata) and, finally, released eggs (n?=?1, respectively). Thus, the reversed sex change occurred in the widowed males according to the change of their social status. These results suggest that such female removal experiments will contribute to the discovery of reversed sex change in the field also in other polygnous and protogynous species. PMID:22051917

Kuwamura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Shohei; Kadota, Tatsuru

2011-12-01

166

Comparison of the physical demands of single-sex training for male and female recruits in the British Army.  

PubMed

This study compared the physical demands and progression of basic training for male and female British Army recruits in single-sex platoons. Thirty male and 30 female recruits were monitored for energy expenditure (EE) (doubly labeled water), physical activity (3-dimensional accelerometry) and cardiovascular strain (percent heart rate reserve) during 6 weeks over the 14-week course. First time pass rate was similar for male (60%) and female (57%) recruits. Average daily percent heart rate reserve (female 31 +/- 4%; male 32 +/- 5%), physical activity levels (female 2.2 +/- 0.2; male 2.3 +/- 0.2) and percentage improvements in 2.4-km run time (female 10 +/- 4%; male 10 +/- 5%) were similar for both sexes (p > 0.05), although male recruits had 12% higher physical activity counts (p < 0.01). Although the absolute physical demands of basic training were greater for male recruits, the relative cardiovascular strain experienced was similar between sexes. PMID:22730848

Richmond, Victoria L; Carter, James M; Wilkinson, David M; Homer, Fleur E; Rayson, Mark P; Wright, Antony; Bilzon, James L J

2012-06-01

167

Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011.

2014-01-01

168

A sex-determining region on the Y chromosome controls the sex-reversal ratio in interspecific hybrids between Oryzias curvinotus females and Oryzias latipes males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryzias latipes and Oryzias curvinotus are closely related medaka species that have the common sex-determining gene, DMY, on their homologous Y chromosomes. We previously reported that sex-reversed XY females were produced in hybrids between O. curvinotus females and O. latipes males (Hd-rR inbred strain). In this study we used HNI inbred strain males of O. latipes for mating with O.

M Kato; Y Takehana; M Sakaizumi; S Hamaguchi

2010-01-01

169

Sex, symptom, and premorbid social functioning associated with perceptual organization dysfunction in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Impairments in visual perceptual organization abilities are a repeatedly observed cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. These impairments have been found to be most prominent among patients with histories of poor premorbid social functioning, disorganized symptoms, and poor clinical outcomes. Despite the demonstration of significant sex differences for these clinical factors in schizophrenia, the extent of sex differences for visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which previously known correlates (premorbid social sexual functioning and disorganized symptoms) and a novel factor (participant sex) accounted for performance on two perceptual organization tasks (contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion) that have previously demonstrated sensitivity to schizophrenia. We also determined the relative degree to which each of these factors predicted task scores over and above the others. Schizophrenia patients (N = 109, 43 females) from different levels of care were ascertained. Female patients demonstrated higher contour integration scores, but lower performance on the context sensitivity index of the Ebbinghaus illusion, compared to males. Contour integration performance was significantly associated with poorer premorbid adolescent social sexual functioning and higher levels of disorganized symptoms, supporting past results that indicate a relationship among poor premorbid social sexual functioning, disorganized symptoms, and visual perceptual abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, analyses of Ebbinghaus illusion performance suggests there is a complex relationship among patient sex, clinical factors and perceptual abilities with relatively intact bottom–up grouping processes in females, but greater problems, compared to males with more top–down mediated context sensitivity. Therefore, sex differences may be an important consideration for future studies of visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia.

Joseph, Jamie; Bae, Grace; Silverstein, Steven M.

2013-01-01

170

Weed Killer Deforms Sex Organs in Frogs, Study Finds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site discusses current research findings surrounding the use of the weed killer, atrazine, and sex organ deformities in frogs exposed to it. The article from the New York Times summarizes the recent research report; free registration is required to view it. This site reports focus on the potential impact of atrazine on humans, but they do raise it as an important question.

Press., Associated

2002-01-01

171

Female-Released Sex Pheromones Mediating Courtship Behavior in Lysiphlebus testaceipes Males  

PubMed Central

Ethological aspects and chemical communication at close-range between the sexes of Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have been investigated through behavioral bioassays and chemical analysis. The attractiveness toward males of whole-body extracts of females and males in hexane and acetone was evaluated, adopting male fanning behavior as a key behavioral component. Also, the activity of polar and nonpolar fraction of female-body extract in hexane obtained using solid-phase extraction technique was investigated. In order to identify cuticular compounds, male and female whole-body extracts with hexane and acetone were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that males exhibit a behavior including 4 phases when exposed to virgin females: premount, mount, copulation, and post-copulation. A preliminary courtship of the male included wing fanning, an extension and vibration of the wings for 1 to 2 seconds. Also, some original aspects not described for other species were carried out. The average duration of the entire sequence of events was 138.80 ± 19.51 sec. Also, males displayed significantly more wing fanning behavior in response to female whole-body hexane extracts (70.83%) than female whole-body acetone extracts (33.3%). Furthermore, males did not respond to male-body extracts or to the control (pure hexane and acetone), suggesting that the sex pheromone is composed of cuticular hydrocarbons that are also involved in the male courtship behavior. When hexane extracts of whole females were fractionated on silica gel and exposed to males, more activity was recorded for the nonpolar fraction (50.0%) than the polar fraction (27.7%), but no significant statistical difference was found. Significant differences were detected comparing the control (not fractionated extract) with the polar fraction, but not with the nonpolar fraction. A homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths from C19 to C30 carbon atoms was identified and quantified in the solvent extracts of wasp males and females. Between male and female extracts, there was a statistically significant difference in the average quantity of some of these hydrocarbons, such as C27, C28, and C29.

Lo Pinto, Mirella; Cangelosi, Benedetta; Colazza, Stefano

2013-01-01

172

Patient-Reported Complications and Functional Outcomes of Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined preoperative preparations, complications, and physical and functional outcomes of male-to-female sex reassignment\\u000a surgery (SRS), based on reports by 232 patients, all of whom underwent penile-inversion vaginoplasty and sensate clitoroplasty,\\u000a performed by one surgeon using a consistent technique. Nearly all patients discontinued hormone therapy before SRS and most\\u000a reported that doing so created no difficulties. Preoperative electrolysis to

Anne A. Lawrence

2006-01-01

173

Birth order and sibling sex ratio in two samples of Dutch gender-dysphoric homosexual males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were undertaken to confirm the previous findings that homosexual men in general tend to have a later than expected\\u000a birth order and that extremely feminine homosexual men also tend to have a higher than expected proportion of brothers (i.e.\\u000a a highersibling sex ratio). Subjects in Study 1 were Dutch, adult and adolescent, biological male patients with gender dysphoria

Ray Blanchard; Kenneth J. Zucker; Petty T. Cohen-Kettenis; Louis J. G. Gooren; J. Michael Bailey

1996-01-01

174

Sexuality Before and After Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual behaviors and attitudes of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals have not been investigated systematically. This study presents information about sexuality before and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS), as reported by 232 MtF patients of one surgeon. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The mean age of participants at time of SRS was 44 years (range, 18–70 years). Before SRS, 54%

Anne A. Lawrence

2005-01-01

175

Gene organization of the liverwort Y chromosome reveals distinct sex chromosome evolution in a haploid system  

PubMed Central

Y chromosomes are different from other chromosomes because of a lack of recombination. Until now, complete sequence information of Y chromosomes has been available only for some primates, although considerable information is available for other organisms, e.g., several species of Drosophila. Here, we report the gene organization of the Y chromosome in the dioecious liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and provide a detailed view of a Y chromosome in a haploid organism. On the 10-Mb Y chromosome, 64 genes are identified, 14 of which are detected only in the male genome and are expressed in reproductive organs but not in vegetative thalli, suggesting their participation in male reproductive functions. Another 40 genes on the Y chromosome are expressed in thalli and male sexual organs. At least six of these genes have diverged X-linked counterparts that are in turn expressed in thalli and sexual organs in female plants, suggesting that these X- and Y-linked genes have essential cellular functions. These findings indicate that the Y and X chromosomes share the same ancestral autosome and support the prediction that in a haploid organism essential genes on sex chromosomes are more likely to persist than in a diploid organism.

Yamato, Katsuyuki T.; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Fujisawa, Masaki; Okada, Sachiko; Nakayama, Shigeki; Fujishita, Mariko; Bando, Hiroki; Yodoya, Kohei; Hayashi, Kiwako; Bando, Tomoyuki; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishio, Tomohisa; Sakata, Ryoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yamaki, Arata; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yamano, Takashi; Nishide, Taku; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Shimizu-Ueda, Yuu; Hanajiri, Tsutomu; Sakaida, Megumi; Kono, Kaoru; Takenaka, Mizuki; Yamaoka, Shohei; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Kohzu, Yoshito; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Brennicke, Axel; Shin-i, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Kohchi, Takayuki; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Ohyama, Kanji

2007-01-01

176

Sex Education for Male Adolescent Sex Offenders in a Group Setting Led by General Psychiatry Residents: A Literature Review and Example in Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male adolescents have been credited with a significant percentage of sex crimes in recent years. They are a heterogeneous population with offenses spanning the same range found among adult offenders. A lack of interpersonal social skills relevant to intimate relationships and inaccurate knowledge regarding appropriate sexual behaviors contribute to the sexual offending by some adolescent males. To address these shortcomings,

R. Gregg Dwyer; Mary S. Boyd

2009-01-01

177

Dmrt1 mutation causes a male-to-female sex reversal after the sex determination by Dmy in the medaka.  

PubMed

DMRT1, which is found in many vertebrates, exhibits testis-specific expression during the sexual differentiation period, suggesting a conserved function of DMRT1 in the testicular development of vertebrate gonads. However, functional analyses have been reported only in mammals. The current study focused on the Dmrt1 function in the teleost medaka, Oryzias latipes, which has an XX-XY sex determination system. Although medaka sex is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome-specific gene Dmy, we demonstrated that in one Dmrt1 mutant line, which was found by screening a gene-driven mutagenesis library, XY mutants developed into normal females and laid eggs. Histological analyses of this mutant revealed that the XY mutant gonads first developed into the normal testis type. However, the gonads transdifferentiated into the ovary type. The mutant phenotype could be rescued by transgenesis of the Dmrt1 genomic region. These results show that Dmrt1 is essential to maintain testis differentiation after Dmy-triggered male differentiation pathway. PMID:22187367

Masuyama, Haruo; Yamada, Masato; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara-Ishikawa, Tomoko; Todo, Takeshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Matsuda, Masaru

2012-01-01

178

The costs of risky male behaviour: sex differences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate  

PubMed Central

Male excess mortality is widespread among mammals and frequently interpreted as a cost of sexually selected traits that enhance male reproductive success. Sex differences in the propensity to engage in risky behaviours are often invoked to explain the sex gap in survival. Here, we aim to isolate and quantify the survival consequences of two potentially risky male behavioural strategies in a small sexually monomorphic primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus: (i) most females hibernate during a large part of the austral winter, whereas most males remain active and (ii) during the brief annual mating season males roam widely in search of receptive females. Using a 10-year capture–mark–recapture dataset from a population of M. murinus in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, we statistically modelled sex-specific seasonal survival probabilities. Surprisingly, we did not find any evidence for direct survival benefits of hibernation—winter survival did not differ between males and females. By contrast, during the breeding season males survived less well than females (sex gap: 16%). Consistent with the ‘risky male behaviour’ hypothesis, the period for lowered male survival was restricted to the short mating season. Thus, sex differences in survival in a promiscuous mammal can be substantial even in the absence of sexual dimorphism.

Kraus, Cornelia; Eberle, Manfred; Kappeler, Peter M

2008-01-01

179

No evidence for increased extinction proneness with decreasing effective population size in a parasitoid with complementary sex determination and fertile diploid males  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In species with single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), the sex of individuals depends on their genotype at one single locus with multiple alleles. Haploid individuals are always males. Diploid individuals are females when heterozygous, but males when homozygous at the sex-determining locus. Diploid males are typically unviable or effectively sterile, hence imposing a genetic load on populations. Diploid

Jan Elias; Silvia Dorn; Dominique Mazzi

2010-01-01

180

High-resolution sex-specific linkage maps of the mouse reveal polarized distribution of crossovers in male germline.  

PubMed

Since the publication of the first comprehensive linkage map for the laboratory mouse, the architecture of recombination as a basic biological process has become amenable to investigation in mammalian model organisms. Here we take advantage of high-density genotyping and the unique pedigree structure of the incipient Collaborative Cross to investigate the roles of sex and genetic background in mammalian recombination. Our results confirm the observation that map length is longer when measured through female meiosis than through male meiosis, but we find that this difference is modified by genotype at loci on both the X chromosome and the autosomes. In addition, we report a striking concentration of crossovers in the distal ends of autosomes in male meiosis that is absent in female meiosis. The presence of this pattern in both single- and double-recombinant chromosomes, combined with the absence of a corresponding asymmetry in the distribution of double-strand breaks, indicates a regulated sequence of events specific to male meiosis that is anchored by chromosome ends. This pattern is consistent with the timing of chromosome pairing and evolutionary constraints on male recombination. Finally, we identify large regions of reduced crossover frequency that together encompass 5% of the genome. Many of these "cold regions" are enriched for segmental duplications, suggesting an inverse local correlation between recombination rate and mutation rate for large copy number variants. PMID:24578350

Liu, Eric Yi; Morgan, Andrew P; Chesler, Elissa J; Wang, Wei; Churchill, Gary A; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

2014-05-01

181

High-Resolution Sex-Specific Linkage Maps of the Mouse Reveal Polarized Distribution of Crossovers in Male Germline  

PubMed Central

Since the publication of the first comprehensive linkage map for the laboratory mouse, the architecture of recombination as a basic biological process has become amenable to investigation in mammalian model organisms. Here we take advantage of high-density genotyping and the unique pedigree structure of the incipient Collaborative Cross to investigate the roles of sex and genetic background in mammalian recombination. Our results confirm the observation that map length is longer when measured through female meiosis than through male meiosis, but we find that this difference is modified by genotype at loci on both the X chromosome and the autosomes. In addition, we report a striking concentration of crossovers in the distal ends of autosomes in male meiosis that is absent in female meiosis. The presence of this pattern in both single- and double-recombinant chromosomes, combined with the absence of a corresponding asymmetry in the distribution of double-strand breaks, indicates a regulated sequence of events specific to male meiosis that is anchored by chromosome ends. This pattern is consistent with the timing of chromosome pairing and evolutionary constraints on male recombination. Finally, we identify large regions of reduced crossover frequency that together encompass 5% of the genome. Many of these “cold regions” are enriched for segmental duplications, suggesting an inverse local correlation between recombination rate and mutation rate for large copy number variants.

Liu, Eric Yi; Morgan, Andrew P.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Wang, Wei; Churchill, Gary A.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando

2014-01-01

182

Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5?-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17?-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ER? (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ER? protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ER?, AR, and 5?-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

2008-01-01

183

Evidence that meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is essential for male fertility.  

PubMed

The mammalian X and Y chromosomes share little homology and are largely unsynapsed during normal meiosis. This asynapsis triggers inactivation of X- and Y-linked genes, or meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Whether MSCI is essential for male meiosis is unclear. Pachytene arrest and apoptosis is observed in mouse mutants in which MSCI fails, e.g., Brca1(-/-), H2afx(-/-), Sycp1(-/-), and Msh5(-/-). However, these also harbor defects in synapsis and/or recombination and as such may activate a putative pachytene checkpoint. Here we present evidence that MSCI failure is sufficient to cause pachytene arrest. XYY males exhibit Y-Y synapsis and Y chromosomal escape from MSCI without accompanying synapsis/recombination defects. We find that XYY males, like synapsis/recombination mutants, display pachytene arrest and that this can be circumvented by preventing Y-Y synapsis and associated Y gene expression. Pachytene expression of individual Y genes inserted as transgenes on autosomes shows that expression of the Zfy 1/2 paralogs in XY males is sufficient to phenocopy the pachytene arrest phenotype; insertion of Zfy 1/2 on the X chromosome where they are subject to MSCI prevents this response. Our findings show that MSCI is essential for male meiosis and, as such, provide insight into the differential severity of meiotic mutations' effects on male and female meiosis. PMID:21093264

Royo, Hélène; Polikiewicz, Grzegorz; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Prosser, Haydn; Mitchell, Mike; Bradley, Allan; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Turner, James M A

2010-12-01

184

Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.  

PubMed

The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

2012-11-01

185

Insights into the Preservation of the Homomorphic Sex-Determining Chromosome of Aedes aegypti from the Discovery of a Male-Biased Gene Tightly Linked to the M-Locus  

PubMed Central

The preservation of a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome in some organisms without transformation into a heteromorphic sex chromosome is a long-standing enigma in evolutionary biology. A dominant sex-determining locus (or M-locus) in an undifferentiated homomorphic chromosome confers the male phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Genetic evidence suggests that the M-locus is in a nonrecombining region. However, the molecular nature of the M-locus has not been characterized. Using a recently developed approach based on Illumina sequencing of male and female genomic DNA, we identified a novel gene, myo-sex, that is present almost exclusively in the male genome but can sporadically be found in the female genome due to recombination. For simplicity, we define sequences that are primarily found in the male genome as male-biased. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on A. aegypti chromosomes demonstrated that the myo-sex probe localized to region 1q21, the established location of the M-locus. Myo-sex is a duplicated myosin heavy chain gene that is highly expressed in the pupa and adult male. Myo-sex shares 83% nucleotide identity and 97% amino acid identity with its closest autosomal paralog, consistent with ancient duplication followed by strong purifying selection. Compared with males, myo-sex is expressed at very low levels in the females that acquired it, indicating that myo-sex may be sexually antagonistic. This study establishes a framework to discover male-biased sequences within a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome and offers new insights into the evolutionary forces that have impeded the expansion of the nonrecombining M-locus in A. aegypti.

Hall, Andrew Brantley; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Basu, Sanjay; Anderson, Michelle A.E.; Hu, Wanqi; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian

2014-01-01

186

Insights into the preservation of the homomorphic sex-determining chromosome of Aedes aegypti from the discovery of a male-biased gene tightly linked to the M-locus.  

PubMed

The preservation of a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome in some organisms without transformation into a heteromorphic sex chromosome is a long-standing enigma in evolutionary biology. A dominant sex-determining locus (or M-locus) in an undifferentiated homomorphic chromosome confers the male phenotype in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Genetic evidence suggests that the M-locus is in a nonrecombining region. However, the molecular nature of the M-locus has not been characterized. Using a recently developed approach based on Illumina sequencing of male and female genomic DNA, we identified a novel gene, myo-sex, that is present almost exclusively in the male genome but can sporadically be found in the female genome due to recombination. For simplicity, we define sequences that are primarily found in the male genome as male-biased. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on A. aegypti chromosomes demonstrated that the myo-sex probe localized to region 1q21, the established location of the M-locus. Myo-sex is a duplicated myosin heavy chain gene that is highly expressed in the pupa and adult male. Myo-sex shares 83% nucleotide identity and 97% amino acid identity with its closest autosomal paralog, consistent with ancient duplication followed by strong purifying selection. Compared with males, myo-sex is expressed at very low levels in the females that acquired it, indicating that myo-sex may be sexually antagonistic. This study establishes a framework to discover male-biased sequences within a homomorphic sex-determining chromosome and offers new insights into the evolutionary forces that have impeded the expansion of the nonrecombining M-locus in A. aegypti. PMID:24398378

Hall, Andrew Brantley; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Sharakhova, Maria V; Jiang, Xiaofang; Basu, Sanjay; Anderson, Michelle A E; Hu, Wanqi; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian

2014-01-01

187

Sex differences in recovery from PTSD in male and female interpersonal assault survivors.  

PubMed

Men and women differ in exposure to trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, research regarding sex differences in recovery from PTSD has been sparse. This study evaluated the treatment response trajectory for 69 male and female interpersonal assault survivors, using a modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) protocol that allowed survivors to receive up to18 sessions of CPT, with treatment end determined by therapy progress. Few sex differences were observed in trauma history, baseline PTSD and depressive severity, Axis I comorbidity, anger, guilt and dissociation. Women did report more sexual assault in adulthood and elevated baseline guilt cognitions, whereas men reported more baseline anger directed inward. Attrition and total number of sessions did not differ by sex. Over the course of treatment and follow-up, men and women demonstrated similar rates of change in PTSD and depressive symptoms. However, medium effect sizes on both of these primary outcomes at the 3-month follow-up assessment favored women. Several differences in the slope of change emerged on secondary outcomes such that women evidenced more rapid gains on global guilt, guilt cognitions, anger/irritability, and dissociation. Results suggest that male survivors may warrant additional attention to address these important clinical correlates. PMID:23510841

Galovski, Tara E; Blain, Leah M; Chappuis, Courtney; Fletcher, Thomas

2013-06-01

188

Sex differences in recovery from PTSD in male and female interpersonal assault survivors  

PubMed Central

Men and women differ in exposure to trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, research regarding sex differences in recovery from PTSD has been sparse. This study evaluated the treatment response trajectory for 69 male and female interpersonal assault survivors, using a modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) protocol that allowed survivors to receive up to18 sessions of CPT, with treatment end determined by therapy progress. Few sex differences were observed in trauma history, baseline PTSD and depressive severity, Axis I comorbidity, anger, guilt and dissociation. Women did report more sexual assault in adulthood and elevated baseline guilt cognitions, whereas men reported more baseline anger directed inward. Attrition and total number of sessions did not differ by sex. Over the course of treatment and follow-up, men and women demonstrated similar rates of change in PTSD and depressive symptoms. However, medium effect sizes on both of these primary outcomes at the 3-month follow-up assessment favored women. Several differences in the slope of change emerged on secondary outcomes such that women evidenced more rapid gains on global guilt, guilt cognitions, anger/irritability, and dissociation. Results suggest that male survivors may warrant additional attention to address these important clinical correlates.

Galovski, Tara E.; Blain, Leah M.; Chappuis, Courtney; Fletcher, Thomas

2013-01-01

189

Homophobia, Heteronormativism and Hegemonic Masculinity: Male Same-Sex Intimate Violence from the Perspective of Brisbane Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have explored the problem of male same-sex intimate partner violence, especially in the context of Australia. Utilizing in-depth interviews with gay-friendly service providers in Brisbane, the research presented in this article sought to ascertain whether (a) intimate partner violence occurs in male same-sex intimate relationships, (b) if so, what form this violence takes, (c) what contextual triggers underpin

Melissa Kay; Samantha Jeffries

2010-01-01

190

Tardy females, impatient males: protandry and divergent selection on arrival date in the two sexes of the barn swallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protandry reflects the earlier arrival of males than females to the site of reproduction. Such protandry is hypothesised to\\u000a arise from sex differences in costs and benefits of early arrival. I investigated temporal patterns of arrival date of male\\u000a and female barn swallows Hirundo rustica and temporal patterns of selection to test the hypothesis that sex differences in selection account

Anders Pape Møller

2007-01-01

191

Effects of sex steroids on aromatase mRNA expression in the male and female quail brain  

PubMed Central

Castrated male quail display intense male-typical copulatory behavior in response to exogenous testosterone but ovariectomized females do not. The behavior of males is largely mediated by the central aromatization of testosterone into estradiol. The lack of behavioral response in females could result from a lower rate of aromatization. This is probably not the case because although the enzymatic sex difference is clearly present in gonadally intact sexually mature birds, it is not reliably found in gonadectomized birds treated with testosterone, in which the behavioral sex difference is always observed. We previously discovered that the higher aromatase activity in sexually mature males as compared to females is not associated with major differences in aromatase mRNA density. A reverse sex difference (females > males) was even detected in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. We analyzed here by in situ hybridization histochemistry the density of aromatase mRNA in gonadectomized male and female quail that were or were not exposed to a steroid profile typical of their sex. Testosterone and ovarian steroids (presumably estradiol) increased aromatase mRNA concentration in males and females respectively but mRNA density was similar in both sexes. A reverse sex difference in aromatase mRNA density (females >males) was detected in the bed nucleus of subjects exposed to sex steroids. Together these data suggest that although the induction of aromatase activity by testosterone corresponds to an increased transcription of the enzyme, the sex difference in enzymatic activity results largely from post-transcriptional controls that remain to be identified.

