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1

Semen characteristics and production of germ cells in male sheep-goat chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen from 11 male sheep-goat chimeras and one male sheep-goat hybrid-sheep chimera was evaluated on criteria commonly used as in vitro measures of semen quality. In addition, the species origin of germ cells was determined. Five males that were sex chimeras produced spermatozoa only from their XY cells. Three XY\\/XY sheep-goat males were shown by electrophoretic separation of sperm isozymes

G. B Anderson; D. L Anderson; R. H Bondurant; J. M Cash; L. A MacLaren; A. L Moyer; M. C. T Penedo

1995-01-01

2

Ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion in sheep fed hydroxyethylsoyamide.  

PubMed

Hydroxyethylsoyamide (HESA) was reported previously to protect soybean oil from ruminal biohydrogenation and increase plasma unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. Two digestibility trials with sheep and a rumen in vitro trials were conducted in this study to determine the effects of HESA on ruminal VFA and nutrient digestibility. Trial 1 was a 4 x 4 Latin square with 17-d periods in which four wethers were fed either a control diet (CON) with no added fat, 2.5% soybean oil (SBO), 5% butylsoyamide (BuSA), or 5% HESA. The HESA diet was ground with a mortar and pestle before feeding to disperse fat lumps that formed during diet mixing. Compared with the CON diet, the HESA diet reduced DMI, acetate/ propionate (A/P), and total tract fiber digestibility, but these were not affected by SBO or BuSA. Trial 2 was a 24-h rumen in vitro study showing that total VFA concentration and A/P in cultures were reduced by 10% linoleic acid but not by 10% ethanolamine or 10% HESA. In Trial 3, four wethers were fed the CON and HESA diets in a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square to determine digestibility responses to HESA when grinding was avoided. Fiber digestibilities and A/P were not affected by HESA in Trial 3. The HESA in this study had variable effects on fiber digestibility that may have been related to physical attributes of the diet, including particle size. Substitution of ethanolamine for butylamine during synthesis of the amide increased fatty acid digestibility but reduced dry matter intake. PMID:9263076

Jenkins, T C

1997-08-01

3

Histopathology of the reproductive system of male sheep experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological changes in reproductive system (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate) of small male ruminants after Toxoplasma gondii infection. Eight sheep were inoculated with T. gondii: group I, four sheep (2.0 × 10(5) P-strain oocysts); group II, four sheep (1.0 × 10(6) RH-strain tachyzoites); and group III, two uninfected sheep maintained as control. Infection with T. gondii was confirmed by seroconversion (indirect fluorescent antibody test-IgG) in all the infected animals beginning on post-inoculation day (PID) 7. On PID 70, all the animals were euthanized and tissue samples (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate) were collected and processed for histological analysis. The main changes detected were a focal mononuclear interstitial inflammatory infiltrate in the prostate and seminal vesicles; diffuse testicular degeneration associated with calcification foci and a multifocal mononuclear interstitial inflammatory infiltrate; and a mononuclear interstitial infiltrate and focal necrotic areas of the muscle fibers surrounding the seminal vesicles. The histopathological findings of this work, along with the detection of T. gondii in the examined parenchyma tissues (immunohistochemistry) and the results obtained by other authors examining different tissues, suggest that histological changes diagnosed in the reproductive system of rams infected with T. gondii are strongly suggestive of toxoplasmatic infection. PMID:21286752

Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Luvizotto, M C R; Sakamoto, C A M; Oliveira, G P; Costa, A J

2011-08-01

4

Nutritional influences on reproduction in mature male sheep and goats.  