Voigt, Cornelia; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

2010-01-01

192

Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan  

PubMed Central

Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphism in lifespan could result from sex-specific selection, caused by fundamental differences in how males and females optimize their fitness by allocating resources into current and future reproduction. Results Here we used sex-specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live longer than outbred males, while females show the opposite pattern. Both sexes suffered reduced fitness measured as lifetime reproductive success as a result of inbreeding. Conclusion No model based on asymmetrical inheritance can explain increased male lifespan in response to inbreeding. Our results are however compatible with models based on sex-specific selection on reproductive strategies. We therefore suggest that sex-specific differences in lifespan in this species primarily result from sexually divergent selection.

Bilde, Trine; Maklakov, Alexei A; Meisner, Katrine; la Guardia, Lucia; Friberg, Urban

2009-01-01

193

Incremental Validity of the Static99 and the Personality Assessment Inventory for Predicting Sexual Recidivism Among Adult Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Static-99 is an established risk assessment instrument designed for use with adult male sex offenders. This instrument demonstrates significant utility, but because of the importance of making accurate decisions regarding the dangerousness of sex offenders, improving the accuracy of the instrument is critical. The current study examined whether the addition of data from the Antisocial Features and Aggression scales

Christopher Scott Brown

2008-01-01

194

Where have all the females gone? Male biased sex-ratio in Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) in alpine lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In populations with both males and females sex-ratio is one of the driving forces of population dynamics. It influences fecundity, inbreeding and social interactions. Sex-ratio is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors, either by selective killing of one sex or by inducing migrations. In alpine lakes of Triglav National Park, Slovenia, an extremely male biased sex-ratio in Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) was regularly observed since 1992. We analysed population dynamics and sex-ratio of A. alpinus in three alpine lakes (Jezero v Ledvicah, Rjavo jezero and Zgornje Kriško jezero) from Triglav National Park in Slovenia. In addition to seasonal dynamics we also researched long-term changes in sex-ratio (in a period of 11 years from autumn samples) as a result of increased air-temperature, and zooplankton diurnal vertical migrations. Adults of both sexes were found to appear at the same time in the water collumn with males prevailing throughout the season. A similar trend was found in copepodites CV. The percent of adult females began increasing in late summer, when there were no more copepodites and recrutation from copepodites CV to adults stopped, while male mortality increased. All cohorts of A. alpinus were found to perform diurnal vertical migrations. Both adult and CV females remained close to the bottom during the day and migrated vertically during the night. Results of the long-term study show no changes in sex-ratio in autumn.

Žibrat, U.; Brancelj, A.

2009-04-01

195

Induction of Female-to-Male Sex Change in Adult Zebrafish by Aromatase Inhibitor Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated whether undifferentiated germ and/or somatic stem cells remain in the differentiated ovary of a species that does not undergo sex changes under natural conditions and retain their sexual plasticity. The effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-treatment on sexually mature female zebrafish was examined. A 5-month AI treatment caused retraction of the ovaries after which testes-like organs appeared, and cyst structures filled with spermatozoa-like cells were observed in sections of these tissues. Electron microscopic observations revealed that these cells appeared as large sperm heads without tails. Sperm formation was re-examined after changing the diet to an AI-free food. A large number of normal sperm were obtained after eight weeks, and no formation of ovarian tissue was observed. Artificial fertilization using sperm from the sex-changed females was successful. These results demonstrated that sex plasticity remains in the mature ovaries of this species.

Takatsu, Kanae; Miyaoku, Kaori; Roy, Shimi Rani; Murono, Yuki; Sago, Tomohiro; Itagaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

2013-12-01

196

Serostatus differences and agreements about sex with outside partners among gay male couples.  

PubMed

This article describes agreements gay male couples make about sex outside the relationship and how the process of making those agreements, and their perceived quality, varies depending on couple serostatus. Data include 191 couples recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area from June to December 2004. Monogamous agreements were reported by 56% of participants in concordant-negative, 47% in concordant-positive, and 36% in discordant relationships. The remaining participants reported agreements allowing sex with outside partners in some form. Agreement quality was lowest among men in discordant relationships. Overall, few (30%) reported breaking their agreements; only half of whom reported disclosing those breaks to their partners. Although differences in agreement type, quality, and satisfaction were found among the three couple serostatus groups, rates of breaks and their disclosure did not vary significantly by group. Future HIV prevention efforts aimed at couples must integrate both couple serostatus and relationship-based issues. PMID:19243229

Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Beougher, Sean C; Darbes, Lynae A; Dadasovich, Rand; Neilands, Torsten B

2009-02-01

197

Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess whether individual clinic?based counselling as a supplement to peer education for male and female condom promotion leads to greater use of protection and lower STI prevalence among sex workers in Madagascar already exposed to intensive male condom promotion. Methods In two public dispensaries in Madagascar, a total of 901 sex workers were randomly allocated between two alternative male and female condom promotion interventions: peer education only, or peer education supplemented with individual clinic?based counselling. Participants were followed for 12?months. Every 2?months they made clinic visits, where they were interviewed on condom use. Peer educators counselled all participants on condom use as they accompanied their assigned participants to study visits. Participants assigned to receive the supplemental intervention were counselled by a trained clinician following study interviews. Participants were tested and treated for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis every 6?months. We used logistic regression to assess whether the more intensive intervention was associated with reduced STI prevalence. Use of protection with clients and non?paying partners was assessed by study arm, site, and visit. Results There was no statistically significant association between study arm and aggregated STI prevalence. No substantial differences in levels of reported protection were noted between study groups. Conclusions This study found little evidence for gains from more thorough clinical counselling on male and female condom use. These findings suggest that less clinically intensive interventions such as peer education could be suitable for male and female condom promotion in populations already exposed to barrier method promotion.

Hoke, Theresa H; Feldblum, Paul J; Van Damme, Kathleen; Nasution, Marlina D; Grey, Thomas W; Wong, Emelita L; Ralimamonjy, Louisette; Raharimalala, Leonardine; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry

2007-01-01

198

Relationship Characteristics and HIV Transmission Risk in Same-sex Male Couples in HIV Serodiscordant Relationships  

PubMed Central

Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care.

Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.

2014-01-01

199

Polymorphisms in the maternal sex steroid pathway are associated with behavior problems in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Objective Slight perturbations in maternal sex steroid production and metabolism may interfere with normal fetal neurodevelopment. The balance of maternal estrogens and androgens may have direct fetal effects, may influence the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or may alter local hormonal activity within the fetal brain. We investigated maternal functional polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP19 and CYP1B1, which control three major enzymatic steps in sex steroid biosynthesis and metabolism, in relation to childhood behaviors. Methods The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic urban pregnancy cohort from 1998–2002 (n = 404). DNA was obtained from maternal blood (n=149) and from neonatal cord blood (n=53). At each visit, mothers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), a parent-reported questionnaire used to evaluate children for behavior problems. We focused on problem behaviors more commonly associated with ADHD (hyperactivity, attention problems, externalizing behaviors, conduct disorder, poor adaptability) to see if maternal genetic variants in sex steroid production and metabolism influence sexually-dimorphic behaviors in offspring. Results The more active gene variants were significantly associated with Attention Problems and poorer Adaptive Skills in male compared to female offspring. The CYP19 variant allele was also significantly associated with worse scores for boys on the Hyperactivity, Externalizing Problems Composite and Adaptive Skills Composite scales (p < 0.05). Conclusion We observed maladaptive behaviors in the male offspring of mothers who carried functional polymorphisms in the sex steroid pathway. The strongest associations were in domains commonly affected in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

Miodovnik, Amir; Diplas, Andreas I.; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Engel, Stephanie M.; Wolff, Mary S.

2012-01-01

200

Epitope selection to male specific antigens for sex selection in swine.  

PubMed

Immunological approaches to gender selection have been contemplated since the discovery of the family of male-specific H-Y antigens found only on the surface of male cells. H-Y antigens are able to elicit an immune reaction when cells or tissues from a male donor are grafted to a female recipient. We describe here the development and testing of an inexpensive approach using polyclonal antibodies against four specific H-Y outer membrane proteins male enhanced antigen 1 (MEA 1), male enhanced antigen 2 (MEA 2), sex determining region Y (SRY) and testis determining factor (TDF). Epitopes based on hydrophilic primary sequences of the proteins were synthesized, N-terminal biotin-labeled, linked to streptavidin and mixed with a Ribi adjuvant prior to immunization in rabbits. The antiserum was tested to determine affinity to swine spermatozoa using anti-motility, flow cytometry and motility and sedimentation chambers. Fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the percentage of motile spermatozoa that contained the Y chromosome. We found that the polyclonal antibodies had high affinity to the spermatozoa leading to a cessation of motility. Furthermore, the majority of these non-motile spermatozoa contained the Y chromosome. We conclude that the use of polyclonal antiserum against synthetic H-Y peptide antigens may be an inexpensive and simple means to inhibit the motility of swine spermatozoa bearing the Y chromosome. PMID:21397337

Mohammadi, Azarm Akhavien; Tetro, Jason A; Filion, Lionel G

2011-04-01

201

Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

2005-01-01

202

Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence

K Konda; E R Segura; R Lyerla; Carlos F Caceres

2010-01-01

203

Deregulated Sex Chromosome Gene Expression with Male Germ Cell-Specific Loss of Dicer1  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decay. DICER1, an RNase III endonuclease encoded by Dicer1, is required for processing short 21–22 nucleotide miRNAs from longer double-stranded RNA precursors. Here, we investigate the loss of Dicer1 in mouse postnatal male germ cells to determine how disruptions in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may contribute to infertility. Reduced levels of Dicer1 transcripts and DICER1 were confirmed in germ cell knock-out (GCKO) testes by postnatal day 18 (P18). Compared to wild-type (WT) at 8 weeks, GCKO males had no change in body weight; yet showed significant reductions in testis mass and sperm number. Histology and fertility tests confirmed spermatogenic failure in GCKO males. Array analyses at P18 showed that in comparison to WT testes, 75% of miRNA genes and 37% of protein coding genes were differentially expressed in GCKO testes. Among these, 96% of miRNA genes were significantly down-regulated, while 4% miRNA genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, we observed preferential overexpression of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes in GCKO testes, including more than 80% of previously identified targets of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Compared to WT, GCKO mice showed higher percentages of germ cells at early meiotic stages (leptotene and zygotene) but lower percentages at later stages (pachytene, diplotene and metaphase I) providing evidence that deletion of Dicer1 leads to disruptions in meiotic progression. Therefore, deleting Dicer1 in early postnatal germ cells resulted in deregulation of transcripts encoded by genes on the sex chromosomes, impaired meiotic progression and led to spermatogenic failure and infertility.

Snyder, Elizabeth; Buaas, F. William; Gu, Tongjun; Stearns, Timothy M.; Sharma, Manju; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Puente, Gabriella C.; Braun, Robert E.

2012-01-01

204

Structure, stereochemistry, and thermal isomerization of the male sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus.  

PubMed Central

Male-released sex pheromone constituents of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are identified by GC-MS and GC-Fourier transform infrared as a 7:1 molar mixture of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and 3-hydroxy-2-octanone. These two compounds undergo thermal isomerization during GC analyses to give the corresponding 2-hydroxy-3-alkanones. Comparison of GC retention times of the natural products with those of synthesized enantiomerically pure compounds revealed that both semiochemicals have (R)-stereochemistry. These absolute configurations were confirmed by comparisons of the (R)-methoxy(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetic acid esters of insect-derived and synthetic samples.

Leal, W S; Shi, X; Nakamuta, K; Ono, M; Meinwald, J

1995-01-01

205

Structure, stereochemistry, and thermal isomerization of the male sex pheromone of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus.  

PubMed

Male-released sex pheromone constituents of the longhorn beetle Anaglyptus subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are identified by GC-MS and GC-Fourier transform infrared as a 7:1 molar mixture of 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and 3-hydroxy-2-octanone. These two compounds undergo thermal isomerization during GC analyses to give the corresponding 2-hydroxy-3-alkanones. Comparison of GC retention times of the natural products with those of synthesized enantiomerically pure compounds revealed that both semiochemicals have (R)-stereochemistry. These absolute configurations were confirmed by comparisons of the (R)-methoxy(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetic acid esters of insect-derived and synthetic samples. PMID:7862629

Leal, W S; Shi, X; Nakamuta, K; Ono, M; Meinwald, J

1995-02-14

206

Sex chromosomes and brain gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds and mammals, differences in development between the sexes arise from the differential actions of genes that are encoded on the sex chromosomes. These genes are differentially represented in the cells of males and females, and have been selected for sex-specific roles. The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ and is also shaped by sex-specific selection pressures. Genes on

Arthur P. Arnold

2004-01-01

207

Attraction ofCacoecimorpha pronubana male moths to synthetic sex pheromone blends in the wind tunnel.  

PubMed

Attraction ofCacoecimorpha pronubana male moths to blends of four sex pheromone components was studied in the wind tunnel.Z11-14?Ac alone did not elicit upwind flight, admixture of 10%Z11-14?OH or more led to successful attraction of males to the source. Attractivity of these binary blends was further enhanced by addition ofE11-14?Ac orZ9-14?Ac; the optimum was a blend ofZ11-14?Ac,Z11-14?OH,E11-14?Ac, andZ9-14?Ac at the proportion of 100?30?3?3. In ternary and quaternary blends, the effect ofZ11-14?OH andE11-14?Ac was strongest at 30% and 3%, respectively. By contrast,Z9-14?Ac increased behavioral responses over a wide range. PMID:24263822

Witzgall, P

1990-05-01

208

Sex and Condom Use in a Large Jail Unit for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Male-to-Female Transgenders  

PubMed Central

Few data are available on factors contributing to sexual activity and condom use in custody settings, particularly among self-identified sexual minority prisoners. To address this gap, we undertook a study of sexual behavior and condom use of 101 randomly-selected men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender inmates in a segregated Los Angeles jail unit that has weekly condom access. Most survey participants (53%) reported anal sex during custody. Although 65% of these reported using condoms, 75% also reported having sex without condoms. Qualitative interviews (n=17) indicate a wide range of reasons for participating in protected and unprotected sex during custody, the use of cues within the custody environment to assess potential partners’ HIV status, and support for increased condom availability. Findings also indicate that high-risk sex occurs frequently in this unit and that condom distribution likely prevents a substantial amount of related HIV/STD risk.

Harawa, Nina T.; Sweat, Jeffery; George, Sheba; Sylla, Mary

2013-01-01

209

Why do some social insect queens mate with several males? Testing the sex-ratio manipulation hypothesis in Lasius niger.  

PubMed

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers, selecting for workers to invest more in males. In populations with female-biased sex ratios, queens heading such male-producing colonies would achieve a higher fitness. We tested this hypothesis in a Swiss and a Swedish population of the ant Lasius niger. There was substantial and consistent variation in queen mating frequency and colony sex allocation within and among populations, but no evidence that workers regulated sex allocation in response to queen mating frequency; the investment in females did not differ among paternity classes. Moreover, population-mean sex ratios were consistently less female biased than expected under worker control and were close to the queen optimum. Queens therefore had no incentive to manipulate sex ratios because their fitness did not depend on the sex ratio of their colony. Thus, we found no evidence that the sex-ratio manipulation theory can explain the evolution and maintenance of multiple mating in L. niger. PMID:11989685

Fjerdingstad, Else J; Gertsch, Pia J; Keller, Laurent

2002-03-01

210

Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-05-01

211

The Syndemic Condition of Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Male Sex Workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ?2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ?4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions. PMID:24081899

Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

2014-07-01

212

Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

2001-01-01

213

Adaptive production of fighter males: queens of the ant Cardiocondyla adjust the sex ratio under local mate competition.  

PubMed Central

Hamilton's concept of local mate competition (LMC) is the standard model to explain female-biased sex ratios in solitary Hymenoptera. In social Hymenoptera, however, LMC has remained controversial, mainly because manipulation of sex allocation by workers in response to relatedness asymmetries is an additional powerful mechanism of female bias. Furthermore, the predominant mating systems in the social insects are thought to make LMC unlikely. Nevertheless, several species exist in which dispersal of males is limited and mating occurs in the nest. Some of these species, such as the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, have evolved dimorphic males, with one morph being specialized for dispersal and the other for fighting with nest-mate males over access to females. Such life history, combining sociality and alternative reproductive tactics in males, provides a unique opportunity to test the power of LMC as a selective force leading to female-biased sex ratios in social Hymenoptera. We show that, in concordance with LMC predictions, an experimental increase in queen number leads to a shift in sex allocation in favour of non-dispersing males, but does not influence the proportion of disperser males. Furthermore, we can assign this change in sex allocation at the colony level to the queens and rule out worker manipulation.

Cremer, Sylvia; Heinze, Jurgen

2002-01-01

214

Differential effects of cross-sex hormonal treatment on plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in healthy male-to-female and female-to-male transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSex hormone administration affects plasma levels of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). We investigated the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) on plasma ADMA concentration in an open-label study in 40 male-to-female (M–F) and 14 female-to-male (F–M) transsexuals.Methods: M–F received (1) cyproterone acetate (CA) 50mg bid (n=10), (2) CA 50mg bid+ethinyl estradiol (EE) 50?g bid (n=15),

Mathijs C. Bunck; Erik J. Giltay; Michaela Diamant; Louis J. Gooren; Tom Teerlink

2009-01-01

215

HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male clients of female sex workers in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV among male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit 315 clients using FSW-client and client-client networks. Subjects provided information on socio-demographic characteristics and sexual and drug behavior patterns. Blood samples were collected for HIV testing and urine samples for opiate testing. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 6.0%; among drug users it was 30.8%. 33.7% of respondents reported that they always use condoms in commercial sex and 63.5% that they used a condom in the last commercial sex episode. Drug use (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.7–21.4) and lack of a regular sexual partner (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 1.8–21.9) were significantly associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Clients of FSWs serve as potential bridges for HIV transmission from the high-risk FSWs to the low-risk general population, making them a key target for intervention. High HIV prevalence rates among clients in Kaiyuan is particularly alarming given their risk behavior patterns including high rates of partner exchange, low condom use rates, and drug using behaviors. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce the risk of HIV among clients and reduce the bridge of transmission to the general population.

Jin, Xia; Smith, Kumi; Chen, Ray Y.; Ding, Guowei; Yao, Yan; Wang, Haibo; Qian, Han-Zhu; Chang, Dongfang; Wang, Guixiang; Wang, Ning

2009-01-01

216

Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted in Sterile Hybrid Male House Mice  

PubMed Central

In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Nachman, Michael W.

2013-01-01

217

Nucleus Paragigantocellularis Afferents in Male and Female Rats: Organization, Gonadal Steroid Sensitivity, and Activation During Sexual Behavior  

PubMed Central

The central regulation of genital reflexes is poorly understood. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) of rats is a well-established source of tonic inhibition of genital reflexes. However the organization, gonadal steroid sensitivity, and activity of nPGi afferents during sex have not been fully characterized in male and female rats. To delineate the anatomical and physiological organization of nPGi afferents, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the nPGi of sexually experienced male and female rats. Animals engaged in sexual behavior one hour before sacrifice. Cells containing FG, estrogen receptor alpha (ER?), androgen receptor (AR), and the immediate-early gene product Fos were identified immunocytochemically. Retrograde labeling from the nPGi was prominent in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, posterior hypothalamus, precommissural nucleus, deep mesencephalic nucleus, and periaqueductal gray (PAG) of both sexes. Sex differences were observed in the caudal medial preoptic area (MPO), with significantly more FG+ cells observed in males and in the PAG and inferior colliculus where significantly more FG+ cells were observed in females. The majority of regions that contained FG+ cells also contained ER? or AR, indicating sensitivity to gonadal steroids. The proportions of FG+ cells that co-localized with sex-induced Fos was high in the PVN of both sexes, high in the MPO of males, but low in the PAG of both sexes despite the large number of PAG-nPGi output neurons and Fos+ cells in both sexes. The characterization of these afferents will lead to a further understanding of the neural regulation of genital reflexes.

Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

2010-01-01

218

Sex pheromone of the bud borer Epinotia aporema: chemical identification and male behavioral response.  

PubMed

Epinotia aporema (Walsingham) is a Neotropical pest of legumes in southern South America. Its importance has increased during the last decade owing to the significant growth of soybean production in the region. Monitoring of E. aporema is difficult due to the cryptic behavior of the larvae, and hence, chemical control is carried out preventively. We analyzed the female-produced sex pheromone so as to develop monitoring traps and explore pheromone-based control methods. We analyzed pheromone gland extracts by combined chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrophysiological methods. Based on the comparison of retention indices, mass spectra, and electroantennogram (EAD) activity of the insect-produced compounds with those of synthetic standards, we identified two EAD-active compounds, (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienol and (Z,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (15:1 ratio), as sex pheromone components of E. aporema. We also studied the behavior of males in wind tunnel tests using virgin females and different combinations of synthetic standards (15:1, 1:1, and 1:0 alcohol/acetate) as stimuli. A significantly greater percentage of males reached the chemical source with the 15:1 synthetic mixture than with any of the other treatments, indicating that these two compounds are pheromone components. PMID:19263170

Altesor, Paula; Rossini, Carmen; Zarbin, Paulo H G; González, Andrés

2009-03-01

219

Plant volatiles enhance behavioral responses of grapevine moth males, Lobesia botrana to sex pheromone.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles play an important role in the lives of phytophagous insects, by guiding them to oviposition, feeding and mating sites. We tested the effects of different host-plant volatiles on attraction of Lobesia botrana males to the female-produced sex pheromone, in a wind tunnel. Addition of volatile emissions from grapevines or individual plant volatiles to pheromone increased the behavioral responses of L. botrana males over those to pheromone alone. At a low release rate (under-dosed) of pheromone, addition of (E)-?-caryophyllene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 1-hexanol, or 1-octen-3-ol increased all behavioral responses, from activation to pheromone source contact, while addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-?-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenol, or methyl salicylate affected only the initial behavioral responses. Dose-response experiments suggested an optimal release ratio of 1:1000 (sex pheromone: host plant volatile). Our results highlight the role of plant volatiles in the sensory ecology of L. botrana. PMID:22323083

von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

2012-02-01

220

The Role of Clitoral Anatomy in Female to Male Sex Reassignment Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7?cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3?cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.

2014-01-01

221

The role of clitoral anatomy in female to male sex reassignment surgery.  

PubMed

Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7?cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3?cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life. PMID:24982953

Vukadinovic, Vojkan; Stojanovic, Borko; Majstorovic, Marko; Milosevic, Aleksandar

2014-01-01

222

Sex chromosome polymorphism and heterogametic males revealed by two cloned DNA probes in the ZW/ZZ fish Leporinus elongatus.  

PubMed

In order to study the divergence of teleost sex chromosomes, subtractive cloning was carried out between genomic DNA of males and females of the rainbow trout (XX/XY) and of Leporinus elongatus (ZW/ZZ). Inserts cloned in a plasmid vector were individually tested on Southern blots of DNA of males and females for sex specificity. No sex-specific insert was obtained from trout, but two out of ten inserts cloned from L. elongatus showed sex-specific patterns in this species: one corresponds to a sequence present on both Z and W chromosomes, while the other is W specific. Sequences of these two inserts show neither clear homology with other known sequences, nor an open reading frame. They cross-hybridize with the genomic DNA of Leporinus friderici, but without sex-specific patterns. Twenty-four L. elongatus adults were sexed by gonadal observation, chromosomed examination and Southern hybridization with one or the other insert. Ten males and 11 females had chromosomes and hybridization patterns typical of their sex. One ZW female was recognized as a male with the W-specific probe. This was also the case for two unusual ZW males, one having a male hybridization pattern with the other probe. These three atypical individuals may result from single genetic exchanges between four regions of the Z and the W, giving rise to three atypical W chromosomes. Finding males with such atypical heterochromosomes in a female heterogametic species may indicate that a gradual transition occurs between the heterogametic systems. PMID:8013252

Nakayama, I; Foresti, F; Tewari, R; Schartl, M; Chourrout, D

1994-03-01

223

Production of all female progeny: evidence for the presence of the male sex determination factor on the Y chromosome.  

PubMed

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, follows an XX (female) and XY (male) sex determination system. Maternal supply of the protein Transformer (Tra) is required for XX insects to follow the female pathway. The nature and source of the signal that regulates male sex determination in XY beetles are not known. Parental RNAi-aided knockdown in expression of tra masculinizes genetic females (XX) that are fertile. The virgin females mated with these masculinized genetic females produced all female progeny. We present the genetic evidence to show that the factor responsible for male sex determination is present on the Y chromosome. These data also suggest that the Y chromosome in T. castaneum is not required for male fertility. PMID:24577442

Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

2014-05-15

224

Breeding periodicity for male sea turtles, operational sex ratios, and implications in the face of climate change.  

PubMed

Species that have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) often produce highly skewed offspring sex ratios contrary to long-standing theoretical predictions. This ecological enigma has provoked concern that climate change may induce the production of single-sex generations and hence lead to population extirpation. All species of sea turtles exhibit TSD, many are already endangered, and most already produce sex ratios skewed to the sex produced at warmer temperatures (females). We tracked male loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Zakynthos, Greece, throughout the entire interval between successive breeding seasons and identified individuals on their breeding grounds, using photoidentification, to determine breeding periodicity and operational sex ratios. Males returned to breed at least twice as frequently as females. We estimated that the hatchling sex ratio of 70:30 female to male for this rookery will translate into an overall operational sex ratio (OSR) (i.e., ratio of total number of males vs females breeding each year) of close to 50:50 female to male. We followed three male turtles for between 10 and 12 months during which time they all traveled back to the breeding grounds. Flipper tagging revealed the proportion of females returning to nest after intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were 0.21, 0.38, 0.29, and 0.12, respectively (mean interval 2.3 years). A further nine male turtles were tracked for short periods to determine their departure date from the breeding grounds. These departure dates were combined with a photoidentification data set of 165 individuals identified on in-water transect surveys at the start of the breeding season to develop a statistical model of the population dynamics. This model produced a maximum likelihood estimate that males visit the breeding site 2.6 times more often than females (95%CI 2.1, 3.1), which was consistent with the data from satellite tracking and flipper tagging. Increased frequency of male breeding will help ameliorate female-biased hatchling sex ratios. Combined with the ability of males to fertilize the eggs of many females and for females to store sperm to fertilize many clutches, our results imply that effects of climate change on the viability of sea turtle populations are likely to be less acute than previously suspected. PMID:20497201

Hays, Graeme C; Fossette, Sabrina; Katselidis, Kostas A; Schofield, Gail; Gravenor, Mike B

2010-12-01

225

Prevalence of Consensual Male-Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

2013-01-01

226

Factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants in a prospective study of injection drug users  

PubMed Central

Objectives: While much research to date has examined female sex trade work, little has been done to evaluate factors associated with male sex trade involvement or to assess their health service needs. This is particularly true for male sex trade workers who are also injection drug users (IDUs). Therefore, the present analyses were undertaken to evaluate factors associated with sex trade work in a prospective cohort study of male IDUs. Methods: We identified factors associated with sex trade involvement among male participants enrolled in the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study (VIDUS). Since serial measures for each individual were available at semiannual intervals, variables potentially associated with sex trade involvement were evaluated with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using generalised estimating equations (GEE). Results: Between 1996 and 2003, 995 male IDUs were enrolled into the VIDUS cohort among whom 108 (11%) reported being involved in the sex trade at enrolment and 102 (10%) individuals initiated sex trade involvement during the follow up period. In multivariate analyses, factors independently associated with sex trade involvement included HIV positive serostatus (AOR: 1.77 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.17)), daily cocaine injection (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11 to 1.70)), daily crack smoking (AOR: 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.72)), borrowing syringes (AOR: 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32 to 2.25)), and inconsistent use of condoms with casual sexual partners (AOR 0.66, CI 0.53 to 0.82). We also found that male sex trade workers were more likely to report having sought but been unable to access substance abuse treatment (AOR: 1.28 (95% CI: 0.98 to 1.67); p = 0.076). Conclusions: Males involved in the sex trade in this setting have higher levels of HIV infection and engage in risky injection behaviours at an elevated rate. Since these behaviours have major implications for HIV acquisition and public health, prevention efforts and targeted provision of addiction treatment to this population should be expanded.

Kuyper, L; Lampinen, T; Li, K; Spittal, P; Hogg, R; Schechter, M; Wood, E

2004-01-01

227

Sex pheromone ofEupoecilia ambiguella female: Analysis and male response to ternary blend.  

PubMed

Sex gland extracts and washes ofEupoecilia ambiguella contain 10-20 ng/female of the primary sex pheromone componentZ-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12?Ac), accompanied by a number of related compounds. These areE-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12?Ac),Z-9-dodecen-1-ol (Z9-12?OH), saturated acetates of 12, 16, 18, and 20 carbons, and traces of a doubly unsaturated acetate, tentatively identified as a 9,11-dodecadienyl acetate. Octadecyl acetate predominates among the pheromone-related components, making up 1-2, occasionally 20-30 times the amount ofZ9-12?Ac. The same compounds were also found in field-collected females and in effluvia.Z-9-Undecenyl acetate, which is a male attractant on its own, was also found in a sample of female effluvia. A hierarchy is observed in the ethological function of the pheromone components.Z9-12?Ac is an attractant forE. ambiguella males. Dodecyl acetate (12?Ac) is not attractive on its own but augments male catch when added to the main attractant. Addition of 18?Ac augments attraction only when bothZ9-12?Ac and 12?Ac are present. Windtunnel tests demonstrate that 18?Ac also raises the disorientation threshold, as previously shown for 12?Ac. Other compounds, with the possible exception of additional saturated acetates, had either no effect on trap catch or, in the case ofE9-12?Ac,Z9-12?OH, andE-9,11-dodecadienyl acetate, were inhibitory above a certain level. A blend of roughly equal parts ofZ9-12?Ac, 12?Ac, and 18?Ac provides the best attractant blend forE. ambiguella known to date. PMID:24307121

Arn, H; Rauscher, S; Buser, H R; Guerin, P M

1986-06-01

228

Defensive compounds and male-produced sex pheromone of the stink bug, Agroecus griseus.  

PubMed

Agroecus griseus is a serious corn pest in Brazil. Contents of the dorsal abdominal glands (DAGs) in nymphs, and the metathoracic gland (MTG) in adults of this species were characterized and quantified. Compounds found were similar to those of other Pentatomidae species and included aliphatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, oxo-alkenals, and esters. However, two compounds were found in the MTG that have not been described previously for this family. Mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatographic analysis using coinjection with authentic standards confirmed the identities of the compounds as enantiopure (S)-2-methylbutyl acetate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl acetate. The five nymphal instars showed significantly different ratios of components, mainly between those of the first and later instars. No significant differences were detected in MTG contents between sexes. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis of aeration extracts of males and females showed the presence of a compound released exclusively by males. Gas chromatography - electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) assays indicated that the male-specific compound is bioactive in females, suggesting the presence of an attractant pheromone. The mass spectrum and infrared data for this compound matched with methyl 2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoate, a sex pheromone component previously detected in the stink bugs, Euschistus heros and E. obscurus. The synthetic standard coeluted with the natural pheromone on two different GC stationary phases, confirming the proposed structure. Y-tube olfactometer assays showed that the synthetic standard was strongly attractive to females, and GC-EAD tests produced responses with antennae from females similar to those of the natural pheromone. PMID:22914958

Fávaro, Carla F; Santos, Tatiana B; Zarbin, Paulo H G

2012-09-01

229

Male sex as a risk factor for the clinical course of skull base chordomas.  

PubMed

Object Chordomas of the skull base are rare and locally invasive and have a poor prognosis. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the current pattern of care and clinical course and to identify prognostic factors. Methods A total of 47 patients (26 men; mean age 48.5 years) treated in 5 centers were included. Histology was centrally reviewed; additionally, semiquantitative N- and E-cadherin expression analysis was performed. Prognostic factors were obtained from multivariate regression models. For survival analysis the Kaplan-Meier method was used. Results The median follow-up period was 5.2 years. Complete resection, incomplete resection, and extended biopsy were performed in 14.9%, 80.9%, and 4.3% of patients, respectively. Surgical morbidity was not associated with extent of resection. Adjuvant radiation therapy was performed in 30 (63.8%) of 47 patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.3 years. Complete resection prolonged median overall survival (OS) (p = 0.04). Male patients presented with worse PFS (4.8 years vs 9.8 years; p = 0.04) and OS (8.3 years vs not reached; p = 0.03) even though complete resection was exclusively achieved in the male subpopulation. Multivariate analysis confirmed male sex as the most important risk factor for tumor progression (p = 0.04) and death (p = 0.02). Age, duration of symptoms, initial Karnofsky Performance Scale score, brainstem compression, involvement of the petrous bone, infiltration of the dura mater, modality and dose of radiation therapy, and the E- and N-cadherin expression patterns did not gain prognostic relevance. Conclusions In skull base chordomas, male patients bear a higher risk of progressive disease and death. Male patients might benefit from more aggressive adjuvant therapy and/or from a closer follow-up schedule. PMID:24405075

Rachinger, Walter; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Dützmann, Stephan; Simon, Matthias; Feigl, Guenther C; Kremenevskaja, Natalia; Kretzschmar, Hans; Zausinger, Stefan; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Thon, Niklas; Tonn, Jörg-Christian

2014-06-01

230

Biased sex ratio and low population density increase male mating success in the bug Nysius huttoni (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on male mating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected male mating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect male mating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species male mating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower male mating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher male mating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject male mating attempt, leading to the higher male mating success. Lower male mating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on male mating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.

Wang, Qiao; He, Xiong Zhao; Yang, Linghuan; Hedderley, Duncan; Davis, Lorraine K.

2009-01-01

231

1-Tridecene—male-produced sex pheromone of the tenebrionid beetle Parastizopus transgariepinus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Males of the genus Parastizopus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exhibit a special pheromone-emitting behaviour. They do a headstand, expose the aedeagus and remain in this posture for a few seconds. The pheromone emitted by P. transgariepinus was collected by solid-phase micro-extraction (100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane fibre) and identified as 1-tridecene by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Presumably, this compound originates from the aedeagal gland, a special feature in Parastizopus, as 1-tridecene is the main compound in the gland reservoirs (23.6 ± 3.8%), accompanied by various less volatile fatty acid esters (25.2 ± 2.0%) and hydrocarbons (51.2 ± 5.7%). 1-Tridecene is also part of the pygidial defensive secretion of both sexes, together with other 1-alkenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,4-benzoquinones, but as none of these other compounds was detected during calling, the pygidial gland could be ruled out as pheromone source. Extracts of the aedeagal gland reservoirs and the pygidial defensive secretion contained comparable amounts of 1-tridecene, 1.24 ± 0.41 and 1.88 ± 0.54 ?g/male, respectively. Chemo-orientation experiments using a servosphere showed that 1 ?g of 1-tridecene was attractive to females but not to males.

Geiselhardt, Sven; Ockenfels, Peter; Peschke, Klaus

2008-03-01

232

Condition dependence and the nature of genetic variation for male sex comb bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic architecture of variation underlying male sex comb bristle number, a rapidly evolving secondary sexual character of\\u000a Drosophila, was examined. First, in order to test for condition dependence, diet was manipulated in a set of ten Drosophila melanogaster full-sib families. We confirmed heightened condition dependent expression of sex comb bristle number and its female homologue\\u000a (distal transverse row bristles) as

Abha Ahuja; Scott De Vito; Rama S. Singh

2011-01-01

233

Changes in HIV Seroprevalence and Related Behaviors Among Male Injection Drug Users Who Do and Do Not Have Sex With Men: New York City, 1990-1999  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384)

Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.

2002-01-01

234

Sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster males is a global regulator of reproductive processes in females.  

PubMed

Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) alter female behaviour and physiology and can mediate sexual conflict. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and sexual receptivity. These effects can favour the evolutionary interests of males while generating costs in females. We tested the hypothesis that SP is an upstream master-regulator able to induce diverse phenotypes through efficient induction of widespread transcriptional changes in females. We profiled mRNA responses to SP in adult female abdomen (Abd) and head+thorax (HT) tissues using microarrays at 3 and 6 h following mating. SP elicited a rich, subtle signature of temporally and spatially controlled mRNAs. There were significant alterations to genes linked to egg development, early embryogenesis, immunity, nutrient sensing, behaviour and, unexpectedly, phototransduction. There was substantially more variation in the direction of differential expression across time points in the HT versus Abd. The results support the idea that SP is an important regulator of gene expression in females. The expression of many genes in one sex can therefore be under the influence of a regulator expressed in the other. This could influence the extent of sexual conflict both within and between loci. PMID:22977156

Gioti, A; Wigby, S; Wertheim, B; Schuster, E; Martinez, P; Pennington, C J; Partridge, L; Chapman, T

2012-11-01

235

Influence of salazosulphapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid on seminal qualities and male sex hormones.  

PubMed

Seminal abnormalities are a common side effect of salazosulphapyridine (SASP) treatment. We evaluated semen qualities and sex hormone concentrations in 11 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during SASP treatment and 4 months after replacing SASP with an oral slow-release preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Significant improvement in sperm count (p less than 0.01), morphology (p less than 0.02), and motility (p less than 0.02) could be observed during 5-ASA therapy, in comparison with SASP treatment. Three pregnancies occurred during the study period. The serum concentrations of gonadotrophins, prolactin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were normal in all patients and not significantly different in the two treatment periods. The mean total testosterone concentration decreased significantly (p less than 0.02) after 5-ASA substitution, together with serum albumin (p less than 0.005), although all values remained within normal limits. The apparent free testosterone concentration was not significantly different in the two treatment periods. It is concluded that a significant improvement in semen quality can be obtained in male patients with IBD after replacing SASP with 5-ASA. PMID:2907823

Zelissen, P M; van Hattum, J; Poen, H; Scholten, P; Gerritse, R; te Velde, E R

1988-11-01

236

Sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster males is a global regulator of reproductive processes in females  

PubMed Central

Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) alter female behaviour and physiology and can mediate sexual conflict. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and sexual receptivity. These effects can favour the evolutionary interests of males while generating costs in females. We tested the hypothesis that SP is an upstream master-regulator able to induce diverse phenotypes through efficient induction of widespread transcriptional changes in females. We profiled mRNA responses to SP in adult female abdomen (Abd) and head+thorax (HT) tissues using microarrays at 3 and 6 h following mating. SP elicited a rich, subtle signature of temporally and spatially controlled mRNAs. There were significant alterations to genes linked to egg development, early embryogenesis, immunity, nutrient sensing, behaviour and, unexpectedly, phototransduction. There was substantially more variation in the direction of differential expression across time points in the HT versus Abd. The results support the idea that SP is an important regulator of gene expression in females. The expression of many genes in one sex can therefore be under the influence of a regulator expressed in the other. This could influence the extent of sexual conflict both within and between loci.

Gioti, A.; Wigby, S.; Wertheim, B.; Schuster, E.; Martinez, P.; Pennington, C. J.; Partridge, L.; Chapman, T.

2012-01-01

237

Estimating the number of male sex workers with the capture-recapture technique in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Estimating the size of populations most affected by HIV such as men who have sex with men (MSM) though crucial for structuring responses to the epidemic presents significant challenges, especially in a developing society. Using capture-recapture methodology, the size of MSM-SW in Nigeria was estimated in three major cities (Lagos, Kano and Port Harcourt) between July and December 2009. Following interviews with key informants, locations and times when MSM-SW were available to male clients were mapped and designated as "hotspots". Counts were conducted on two consecutive weekends. Population estimates were computed using a standardized Lincoln formula. Fifty-six hotspots were identified in Kano, 38 in Lagos and 42 in Port Harcourt. On a given weekend night, Port Harcourt had the largest estimated population of MSM sex workers, 723 (95% CI: 594-892) followed by Lagos state with 620 (95%CI: 517-724) and Kano state with 353 (95%CI: 332-373). This study documents a large population of MSM-SW in 3 Nigerian cities where higher HIV prevalence among MSM compared to the general population has been documented. Research and programming are needed to better understand and address the health vulnerabilities that MSM-SW and their clients face. PMID:24689319

Adebajo, Sylvia B; Eluwa, George I; Tocco, Jack U; Ahonsi, Babatunde A; Abiodun, Lolade Y; Anene, Oliver A; Akpona, Dennis O; Karlyn, Andrew S; Kellerman, Scott

2013-12-01

238

Non-monogamy and sexual relationship quality among same-sex male couples.  

PubMed

Relationship arrangements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and meaningful distinctions in psychological and behavioral health correlates have been found among nonmonogamous agreement types. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between sexual agreements and partners' sexual relationship quality. Data were collected from both members of 161 gay male couples (n = 322 individuals). Couples were categorized as monogamous (52.8%), open (13.0%), monogamish (14.9%), and discrepant (19.3%). We used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to assess associations of relationship arrangement with four aspects of sexual relationship quality: sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, sexual jealousy, and the occurrence of at-least weekly sex between main partners. We found that sexual arrangements were not associated with sexual satisfaction, communication, or frequency. However, monogamous men reported significantly higher levels of sexual jealousy. Our findings indicate that gay men engage in a range of relationship agreements, and nonmonogamous agreements are associated with levels of sexual relationship quality equivalent to monogamous agreements. PMID:22906124

Parsons, Jeffrey T; Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Grov, Christian

2012-10-01

239

Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India  

PubMed Central

This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction.

Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2013-01-01

240

A comparative study of renal function in male and female spiny mice - sex specific responses to a high salt challenge  

PubMed Central

Background There is a significant body of evidence to suggest that hormone levels, receptor density and structural differences between males and females can significantly alter renal hemodynamics. We compared the renal hemodynamic and excretory profile of female and male spiny mice under baseline conditions and in response to a high-NaCl diet. Methods Adult male and female spiny mice were fed either a normal or high salt diet for 7 days. Renal excretory profile was obtained from 24 h urine samples, and renal hemodynamic measurements using anaesthetised renal clearance techniques. Kidneys were excised, weighed and frozen for qPCR analysis. Results Under basal conditions, conscious and anaesthetised renal functions were similar between male and female spiny mice when adjusted for body weights. Male and female spiny mice on the high-NaCl diet had significantly greater GFR than sex matched controls (PDIET < 0.001). However the magnitude of the effect of salt was sex dependent (PSEX < 0.001; PINT < 0.01). Male spiny mice showed a greater increase in GFR (84% higher than normal salt males) compared to females (33% higher than normal salt females), despite similar increases in renal plasma flow. In response to 7 days of high salt diet, female spiny mice showed a greater increase in 24-hour water consumption (45% more) and urinary output (50% more) compared to males (PINT < 0.01). These sex differences could not be explained by differences in renal expression of the V2R or AQP3 channel. Conclusion These studies have identified major differences between male and female spiny mice in their renal response to a high-NaCl load suggesting that renal hemodynamics may be differentially regulated for the sexes.

2013-01-01

241

Sex chromatin and cytogenetic survey of 10417 adult males and 357 children institutionalized in Belgian institutions for mentally retarded patients.  

PubMed

A survey of adult male immates of the major institutions for mental patients in Belgium was undertaken in 1965. Out of 10417 males examined 61 had positive sex chromatin (5.8%); 201 had bilateral small testis (1.9%), 4 hypogonad patients carried a D/D translocation. Out of 857 karyotyped children, 2.9% carried an autosomal or sex-chromosomal anomaly other than trisomy G. This prevalence of chromosomal anomalies in children with low I.Q. (less than 50) emphasizes the need for further studies. PMID:125226

Cassiman, J J; Fryns, J P; De Roover, J; Van den Berghe, H

1975-05-26

242

Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

2010-01-01

243

Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat  

SciTech Connect

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

2008-01-01

244

Severe subfertility in mice with androgen receptor inactivation in sex accessory organs but not in testis.  

PubMed

Androgen action on sex accessory organs influences rodent fertility, but the mechanisms remain unclear and investigation is difficult without the ability to restrict androgen action in specific tissues. We used Cre-LoxP technology to generate male mice with prostate epithelial-specific androgen receptor deficiency (denoted PEARKO). In addition to prostate, these males have reduced androgen action due to tissue-selective androgen receptor inactivation in seminal vesicle, epididymis, and vas deferens, whereas the testis is unaffected. We find that fertility of PEARKO males was severely reduced, compared with littermates with prominent defects in copulatory plug formation, which were smaller, softer, and more friable than controls. Despite normal testis sperm production, sperm numbers were reduced in caput but increased in cauda epididymis, suggesting alterations in sperm epididymal transit kinetics associated with increased rate of spontaneous acrosome reaction and abnormal flagellar morphology in PEARKO cauda epididymal sperm. Whereas the quantitative in vitro fertilizing ability of PEARKO epididymal sperm was normal, fewer fertilized oocytes were flushed from the oviducts of females after natural mating with PEARKO males. These data show that sperm formed in mice with impaired androgen action restricted to accessory glands and epididymis are quantitatively normal in number and in vitro fertilizing function but that severe in vivo subfertility reflects other functions related to sperm transport and survival in female reproductive tract that determine fertility in vivo. PMID:18356274

Simanainen, Ulla; McNamara, Keely; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Handelsman, David J

2008-07-01

245

Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone  

PubMed Central

Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs.

McQuate, Grant T.

2014-01-01

246

Sex pheromone perception in male pine sawflies, Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae).  

PubMed

Electroantennographic and single sensillum recordings were performed on male pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, antennae. Responses to the sex pheromone component (2S, 3S, 7S)- 3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecenyl (diprionyl) acetate (SSS:OAc), to the behavioral inhibitor (2S, 3R, 7R)-diprionyl acetate (SRR:OAc), to the six other enantiomers of diprionyl acetate, and to the biosynthetic precursor diprionol were recorded. Responses to trans-perillenal, a monoterpene identified in female gland extracts and to (2S, 3S, 7S)-diprionyl propionate (SSS:OPr), a field attractant for N. sertifer and some related sawfly species were also recorded. EAG recordings demonstrated a high antennal sensitivity to SSS:OAc and to SSS:OPr. A somewhat lower response was elicited by SRR:OAc. Single sensillum recordings revealed 8-12 different cells firing in each sensillum, corresponding to the number of cells observed in earlier morphological investigations. Out of these cells all, except one, responded to SSS:OAc and to SSS:OPr. No differences in the response to the two components could be observed. The largest amplitude cell in each sensillum was specifically tuned to the behavioral antagonist, SRR:OAc. The pheromone perception system encountered in male pine sawflies thus differs clearly from that observed in moths. PMID:1920154

Hansson, B S; Van der Pers, J N; Högberg, H E; Hedenström, E; Anderbrant, O; Löfqvist, J

1991-05-01

247

Mecp2 organizes juvenile social behavior in a sex-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) binds methylated DNA and recruits co-repressor proteins to modify chromatin and alter gene transcription. Mutations of the MECP2 gene can cause Rett syndrome (RTT), while subtle reductions of MeCP2 expression may be associated with male dominated social and neurodevelopmental disorders. We report that transiently decreased amygdala Mecp2 expression during a sensitive period of brain sexual differentiation disrupts the organization of sex differences in juvenile social play behavior. Interestingly, neonatal treatment with Mecp2 siRNA within the developing amygdala reduced juvenile social play behavior in males but not females. Reduced Mecp2 expression did not change juvenile sociability or anxiety-like behavior, suggesting this disruption is associated with subtle behavioral modification. This suggests Mecp2 may have an overlooked role in the organization of sexually dimorphic behaviors and that male juvenile behavior is particularly sensitive to Mecp2 disruption during this period of development.

Kurian, Joseph R.; Bychowski, Meaghan E.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.; Auger, Catherine J.; Auger, Anthony P.

2008-01-01

248

Have sex differences in spatial ability evolved from male competition for mating and female concern for survival?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles that apply to the behavior of projectiles could have been inherited from mating-oriented male

Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab; Michèle Robert

2004-01-01

249

ABILITY TO EMPATHISE AND MASCULINITY LEVELS: COMPARING MALE ADOLESCENT SEX OFFENDERS WITH A NORMATIVE SAMPLE OF NON?OFFENDING ADOLESCENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study compares the empathic ability and hypermasculinity levels of 44 male adolescent sex offenders and 57 non?offending adolescent males, as measured by an adapted version of Hanson and Scott's Empathy for Women Test, i.e. the Empathy for Girls Test, and an adolescent version of Mosher and Sirkin's Hypermasculinity Inventory. These measures were found to have satisfactory psychometric properties.There

Catherine Farr; Jennifer Brown; Richard Beckett

2004-01-01

250

Useless Hearing in Male Emblemasoma auditrix (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) - A Case of Intralocus Sexual Conflict during Evolution of a Complex Sense Organ?  