PubMed

Changes in the nutrition of mature rams and goat bucks lead to profound responses in testicular size and therefore the rate of production of spermatozoa. These effects are largely due to changes in the size of the seminiferous tubules and in the efficiency of spermatogenesis. With the exception of severe undernutrition, the effects on spermatogenic function are not accompanied by similar changes in endocrine function of the testes, as measured by the production of testosterone or inhibin. In rams, moderate changes in nutrition affect gonadotrophin secretion for only a few weeks, whereas testicular growth is affected for several months. In mature male goats during the non-breeding season, nutrition-induced testicular growth does not seem to be associated with a gonadotrophin response. Such observations have led us to develop the hypothesis that nutrition-driven testicular growth is at least partly independent of changes in gonadotrophin secretion. The energetic components of the diet, rather than the protein content, seem to be responsible for affecting gonadotrophin secretion in rams. The volatile fatty acids, and not glucose, are the active factors, although intracerebral insulin may also play a role. Where these substrates act and whether they are also involved in the gonadotrophin-independent pathways requires testing. In conclusion, nutritional signals exert powerful effects on the reproductive system of mature male ruminants, and the responses are partly independent of changes in gonadotrophin secretion. In the gonads, the gametogenic tissue responds rapidly to changes in nutrition, but the endocrine compartments are less affected. Variations in the expression of the nutritional responses among sexes, breeds and species probably reflect variations in the role of this environmental factor as a modulator of reproductive function. PMID:7623333

Martin, G B; Walkden-Brown, S W

1995-01-01

5

Sheep grazing vs. cutting: regeneration and soil nutrient exploitation of the grassland weed Rumex obtusifolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L., Polygonaceae) is an agronomically important perennial weed causing decreases in pasture yields and fodder quality. Non-chemical\\u000a control measures for dock are often limited to frequent pulling and cutting, additionally it is usually avoided by grazing\\u000a animals. Here, the regeneration of R. obtusifolius in a Rumex-infested grassland grazed by a sheep breed that explicitly feeds on

Johann G. Zaller

2006-01-01

6

Males make poor meals: a comparison of nutrient extraction during sexual cannibalism and predation.  

PubMed

Cannibalism is hypothesized to have evolved as a way to obtain a high-quality meal. We examined the extraction of lipid and protein by female wolf spiders, Hogna helluo, during sexual cannibalism of males and predation of crickets. Most food-limited females did not cannibalize males but immediately consumed a size-matched cricket. When consuming male H. helluo and crickets, female H. helluo only consumed 51% of the male body while they consumed 72% of the cricket body. While males had higher protein content in their bodies than crickets and other insects, female H. helluo ingested similar amounts of protein from male H. helluo and crickets. Female H. helluo extracted 47% of the protein present in male H. helluo and 67% of the protein present in crickets. Females were able to extract nearly all of the lipid present in male H. helluo and crickets. However, crickets and other insects had almost 4 times higher lipid content than male H. helluo. The ratio of lipid to protein consumed from crickets appeared more similar to the nutritional requirements of egg production than that of males. Taken together, female hesitancy to engage in cannibalism, low extraction of nutrients from males and a low ratio of lipid to protein in the food extracted from males suggest that males may be poor-quality prey items compared to common insects such as crickets. PMID:19960354

Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L

2010-03-01

7

Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1  

PubMed Central

Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

2009-01-01

8

Effect of subacute swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea) consumption on immunocompetence and serum constituents of sheep in a nutrient-restricted state.  

PubMed

The subacute dose-response effects of swainsonine (SW) consumption on immunocompetence and serum constituents of sheep in a nutrient-restricted state were investigated. Sheep (23 wethers, 5 ewes) were assigned to 1 of 5 SW treatments (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg swainsonine/ kg bw/d). Swainsonine was delivered by feeding locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) with grama grass and alfalfa hays for a 28-d treatment period followed by a 21-d recovery period without locoweed. Body weights were measured weekly and behavioral changes were monitored for clinical signs of SW toxicity. Venous blood was collected weekly for lymphoblastogenesis and serum constituent analyses. Clinical signs (sluggishness, decreased responsiveness) of swainsonine toxicity were observed from d 14 to 35 in the 0.8 and 1.6 mg treatments. Subacute oral exposure did not appear to affect lymphoblastogenic analyses. Acute and subacute alterations in various serum constituents did indicate subclinical effects of SW ingestion. Linear, quadratic and cubic dose-response relationships were detected for some serum constituents (e.g., alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase). Subacute SW consumption at the levels investigated does not seem to affect the immunocompetence of nutrient restricted sheep. The lack of change in serum alkaline phosphatase at the 0.2 mg SW/kg bw/d dose indicates the potential for a no adverse effect level of SW consumption in nutrient restricted sheep. In combination with measurable SW in serum, rises in serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and declines in serum Fe and cholesterol during subacute exposure to SW establish these markers as potential indicators of subclinical SW toxicosis. PMID:10928681

Taylor, J B; Strickland, J; May, T; Hawkins, D E

2000-08-01

9

Effects of inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion on the response to novel objects in young male and female sheep.  