PubMed Central

Sensory modalities typically are important for both sexes, although sex-specific functional adaptations may occur frequently. This is true for hearing as well. Consequently, distinct behavioural functions were identified for the different insect hearing systems. Here we describe a first case, where a trait of an evolutionary novelty and a highly specialized hearing organ is adaptive in only one sex. The main function of hearing of the parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix is to locate the host, males of the cicada species Okanagana rimosa, by their calling song. This task is performed by female flies, which deposit larvae into the host. We show that male E. auditrix possess a hearing sense as well. The morphology of the tympanal organ of male E. auditrix is rather similar to the female ear, which is 8% broader than the male ear. In both sexes the physiological hearing threshold is tuned to 5 kHz. Behavioural tests show that males are able to orient towards the host calling song, although phonotaxis often is incomplete. However, despite extensive observations in the field and substantial knowledge of the biology of E. auditrix, no potentially adaptive function of the male auditory sense has been identified. This unique hearing system might represent an intralocus sexual conflict, as the complex sense organ and the behavioural relevant neuronal network is adaptive for only one sex. The correlated evolution of the sense organ in both sexes might impose substantial constraints on the sensory properties of the ear. Similar constraints, although hidden, might also apply to other sensory systems in which behavioural functions differ between sexes.

Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; deVries, Thomas; Stolting, Heiko; Stumpner, Andreas

2014-01-01

251

Useless hearing in male Emblemasoma auditrix (Diptera, Sarcophagidae)--a case of intralocus sexual conflict during evolution of a complex sense organ?  

PubMed

Sensory modalities typically are important for both sexes, although sex-specific functional adaptations may occur frequently. This is true for hearing as well. Consequently, distinct behavioural functions were identified for the different insect hearing systems. Here we describe a first case, where a trait of an evolutionary novelty and a highly specialized hearing organ is adaptive in only one sex. The main function of hearing of the parasitoid fly Emblemasoma auditrix is to locate the host, males of the cicada species Okanagana rimosa, by their calling song. This task is performed by female flies, which deposit larvae into the host. We show that male E. auditrix possess a hearing sense as well. The morphology of the tympanal organ of male E. auditrix is rather similar to the female ear, which is 8% broader than the male ear. In both sexes the physiological hearing threshold is tuned to 5 kHz. Behavioural tests show that males are able to orient towards the host calling song, although phonotaxis often is incomplete. However, despite extensive observations in the field and substantial knowledge of the biology of E. auditrix, no potentially adaptive function of the male auditory sense has been identified. This unique hearing system might represent an intralocus sexual conflict, as the complex sense organ and the behavioural relevant neuronal network is adaptive for only one sex. The correlated evolution of the sense organ in both sexes might impose substantial constraints on the sensory properties of the ear. Similar constraints, although hidden, might also apply to other sensory systems in which behavioural functions differ between sexes. PMID:24489872

Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Devries, Thomas; Stölting, Heiko; Stumpner, Andreas

2014-01-01

252

Male mate choice relies on major histocompatibility complex class I in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.  

PubMed

Mate choice for compatible genes is often based on genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC-based mate choice is commonly observed in female choice, male mate choice remains elusive. In particular, if males have intense paternal care and are thus the choosing sex, male choice for females with dissimilar MHC can be expected. Here, we investigated whether male mate choice relies on MHC class I genes in the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. In a mate choice experiment, we determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues by manipulating visibility and olfaction. We found that pipefish males chose females that maximize sequence-based amino acid distance between MHC class I genotypes in the offspring when olfactory cues were present. Under visual cues, large females were chosen, but in the absence of visual cues, the choice pattern was reversed. The use of sex-role reversed species thus revealed that sexual selection can lead to the evolution of male mate choice for MHC class I genes. PMID:24725009

Roth, O; Sundin, J; Berglund, A; Rosenqvist, G; Wegner, K M

2014-05-01

253

Brain Organization in a Reptile Lacking Sex Chromosomes: Effects of Gonadectomy and Exogenous Testosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, males and females differ both genetically and hormonally, making it difficult to assess the relative contributions of genetic constitution and fetal environment in the process of sexual differentiation. Many reptiles lack sex chromosomes, relying instead on the temperature of incubation to determine sex. In the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), an incubation temperature of 26°C produces all females, whereas

David Crews; Patricia Coomber; Ryan Baldwin; Nilofer Azad; Francisco Gonzalez-Lima

1996-01-01

254

Regret after Sex Reassignment Surgery in a Male-to-Female Transsexual: A Long-Term Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes a four-decade presentation of a non-homosexual gender dysphoric male patient. The case material was collected from two main sources. One of the authors had weekly therapy sessions with the patient over a period of 2 years almost 15 years after sex reassignment surgery. Information was also gained from the patient's medical records covering the period from

Stig-Eric Olsson; Anders Möller

2006-01-01

255

WHY DO SOME SOCIAL INSECT QUEENS MATE WITH SEVERAL MALES? TESTING THE SEX-RATIO MANIPULATION HYPOTHESIS IN LASIUS NIGER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although multiple mating most likely increases mortality risk for social insect queens and lowers the kin benefits for nonreproductive workers, a significant proportion of hymenopteran queens mate with several males. It has been suggested that queens may mate multiply as a means to manipulate sex ratios to their advantage. Multiple paternity reduces the extreme relatedness value of females for workers,

Else J. Fjerdingstad; Pia J. Gertsch; Laurent Keller

2002-01-01

256

Have Sex Differences in Spatial Ability Evolved from Male Competition for Mating and Female Concern for Survival?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the theoretical and empirical foundations of two evolutionary models, we argue that, among humans and other mammals, a twofold selection process would parsimoniously account for sex-linked advantages in spatial contexts. In males, a superiority for both solving navigation-related spatial problems and understanding physical principles…

Ecuyer-Dab, Isabelle; Robert, Michele

2004-01-01

257

Perception of self and others in male sex offenders against children: Schema content and its relation to criminal sexual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four civilly committed male sex offenders against children (SOs) chose from a list of traits to describe self, mother, father, best friend, past lover, victim and therapist. Cluster analysis (INDCLAS) uncovered five patterns (i.e. schemas) in Sos’ social perception data: “sexual lover” (past lover described as sexual, arousing, etc. as well as anxious, lonely and worried), “benevolent parent” (mother and

Warren A. Reich; Uri Amit; Harold I. Siegel

2009-01-01

258

Prevalence of Extradyadic Sex in Male Couples of Mixed HIV Status and Its Relationship to Psychological Distress and Relationship Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described

Glenn J. Wagner; Robert H. Remien; Alex Carballo Dieguez

2000-01-01

259

Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

2003-01-01

260

Perceptions about HIV and Condoms and Consistent Condom Use among Male Clients of Commercial Sex Workers in the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…

Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.

2013-01-01

261

Prevalence and Timing of Oral Sex with Opposite-sex Partners Among Females and Males Aged 15-24 Years: United States 2007-2010. National Health Statistics Reports Number 56.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents data on the prevalence of oral sex with opposite-sex partners and the timing of first oral sex relative to first vaginal intercourse among females and males aged 15-24 based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 200...

A. Chandra C. E. Copen G. Martinez

2012-01-01

262

Age, Sex, and Telomere Dynamics in a Long-Lived Seabird with Male-Biased Parental Care  

PubMed Central

The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia), a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1) cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years) from one colony and 2) longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF), a lower window of TRF (TOE), and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ) or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to be the primary drivers of annual changes in adult birds.

Young, Rebecca C.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Descamps, Sebastien; Orben, Rachael A.; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gaston, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

263

Construction of Papaya Male and Female BAC Libraries and Application in Physical Mapping of the Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Papaya is a major fruit crop in the tropics and has recently evolved sex chromosomes. Towards sequencing the papaya sex chromosomes, two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries were constructed from papaya male and female genomic DNA. The female BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme BstY I and consists of 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 104?kb, providing 10.3x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was constructed using restriction enzyme EcoR I and consists of 55,296 clones with an average insert size of 101?kb, providing 15.0x genome equivalents. The male BAC library was used in constructing the physical map of the male-specific region of the male Y chromosome (MSY) and in filling gaps and extending the physical map of the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and the X chromosome physical map. The female BAC library was used to extend the X physical map gap. The MSY, HSY, and X physical maps offer a unique opportunity to study chromosomal rearrangements, Y chromosome degeneration, and dosage compensation of the papaya nascent sex chromosomes.

Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Paul; Saski, Christopher; Chen, Cuixia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Ming, Ray

2011-01-01

264

Psychological Androgyny, Sex-Typing, and Sex-Role Ideology as Predictors of Male-Female Interpersonal Attraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on college students' ideal dating partners found that: (1) excluding masculine typed females, masculine, feminine, or androgynous subjects desired trait complementarity; and (2) traditional males preferred feminine types, egalitarian males preferred androgynous or feminine types equally, and traditional and egalitarian females preferred…

Orlofsky, Jacob L.

1982-01-01

265

False Faces and Broken Lives: An Exploratory Study of the Interaction Behaviors Used by Male Sex Offenders in Relating to Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the use of self-presentation strategies and manipulation by male sex offenders in grooming a victim for a sexual relationship. The study finds that male sex offenders use multiple categories of self-presentation strategies in their interactions with victims with the supplication strategy being present in a majority of reports of such interactions. Furthermore, the research reveals that the

Anna Marie Campbell

2009-01-01

266

Effects of Vomeronasal Organ Removal on Olfactory Sex Discrimination and Odor Preferences of Female Ferrets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that body odorants, including anal scents and urinary odors, contribute to sex discrimination and mate identification in European ferrets of both sexes. We assessed the possible role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in these functions by surgically removing the organ bilaterally in sexually experienced female ferrets. Lesioned (VNOx) and sham-oper- ated control (VNOi) females reliably discriminated between

S. K. Woodley; A. L. Cloe; P. Waters; M. J. Baum

2004-01-01

267

CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

268

The female mid-life sex change applicant: A comparison with younger female transsexuals and older male sex change applicants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a survey approach to the study of the aging (40 years of age and older) female requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A profile of 13 cases presenting at a cross-section of gender identity clinics in North America is presented. The mid-life SRS applicant is also compared on selected characteristics with a younger female transsexual group and

Howard B. Roback; Leslie M. Lothstein

1986-01-01

269

Patterns of Male Reproductive Success in Crepidula fornicata Provide New Insight for Sex Allocation and Optimal Sex Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size-advantage model and sex-allocation theory are frequently invoked to explain the evolution and maintenance of sequential hermaphroditism in many taxa. A test of current theory requires quantitative estimates of reproductive success and knowledge of the relationship between reproduction and size for each gender. Reproduc- tive success can be difficult to measure. In species where polyandry occurs, it can be

DINA A. PROESTOU; MARIAN R. GOLDSMITH; SARAN TWOMBLY

2008-01-01

270

Primary sex ratio adjustment to experimentally reduced male UV attractiveness in blue tits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of primary sex ratio adjustment in birds is notorious for inconsistency of results among studies. To develop our understanding of avian sex ratio variation, experiments that test a priori predictions and the replication of previous studies are essential. We tested if female blue tits Parus caeruleus adjust the sex ratio of their offspring to the sexual attractiveness of

Peter Korsten; C. M. Lessells; A. Christa Mateman; Marco van der Velde; Jan Komdeura

2006-01-01

271

Loss of Wnt4 and Foxl2 leads to female-to-male sex reversal extending to germ cells.  

PubMed

The discovery that the SRY gene induces male sex in humans and other mammals led to speculation about a possible equivalent for female sex. However, only partial effects have been reported for candidate genes experimentally tested so far. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of two ovarian somatic factors, Wnt4 and Foxl2, produces testis differentiation in XX mice, resulting in the formation of testis tubules and spermatogonia. These genes are thus required to initiate or maintain all major aspects of female sex determination in mammals. The two genes are independently expressed and show complementary roles in ovary morphogenesis. In addition, forced expression of Foxl2 impairs testis tubule differentiation in XY transgenic mice, and germ cell-depleted XX mice lacking Foxl2 and harboring a Kit mutation undergo partial female-to-male sex reversal. The results are all consistent with an anti-testis role for Foxl2. The data suggest that the relative autonomy of the action of Foxl2, Wnt4 and additional ovarian factor(s) in the mouse should facilitate the dissection of their respective contributions to female sex determination. PMID:17728319

Ottolenghi, Chris; Pelosi, Emanuele; Tran, Joseph; Colombino, Maria; Douglass, Eric; Nedorezov, Timur; Cao, Antonio; Forabosco, Antonino; Schlessinger, David

2007-12-01

272

The Animal = Male Hypothesis: Children's and Adults' Beliefs About the Sex of Non–Sex-Specific Stuffed Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Animal = Male Hypothesis, a variation of Silveira's People = Male Hypothesis (Silveira, 1980), was examined. In Study 1, children ages 3–10 years and adults told stories about a gender-neutral stuffed animal, in Study 2 children ages 5–6 years told stories about 3 neutral and 3 feminine animals, and in Study 3 children ages 5–7 years told stories about

Jennifer R. Lambdin; Kristen M. Greer; KariSelby Jibotian; KellyRice Wood

2003-01-01

273

Differential display analysis of gene expression in female-to-male sex-reversing gonads of the frog Rana rugosa.  

PubMed

Sex steroids play pivotal roles in gonadal differentiation in many species of vertebrates. The sex can be reversed from female to male by testosterone in the Japanese wrinkled frog Rana rugosa, but it is still unclear what genes are up- or down-regulated during the XX sex-reversal in this species. To search the genes for the female-to-male sex-reversal, we employed differential display and 5'/3'-RACE. Consequently, we isolated from the gonads at day 8 after testosterone injection 24 different cDNA fragments showing a testosterone treatment-related change and then obtained three full-length cDNAs, which we termed Zfp64, Zfp112, and Rrp54. The former two cDNAs encoded different proteins with zinc-finger domains, whereas the latter cDNA encoded an unknown protein. Transcripts of the three genes were hardly detectable in the sex-reversing gonads at day 24 after the injection; at this time few growing oocytes were observed in the sex-reversing gonad. Besides, in situ hybridization analysis showed positive signals of the three genes in the cytoplasm of growing oocytes of an ovary when testosterone was injected into a tadpole. Thus, the decrease in expression of these three genes was probably due to the disappearance of growing oocytes and not to their direct involvement in the testis formation. To find the key-gene for testis formation, it will be necessary to analyze, by the differential display method, more genes showing a change in expression pattern during sex reversal. PMID:17942098

Okada, Goro; Maruo, Koichi; Funada, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Masahisa

2008-02-01

274

Sex-dependent antipsychotic capacity of 17?-estradiol in the latent inhibition model: a typical antipsychotic drug in both sexes, atypical antipsychotic drug in males.  

PubMed

The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that estrogen is a natural neuroprotector in women and that exogenous estrogen may have antipsychotic potential, but results of clinical studies have been inconsistent. We have recently shown using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia that 17?-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present study sought to extend the characterization of the antipsychotic action of 17?-estradiol (10, 50 and 150??g/kg) by testing its capacity to reverse amphetamine- and MK-801-induced LI aberrations in gonadally intact female and male rats. No-drug controls of both sexes showed LI, ie, reduced efficacy of a previously non-reinforced stimulus to gain behavioral control when paired with reinforcement, if conditioned with two but not five tone-shock pairings. In both sexes, amphetamine (1?mg/kg) and MK-801 (50??g/kg) produced disruption (under weak conditioning) and persistence (under strong conditioning) of LI, modeling positive and negative/cognitive symptoms, respectively. 17?-estradiol at 50 and 150??g/kg potentiated LI under strong conditioning and reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in both males and females, mimicking the action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the LI model. 17?-estradiol also reversed MK-induced persistent LI, an effect mimicking atypical APDs and NMDA receptor enhancers, but this effect was observed in males and OVX females but not in intact females. These findings indicate that in the LI model, 17?-estradiol exerts a clear-cut antipsychotic activity in both sexes and, remarkably, is more efficacious in males and OVX females where it also exerts activity considered predictive of anti-negative/cognitive symptoms. PMID:20613719

Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

2010-10-01

275

A protective effect of circumcision among receptive male sex partners of Indian men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

The role of circumcision in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource restricted regions is poorly understood. This study explored the association of circumcision with HIV seroprevalence, in conjunction with other risk factors such as marriage and sex position, for a population of MSM in India. Participants (n = 387) were recruited from six drop-in centers in a large city in southern India. The overall HIV prevalence in this sample was high, at 18.6%. Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed a concentration of risk among receptive only, married, and uncircumcised MSM, with HIV prevalence in this group reaching nearly 50%. The adjusted odds of HIV infection amongst circumcised men was less than one fifth that of uncircumcised men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.17; 95% CI 0.07-0.46; P < 0.001]. Within the group of receptive only MSM, infection was found to be lower among circumcised individuals (AOR, 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76; P < 0.05) in the context of circumcised MSM engaging in more UAI, having a more recent same sex encounter and less lubricant use when compared to uncircumcised receptive men. To further explain these results, future studies should focus on epidemiologic analyses of risk, augmented by social and sexual network analyses of MSM mixing. PMID:21681562

Schneider, John A; Michaels, Stuart; Gandham, Sabitha R; McFadden, Rachel; Liao, Chuanhong; Yeldandi, Vijay V; Oruganti, Ganesh

2012-02-01

276

A protective effect of circumcision among receptive male sex partners of Indian men who have sex with men  

PubMed Central

The role of circumcision in the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource restricted regions is poorly understood. This study explored the association of circumcision with HIV seroprevalence, in conjunction with other risk factors such as marriage and sex position, for a population of MSM in India. Participants (n=387) were recruited from six drop in centers in a large city in southern India. The overall HIV prevalence in this sample was high, at 18.6%. Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed a concentration of risk among receptive only, married, and uncircumcised MSM, with HIV prevalence in this group reaching nearly 50%. The adjusted odds of HIV infection amongst circumcised men was less than one-fifth that of uncircumcised men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 0.17; 95% 0.07-0.46). Within the group of receptive only MSM, infection was found to be lower amongst circumcised individuals (AOR, 0.23, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.61) in the context of circumcised MSM engaging in more UAI, having a more recent same sex encounter and less lubricant use when compared to uncircumcised men. To further explain these results, future studies should focus less on traditional epidemiologic analyses of risk that are typically conducted in these settings and more on better understanding MSM partnering patterns including formal analyses of potentially overlapping social and sexual networks.

Schneider, John A.; Michaels, Stuart; Rani, Sabitha; McFadden, Rachel; Liao, Chuanhong; Yeldandi, Vijay; Oruganti, Ganesh

2013-01-01

277

Differences in anxiety and depression between male and female caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose/Background: To examine whether male and female caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) differ in levels of anxious and depressive symptoms. Materials/Methods: Participants included 80 caregivers (40 males, 40 females) of 40 children with a DSD. Children were categorized based on illness characteristics including ambiguous genitalia, life-threatening, and life-threatening with ambiguous genitalia. Caregivers completed measures of anxious and depressive symptoms. Results: A significant caregiver×diagnosis interaction for anxious symptoms emerged, with male caregivers of children with both ambiguous genitalia and a life-threatening condition reporting significantly lower levels of anxious symptoms than female caregivers of the same children. Conclusions: The findings are surprising because of the low level of anxious symptoms reported by male caregivers of children with a complex DSD. It is possible that they have disengaged themselves from the child and/or diagnosis, causing their female counterparts to take on more responsibility. PMID:24859514

Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Mullins, Larry L; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Wisniewski, Amy B

2014-07-01

278

[Changes in sex behavior caused by fear of AIDS--an empirical study of male heterosexual and homosexual students].  

PubMed

This study examines changes in sexual behaviour in the context of the fear of being infected with the HI-Virus and, in particular, considers the influence of a relationship and of sexual orientation. The population studied included 72 homosexual and 54 heterosexual male students. Results: (1) Only 7% of the heterosexuals, but 68% of the homosexuals report changes in their sexual behaviour pattern. (2) Among the homosexual group practice-oriented alterations (avoiding oral and anal sex or using condoms for these practices) and relationship-oriented alterations (reducing the number of sex partners) occur likewise. (3) Practice-oriented changes are less frequent among homosexuals with partners than those without. (4) Those homosexuals questioned who are in conflict with their homosexuality have less confidence in potential sex partners. They are more inclined to have "monogamous" relationships. PMID:2143283

Tillmann, K; Braun, R; Clement, U

1990-07-01

279

Prevalence of extradyadic sex in male couples of mixed HIV status and its relationship to psychological distress and relationship quality.  

PubMed

This study assessed the prevalence of extradyadic sex and the relationship between such activity and psychological distress and relationship quality in male couples of mixed HIV serostatus. Sixty-three couples were interviewed and had sufficient data for inclusion in all analyses. With regard to sexual activity during the year prior to being interviewed, 19 (30%) couples were monogamous, 18 (29%) described themselves as "open," 13 (21%) kept extradyadic sex a secret from their partners, and in 13 couples there was only partial knowledge of extradyadic sex. Though not statistically significant, monogamous and open couples consistently scored lower numerically on measures of psychological distress and higher on measures of relationship quality, compared to "partial knowledge" and "secretive" couples. When pooled, monogamous and open couples scored significantly higher on measures of dyadic consensus, affectional expression, dyadic satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction compared to the combined subgroup of partial knowledge and secretive couples. PMID:10933280

Wagner, G J; Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A

2000-01-01

280

Estimation of the Number of Sex Alleles and Queen Matings from Diploid Male Frequencies in a Population of APIS MELLIFERA  

PubMed Central

The distribution of diploid males in a population of Apis mellifera was obtained by direct examination of the sexual phenotypes of the larvae. Using these data, estimates are derived for the number of sex alleles and the number of matings undergone by the queen. The number of sex alleles is estimated to be 18.9. The estimate is larger than previous ones, which have ranged between 10 and 12. However, the increase in the number of sex alleles can be explained by the large effective population number for our data. The best estimator of the number of matings by a queen is a maximum likelihood type that assumes a prior distribution on the number of matings. For the data presented here, this estimate is 17.3. This estimate is compared to others in the literature obtained by different approaches.

Adams, Julian; Rothman, Edward D.; Kerr, Warwick E.; Paulino, Zila L.

1977-01-01

281

Sex Chromosome-Specific Regulation in the Drosophila Male Germline But Little Evidence for Chromosomal Dosage Compensation or Meiotic Inactivation  

PubMed Central

The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females) has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation—the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females— and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)—the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female) germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

Meiklejohn, Colin D.; Landeen, Emily L.; Cook, Jodi M.; Kingan, Sarah B.; Presgraves, Daven C.

2011-01-01

282

The effect of perceived female parasite load on post-copulatory male choice in a sex-role-reversed pipefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last several decades of research in behavioral ecology have resulted in a deeper appreciation of post-mating processes\\u000a and sexual conflict in sexual selection. One of the most controversial aspects of sexual selection is cryptic mate choice.\\u000a Here, we take advantage of male pregnancy in a sex-role-reversed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) to quantify cryptic choice based on perceived parasite load and

Charlyn Partridge; Ingrid Ahnesjö; Charlotta Kvarnemo; Kenyon B. Mobley; Anders Berglund; Adam G. Jones

2009-01-01

283

HIV and associated risk factors among male clients of female sex workers in a Chinese border region  

PubMed Central

Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) serve as a potential bridge of HIV to the general population. Little is known about the characteristics and risk factors for HIV infection among male clients patronizing FSWs in Hekou County, Yunnan Province in southern China bordering with Vietnam. Methods Male clients were recruited through outreach of study staff, referrals by Vietnamese FSWs, their bosses, and snowball sampling. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and donated a blood specimen to test for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and syphilis. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with HIV infection. Results Among 306 participants, 28 (9.2%) were HIV positive, 81 (26.5%) were HSV-2 positive, and none were infected with syphilis. Approximately half (n=149, 49.2%) reported always using condoms with sex workers in the past year; 36 (11.8%) reported a history of injection drug use (IDU). Compared to HIV negative men, HIV positive men were more likely to have a history of IDU (64.3% vs. 6.5%) and be co-infected with HSV-2 (50.0% vs. 24.1%). Conclusions IDU was the most salient risk factor for HIV infection in this study, which suggests that male clients may acquire HIV from routes other than commercial sex, but the significance of HSV-2 infection indicates that sexual transmission is also of concern. HIV prevention intervention programs for this often ignored and hard-to-reach risk group should be two-pronged, addressing both drug use and commercial sex.

Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wang, Junjie; Zhu, Zhibin; Li, Shuanghe; Yang, Tinghua; Ding, Guowei; Qian, Han-Zhu; Kissinger, Patricia; Wang, Ning

2012-01-01

284

Male-biased sex ratios, female promiscuity, and copulatory mate guarding in an aggregating tropical bug, Dysdercus bimaculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological and social bases of the mating system of the seed-feeding bug, Dysdercus bimaculatus(Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), were studied in the lab and in aggregations at the host tree, Sterculia apetala(Malvales: Malvaceae), in Panama. On theoretical grounds, two factors are predicted to be of importance in determining the evolution of male mating tactics in Ms species: the operational sex ratio and

Scott P. Carroll; Jenella E. Loye

1990-01-01

285

Understanding the diversity of male clients of sex workers in China and the implications for HIV prevention programmes.  

PubMed

Male clients of sex workers have been overlooked in China's HIV prevention efforts. This study aims to examine men's practices and attitudes toward extramarital sexual relationships, motivations for visiting female sex workers (FSWs), perceptions of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk and risk prevention strategies used. One hundred and eighty-six clients of FSWs with varying socio-economic statuses were interviewed in different sex work settings. Men described no conflict between their role as a client and a responsible family provider. They described social pressure from peers and business partners to visit FSWs, sexual pleasure and companionship as motivators to seek commercial sex. While some men reported no risks associated with visiting FSWs, others identified risks such as being arrested by the police, robbed by gangs and threatening the health of their families by contracting a STI. This study underscores the diversity of FSW clients and the need to understand the beliefs and behaviours of different client types to develop appropriate HIV prevention programmes. It also demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting different types of male clients, a hard-to-reach population for Chinese HIV prevention efforts. PMID:22313090

Huang, Yingying; Maman, Suzanne; Pan, Suiming

2012-01-01

286

Short-term treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio Rerio) with 17?-ethinyl estradiol affects the transcription of genes involved in development and male sex differentiation.  

PubMed

The synthetic estrogen 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) disturbs reproduction and causes gonadal malformation in fish. Effects on the transcription of genes involved in gonad development and function that could serve as sensitive biomarkers of reproductive effects in the field is, however, not well known. We have studied mRNA expression in testes and liver of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males treated with 0, 5 or 25ng/L EE2for 14days. qPCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of four genes linked to zebrafish male sex determination and differentiation, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, Double sex and mab-related protein, Sry-related HMG box-9a and Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group number 1b were significantly decreased by 25ng/L, but not 5ng/L EE2 compared with the levels in untreated fish. The decreased transcription was correlated with a previously shown spawning failure in these males (Reyhanian et al., 2011. Aquat Toxicol 105, 41-48), suggesting that decreased mRNA expression of genes regulating male sexual function could be involved in the functional sterility. The mRNA level of Cytochrome P-45019a, involved in female reproductive development, was unaffected by hormone treatment. The transcription of the female-specific Vitellogenin was significantly induced in testes. While testicular Androgen Receptor and the Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA levels were unchanged, Estrogen receptor-beta was significantly decreased by 25ng/L EE2. Hepatic Estrogen Receptor-alpha mRNA was significantly increased by both exposure concentrations, while Estrogen Receptor-beta transcription was unaltered. The decreased transcription of male-predominant genes supports a demasculinization of testes by EE2 and might reflect reproductive disturbances in the environment. PMID:24747828

Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Olsson, Per-Erik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

2014-08-01

287

A prospective study on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexuals during testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery.  

PubMed

Testosterone administration in female-to-male transsexual subjects aims to develop and maintain the characteristics of the desired sex. Very little data exists on its effects on sexuality of female-to-male transsexuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual function and mood of female-to-male transsexuals from their first visit, throughout testosterone administration and after sex reassignment surgery. Participants were 50 female-to-male transsexual subjects who completed questionnaires assessing sexual parameters and mood. The authors measured reproductive hormones and hematological parameters. The results suggest a positive effect of testosterone treatment on sexual function and mood in female-to-male transsexual subjects. PMID:23470169

Costantino, Antonietta; Cerpolini, Silvia; Alvisi, Stefania; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina

2013-01-01

288

Reproductive biology of two dominant prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, Poaceae): male-biased sex allocation in wind-pollinated plants?  

PubMed

It has been proposed that some wind-pollinated plants have the necessary conditions for an optimal sex allocation that is male biased, though there are few data that address this prediction. We determined that two prairie grass species (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans) had reproductive characteristics that theoretically would result in a male-biased allocation: both species were self-incompatible and neither species had increased seed set after supplemental hand pollination. The relative allocation to pollen and seed production was measured in terms of biomass, energy, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Sex allocation in A. gerardii was significantly male biased (from 60 to 89% male) when measured in currencies of biomass, energy, potassium, and calcium; there was no significant bias in the sex allocation (from 49 to 57% male) when measured in currencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Sex allocation in S. nutans was significantly male biased (from 69 to 81% male) for all currencies except phosphorus (61% male). This is the first evidence for male-biased sex allocation in any plant or animal hermaphrodite. Though the necessary conditions may be uncommon, male-biased allocation may be found in other species with similar reproductive biology. PMID:21684961

McKone, M; Lund, C; O'Brien, J

1998-06-01

289

Equivalent whole-body concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone in female and male coral goby Gobiodon erythrospilus, a bidirectional sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

The relationship between whole-body concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sexual function was examined in the coral goby Gobiodon erythrospilus, a bi-directional sex-changing fish. 11-KT occurred in both female and male G. erythrospilus, but levels were not always higher in males than in females within heterosexual pairs, and were not related to the stage of gonadal development of individual fish. These results suggest that comparable 11-KT levels in both sexes may allow serial adult sex change to take place in bi-directional sex-changing species, such as Gobiodon spp. PMID:20738565

Kroon, F J; Munday, P L; Westcott, D A

2009-08-01

290

Behavioral responses of male epiphyasPostvittana (walker) to sex pheromone-baited delta trap in a wind tunnel.  

PubMed

The effects of parameters associated with a Delta sticky trap on the sex pheromone-mediated responses of maleEpiphyas postvittana (Walker) were tested in a wind tunnel. Males flying to a pheromone source landed closer to the source when other males were stuck on the base, suggesting the importance of visual cues in the landing behavior of males of this species. With an increase in time (numerical order of the male in the experiment), males became stuck on the base farther from the source whether or not other males were stuck on the base. The alignment of the trap to the wind or the location of the pheromone source within the trap did not significantly affect the percentages of males that entered the trap, but both significantly affected the position at which males entered the trap. When these data were corrected for the probability of catching males, a treatment with the source to the side of the trap was predicted to catch more moths than the other treatments tested, although this difference was not significant. However, in a field-trapping experiment the treatment with the source to the side caught significantly more moths than treatments with the source either in the middle or near the top of the trap. This latter result is probably due to the greater efficiency of the trap when the source is in this position, as indicated in the wind-tunnel experiment, rather than an increase in the numberof males entering the trap. Finally, the pheromone-mediated responses of malePlanotortrix octo were tested to the various trap alignments. As the angle of the trap to the wind increased, significantly fewerP. octo males entered the trap, due principally to both fewer males orienting to the source and proceeding to enter the trap after having landed on it. This difference between the responses ofP. octo andE. postvittana males is, we believe, due to the breakdown in plume structure from the source as the trap angle to the wind increases and to a greater sensitivity ofP. octo males to a more structured pheromone plume. This accounts, at least to some extent, for the consistently greater field catches ofE. postvittana overP. octo (and possibly other New Zealand leafroller moths) in many locations throughout New Zealand. PMID:24257804

Foster, S P; Muggleston, S J; Ball, R D

1991-07-01

291

Male Sex Hormones Exacerbate Lung Function Impairment after Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

all change or percentage of baseline change (P , 0.05). In contrast, there were no significant differences between the sexes in immune cell infiltration into the lung or in total lung collagen content after bleomycin. Total lung histopathology scores measured using the Ashcroft method did not differ between the sexes, while a quantita- tive histopathology scoring system designed to determine

James W. Voltz; Jeffrey W. Card; Michelle A. Carey; Laura M. DeGraff; Catherine D. Ferguson; Gordon P. Flake; James C. Bonner; Kenneth S. Korach; Darryl C. Zeldin

2008-01-01

292

How can the therapist deal with a couple with male demands for anal sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case that was referred to us as sexual reluctance in a wife and conflict over anal sex. The wife was a survivor of child sexual abuse. Subsequently, it was felt that the presenting problems were a reflection of difficulties in their general marital relationship. In addition to traditional behavioural sex therapy, structural interventions within sessions and strategic

Kevan R. Wylie; Michael J. Crowe; Daphne Boddington

1995-01-01

293

Street Life and Drug Risk Behaviors Associated with Exchanging Sex Among Male Street Children in Lahore, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Throughout the developing world, children living on urban streets is a byproduct of economic deprivation. In Lahore, Pakistan, there are an estimated 5,000–7,000 street children. Purpose The study examined HIV risk behaviors and factors associated with exchanging sex among male street children in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods The survey was conducted from August 2003 to March 2004 among 565 registrants, ages 5–19, of Project Smile, a program that aimed to enhance the lives of street children in Lahore. We analyzed the frequency of and correlates of recent (past three months) sex exchange for money, drugs, or goods. Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to evaluate the independent effect of covariates on exchange sex. Results Approximately 40% of participants reported having exchanged sex during the past three months. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with exchanging sex were living on the street for longer than 48 months (Prevalence Ratio [PR]=1.36, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.99–1.85), reporting ever having used drugs (PR=1.87, 1.10–3.16), cutting one’s self (PR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.26–2.19), and having heard of HIV/AIDS (PR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.03–1.80) after adjusting for demographic and street life variables. Conclusions We found high rates of sex exchange among a sample of street children in Lahore, Pakistan. The finding that children who have heard about HIV/AIDS are more likely to exchange sex suggests that children at HIV risk talk about HIV, but accuracy of their conversations is unclear. Street children in Pakistan are in great need of HIV education and safe alternatives for generating income.

Towe, Vivian L.; Hasan, Salman ul; Zafar, S. Tariq; Sherman, Susan G.

2009-01-01

294

The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex - Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male  

PubMed Central

The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature.

Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

2013-01-01

295

Trends in sex hormone concentrations in US males: 1988-1991 to 1999-2004.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that male testosterone concentrations have declined over time. To explore this in a large US population, we examined testosterone and free testosterone concentrations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004. We also examined sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, and androstanediol glucuronide (3?-diol-G) over the same period. Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American men from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 NHANES surveys who were ?20 years old and had serum from morning blood draws were included in this analysis (1988-1991: N = 1,413; 1999-2004: N = 902). Testosterone, estradiol and SHBG were measured by competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassays and 3?-diol-G was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Free testosterone was calculated using testosterone and SHBG values. Adjusted mean hormone concentrations were estimated using linear regression, accounting for NHANES sampling weights and design, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol use and smoking. Differences in adjusted mean concentrations (?) and two-sided p-values were calculated; p < 0.05 was statistically significant. Overall, 3?-diol-G and estradiol declined between 1988-1991 and 1999-2004, but there was little change in testosterone, free testosterone, or SHBG (?: 3?-diol-G = -1.83 ng/mL, p < 0.01; estradiol = -6.07 pg/mL, p < 0.01; testosterone = -0.03 ng/mL, p = 0.75; free testosterone = -0.001 ng/mL, p = 0.67; SHBG = -1.17 nmol/L, p = 0.19). Stratification by age and race revealed that SHBG and 3?-diol-G declined among whites 20-44 years old (?: SHBG = -5.14 nmol/L, p < 0.01; 3?-diol-G = -2.89 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and free testosterone increased among blacks 20-44 years old (?: 0.014 ng/mL, p = 0.03). Estradiol declined among all ages of whites and Mexican-Americans. In conclusion, there was no evidence for testosterone decline between 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 in the US general population. Subgroup analyses suggest that SHBG and 3?-diol-G declined in young white men, estradiol declined in white and Mexican-American men, and free testosterone increased in young black men. These changes may be related to the increasing prevalence of reproductive disorders in young men. PMID:22150314

Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y; McQuillan, G M; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S; Bradwin, G; McGlynn, K A

2012-06-01

296

Tricks of the trade: sexual health behaviors, the context of HIV risk, and potential prevention intervention strategies for male sex workers.  

PubMed

Sex work is a significant risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is a dearth of knowledge about how to reduce risk in this group. MSM sex workers (N = 32) completed a semistructured qualitative interview and a close-ended quantitative assessment. Analyses focused on themes relevant to intervention development. Participants reported an average of 46 male sex partners in the prior 12 months; 31% of participants were HIV-infected. Male sex workers frequently used substances during sex and had elevated levels of psychological distress. Qualitative findings suggest that trauma-informed mental health and substance abuse treatment, ready access to HIV/STI testing and treatment and condoms/informational materials, support groups to address isolation/loneliness, skill-building for risk reduction with sex partners, and paid incentives as add-ons to effective behavior change interventions may be valuable intervention components. Targeting consumers of paid/exchanged sex may assist with changing community norms regarding the practice of transactional sex. Multipronged interventions to decrease sexual risk taking among male sex workers would also benefit from addressing the unique socioeconomic and legal needs of this population. PMID:19928046

Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Tinsley, Jake P; Safren, Steven A

2008-01-01

297

Role of the male specific lethal (msl) genes in modifying the effects of sex chromosomal dosage in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Immunostaining of chromosomes shows that the male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males. Histone-4 Lys-16 acetylation follows a similar pattern in normal males and females, being higher on the X and lower on the autosomes in males than in females. However, the staining pattern of acetylation and the mof gene product, a putative histone acetylase, in msl mutant males returns to a uniform genome-wide distribution as found in females. Gene expression on the autosomes correlates with the level of histone-4 acetylation. With minor exceptions, the expression levels of X-linked genes are maintained with either an increase or decrease of acetylation, suggesting that the MSL complex renders gene activity unresponsive to H4Lys16 acetylation. Evidence was also found for the presence of nucleation sites for association of the MSL proteins with the X chromosome rather than individual gene binding sequences. We suggest that sequestration of the MSL proteins occurs in males to nullify on the autosomes and maintain on the X, an inverse effect produced by negatively acting dosage-dependent regulatory genes as a consequence of the evolution of the X/Y sex chromosomal system.

Bhadra, U; Pal-Bhadra, M; Birchler, J A

1999-01-01

298

THE DYNAMICS OF MALE BROODING, MATING PATTERNS, AND SEX ROLES IN PIPEFISHES AND SEAHORSES (FAMILY SYNGNATHIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern theory predicts that relative parental investment of the sexes in their young is a key factor responsible for sexual selection. Seahorses and pipefishes (family Syngnathidae) are extraordinary among fishes in their remarkable adaptations for paternal care and frequent occurrences of sex-role reversals (i.e., female-female competition for mates), offering exceptional opportunities to test predictions of sexual selection theory. During mating,

ANTHONY B. WILSON; INGRID AHNESJO; AMANDA C. J. VINCENT; AXEL MEYER

2003-01-01

299

Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. The combined sex-offender groups reported significantly less secure maternal, paternal, and adult attachment than did the nonoffenders and significantly less secure maternal attachment than did the property offenders. Intrafamilial child molesters were found to have

STEPHEN W. SMALLBONE; MARK R. DADDS

1998-01-01

300

Sex-role reversed nuptial feeding reduces male kleptoparasitism of females in Zeus bugs (Heteroptera; Veliidae)  

PubMed Central

Males of a variety of taxa occasionally steal food secured by their mates. In some spiders and insects, males rely entirely on this form of intraspecific kleptoparasitism for their subsistence. However, this male strategy may be costly for females and a variety of different female counteradaptations have been proposed. In Zeus bugs (Phoreticovelia spp.), males ride on the back of their mates for extended periods and females produce a gland secretion that males feed on. By experimentally occluding the dorsal glands in females and varying food availability, we show that nuptial feeding by females reduces the extent to which the males kleptoparasitize their mates. We suggest that females have, at least in part, evolved this unique form of nuptial feeding as a counteradaptation to reduce the rate of kleptoparasitism by males.

Arnqvist, Goran; Jones, Theresa M; Elgar, Mark A

2006-01-01

301

Evolution of sex determination systems with heterogametic males and females in silene.  

PubMed

The plant genus Silene has become a model for evolutionary studies of sex chromosomes and sex-determining mechanisms. A recent study performed in Silene colpophylla showed that dioecy and the sex chromosomes in this species evolved independently from those in Silene latifolia, the most widely studied dioecious Silene species. The results of this study show that the sex-determining system in Silene otites, a species related to S. colpophylla, is based on female heterogamety, a sex determination system that is unique among the Silene species studied to date. Our phylogenetic data support the placing of S. otites and S. colpophylla in the subsection Otites and the analysis of ancestral states suggests that the most recent common ancestor of S. otites and S. colpophylla was most probably dioecious. These observations imply that a switch from XX/XY sex determination to a ZZ/ZW system (or vice versa) occurred in the subsection Otites. This is the first report of two different types of heterogamety within one plant genus of this mostly nondioecious plant family. PMID:24299418

Slancarova, Veronika; Zdanska, Jana; Janousek, Bohuslav; Talianova, Martina; Zschach, Christian; Zluvova, Jitka; Siroky, Jiri; Kovacova, Viera; Blavet, Hana; Danihelka, Jiri; Oxelman, Bengt; Widmer, Alex; Vyskot, Boris

2013-12-01

302

Challenges in Biodegradation of Trace Organic Contaminants—Gasoline Oxygenates and Sex Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in analytical methods have led to the identifica- tion of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental effects. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated with the biodegradation of trace organic contaminants. Gasoline oxygenates can be present in groundwater, alone, or commingled with xylene, at

M. T. Suidan; M. Esperanza; M. Zein; P. McCauley; R. C. Brenner; A. D. Venosa

303

On same-sex sexual behaviors among male bachelors in rural China: evidence from a female shortage context.  

PubMed

Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health. PMID:21816858

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin

2012-03-01

304

Caenorhabditis elegans Histone Methyltransferase MET-2 Shields the Male X Chromosome from Checkpoint Machinery and Mediates Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation  

PubMed Central

Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase) MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.

Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

2011-01-01

305

Additional evidence for the genomic imprinting model of sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis: isolation of biparental diploid males after X-ray mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary sex-determining signal in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis is not known. In haplodiploid reproduction, unfertilized eggs typically develop into uniparental haploid males and fertilized eggs into biparental diploid females. Although this reproductive strategy is common to all Hymenoptera, sex-determination is not strictly specified by the number of genome copies inherited. Furthermore, primary sex-determining signals differ among haplodiploid species.

C Trent; C Crosby; J Eavey

2006-01-01

306

Genetic method of combating the cabbage root fly. Part II. Localization of factor determining male sex in the cabbage root fly Delia brassicae bouche  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic analysis was conducted of 15 lines of the cabbage root fly with hereditary semisterility in the form of late embryonic lethals (LEL). In 14 lines (93%), the presence of translocations was noted. A high yield of translocations linked with the male sex was obtained, which was caused by the fact that determination of male sex in this species is apparently associated with the largest chromosome 6, and not with chromosome 1, as was believed previously.

Samoilov, Yu.B.

1986-05-01

307

The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

O'Neill, Lisa

2011-01-01

308

Sexually Transmitted Infections among Heterosexual Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China. Methods/Principal Findings Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36–1.28%) for HIV, 2.91% (2.17–3.89%) for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46–3.17%) for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94–12.72%) for chlamydia. Conclusions/Significance The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients’ sexual risk and disease prevalence in China’s STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.

McLaughlin, Megan M.; Chow, Eric P. F.; Wang, Cheng; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Huang, Jennifer Z.; Wang, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Tucker, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

309

Sex, stress and social status: patterns in fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolites in male Ethiopian wolves.  

PubMed

Ethiopian wolves, Canis simensis, live in large multi-male family packs, where males are philopatric and do not disperse. Within a pack, mating and breeding is largely monopolized by the dominant male and female, although extra-pack copulations are common, and subordinate males may sire pups in neighboring packs. Regardless of paternity, all males in a pack help rear the pups. We non-invasively studied patterns in fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations using radioimmunoassays of fecal samples collected from nine wild male Ethiopian wolves between August 2007 and February 2008. We tested the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis, namely that fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations would be higher during the annual mating season, which is the portion of the reproductive cycle when mating and increased aggression typically occur, and lower when there were pups in the pack for which to care. Contrary to the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis, we did not detect patterns in fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations associated with reproductive stage during our study period. Similarly, we found no patterns associated with reproductive stage in male fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Dominant males had higher average fecal testosterone and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations than did subordinates, which may be related to higher rates of aggression and mate guarding in dominant males of group-living canids, a pattern also reported in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. PMID:22841807

van Kesteren, Freya; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Millar, Robert; Argaw, Kifle; Macdonald, David W; Paris, Monique

2012-10-01

310

Human males appear more prepared than females to resolve conflicts with same-sex peers.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate sex differences in proximate mechanisms that precede the termination of conflicts. In Study 1, we asked women and men to report their intensity of anger in response to hypothetical, common transgressions involving a same-sex roommate. Direct verbal and physical aggression elicited the highest-intensity anger for both sexes, although overall women reported more intense anger than men to all transgressions. In Study 2, we examined sex differences in subjective and physiological reactions to a conflict using a role-playing scenario. Following recall of a conflict involving direct aggression and role-playing a reaction to it, compared with men, women reported their anger would dissipate less quickly and they would take longer to reconcile. Women also exhibited increased heart rate, but little change in cortisol, whereas men exhibited little change in heart rate but increased cortisol production. We interpret the results as indicating that women are less prepared than men to resolve a conflict with a same-sex peer. PMID:24845881

Benenson, Joyce F; Kuhn, Melissa N; Ryan, Patrick J; Ferranti, Anthony J; Blondin, Rose; Shea, Michael; Charpentier, Chalice; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard W

2014-06-01

311

Sex pheromone of Eupoecilia ambiguella female: Analysis and male response to ternary blend  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex gland extracts and washes ofEupoecilia ambiguella contain 10–20 ng\\/female of the primary sex pheromone componentZ-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9–12:Ac), accompanied by a number of related compounds. These areE-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9–12:Ac),Z-9-dodecen-1-ol (Z9–12:OH), saturated acetates of 12, 16, 18, and 20 carbons, and traces of a doubly unsaturated acetate, tentatively identified as a 9,11-dodecadienyl acetate. Octadecyl acetate predominates among the pheromone-related components, making

Heinrich Arn; Stefan Rauscher; Hans-Rudolf Buser; Patrick M. Guerin

1986-01-01

312

Male inverts and homosexuals: sex discourse in the anarchist Revista Blanca.  

PubMed

Historically, the anarchist movement has placed great emphasis on the personal and the political and the desire to liberate sexual expression. This was no less the case in the Spanish anarchist movement during the first decades of this century. By analyzing one influential anarchist journal of the time, the Revista Blanca, this essay examines the treatment of same-sex eroticism by some Spanish anarchists and attempts to place their understanding and treatment of this in the context of the time. This essay can be viewed as a point of departure for further necessary work on Spanish anarchist views of same-sex sexuality. PMID:8666757

Cleminson, R

1995-01-01

313

Sex Differences in the Perception of Male/Female Unethical Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some research has shown that women's achievements in traditionally masculine fields are devalued. To determine if females would be judged more harshly than males for performing unethical behaviors in order to gain entry in competitive professions, and to examine gender differences in the evaluation of unethical conduct, college students (52 males

Lewis, Katharine H.; Hartnett, John J.