PubMed

This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific). To determine the effects of agonist treatment on the reproductive axis blood samples were collected for measurement of testosterone in the males and progesterone in the females. In addition the volume of the scrotum was determined. The present study aimed to determine whether there are sexually differentiated behavioural responses to a novel object at different stages of brain development (8, 28 and 48 weeks of age) and whether these responses are altered by GnRHa treatment. Approach behaviour towards and interactions with the novel object were monitored as was the number of vocalisations per unit time during the test period. GnRHa treatment suppressed testosterone concentrations and testicular growth in the males and progesterone release in the females. Sheep vocalised significantly more prior to weaning (8 weeks of age) than post weaning (28 and 48 weeks of age) suggesting stress on separation from their dams. Our current study shows that males are more likely to leave their conspecifics to approach a novel object than females. As this behaviour was not altered by suppression of the reproductive axis we suggest that, although sex differences are more obviously expressed in the phenotype after puberty, these may be developed during adolescence but not primarily altered during puberty by sex hormones. PMID:24485485

Robinson, Jane E; Evans, Neil P; Dumbell, Rebecca; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ropstad, Erik; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2014-02-01

10

Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.  

PubMed

Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989

Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

2002-07-01

11

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

2013-01-01

12

The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs: a review.  

PubMed

In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked increase in voluntary feed intake from about 10 days after the second dose. Putting these together, the estimated lysine requirement, expressed in terms of diet composition, falls to 94% of the gilt level. Although general principles can be described now, further research is needed to fully define the lysine requirements of immunized boars. It is important that the temporal pattern of tissue deposition rates and feed intake be explored to be incorporated into models to predict nutrient requirements over the period of rapidly changing metabolism. PMID:23931578

Dunshea, F R; Allison, J R D; Bertram, M; Boler, D D; Brossard, L; Campbell, R; Crane, J P; Hennessy, D P; Huber, L; de Lange, C; Ferguson, N; Matzat, P; McKeith, F; Moraes, P J U; Mullan, B P; Noblet, J; Quiniou, N; Tokach, M

2013-11-01

13

Testicular measurements and endocrine profiles (luteinizing hormone and testosterone) in young growing males as a measure of breeding value in sheep  

E-print Network

TESTICULAR MEASUREMENTS AND ENDOCRINE PROFILES (LUTEINIZING HORMONE AND TESTOSTERONE) IN YOUNG GROWING MALES AS A MEASURE OF BREEDING VALUE IN SHEEP A Thesis by JOHN WILLIAM CAMPBELL Approved as to style and content by: James W. Bassett... Chairman of Committee) J. M. Shelton (Member) La y D. Cl aborn (Member) waar y C. Smi th (Head of Department) August 1983 ABSTRACT Testicular Measurements and Endocrine Profiles (Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone) in Youno Growinq Males as a...

Campbell, John William

2012-06-07

14

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

15

Maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation up-regulates cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors associated with enlarged ventricular size in fetal sheep.  

PubMed

Intrauterine undernutrition is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. We previously showed that maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation produces ventricular enlargement, although the mechanism is unknown. We examined myocardial expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), IGF-2, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and IGF-2R in fetal sheep with maternal undernutrition. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR) or 100% (control-fed, C) of NRC requirements from day 28 to 78 of gestation. Some of NR and C ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the rest were fed 100% NRC requirements from day 79 to 135 of gestation. At necropsy on day 78 or day 135 of gestation, gravid uteri were recovered. mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2 in ventricles were measured with RT-PCR, and protein expression of IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGFBP-3 was quantitated with Western blot. Crown-rump length was reduced and left ventricle was enlarged in NR fetuses on day 78. At day 135 after re-alimentation, ventricular weights were similar between the two groups although ventricular wall thicknesses were greater in NR than C fetuses. No difference was found in IGF-1, IGF-2 or IGFBP-3 levels between the NR and C groups at either gestational age. Protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R in the left ventricle and IGF-1R in the right ventricle was significantly elevated in the NR group on day 78 of gestation. Only IGF-1R expression remained elevated after late gestational re-alimentation in association with increases in ventricular wall thickness. Our study suggest that maternal undernutrition from early to mid gestation may change the expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R in fetal myocardium, and play a role in cardiac ventricular enlargement in fetal sheep. PMID:16046163

Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P; Fang, Cindy X; Nijland, Mark J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ren, Jun

2005-08-01

16

Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

2013-12-01

17

Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.  