314

Effects of Visual Exposure to the Opposite Sex: Cognitive Aspects of Mate Attraction in Human Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an investigation into the cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Two experiments demonstrate that visual exposure to women (in person or within photo- graphs) can prime large changes in the attitudes, mood states, and personality trait descriptions of male participants. These changes, furthermore, are such that participants show greater conformity to female mate preferences as

James R. Roney

2003-01-01

315

Sry Does Not Fully Sex-Reverse Female into Male Behavior Towards Pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations in mice suggest that the Y-chromosomal genes affect certain behaviors. Here, we studied whether a part of the Y chromosome, the Sxr locus, has an effect on induction of motivation for parental care (pup retrieval) or of parental aggression towards pups (infanticide). XX females, XX males with the Sxr locus on the X chromosome, and XY males of the

Ingrid Reisert; Magdalena Karolczak; Cordian Beyer; Walter Just; Stephen C. Maxson; Günter Ehret

2002-01-01

316

Hepatitis B Does Not Explain Male-Biased Sex Ratios in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work (Oster, 2005) has argued, based on existing medical literature and analysis of cross country data and vaccination programs, that parents who are carriers of hepatitis B have a higher offspring sex ratio (more boys) than non-carrier parents. Further, since a number of Asian countries, China in particular, have high hepatitis B carrier rates, Oster (2005) suggested that hepatitis

Emily Oster; Gang Chen

2008-01-01

317

Effect of Male Sex and Obesity on Platelet Arachidonic Acid in Spontaneous Hypertensive Heart Failure Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is observed in the progression to conges- tive heart failure and, ultimately, in longevity in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats. As platelet activation may impact development of cardiovascular diseases, we studied the effects of obesity and sex on platelet polyunsatu- rated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and its relationship to platelet aggregation in 6-month-old SHHF rats. After a

YIWEN LIU-STRATTON; LYDIA C. MEDEIROS; SYLVIA A. MCCUNE

318

Confidentiality and public protection: Ethical dilemmas in qualitative research with adult male sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the ethical tensions present when engaging in in-depth interviews with convicted sex offenders. Many of the issues described below are similar to those found in other sensitive areas of research. However, confidentiality and public protection are matters that require detailed consideration when the desire to know more about men who have committed serious and harmful offences is

Malcolm Cowburn

2005-01-01

319

Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLORIDA AGENCY FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate (adult men and women) and inappropriate (e.g., 8- to

JORGE R. REYES; T IMOTHY R. VOLLMER; KIMBERLY N. SLOMAN; Astrid Hall; Robert Reed; Greg Jansen; Sam Carr; Kevin Jackson; Michael Stoutimore

2006-01-01

320

Childhood Attachment and Adult Attachment in Incarcerated Adult Male Sex Offenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-eight incarcerated sex offenders were compared with 16 property offenders and 16 nonoffenders on self-report measures of childhood maternal and paternal attachment and adult attachment. Results suggest that insecure childhood attachments may be related to offending behavior generally and that certain combinations of childhood attachment…

Smallbone, Stephen W.; Dadds, Mark R.

1998-01-01

321

The Relationship of Trauma Exposure to Sex Offending Behavior Among Male Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common type of adult and juvenile sex offender treatment utilizes a Relapse Prevention (RP) model. In RP clients learn about their offense cycle with an emphasis on recognizing high-risk situations and negative emotional states that can be precursors or triggers to offending behavior. This study identifies ways that traumatic experiences and trauma-associated feelings can be offense triggers for

Robert A. McMackin; Mary Beth Leisen; John F. Cusack; Joseph LaFratta; Peter Litwin

2002-01-01

322

Factors Associated With Treatment Acceptance and Compliance Among Incarcerated Male Sex Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The files of sex offenders who had been offered treatment at a medium-security state prison were divided into three groups: treatment refusal (n = 59), treatment noncompliance (n = 61), and treatment compliance (n = 36). Demographic, offense-related, clinical, and psychological assessment data were collected. Significant differences were found between groups on years to parole eligibility; plea; relation to victim;

Carl Clegg; William Fremouw; Thomas Horacek; Angel Cole; Rebecca Schwartz

2011-01-01

323

Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

2006-01-01

324

The Effectiveness of Treatment for Male Sex Offenders with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background. A variety of research designs have been employed to explore the efficacy of the wide range of interventions for sex offenders with learning disabilities. This paper reviews these studies to consider the efficacy of such treatments. Methods. Computerized searches and less formal literature gathering led to the identification of 31…

Courtney, Jude; Rose, John

2004-01-01

325

Influence of male sex on disease phenotype in familial rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To examine sex differences in clinical, demographic, and genetic characteristics among a large cohort of patients with familial rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. We studied 1,004 affected members of 467 Caucasian multicase RA families recruited from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium. Standardized information about demographic and clin- ical characteristics was collected from all patients. Affected individuals also underwent radiography

Damini Jawaheer; Raymond F. Lum; Peter K. Gregersen; Lindsey A. Criswell

2006-01-01

326

Sex hormone receptors are expressed in identified respiratory motoneurons in male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex hormones including estrogen, progesterone and testosterone can influence breathing. However, it is not clear whether such hormones exert their effects directly on respiratory motoneurons. We used immunocytochemistry to demonstrate that estrogen receptor ?, estrogen receptor ? and androgen receptor are localized in respiratory motor neurons. Motoneurons in the hypoglossal (XII) and the phrenic nuclei were retrogradely labeled from the

M. Behan; C. F. Thomas

2005-01-01

327

Efficacy of convenience sampling through the internet versus respondent driven sampling among males who have sex with males in Tallinn and Harju County, Estonia: challenges reaching a hidden population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines challenges obtaining representative samples of males who have sex with males (MSM) in Estonia and provides descriptive HIV behavioral data gathered from four cross-sectional surveys; three using the internet, and one using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM in Tallinn and Harju County. Estonian MSM were sampled between March and May in 2004 (n=193), August and

Lisa Grazina Johnston; Aire Trummal; Liilia Lõhmus; Ardi Ravalepik

2009-01-01

328

Sex and the public: Social eavesdropping, sperm competition risk and male mate choice.  

PubMed

Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression ("audience effects"). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) male mate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (sexual activity and attractiveness to females) and respond with reduced expression of mating preferences only "when it matters," i.e., when a sexually competitive rival is present. PMID:21980557

Plath, Martin; Bierbach, David

2011-05-01

329

Opposite-sex housing reactivates the declining GnRH system in aged transgenic male mice with FGF signaling deficiency  

PubMed Central

The continued presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is required for a healthy reproductive lifespan, but factors that maintain postnatal GnRH neurons have not been identified. To begin to understand these factors, we investigated whether 1) fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and 2) interactions with the opposite sex are involved in the maintenance of the postnatal GnRH system. A transgenic mouse model (dnFGFR mouse) with the targeted expression of a dominant-negative FGF receptor (dnFGFR) in GnRH neurons was used to examine the consequence of FGF signaling deficiency on postnatal GnRH neurons. Male dnFGFR mice suffered a significant loss of postnatal GnRH neurons within the first 100 days of life. Interestingly, this loss was reversed after cohabitation with female, but not male, mice for 300–550 days. Along with a rescue in GnRH neuron numbers, opposite-sex housing in dnFGFR males also increased hypothalamic GnRH peptide levels, promoted a more mature GnRH neuronal morphology, facilitated litter production, and enhanced testicular morphology. Last, mice hypomorphic for FGFR3 exhibited a similar pattern of postnatal GnRH neuronal loss as dnFGFR males, suggesting FGF signaling acts, in part, through FGFR3 to enhance the maintenance of the postnatal GnRH system. In summary, we have shown that FGF signaling is required for the continued presence of postnatal GnRH neurons. However, this requirement is not absolute, since sexual interactions can compensate for defects in FGFR signaling, thereby rescuing the declining GnRH system. This suggests the postnatal GnRH system is highly plastic and capable of responding to environmental stimuli throughout adult life.

Chung, Wilson C. J.; Hayes, Tyrone B.; Tsai, Pei-San

2012-01-01

330

Sex-Specific Genetic Structure and Social Organization in Central Asia: Insights from a Multi-Locus Study  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) have been extensively used in order to measure the maternally and paternally inherited genetic structure of human populations, and to infer sex-specific demography and history. Most studies converge towards the notion that among populations, women are genetically less structured than men. This has been mainly explained by a higher migration rate of women, due to patrilocality, a tendency for men to stay in their birthplace while women move to their husband's house. Yet, since population differentiation depends upon the product of the effective number of individuals within each deme and the migration rate among demes, differences in male and female effective numbers and sex-biased dispersal have confounding effects on the comparison of genetic structure as measured by uniparentally inherited markers. In this study, we develop a new multi-locus approach to analyze jointly autosomal and X-linked markers in order to aid the understanding of sex-specific contributions to population differentiation. We show that in patrilineal herder groups of Central Asia, in contrast to bilineal agriculturalists, the effective number of women is higher than that of men. We interpret this result, which could not be obtained by the analysis of mtDNA and NRY alone, as the consequence of the social organization of patrilineal populations, in which genetically related men (but not women) tend to cluster together. This study suggests that differences in sex-specific migration rates may not be the only cause of contrasting male and female differentiation in humans, and that differences in effective numbers do matter.

Segurel, Laure; Martinez-Cruz, Begona; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Balaresque, Patricia; Georges, Myriam; Hegay, Tatiana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Jobling, Mark A.; Heyer, Evelyne; Vitalis, Renaud

2008-01-01

331

Effect of prolonged frequency of mating by the male rat on his fertility and on the sex ratio of his offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barto~, L. and Trojan, S., 1988. Effect of prolonged frequency of mating by the male rat on his fertility and on the sex ratio of his offspring. Anita. Reprod. Sci., 17: 271-279. Sixteen male rats were allowed to mate with five intact primiparous females over a period of 5 days at the beginning (initial mating), middle (second mating) and end

L. BARTOS; S TROJAN

1988-01-01

332

Attitudes towards male and female sex offenders: a comparison of forensic staff, prison officers and the general public in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the attitudes of prison officers, forensic staff and members of the public towards and male and female sex offenders. Participants were provided with a vignette depicting a specific sexual offence committed against either an adult or a child, by either a male or a female perpetrator, and were then asked to complete a scale assessing attitudes to

Caitriona Higgins; Carol Ireland

2009-01-01

333

Perceptions about HIV and condoms and consistent condom use among male clients of commercial sex workers in the Philippines.  

PubMed

Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies. PMID:22773598

Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E

2013-04-01

334

Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female  

PubMed Central

Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon ‘siesta’. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

Isaac, R. Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E.; Shirras, Alan D.

2010-01-01

335

Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2? (500 ?g) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2? injection, cows received GnRH (100 ?g), followed by administration of PGF2? 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2? injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2? injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P < 0.05), but conception rate was higher in primiparous vs multiparous cows (P < 0.05). Estradiol administration improved estrus detection rate and fertility (P < 0.05); moreover, it increased secondary sex ratio (adjusted odds ratio: 1.645; P = 0.017). Exposure to heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P < 0.05), and altered secondary sex ratio toward males (adjusted odds ratio: 2.863; P = 0.012). In conclusion, the present study revealed that estradiol administration before insemination could improve fertility and increase the probability of calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio. PMID:24906936

Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

2014-07-01

336

Stabilization of  -catenin in XY gonads causes male-to-female sex-reversal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mammalian sex determination, expression of the Y-linked gene Sry shifts the bipotential gonad toward a testicular fate by upregulating a feed-forward loop between FGF9 and SOX9 to establish SOX9 expression in somatic cells. We previously proposed that these signals are mutually antagonistic with counteracting signals in XX gonads and that a shift in the balance of these factors leads

Danielle M. Maatouk; Leo DiNapoli; Ashley Alvers; Keith L. Parker; Makoto M. Taketo; Blanche Capel

2008-01-01

337

Sex Pheromone of the Bud Borer Epinotia aporema : Chemical Identification and Male Behavioral Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epinotia aporema (Walsingham) is a Neotropical pest of legumes in southern South America. Its importance has increased during the last decade\\u000a owing to the significant growth of soybean production in the region. Monitoring of E. aporema is difficult due to the cryptic behavior of the larvae, and hence, chemical control is carried out preventively. We analyzed\\u000a the female-produced sex pheromone

Paula Altesor; Carmen Rossini; Paulo H. G. Zarbin; Andrés González

2009-01-01

338

The effectiveness of treatment for male sex offenders with learning disabilities: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.?A variety of research designs have been employed to explore the efficacy of the wide range of interventions for sex offenders with learning disabilities. This paper reviews these studies to consider the efficacy of such treatments. Methods.?Computerized searches and less formal literature gathering led to the identification of 31 studies that reported outcome. Results.?Many of the studies are methodologically flawed

Jude Courtney; John Rose

2004-01-01

339

HIV Risk Behaviors Among a Sample of Heterosexually Identified Men who Occasionally Have Sex with Another Male and\\/or a Transwoman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discordance between sexual identity and sexual behavior is not new; however, little is known about the HIV risk behaviors of heterosexually identified men who have occasional sex with a male and\\/or a male-to-female transgender woman. Open-ended qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 heterosexually identified men who reported at least one sexual encounter with a male and\\/or a transwoman in the

Cathy J. Reback; Sherry Larkins

2011-01-01

340

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

341

The costs of being male: are there sex-specific effects of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance?  

PubMed

Eukaryotic cells typically contain numerous mitochondria, each with multiple copies of their own genome, the mtDNA. Uniparental transmission of mitochondria, usually via the mother, prevents the mixing of mtDNA from different individuals. While on the one hand, this should resolve the potential for selection for fast-replicating mtDNA variants that reduce organismal fitness, maternal inheritance will, in theory, come with another set of problems that are specifically relevant to males. Maternal inheritance implies that the mitochondrial genome is never transmitted through males, and thus selection can target only the mtDNA sequence when carried by females. A consequence is that mtDNA mutations that confer male-biased phenotypic expression will be prone to evade selection, and accumulate. Here, we review the evidence from the ecological, evolutionary and medical literature for male specificity of mtDNA mutations affecting fertility, health and ageing. While such effects have been discovered experimentally in the laboratory, their relevance to natural populations--including the human population--remains unclear. We suggest that the existence of male expression-biased mtDNA mutations is likely to be a broad phenomenon, but that these mutations remain cryptic owing to the presence of counter-adapted nuclear compensatory modifier mutations, which offset their deleterious effects. PMID:24864311

Beekman, Madeleine; Dowling, Damian K; Aanen, Duur K

2014-07-01

342

Heterogeneity of characteristics, structure, and dynamics of male and hijra sex workers in selected cities of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to describe the characteristics and operational dynamics of male sex workers (MSW) and hijra sex workers (HSWs) in 11 cities across Pakistan in 2011. Methods We report descriptive statistics of self-reported sexual behaviour data from cross-sectional mapping and biological and behavioural surveys conducted among 1431 MSWs and 1415 HSWs in four cities across Pakistan in 2011. Results While Karachi had the largest numbers of MSWs and HSWs, Quetta had the largest relative population sizes, with 3.6?MSWs per 1000 male adults and 3.3?HSWs per 1000 male adults. There was considerable variability in the proportion of HSWs who operate through deras, ranging from 2.2% in Peshawar to 62.7% in Karachi. The number of HSWs per guru varies by city, from 1.5 in Quetta to 16.5?HSWs per guru in Karachi. Among HSWs, the use of mobile phones for solicitation ranged from 37.6% in Quetta to 83% in Peshawar and among MSWs the use of mobile phones ranged from 27% in Karachi to 52% in Quetta. In Quetta, a large proportion of HSWs (41%) find clients through gurus. Client volume tended to be higher among HSWs and among both MSWs and HSWs in Quetta and Peshawar. Condom use with clients was most consistent in Quetta, with 31% of MSWs and 41% of HSWs reporting always using condoms with clients. Peshawar had the greatest proportion reporting never using condoms. Conclusions There is considerable geographic heterogeneity in the characteristics and operational dynamics of MSWs and HSWs across Pakistan.

Thompson, Laura H; Salim, Momina; Baloch, Chaker Riaz; Musa, Nighat; Reza, Tahira; Dar, Nosheen; Arian, Shahzad; Blanchard, James F; Emmanuel, Faran

2013-01-01

343

Birth order, sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation of male and female participants in a BBC internet research project.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relations among sexual orientation, fraternal birth order (number of older brothers), and hand-preference. The participants were 87,798 men and 71,981 women who took part in a Web-based research project sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The results yielded some evidence confirming prior findings that non-right-handedness is associated with homosexuality in men and women, that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, and that the effect of older brothers on sexual orientation is limited to right-handed men. The evidence was weaker than in previous studies, however, probably because the usual relations among the variables of interest were partially obscured by the effects of other factors. Thus, the homosexual men and women had higher rates of non-right-handedness than their heterosexual counterparts, but the strongest handedness finding for both sexes was a marked tendency for participants who described themselves as ambidextrous also to describe themselves as bisexual. The birth order data were strongly affected by a tendency for the male participants to report an excess of older sisters, and the female participants to report an excess of older brothers. Statistical analyses confirmed that this was an artifact of the parental stopping rule, "Continue having children until you have offspring of both sexes." In subsequent analyses, participants were divided into those who did and did not have younger siblings, on the grounds that the data of the former would be less contaminated by the stopping rule. In the former subsample, the right-handed homo/bisexual males showed the typical high ratio of older brothers to older sisters, whereas the non-right-handed homo/bisexual males did not. PMID:17345165

Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

2007-04-01

344

Urethral plug--a new secondary male sex characteristic in rat and other rodents.  

PubMed

The plug is an eosinophilic mass, partly homogenous and partly porous, filling the proximal urethra in rats and occasionally extending into the bladder. Its average weight in 131 adult rats was 0.063 g. These plugs are normally present in the urethra of adult male rats, and this seems to be the case for all laboratory Muridae and Cavidae. The absence of a plug in an adult male may be a sign of abnormality associated with failing health. There is an interesting similarity between the amino acid composition of the content of seminal vesicles, that of the urethral plug, and that of the copulatory vaginal plug in female rodents. PMID:7078062

Kunstýr, I; Küpper, W; Weisser, H; Naumann, S; Messow, C

1982-04-01

345

mgm 1, the earliest sex-specific germline marker in Drosophila, reflects expression of the gene esg in male stem cells.  

PubMed

The pathway that controls sex in Drosophila has been well characterized. The elements of this genetic hierarchy act cell-autonomously in somatic cells. We have previously shown that the sex of germ cells is determined by a different mechanism and that somatic and autonomously acting elements interact to control the choice between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. A target for both types of signals is the enhancer-trap mgm1, which monitors male-specific gene expression in germ cells. Here we report that mgm1 reflects the expression of escargot (esg), a member of the snail gene family, which are transcription factors with zink finger motifs. Genes of this family partially redundantly control a number of processes involving cell fate choices. The regulation of gene expression in germ cells by sex-specific esg enhancers is already seen in embryos. Therefore, autonomous and non-autonomous sex-specific factors that participate in germline sex determination are already present at this early stage. esg is expressed in the male gonad, both in somatic cells and in germline stem cells. We show that esg expression in the male germline is not required for proper sex determination and spermatogenesis, as functional sperm is differentiated by mutant germ cells in wild type hosts. However, somatic esg expression is required for the maintenance of male germline stem cells. PMID:11902678

Streit, Adrian; Bernasconi, Luca; Sergeev, Pavel; Cruz, Alex; Steinmann-Zwicky, Monica

2002-01-01

346

Sexual Fantasies of Adolescent Male Sex Offenders in Residential Treatment: A Descriptive Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attenuating sample of 87 male adolescent sexual offenders logged sexual fantasies during their entire time in therapy. These patients were attending residential treatment and kept a log recording all normal and deviant sexual fantasies which they experienced. Patients recorded which fantasies were interrupted and which fantasies were accompanied by masturbation. Typically, at the beginning of treatment, the reported rate

A. Scott Aylwin; John R. Reddon; Andrew R. Burke

2005-01-01

347

Disorder of sex development (XX male, SRY negative) in a French bulldog  

PubMed Central

A female French bulldog was presented with an enlarged clitoris. Abdominal surgery revealed a normal uterus and gonads resembling testes. Histologically, the gonads contained seminiferous tubules. The karyotype was XX, and the SRY gene was not detected. A diagnosis of XX male, SRY negative disorder of sexual development was made.

Silversides, David W.; Benoit, Jean-Marc; Collard, Fabien; Gilson, Catherine

2011-01-01

348

Night flight towards a sex pheromone source by male Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHEROMONES have been used in population monitoring traps1 and in control by `confusion'2, and a good understanding of how the male finds the female is of great practical importance in the development of these techniques. The problem of insect orientation towards distant odour sources is also intrinsically interesting and much work has been done with wind tunnels to study the

J. Murlis; B. W. Bettany

1977-01-01

349

Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

Donham, R. S.

1979-01-01

350

Age, sex, reproduction, and spatial organization of lynxes colonizing northeastern Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1972 through 1978, lynxes (Felis lynx) emigrating from Canada were studied in northeastern Minnesota. Fourteen individuals were radio-tracked, 8 wefe ear-tagged, and 49 carcasses were examined. Sex ratios of the samples were equal during the first years of the study, but females predominated later. At least half of the radiotagged lynxes were killed by humans; no natural mortality was detected. Home range sizes ranged from 51 to 122 km2 for females and 145 to 243 km2 for males, up to 10 times the sizes of those reported by other workers. Ranges of females tended to overlap. Males and females appeared to be segregated in the population.

Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

351

Analysis of Male Pheromones That Accelerate Female Reproductive Organ Development  

PubMed Central

Male odors can influence a female's reproductive physiology. In the mouse, the odor of male urine results in an early onset of female puberty. Several volatile and protein pheromones have previously been reported to each account for this bioactivity. Here we bioassay inbred BALB/cJ females to study pheromone-accelerated uterine growth, a developmental hallmark of puberty. We evaluate the response of wild-type and mutant mice lacking a specialized sensory transduction channel, TrpC2, and find TrpC2 function to be necessary for pheromone-mediated uterine growth. We analyze the relative effectiveness of pheromones previously identified to accelerate puberty through direct bioassay and find none to significantly accelerate uterine growth in BALB/cJ females. Complementary to this analysis, we have devised a strategy of partial purification of the uterine growth bioactivity from male urine and applied it to purify bioactivity from three different laboratory strains. The biochemical characteristics of the active fraction of all three strains are inconsistent with that of previously known pheromones. When directly analyzed, we are unable to detect previously known pheromones in urine fractions that generate uterine growth. Our analysis indicates that pheromones emitted by males to advance female puberty remain to be identified.

Flanagan, Kelly A.; Webb, William; Stowers, Lisa

2011-01-01

352

Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths. PMID:22307535

Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

2012-03-01

353

Long-term follow-up of “sex change” in 13 male-to-female transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen male-to-female transsexuals were investigated in an intensive interview study. The follow-up period varied between 6 and 25 years, with an average of 12 years. Surgical outcome was disappointing, and only one-third of the patients where a vaginal construction was carried out had a functioning vagina. The importance of patient cooperation postoperatively is pointed out and reasons for noncooperation are

Gunnar Lindemalm; Dag Körlin; Nils Uddenberg

1986-01-01

354

The Reported Sex and Surgery Satisfactions of 28 Postoperative Male-to-Female Transsexual Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1980 to July 1997 sixty-one male-to-femalegender transformation surgeries were performed at ouruniversity center by one author (A.M.). Data werecollected from patients who had surgery up to 1994 (n = 47) to obtain a minimum follow-up of 3years; 28 patients were contacted. A mail questionnairewas supplemented by personal interviews with 11 patientsand telephone interviews with remaining patients to obtain and

Jamil Rehman; Simcha Lazer; Alexandru E. Benet; Leah C. Schaefer; Arnold Melman

1999-01-01

355

Gender Constructions of Male Sex Offenders in Germany: Narrative Analysis from Group Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to analyze how male sexual offenders construct mental images of masculinity and femininity to provide\\u000a insight into therapeutic treatment for such patients. The material examined in this study was comprised of 21 videotaped prison\\u000a group therapy sessions in which the participating sexual offenders talked about their crimes and biographies. A qualitative\\u000a data analysis software was used

Kathrin MoertlMichael; Michael B. Buchholz; Franziska Lamott

2010-01-01

356

Project Alpha: A culturally appropriate approach to adolescent male sex education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States today, adolescents face unacceptably high rates of mortality and morbidity due to the contraction of HIV\\/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy. In view of these rates, there is a need for applied preventive interventions to delay adolescent sexual behavior until adulthood. Project Alpha was a school-adopted, quasi-experimental program for adolescent male students attending Sharpstown High

Ronald Joseph Peters

1998-01-01

357

Sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, and bone turnover markers in male osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of estrogen deficiency in male osteoporosis is still under discussion. One hundred five subjects, 65 of them suffering from osteoporosis (mean age, 53.9 years) and 40 age-matched controls were studied. Osteoporosis was defined by a T score < ?2.5 in the lumbar spine or at the femoral neck. Forty-one (63.1%) of the subjects had a history of low-energy

C Lormeau; M d'Herbomez; P Pigny; B Duquesnoy; B Cortet

2004-01-01

358

Behavior of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) induced by sex pheromone and analogs in a wind tunnel.  

PubMed

The behavioral response of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) to the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1) and structurally related analogs in a wind tunnel is presented. Stereomerically pureZ-1 and a mixture with theE isomer in 80:20 ratio elicited similar attraction responses at 1 µg and higher. The activity was dose-dependent, being optimum at 1 µg with 90% and 80% of males contacting with the source in the presence of theZ-1 andZ/E-1, respectively. 11-Hexadecynyl acetate (2) functioned as a pheromone mimic, being able to induce the complete mate-finding behavioral sequence, although its activity was much lower than that of the pheromone. (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-ynyl alcohol (3) and, particularly, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal (4) were potent inhibitors of the upwind flight response in mixtures withZ-1 in 99:1, 95:5, and 91:9 ratios. (Z)-1,1,1-Trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (5) also inhibited the response of males to pheromone, particularly in the source contact behavior. Comparison with activity displayed by analogs in field tests is also reported. PMID:24233899

Quero, C; Camps, F; Guerrero, A

1995-12-01

359

Sex of the cell dictates its response: differential gene expression and sensitivity to cell death inducing stress in male and female cells  

PubMed Central

Sexual dimorphisms are typically attributed to the hormonal differences arising once sex differentiation has occurred. However, in some sexually dimorphic diseases that differ in frequency but not severity, the differences cannot be logically connected to the sex hormones. Therefore, we asked whether any aspect of sexual dimorphism could be attributed to chromosomal rather than hormonal differences. Cells taken from mice at d 10.5 postconception (PC) before sexual differentiation, at d 17.5 PC after the first embryonic assertion of sexual hormones, and at postnatal day 17 (puberty) were cultured and exposed to 400 ?M ethanol or 20 ?M camptothecin or to infection with influenza A virus (multiplicity of infection of 5). The results showed that untreated male and female cells of the same age grew at similar rates and manifested similar morphology. However, they responded differently to the applied stressors, even before the production of fetal sex hormones. Furthermore, microarray and qPCR analyses of the whole 10.5 PC embryos also revealed differences in gene expression between male and female tissues. Likewise, the exposure of cells isolated from fetuses and adolescent mice to the stressors and/or sex hormones yielded expression patterns that reflected chromosomal sex, with ethanol feminizing male cells and masculinizing female cells. We conclude that cells differ innately according to sex irrespective of their history of exposure to sex hormones. These differences may have consequences in the course of sexually dimorphic diseases and their therapy.—Penaloza, C., Estevez, B., Orlanski, S., Sikorska, M., Walker, R., Smith, C., Smith, B., Lockshin R. A., Zakeri, Z. Sex of the cell dictates its response: differential gene expression and sensitivity to cell death inducing stress in male and female cells.

Penaloza, Carlos; Estevez, Brian; Orlanski, Shari; Sikorska, Marianna; Walker, Roy; Smith, Catherine; Smith, Brandon; Lockshin, Richard A.; Zakeri, Zahra

2009-01-01

360

Demographic and attitudinal variables related to high-risk behaviors in Asian males who have sex with other men.  

PubMed

Although AIDS is spreading rapidly in minority communities, little is known about attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to AIDS and HIV in the Asian community. The purpose of this study was to examine these variables in a sample of gay Asian males, as well as to investigate the relationship between knowledge, sources of information, culturally influenced attitudes and high-risk behaviors in this population. Results from a sample of 60 young Asian men who self-identified as "having sex with other men" indicated they were generally knowledgeable about methods of transmission and prevention, and appeared linked to a large information network that included informal sources such as peers and formal sources. However, significant percentages held culturally biased views of AIDS, such as believing race of partner or one's own gender role in the sexual encounter determined level of risk; and one third of the sample did not use condoms regularly. Having been tested for HIV was associated with holding less traditional cultural beliefs and a higher sexual activity level. Open communication about safer sexual practices was associated with monogamous as opposed to multiple relationships and with decreased tendency to engage in alcohol-related unprotected sex. Variance in overall risk was predicted by demographic variables such as education, age, and level of sexual activity, rather than by the attitudinal factors measured. Limitations of this exploratory study include a time-limited subject recruitment period and consequent small sample size, a homogeneous sample weighted toward young, well-educated, and middle-class respondents, and the exclusion of non-English speaking individuals. Nevertheless, study findings suggest that educational outreach targeting Asians who have sex with other men needs to address inaccurate cultural beliefs about HIV/AIDS, emphasize consistent condom use, and encourage models of open communication with partners about safer sexual practices. PMID:10743512

Shapiro, J; Vives, G

1999-11-01

361

Being drunk and high during sex is not associated with condom use behaviours: a study of high-risk young Black males.  

PubMed

Objective To assess the relationship between the frequency of being drunk and high during sex, and condom use errors and problems (CUEP) among a sample of high-risk young Black males recruited from the United States. Methods: Data were collected in clinics treating sexually transmissible infections in three cities in the southern United States. Males 15-23 years of age (n=697) who identified as African-American and reported recent (past 2 months) condom use were eligible. Measures of alcohol and drug use, as well as condom use behaviours were assessed by audio-computer assisted self-interview. Eighteen CUEP were included in this assessment. Results: Sixteen bivariate correlations were obtained. The magnitude of the coefficients was small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.13. Only three were significant. These were positive associations between the frequency of being drunk and the frequency of unprotected vaginal sex, as well as the frequency of the 18-item measure of CUEP. A significant correlation was also found between the frequency of being high during sex and the frequency of unprotected vaginal sex. Adjustments for age did not change the findings. Conclusions: Interventions designed to promote safer sex behaviours among young Black males attending sexually transmissible infection clinics are no more likely to benefit patients through the inclusion of messages and training attempting to dissuade the use of alcohol and drugs before or during sex. PMID:24588939

Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie; Graham, Cynthia A; Yarber, William L

2014-03-01

362

Loss of R-spondin1 and Foxl2 amplifies female-to-male sex reversal in XX mice.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, 2 main genetic pathways have been shown to regulate ovarian development. Indeed, a loss of function mutations in Rspo1 and Foxl2 promote partial female-to-male sex reversal. In mice, it has been shown that the secreted protein RSPO1 is involved in ovarian differentiation and the transcription factor FOXL2 is required for follicular formation. Here, we analysed the potential interactions between these 2 genetic pathways and have shown that while Rspo1 expression seems to be independent of Foxl2 up-regulation, Foxl2 expression partly depends of Rspo1 signalisation. This suggests that different Foxl2-positive somatic cell lineages exist within the ovaries. In addition, a combination of both mutated genes in XX Foxl2(-/-)/Rspo1(-/-) gonads promotes sex reversal, detectable at earlier stages than in XX Rspo1(-/-) mutants. Ectopic development of the steroidogenic lineage is more pronounced in XX Foxl2(-/-)/Rspo1(-/-) gonads than in XX Rspo1(-/-) embryos, suggesting that Foxl2 is involved in preventing ectopic steroidogenesis in foetal ovaries. PMID:22116255

Auguste, A; Chassot, A-A; Grégoire, E P; Renault, L; Pannetier, M; Treier, M; Pailhoux, Eric; Chaboissier, M-C

2011-01-01

363

Are Female Sex Workers Able to Negotiate Condom Use with Male Clients? The Case of Mobile FSWs in Four High HIV Prevalence States of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs) is a key intervention in India’s National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs’ ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. Methods Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs’ ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. Results A majority of FSWs (60%) reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. Conclusion FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs’ ability to negotiate condom use.

Bharat, Shalini; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Roy, Suchismita; Saggurti, Niranjan

2013-01-01

364

Regret after sex reassignment surgery in a male-to-female transsexual: a long-term follow-up.  

PubMed

This case report describes a four-decade presentation of a non-homosexual gender dysphoric male patient. The case material was collected from two main sources. One of the authors had weekly therapy sessions with the patient over a period of 2 years almost 15 years after sex reassignment surgery. Information was also gained from the patient's medical records covering the period from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. Over the years, the patient fulfilled the criteria for different diagnoses: overanxious reaction of childhood, fetishism and transvestism during adolescence, and transsexualism during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this report was to shed light on aspects of regret, its manifestation in a male-to-female transsexual with psychiatric co-morbidity, and to show the complexity of the process of adjustment when regret is involved. The present case is an argument for a strict interpretation of the Standards of Care provided by the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association in terms of evaluating patients' mental health, apart from the evaluation of the gender identity disorder, and the patients' subsequent need for treatment interventions. PMID:16900416

Olsson, Stig-Eric; Möller, Anders

2006-08-01

365

Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyInvestigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a post-menopausal rat model using ovariectomized females.

Anderson J. Martino-Andrade; Rosana N. Morais; Katherinne M. Spercoski; Stefani C. Rossi; Marina F. Vechi; Munisa Golin; Natália F. Lombardi; Cláudio S. Greca; Paulo R. Dalsenter

2010-01-01

366

The Influences of Attribution, Context, and Heterosexual Self-Presentation on Perceived Appropriateness of Self-Disclosure in Same-Sex Male Friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although same-sex male friendships are often characterized as relatively non-disclosive, context normativeness and heterosexual self-presentation may explain variation in the attribution process affecting self-disclosure. In this study, 130 heterosexual men completed a self-presentation scale, read scenarios depicting self-disclosure among male friends in more and less normative contexts, and rated disclosure appropriateness and likely person and situation attributions in each context.

Jonathan M. Bowman

2009-01-01

367

Behavioral responses ofSpodoptera littoralis males to sex pheromone components and virgin females in wind tunnel.  

PubMed

The major component of the sex pheromone of femaleSpodoptera littoralis, (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (1), elicited all steps of the male behavioral sequence, i.e., wing fanning and taking flight, oriented upwind flight and arrival to the middle of the tunnel, close approach and contact with the source. The activity was equivalent to that elicited by virgin females. In the range of doses tested, the dosage of1 had no significant effect on the number of source contacts. Male response was significantly affected by light intensity, being optimum at 3 lux. Activity of the minor components (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (2), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (3), tetradecyl acetate (4), (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (5), and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (6) was significantly lower than that of the major component when assayed individually. In multicomponent blends compound4 appeared to strongly decrease the number of males arrested at the source, the effect being particularly important when compound5 was present in the blend. Results of single sensillum experiments confirmed the existence of two main physiologically distinct sensillar types. The most common type of sensilla contained a neuron that responded specifically to compound1. A second type of sensilla, located laterally on the ventral sensory surface, contained two receptor neurons responding to compound6 and to (Z)-9-tetradecenol. Among short sensilla, one hair responded to compound4 and could represent a minor sensillar type. No sensory neuron was found to detect the other minor pheromone compounds2, 3, and5. PMID:24225930

Quero, C; Lucas, P; Renou, M; Guerrero, A

1996-06-01

368

Male-Dependent Doubly Uniparental Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA and Female-Dependent Sex-Ratio in the Mussel Mytilus Galloprovincialis  

PubMed Central

We have investigated sex ratio and mitochondrial DNA inheritance in pair-matings involving five female and five male individuals of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The percentage of male progeny varied widely among families and was found to be a characteristic of the female parent and independent of the male to which it was mated. Thus sex-ratio in Mytilus appears to be independent of the nuclear genotype of the sperm. With a few exceptions, doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mtDNA was observed in all families fathered by four of the five males: female and male progeny contained the mother's mtDNA (the F genome), but males contained also the father's paternal mtDNA (the M genome). Two hermaphrodite individuals found among the progeny of these crosses contained the F mitochondrial genome in the female gonad and both the F and M genomes in the male gonad. All four families fathered by the fifth male showed the standard maternal inheritance (SMI) of animal mtDNA: both female and male progeny contained only the maternal mtDNA. These observations illustrate the intimate linkage between sex and mtDNA inheritance in species with DUI and suggest different major roles for each gender. We propose a model according to which development of a male gonad requires the presence in the early germ cells of an agent associated with sperm-derived mitochondria, these mitochondria are endowed with a paternally encoded replicative advantage through which they overcome their original minority in the fertilized egg and this advantage (and, therefore, the chance of an early entrance into the germ line) is countered by a maternally encoded egg factor.

Saavedra, C.; Reyero, M. I.; Zouros, E.

1997-01-01

369

Risk Factors for HIV/Syphilis Infection and Male Circumcision Practices and Preferences among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate factors associated with HIV infection and the frequency and willingness of male circumcision among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu city, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey provided information on participants' demographics, risk behaviors, circumcision, and uptake of HIV prevention services. Results. Of 570 participants, 13.3% were infected with HIV and 15.9% with syphilis. An estimated 43.0% of respondents reported having unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and 58.9% reported having ?2 male sexual partners in the past 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that syphilis, more male sex partners, predominantly receptive anal intercourse, and exclusively receptive male sex were associated with HIV infection. Higher level of education and peer education service were inversely associated with HIV infection. Nearly a fifth (18.0%) of participants were circumcised. More than half of uncircumcised participants expressed willingness to be circumcised. Conclusion. This study reveals a high prevalence of HIV and syphilis among MSM in Chengdu province of China. The frequency of unprotected receptive anal intercourse and multiple male sexual partnerships highlight the urgency for an effective comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. Although the willingness to accept male circumcision (MC) is high, further research is needed to assess the protective effective of MC among MSM.

Zhang, Linglin; Li, Tian; Lai, Wenhong; Jia, Yujiang; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Do, Mai; Huang, Wanli; Du, Shuping; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Jiushun; Liang, Shu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Yanqing

2014-01-01

370

The Male-Female Health-Survival Paradox and Sex Differences in Cohort Life Expectancy in Utah, Denmark and Sweden 1850-1910  

PubMed Central

Purpose In Utah, prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviours are lower than in most other male populations while women experience higher mortality risk due to higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Methods Life tables from Utah, Denmark and Sweden, were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born 1850-1910. Results The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared to Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately two years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at age 50 were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. Conclusions The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing towards biological mechanisms, or other unmeasured risk factors.

Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R.

2013-01-01

371

Sex chromosome mosaicism in males carrying Y chromosome long arm deletions.  

PubMed

Microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq) are a common cause of male infertility. Since large structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome are commonly associated with a 45,XO/46,XY chromosomal mosaicism, we studied whether submicroscopic Yq deletions could also be associated with the development of 45,XO cell lines. We studied blood samples from 14 infertile men carrying a Yq microdeletion as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 6), in which karyotype analysis demonstrated a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and group 2 (n = 8) with apparently a normal 46,XY karyotype. 45,XO cells were identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromeric probes. Lymphocytes from 11 fertile men were studied as controls. In addition, sperm cells were studied in three oligozoospermic patients in group 2. Our results showed that large and submicroscopic Yq deletions were associated with significantly increased percentages of 45,XO cells in lymphocytes and of sperm cells nullisomic for gonosomes, especially for the Y chromosome. Moreover, two isodicentric Y chromosomes, classified as normal by cytogenetic methods, were detected. Therefore, Yq microdeletions may be associated with Y chromosomal instability leading to the formation of 45,XO cell lines. PMID:11098026

Siffroi, J P; Le Bourhis, C; Krausz, C; Barbaux, S; Quintana-Murci, L; Kanafani, S; Rouba, H; Bujan, L; Bourrouillou, G; Seifer, I; Boucher, D; Fellous, M; McElreavey, K; Dadoune, J P

2000-12-01

372

Sex, contraception and childbearing among high-risk youth: do different factors influence males and females?  

PubMed

The correlates of high-risk adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated through use of data from the 1979-92 waves of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the linked 1994 young adult data file on their children. The sample was comprised of 959 youth, most of whom were 14-18 years old at the time of the 1994 survey, who were the oldest child of the original female respondents. The analysis of risk behaviors was restricted to the 483 youth known to be sexually active. Compared to their non-sexually-active counterparts, sexually active youth had lower family incomes, mothers with lower educational attainment, and mothers who themselves became sexually active at a young age (mean, 15.5 years). Sexual activity at an early age was further associated with substance abuse, a view of oneself as a risk taker, and a history of running away from home. Early age at first coitus, nonuse of contraception, and adolescent childbearing were significantly linked with depression, feeling like a failure, and little sense of control over one's life in female respondents. In contrast, sexually active teen males reported low levels of depression and felt in control of their lives. After parenthood, tentative evidence of maturity emerged for both genders. Young mothers reduced their alcohol consumption and spent less time with peers who drank; young fathers exhibited lower levels of willingness to take risks, higher depression, and greater involvement in socially productive activities. PMID:9711453

Kowaleski-Jones, L; Mott, F L

1998-01-01

373

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra  

PubMed Central

Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17?-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5?-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5?-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ER? and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ER? mRNA down-regulation and ER? mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5? reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

2012-01-01

374

Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acute oral toxicity potential of the explosives by-product, 1-acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (SEX) was determined in male and female albino Fisher 334 rats by using a single dose, free choice feeding method. The study was conducted...

C. W. White E. M. Zimmerman

1984-01-01

375

Male adolescent sex offenders against children: similarities and differences between those offenders with and those without a history of sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares a defined sample of male adolescents (n=36) with regard to their personal development, family characteristics and the types of offence they committed. Adolescent sex offenders with (n=16) and without (n=20) a history of sexual abuse who had offended against children were investigated during ongoing criminal proceedings by means of questionnaires and intelligence tests. The most important characteristic

PETER HUMMEL; VOLKER THÖMKE; HARTMUT A. OLDENBÜRGER; FRIEDRICH SPECHT

2000-01-01

376

Trends in Infectious Diseases and the Male to Female Ratio: Possible Clues to Changes in Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a priority population for HIV care and prevention programs. This report describes HIV and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) trends among MSM in metropolitan Atlanta by analyzing nine databases. We describe the use of the male-to-female (M:F) ratio, a surrogate marker for MSM in databases without…

Beltrami, John F.; Shouse, R. Luke; Blake, Paul A.

2005-01-01

377

Induction and suppression of murine CYP-mediated biotransformation by dithianon: organ- and sex-related differences.  

PubMed

With the aim of evaluating the co-carcinogenic properties of dithianon, the regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone was used as a multibiomarker of effect for cytochrome P450 (CYP) changes. CYP-catalysed reactions have been studied in liver, kidney and lung microsomes from male and female Swiss albino CD1 mice treated i.p. with single (3 or 6 mg/kg body wt.) or repeated (3 mg/kg body wt. daily for 3 days) doses of this fungicide. Induction or suppression was recorded under various situations in different organs and sexes. In liver, all testosterone hydroxylase (TH) activities were increased in the single treatment from 2.8- (6beta-, 16alpha- and 16beta-TH activities) to 16-fold (2beta-TH activity) in males at the lower dose. In contrast, activities were reduced from 33.3% (16beta- and 17-TH activities, lower dose) to 66.4% (16beta-TH activity, higher dose) in females. In kidney, a similar pattern of modulation was achieved: induction from 2.9- to 5-fold (6beta- and 2alpha-TH activities, higher and lower doses, respectively) in males; suppression from 47.4 to 50.2% (2alpha- and 2beta-TH activities, either at lower or higher doses) in females. In lung, a significant induction ranging from 7.1- to 29.3-fold (16alpha- and 2alpha-TH activities, respectively, lower dose) in males, and up to a 7-fold increase (2beta-TH activity, higher dose) in females was obtained. After repeated treatment, hepatic 6beta-, 16beta-, 2alpha- and 2beta-TH activities were reduced up to approximately 60% in males, whereas no effect was seen in females. In extrahepatic tissues, a generalized increase of different THs was observed. The increase of 6beta-TH activity (CYP3A-linked), one of the most representative isoforms in humans, was sustained in liver and kidney by means of Western immunoblotting, using rabbit polyclonal antibodies anti CYP3A1/2. On the whole, a complex pattern of induction/suppression of CYP-dependent reactions was achieved depending on sex and tissue. The data are consistent with co-toxic, co-carcinogenic and promoting potentials of this fungicide and provide information of interest in evaluating the risk associated with human exposure. PMID:10454242

Pozzetti, L; Paolini, M; Barillari, J; Cantelli-Forti, G

1999-07-01

378

Same sex, no sex, and unaware sex in neurotoxicology.  

PubMed

Males and females of virtually all species differ in how they respond to their environment. Because such differences exist in almost all biological realms, including disease patterns and therapeutic outcomes, they have evoked calls by various bodies to incorporate their assessment in research. Neurobehavioral indices pose special questions because, unlike outwardly visible markers, they are described by complex functional outcomes or subtle alterations in brain structure. These divergent responses arise because they are inscribed in the genome itself and then by endocrine mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation of the brain during development and operate throughout life. Other organ systems that exhibit sex differences include the liver, an important consideration for neurotoxicology because it may process many toxic chemicals differentially in males and females. Despite the scope and pervasiveness of sex differences, however, they are disregarded by much of neurotoxicology research. Males predominate in behavioral experiments, few such experiments study both sexes, some investigators fail to even describe the sex of their subjects, and in vitro studies tend to wholly ignore sex, even for model systems aimed at neurological disorders that display marked sex differences. The public is acutely aware of sex differences in behavior, as attested by its appetite for books on the topic. It closely follows debates about the proportion of women in professions that feature science and mathematics. Neurotoxicology, especially in the domain of laboratory research, will be hindered in its ability to translate its findings into human health measures if it assigns sex differences to a minor role. It must also be sensitive to how such debates are framed. Often, the differences evoking the most discussion are subtle in scope. They do not lend themselves to the typical analyses conducted by experimenters; that is, reliance on mean differences and null hypothesis testing. PMID:20875453

Weiss, Bernard

2011-10-01

379

Accessory olfactory neural Fos responses to a conditioned environment are blocked in male mice by vomeronasal organ removal  

PubMed Central

The ability of an anesthetized estrous female to induce a conditioned place preference (CPP) response was assessed in male mice from which the vomeronasal organ (VNO) had either been removed (VNOx) or left intact (VNOi) in an initial effort to assess the possible contribution of VNO-accessory olfactory inputs to the intrinsically rewarding properties of opposite-sex body odorants. Both VNOi and VNOx male mice acquired a CPP after repeated pairing of an initially non-preferred test chamber with an anesthetized estrous female mouse, suggesting that odorants detected by the main olfactory system and/or visual and tactile cues from the anesthetized estrous female can compensate for absent VNO inputs to establish a CPP. Subsequent exposure to this conditioning chamber alone caused significant increases in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the mitral and granule cell layers of the accessory olfactory bulb as well as in the medial amygdala and ventral tegmental area of VNOi but not of VNOx males. These results suggest that activity in distal segments of the VNO-accessory olfactory pathway, in addition to the mesolimbic dopamine reward system, can be conditioned to respond to non-odor cues.

Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

2008-01-01

380

Sex-Role Stereotyping and Male-Female Character Distribution in Popular, Prestigious, and Sex-Role Defining Children's Literature from 1959 to 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explored the extent and kind of sex-role stereotyping in popular, prestigious, and sex-role defining children's picture books printed between 1959 and 1972. The sample consisted of two categories of popular children's picture books, best-selling golden books and "New York Times" children's best-sellers, one category of Caldecott…

Fraad, Harriet

381

Determination of genetic sex in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using the male-linked growth hormone pseudogene by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

This study used a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method based on the growth hormone pseudogene (GHp) in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to determine genetic sex. The GHp is present as a single copy in the genome of the male chinook salmon but is absent in the female, providing a means of using this real-time qPCR method to discriminate genetic sex. Comparisons between genomic DNA samples from 2 geographically distinct populations of chinook salmon (Columbia River, Washington, and Yukon River, Alaska) showed, within each population examined, that the males were clearly differentiated from the females. There were no interpopulation differences between males or females. The advantages of this real-time qPCR method are that it is rapid, is amenable to high sample throughput, and provides an accurate numerical value that allows comparisons between samples by statistical methods. PMID:14612987

Nagler, James J; Cavileer, Tim; Steinhorst, Kirk; Devlin, Robert H

2004-01-01

382

Sex Differences in Lopinavir (LPV) and Ritonavir (RTV) Pharmacokinetics (PKs) Among HIV-infected Females and Males  

PubMed Central

Objectives We compared the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) between female and males. Methods This two-step, multicenter, pharmacokinetic study enrolled HIV-infected adults on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) capsules (400/100mg BID) plus 1 or more NRTIs. All subjects underwent 12 hour pharmacokinetic sampling. The PK sampling was repeated in subjects receiving the LPV/r tablet formulation. Results Step 1 enrolled 37 women and 40 men; step 2 included 42 subjects from step 1 plus 35 new participants (39 women and 38 men). LPV pharmacokinetics in females and males were not significantly different with either formulation. Females had significantly higher median RTV AUC0–12h with both the soft gel capsule and tablet formulations (SGC:5395 vs. 4119 ng*hr/ml, p=0.026; tablet 5310 vs. 3941 ng*hr/ml, p=0.012), higher median Cmax (SGC:802 vs. 635 ng/mL, p=0.032; tablet: 773 vs. 570 ng/ml, p=0.006)) and lower median CL/F (SGC:18.54 vs. 24.31 L/hour, p=0.026; tablet: 18.83 vs. 25.37 L/hour, p=0.012). RTV CL/F was slower in females after weight adjustment with both formulations. Conclusion The pharmacokinetics of LPV in the SGC and tablet formulations are comparable in HIV infected subjects. Females had higher RTV AUC0–12h and lower CL/F with both formulations. The mechanism of the sex difference in RTV CL/F warrants elucidation.