PubMed

This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences. PMID:24901092

Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

2014-01-01

18

Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

2014-07-15

19

Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and early postnatal growth in sheep differentially reset the control of energy metabolism in the gastric mucosa.  

PubMed

Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood. PMID:21558318

Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E

2011-07-01

20

Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?sheep with PH were higher (P?

Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

2014-01-01

21

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

22

A comparative study of nutrient digestibility, kinetics of digestion and passage and rumen fermentation pattern in goats and sheep offered medium quality forages at the maintenance level of feeding.  

PubMed

The in vivo digestibility and the rates of degradation and passage of alfalfa hay (AH) and vetch straw (VS) were compared in three Granadina goats and three Segureña wethers fed at approximately maintenance level, using a change over design. The nylon bag technique was used to estimate the fractional rate of degradation of the feeds in the rumen. The fractional outflow rate of hay and straw particles was determined with chromium as a marker. No significant differences in the digestibility coefficients of nutrients between animal species were found. Nitrogen retention expressed as coefficients of both nitrogen intake and digested nitrogen was lower (P < 0.01) in goats than in sheep when VS was offered. There was no significant difference between goats and sheep in the effective degradability (measured at outflow rates in the range of 0.027 to 0.032 h-1) of dry matter (DM) for either forage. However, the effective degradabilities of the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) of VS were lower (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), in goats than in sheep. The degradation rates of DM, NDF and CP were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between goats and sheep. Also, the fractional rate of passage of particles from the rumen was not different (P = 0.056) between species, although there was a tendency for an increased outflow rate in goats. In a second experiment the effects of animal species, type of diet and frequency of feeding on rumen fermentation pattern were studied following a factorial design. Four goats and four wethers were used. They were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments: AH, VS or a 50:50 mixture of AH and VS (AH/VS). Rations were offered in two or three meals daily and samples of rumen content were obtained at 09.00, 11.00, 13.00, 15.00, 17.00 and 19.00 h. No difference in rumen pH was found between goats and sheep. Total volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in sheep than in goats. The molar proportions of acetate and isovalerate were higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) in goats than in sheep, whereas the opposite was true for the molar proportion of n-butyrate. Feeding frequency had a slight effect on the rumen parameters measured. It is concluded that only minor differences in the digestive capacity and rumen activity of sheep and goats can be expected when they are fed on medium quality forages. PMID:7733811

Isac, M D; García, M A; Aguilera, J F; Molina Alcaide, E

1994-01-01

23

A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. METHODS: Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52

Jeong-Soon You; Ji-Yeon Park; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

24

Effects of different supplements on splanchnic oxygen consumption and net fluxes of nutrients in sheep consuming bromegrass (Bromus inermis) hay ad libitum.  

PubMed

Fifteen sheep (53 kg), with catheters in a hepatic vein, the portal vein and a mesenteric vein and artery, were offered a bromegrass (Bromus inermis) hay (104 g crude protein (CP), 700 g neutral-detergent fibre and 65 g acid-detergent lignin/kg dry matter (DM) ad lib. with different supplements to determine the effects on net flux of oxygen and nutrients across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver. The sheep were unsupplemented (Control) or received 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW) of ground maize (M), 7 g DM/kg BW of soya-bean hulls (H) or 0.73 g DM/kg BW of a mix of feedstuffs high in rumenundegradable protein (P). Apparent digestible energy (DE) intakes were 5.3, 10.4, 10.6 and 6.7 (SE 0.74) MJ/d and apparent digestible CP intakes were 37, 50, 79 and 68 (SE 4.3) g/d for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively. Splanchnic tissue oxygen consumption rates were 0.23, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.27 (SE 0.054) mol/h, and oxidative metabolism accounted for 0.46, 0.31, 0.33 and 0.47 (SE 0.051) of DE intakes for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively. Supplements increased (P < 0.05) release of alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN) by the PDV (4.2, 17.5, 19.6 and 18.1 mmol/h for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively). Splanchnic net flux of AAN was not affected by supplement treatments. Hepatic release of urea-N was increased (P < 0.05) by supplement treatments (27, 40, 46 and 44 mmol/h for Control, M, H and P respectively); the P treatment increased (P < 0.05) and the H treatment tended (P = 0.10) to increase splanchnic release of urea-N (7, 10, 20 and 27 mmol/h for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively). Net flux of glucose across the PDV was -4.6, 1.4, -5.6 and -7.2 (SE 1.65) mmol/h for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively. Hepatic glucose released averaged 23 (SE 2.0) mmol/h and was not affected by treatment. Treatments M and H increased (P < 0.05) PDV release of propionate compared with the Control treatment (4.5, 15.5, 16.8 and 7.7 mmol/h for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively). Release of acetate by the PDV was 43, 97, 118 and 67 (SE 23.9) mmol/h for Control, M, H and P treatments respectively. In summary, different supplements of low-quality grass did not increase the efficiency of N metabolism by splanchnic tissues. Treatment P had little effect on net flux across splanchnic tissues of glucose, L-lactate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and volatile fatty acids (VFA).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7826993