Umeh, OC; Currier, JS; Park, JG; Cramer, Y; Hermes, AE; Fletcher, CV

2012-01-01

383

Do Male and Female Cowbirds See Their World Differently? Implications for Sex Differences in the Sensory System of an Avian Brood Parasite  

PubMed Central

Background Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning) of brown-headed cowbirds. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. Conclusions Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception). Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.

Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Ojeda, Agustin; Deisher, Marcella; Burry, Brianna; Baumhardt, Patrice; Stark, Amy; Elmore, Amanda G.; Ensminger, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

384

Dimensionless invariants for the optimal size (age) of sex change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization models have been widely and successfully used in evolutionary ecology to predict the attributes of organisms; perhaps the greatest quantitative success is in the area of sex allocation (sex ratio, sperm versus eggs for hermaphrodites, time as a male (female) for a sex changer), where the fact of having only one mother and one father makes Darwinian fitness a

Eric L. Charnov; Unnur Skúladóttir

2000-01-01

385

Gender and Sex Diversity in Sport Organizations: Introduction to a Special Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Special Issue on gender and sex diversity in sport organizations. In doing so,\\u000a we first provide a brief outline of the extant literature, emphasizing the research and theoretical developments at the macro,\\u000a meso, and micro level of analysis. Based on this framework and review, we allude to the communalities and intricacies

George B. Cunningham; Michael Sagas

2008-01-01

386

Personal or relational? Examining sexual health in the context of HIV serodiscordant same-sex male couples  

PubMed Central

Couples’ ability to adopt a “we” orientation has been associated with optimal health outcomes. This study examined how personal and relational motivations are uniquely associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), protected anal intercourse (PAI), and the absence of sexual activity within HIV-serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n = 116 couples, 232 men) completed questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. Results of a multinomial logistic regression illustrated that sexual satisfaction was positively associated with PAI among HIV-negative partners and negatively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Endorsing a “we” orientation was positively associated with PAI among HIV-positive partners. Findings suggest that HIV-positive partners who espouse a “we” orientation may be willing to forgo their personal interests to protect their HIV-negative partners from HIV transmission. Couples-based interventions are warranted to help strengthen relationship dynamics to enhance the sexual health of serodiscordant couples.

Gamarel, K.E.; Starks, T.J; Dilworth, S.E.; Neilands, T.B.; Taylor, J.M.; Johnson, M.O.

2014-01-01

387

The effects of scale on the costs of targeted HIV prevention interventions among female and male sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgenders in India  

PubMed Central

Background The India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) project is involved in rapid scale-up of HIV-prevention interventions in high-risk populations. This study examines the cost variation of 107 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) implementing targeted interventions, over the start up (defined as period from project inception until services to the key population commenced) and first 2?years of intervention. Methods The Avahan interventions for female and male sex workers and their clients, in 62 districts of four southern states were costed for the financial years 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 using standard costing techniques. Data sources include financial and economic costs from the lead implementing partners (LPs) and subcontracted local implementing NGOs retrospectively and prospectively collected from a provider perspective. Ingredients and step-down allocation processes were used. Outcomes were measured using routinely collected project data. The average costs were estimated and a regression analysis carried out to explore causes of cost variation. Costs were calculated in US$ 2006. Results The total number of registered people was 134?391 at the end of 2?years, and 124?669 had used STI services during that period. The median average cost of Avahan programme for this period was $76 per person registered with the project. Sixty-one per cent of the cost variation could be explained by scale (positive association), number of NGOs per district (negative), number of LPs in the state (negative) and project maturity (positive) (p<0.0001). Conclusions During rapid scale-up in the initial phase of the Avahan programme, a significant reduction in average costs was observed. As full scale-up had not yet been achieved, the average cost at scale is yet to be realised and the extent of the impact of scale on costs yet to be captured. Scale effects are important to quantify for planning resource requirements of large-scale interventions. The average cost after 2?years is within the range of global scale-up costs estimates and other studies in India.

Guinness, L; Kumaranayake, L; Reddy, Bhaskar; Govindraj, Y; Vickerman, P; Alary, M

2010-01-01

388

Sex Workers, Fem Queens, and Cross-Dressers: Differential Marginalizations and HIV Vulnerabilities Among Three Ethnocultural Male-to-Female Transgender Communities in New York City  

PubMed Central

This article describes 3 distinct ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City: the low-income African American/Black1 and Latina(o) House Ball community; low-income, often undocumented immigrant Asian sex workers; and middle-class White cross-dressers. These communities are highly socially isolated from each other and are more connected to their ethnocultural contexts than to an abstract and shared transgender identity. Whereas previous research either has viewed male-to-female transgender people as one monolithic group or has separated them into abstract racial categories unconnected to their communities and lifestyles, this article positions them within specific social networks, cultures, neighborhoods, and lifestyles. With regard to HIV vulnerabilities, violence, and rape, House Ball community members seemed to engage in the riskiest form of survival sex work, whereas Asian sex workers seemed to engage in moderate-risk survival sex work. White cross-dressers seemed to engage in very low-risk recreational sex work.2

Hwahng, Sel Julian; Nuttbrock, Larry

2008-01-01

389

Alcohol and sexual risk behavior among migrant female sex workers and male workers in districts with high in-migration from four high HIV prevalence states in India.  

PubMed

This paper examines the association between alcohol use and sexual risk in two critical migrant populations living within the same geographical areas--migrant men and female sex-workers (FSWs). Data are drawn from two independent surveys of migrant FSWs and male workers in 14 districts of four high HIV prevalent Indian states. In the paper we have examined the independent effects of degree of mobility and alcohol use prior to sex on HIV risk behaviors. Nearly two-thirds of FSWs and a similar proportion of male migrant workers, as well as nine out of ten clients of FSWs consume alcohol. More than half of the FSWs and their clients consumed alcohol prior to sex. The practice of alcohol use prior to sex among both FSWs and their clients has a significant association with inconsistent condom use during paid as well as unpaid sex, and these effects are independent of degree of mobility. The results suggest a need for developing an in-depth understanding of the role of alcohol in accentuating HIV risk particularly among migrant populations who move frequently from one place another. PMID:20574634

Verma, Ravi K; Saggurti, Niranjan; Singh, Ajay K; Swain, Suvakanta N

2010-08-01

390

The histone demethylase Dmel\\Kdm4A controls genes required for lifespan and male-specific sex-determination in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Histone methylation plays an important role in regulating chromatin-mediated gene control and epigenetic-based memory systems that direct cell fate. Enzymes termed histone demethylases directly remove the methyl marks from histones, thus contributing to a dynamically regulated histone methylated genome, however the biological functions of these newly identified enzymes remains unclear. The JMJD2A-D family belongs to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of the Drosophila HDM gene Dmel\\Kdm4A that is a homolog of the human JMJD2 family. We show that homologs for three human JHDM families, JHDM1, JHDM2 and JMJD2 are present in Drosophila and that are each expressed during the Drosophila lifecycle. Disruption of Dmel\\Kdm4A results in a reduction of the male lifespan and a male-specific wing extension/twitching phenotype that occurs in response to other males, and is reminiscent of an inter-male courtship phenotype involving the courtship song. Remarkably, certain genes associated with each of these phenotypes are significantly downregulated in response to Dmel\\Kdm4A loss, most notably the longevity associated Hsp22 gene and the male sex-determination fruitless gene. Our results have implications for the role of the epigenetic regulator Dmel\\Kdm4A in the control of genes involved in lifespan and male-specific sex-determination in the fly.

Lorbeck, Meridith T.; Singh, Neetu; Zervos, Ashley; Dhatta, Madhusmitta; Lapchenko, Maria; Yang, Chen; Elefant, Felice

2009-01-01

391

Steroid hormone signaling is involved in the age-dependent behavioral response to sex pheromone in the adult male moth Agrotis ipsilon.  

PubMed

In most animals, including insects, male reproduction depends on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones. In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, both behavioral response and neuronal sensitivity in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to female sex pheromone are age- and hormone-dependent. In many animal species, steroids are known to act at the brain level to modulate the responsiveness to sexually relevant chemical cues. We aimed to address the hypothesis that the steroidal system and in particular 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the main insect steroid hormone, might also be involved in this olfactory plasticity. Therefore, we first cloned the nuclear ecdysteroid receptor EcR (AipsEcR) and its partner Ultraspiracle (AipsUSP) of A. ipsilon, the expression of which increased concomitantly with age in ALs. Injection of 20E into young sexually immature males led to an increase in both responsiveness to sex pheromone and amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP in their ALs. Conversely, the behavioral response decreased in older, sexually mature males after injection of cucurbitacin B (CurB), an antagonist of the 20E/EcR/USP complex. Also, the amount of AipsEcR and AipsUSP significantly declined after treatment with CurB. These results suggest that 20E is involved in the expression of sexual behavior via the EcR/USP signaling pathway, probably acting on central pheromone processing in A. ipsilon. PMID:23474331

Duportets, Line; Maria, Annick; Vitecek, Simon; Gadenne, Christophe; Debernard, Stéphane

2013-06-01

392

Differential effects of flutamide and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on male reproductive organs in a rat model.  

PubMed

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) with androgenic and anti-androgenic effects may alter reproductive function by binding to androgenic receptors (AR) and inducing or modulating AR-dependent responses in the male reproductive system. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these events remains unclear. In the present study, pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with testosterone propionate (TP), flutamide (Flu) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from gestation days (GD) 11 to 21. Interestingly, maternal exposure to Flu or DEHP caused fluctuations in the neonatal levels of serum testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Serum testosterone and LH were upregulated by Flu, but these hormones were down-regulated by DEHP. The anogenital distances (AGD) of male newborns were determined at post-neonatal days (PND) 1, 21 and 63. Male rats treated prenatally with DEHP (100 mg/kg mother's body weight) or Flu showed an AGD shorter than that of control rats. At PND 63, sperm concentration, viability and motility were reduced in the maternal DEHP and Flu-treated groups. The numbers of seminiferous tubules were reduced in the Flu and DEHP-treated offspring when compared with the vehicle- and TP-treated groups, and the tubules of the testes at PND 63 were disrupted by a high dose of Flu. In addition, we found differential gene expression patterns by microarray analysis following ED exposure, particularly in sex determination-related genes. Although Flu and DEHP are considered to be identical with regard to their anti-androgenic effects, their effects on developing male reproductive organs were distinct, suggesting that Flu competes with endogenous T, while DEHP influences a different step in androgenesis. PMID:19367084

Vo, Thuy T B; Jung, Eui-Man; Dang, Vu Hoang; Jung, Kikyung; Baek, Jounghee; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2009-08-01

393

Effects of dibutyl phthalate as an environmental endocrine disruptor on gonadal sex differentiation of genetic males of the frog Rana rugosa.  

PubMed Central

To examine the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on gonadal sex differentiation, genetically male tadpoles of Rana rugosa were exposed to dilute solutions of DBP at concentrations of 0.1, 1, or 10 microM during days 19-23 after fertilization, which is the critical period of gonadal sex differentiation in R. rugosa. Tadpoles were necropsied on day 40. The genetically male tadpoles were produced from crossings between males (ZZ) of one local population, in which females are the heterogametic sex, and females (XX) of another local population, in which males are the heterogametic sex. As positive control groups, tadpoles were exposed to dilute solutions of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) at concentrations of 0. 01, 0.1, or 1 microM during the same period. The internal structure of the gonads was histologically examined in a total of 30 control tadpoles, 86 E(2)-treated tadpoles, and 90 DBP-treated tadpoles. The gonads of the control tadpoles all showed the typical structure of testes. In contrast, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 microM E(2) treatments caused the undifferentiated gonads of 18, 63, and 100% of the tadpoles, respectively, to develop into gonads of complete or partial ovarian structure. After 0.1, 1, and 10 microM DBP treatment, 0, 7, and 17% of tadpoles, respectively, were similarly affected. These findings suggest that DBP was about 1,000-fold less potent than E(2). Nevertheless, DBP is an environmentally dangerous hormone that disrupts the pathways of testicular differentiation in genetically male animals.

Ohtani, H; Miura, I; Ichikawa, Y

2000-01-01

394

The Relationship of the Hooper Visual Organization Test to Sex, Age, and Intelligence of Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered the Hooper Visual Organization Test (VOT) to 54 elementary students referred for psychometric evaluation. Results showed no significant relationship between sex and VOT scores, but age and IQ were significant correlates. (JAC)

Hilgert, Larry D.; Treloar, James H.

1985-01-01

395

Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?  

PubMed

In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

2013-05-01

396

Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.  

PubMed

Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences. PMID:16844412

Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

2007-06-01

397

Role of genetics and sex steroid hormones in male androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss: an update of what we now know.  

PubMed

The role of genetic predisposition and the influence of sex steroid hormones are indisputable to the pathogenesis of male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). The role of sex steroid hormones in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is less known. A good knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying MAGA and FPHL empowers the clinician to confidently counsel patients and make informed therapeutic decisions. Vigorous research in recent years has provided greater insight into the role of genetics and sex steroids in physiological hair growth and cycling, as well as in hair follicle miniaturization, the histological hallmark of MAGA and FPHL. In the present review article directed towards clinicians, we discuss the current understanding of the role of androgens and oestrogens, as well as genetic associations with MAGA and FPHL. We also briefly discuss the interpretation of direct-to-consumer genetic testing for baldness to help clinicians understand the limitations of such tests. PMID:21605090

Yip, Leona; Rufaut, Nick; Sinclair, Rod

2011-05-01

398

Prior encounters with the opposite sex affect male and female mating behavior in a wolf spider (Araneae, Lycosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate availability can vary widely in nature depending upon population density and sex ratio and can affect the ability of\\u000a individuals to be selective in mate choice. We tested the effects of prior encounters with the opposite sex (i.e., exposure\\u000a to the opposite sex either with or without mating) on subsequent mating behavior in two experiments that manipulated mate\\u000a availability

Shawn M. Wilder; Ann L. Rypstra

2008-01-01

399

Effect of relative humidity conditions on responsiveness of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) males to female sex pheromone in a wind tunnel.  

PubMed

The responsiveness pf 3-day-old European corn borer males to three concentrations of 97?3 Z?E 11-tetradecenyl acetate, the female sex pheromone, was studied over a range of relative humidities (43-100%) in a wind tunnel. The proportion of males taking flight and reaching the source decreased, while the proportion exhibiting in-flight arrestment of upwind progress increased under high humidity conditions at all three concentrations of pheromone tested. The relationships between relative humidity and these behaviors were best described by polynomial equations. PMID:24248511

Royer, L; McNeil, J N

1993-01-01

400

Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructed 55 male and 75 female undergraduates to evaluate the performance of either a male or female stimulus person who was heard to perform in an above-average manner on either a male- or female-related task. Analysis of the attributions made to luck vs skill in explaining the performance of the stimulus person showed that as predicted, performance by a male

Kay Deaux; Tim Emswiller

1974-01-01

401

Human vocal organ: visible-human-male-based three-dimensional visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Human Project planned and promoted by National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides cryosection images of the normal male and female human bodies. The anatomy of human vocal organ is difficult to understand and to imagine due to its complexity. The purpose of this study is to develop the three-dimensionally computerized atlas of the human vocal organ using Visible Human male dataset. A self-developed program with C language and a recent personal computer can show specific organs and structures separately or together, rotate them at three axes, cross-section them transparently at any angles, and zoom them in and out. As a result, our own PC-based program will be a more interactive, more detailed, and more realistic three-dimensional computerized atlas of a human vocal organ including larygopharynx.

Kim, Jae-woo; Lee, Donghun; Han, Jong H.; Kim, Bohyung; Kim, Dongsung; Kang, Heung Sik

2002-05-01

402

A Comparison Between Exclusively Male Target and Female\\/Both Sexes Target Child Molesters on Psychometric Variables, DSM-IV Diagnoses and MTC:CM3 Typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight men incarcerated for child molestation were divided into two groups on the basis of the gender of their victims: (1) exclusively male target and (2) female or both sexes target child molesters. Psychiatric comorbidity was measured using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Offenders were described in terms of the MTC:CM3 child molester typology, and they completed self-report instruments

Reinhard Eher; Christine Gruenhut; Stefan Fruehwald; Patrick Frottier; Brigitte Hobl; Martin Aigner

2002-01-01

403

Effect of castration and oral administration of sex hormones on some specialised integumentary glands of the male musk shrew, Suncus murinus viridescens (Blyth)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of castration and oral administration of sex hormones on the specialised apocrine sudoriferous glands of the perineal\\u000a region and the holocrine sebaceous glands of the flank and oral lip regions of the male musk shrew,Suncus murinus viridescens is investigated. Gonadectomy effected a significant regression and hypotrophy of the sudoriferous as well as sebaceous glandular\\u000a structures of the shrew. The

M Balakrishnan; K M Alexander

1980-01-01

404

Age related modifications of soluble proteins in various organs of male garden lizard, Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative modification of proteins measured as carbonyl derivatives increased with advancing age in the liver of male garden lizard. The same parameter did not show a significant change in other organs (brain, heart and kidney). Based on the observations in both homeotherms (mammals) and poikilotherms (insect and reptile), the in vivo oxidative modification of cellular proteins appears to be

B. S. Jena; S. Das; B. K. Patnaik

1996-01-01

405

The role of sexual imprinting for sex recognition in zebra finches: a difference between males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sexually dimorphic birds, morphological characteristics are assumed to play an important role in conspecific sex recognition. In spite of the limited evidence, most studies done so far support this assumption. Less attention has been given to the question of how adult birds may have acquired the ability to discriminate between the sexes. This study investigates the relationship between the

Dave R. Vos

1995-01-01

406

Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual Risk Behavior and Intimate Partner Violence Among African-American Adolescent Females with a Male Sex Partner Recently Released from Incarceration  

PubMed Central

Background Social networks directly and indirectly influence STI risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American adolescent females. Methods Sociodemographic, psychosocial and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6- and 12-months from African-American females, 15–21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ?1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment and corresponding baseline measure. Results Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6-months and 56 (9.3%) at 12-months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to: have vaginal (AOR: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43) and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: 0.58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80) and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59) or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication- and refusal-self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. Conclusions A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African-American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships.

Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Murray, Colleen C.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

407

Where did all the Aleut men go? Aleut male attrition and related patterns in Aleutian historical demography and social organization.  

PubMed

Historical, economic, and political influences on Aleut demography and social organization are considered in relation to an apparent deficit of Aleut males in the early 20th century. Ethnohistoric records detail persistent waves of explorers, fur hunters, missionaries, bureaucrats, and foreign fishermen coming to the Aleutian region for economic exploitation, with some making it their home. The first major wave consisted of Russian and Siberian crews in pursuit of sea otters and fur seals. These entrepreneurs moved Aleut men to hunting grounds and replaced a large portion of them in the villages. The second wave consisted of Scandinavian and other European immigrants who followed cod, halibut, and herring fisheries and who married into eastern Aleut villages. These movements resulted in two genealogical deficits of Aleut men with concomitant shifts in social organization and economic emphases that contribute to the modern diversity of Aleut society. Aleut evacuation during World War II exacerbated these sex imbalances in the villages of the western Aleutian and Pribilof islands. PMID:21417885

Reedy-Maschner, Katherine

2010-12-01

408

Female sex pheromone blends and male response of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in two populations of mainland China.  

PubMed

The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae; syn. M. testulalis), is a serious pantropical insect pest of grain legumes. Comparative studies of M. vitrata female sex pheromone components in two different geographic populations in China, Wuhan and Huazhou, confirmed that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10,E12-16:Ald) and (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16:Ald) were present in variable ratios in all pheromone gland extracts of both populations. (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienol (E10,E12-16:OH) was always detected in minor amounts using polar DB-WAX columns, but was never detected using medium-polar DB-17 columns for the two populations. E10-16:OH was not found in any of the M. vitrata sex pheromone gland extracts. The average ratios of E10-16:Ald, E10,E12-16:Ald, and E10,E12-16:OH in the pheromone gland extracts of populations from Wuhan and Huazhou were 79.5:100:12.1 and 10.3:100:0.7, respectively. Electrophysiological testing suggested that E10,E12-16:Ald elicited the highest male electroantennography (EAG) response, followed by E10,E12-16:OH and E10-16:Ald. Field-trapping tests with single synthetic sex pheromone lures showed that E10,E12-16:OH alone could not attract males, whereas E10,E12-16:Ald or E10-16:Ald alone attracted few males. Wuhan and Huazhou males were most attracted by lures containing E10-16:Ald + E10,E12-16:Ald + E10,E12-16:OH in doses of (80 + 100 + 10) microg and (10 + 100 + 10) microg, respectively, per vial. Males could discriminate between the blends that were most attractive to their own geographic population and those that were most attractive to the reference population. Our findings suggest that geographic variation exists in the sex pheromone system of M. vitrata in China. The results are discussed with regard to the mechanisms underlying the sex pheromone variation. PMID:24459775

Lu, Peng-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Li; Luo, You-Qing

2013-01-01

409

Consistent condom use with regular, paying, and casual male partners and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Tamil Nadu, India: findings from an assessment of a large-scale HIV prevention program  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a marginalized population at high risk for HIV infection. Promoting consistent condom use (CCU) during anal sex is a key risk reduction strategy for HIV prevention among MSM. To inform effective HIV prevention interventions, we examined the factors associated with CCU among MSM with their regular, paying, and casual partners, as well as with all three types of partners combined. Methods Data for this analysis were from a large-scale bio-behavioural survey conducted during 2009–2010 in Tamil Nadu, India. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited for the survey using time-location cluster sampling at cruising sites in four districts of Tamil Nadu. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of CCU with selected socio-demographic characteristics and other contextual factors. Results Among 1618 MSM interviewed, CCU during anal sex with regular, paying, and a casual male partner was 45.3%, 50.8% and 57.9%, respectively. CCU with all three types of partners combined was 52.6%. Characteristics associated with increased odds for CCU with MSM having all three types of partners combined were frequent receptive anal sex acts with regular partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-4.65), fewer number of casual partners (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 1.50-7.73) and membership in a community-based organization (CBO) for MSM (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.62-7.74). CCU with regular partners was associated with membership in a CBO (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.11), whereas CCU with paying, and casual male partners was associated with perceived higher risk of acquiring HIV (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.22-3.01) and exposure to any HIV prevention intervention (AOR 3.62, 95% CI 1.31-10.0), respectively. Being aged 26 years or older, being in debt, and alcohol use were factors associated with inconsistent condom use across partner types. Conclusion HIV interventions among MSM need to promote CCU with all types (regular, paying, and causal) of male partners, and need to reach MSM across all age groups. In addition to enhancing interventions that focus on individual level risk reduction, it is important to undertake structural interventions that promote social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and address contextual barriers to condom use such as alcohol use.

2013-01-01

410

Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities: a mixed methods analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills.

Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

2013-01-01

411

Acceptability of vaginal microbicides among female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a mixed methods analysis.  

PubMed

Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385

Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A

2013-01-01

412

Involvement in Specific HIV Risk Practices among Men Who Use the Internet to Find Male Partners for Unprotected Sex  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Men who have sex with other men (MSM) account for more than one-half of all new HIV infections in the USA. This study reports on the prevalence of a variety of HIV risk behaviors in one specific subpopulation of risk-seeking MSM. Methods. The study was based on a national sample of 332 MSM who use the Internet to find partners for unprotected sex. Data collection was conducted via telephone interviews between January 2008 and May 2009. Results. Unprotected oral and anal sex was commonplac