Goetsch, A L; Ferrell, C L; Freetly, H C

1994-11-01

25

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

26

Prevention of Adriamycin-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male BALB/c mice by a nutrient mixture  

PubMed Central

Adriamycin (ADR), an antineoplastic antibiotic used in cancer therapy, is associated with toxicity to vital organs with long-term use. A nutrient mixture (NM) has previously been shown to exhibit a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the NM is useful for preventing ADR-induced hepatic and nephric toxicity. Six-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and C were fed a regular diet for three weeks and groups B and D were fed a diet supplemented with 1% NM. After three weeks, the mice in groups C and D received 20 mg/kg body weight ADR intraperitoneally, while those in groups A and B received saline alone. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h, blood samples were collected and serum was obtained for clinical chemistry. Organs were also excised and weighed. Administration of ADR to group C (control diet) resulted in a marked increase in hepatic alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase levels and renal blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid serum markers. However, in group D (NM 1% diet), the serum markers were comparable with the levels of group A and B. Therefore, the results indicate that NM has the potential to protect against ADR-induced hepatic and nephric damage. PMID:24669274

ROOMI, M. WAHEED; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; ROOMI, NUSRATH WAHEED; RATH, MATTHIAS; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA

2014-01-01

27

Karakul Sheep.  

E-print Network

is very similar to that reported by Ritzman* for some grade sheep studied at the New Hampshire Station and presumably without any Karakul bloocl whatever. Also TTTriec1t-f reports a very similar condition and similar type of inheritance in sheep from a... is very similar to that reported by Ritzman* for some grade sheep studied at the New Hampshire Station and presumably without any Karakul bloocl whatever. Also TTTriec1t-f reports a very similar condition and similar type of inheritance in sheep from a...

Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Dickson, R. E.

1930-01-01

28

A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. Methods Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52 healthy controls without FC) were included. FC patients were defined by the codes for the Rome? Modular Questionnaire and healthy controls without FC were matched for age, height, weight and BMI. A self-administered life stress score and 3-day recall method were used to assess life stress level and dietary intake, respectively. Results The averages of age, height, weight, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) of male students were 23.4 years, 174.1 cm, 71.9 kg, 19.0 % and 23.7 kg/m2, respectively. Average intake of dietary taurine was 126.8 mg/day in FC patients and 105.1 mg/day in control group. The average intake of total calorie (p<0.05), plant protein (p<0.01), plant fat (p<0.001), carbohydrate (p<0.05), plant calcium (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. The average total life stress score (p<0.01), economy problem score (p<0.05), future problem score (p<0.05) and value problem score (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. Conclusions These results may suggest that FC patients show a higher life stress score and intake of some nutrient such as total calorie, plant protein, plant fat, carbohydrate and plant calcium in Korean male college students. Therefore, a further large-scale study is needed about correlation between life stress and nutrients intake including dietary taurine. PMID:20804618

2010-01-01

29

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

30

Fertilisation of sheep ova following their transfer to goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AN interesting feature which has emerged from attempts to hybridise domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goats (Capra hircus) is the marked difference in conception rate according to the direction in which the cross is made. In goats inseminated with sheep semen the conception rate is similar to that in goats mated naturally with male goats; whereas in sheep inseminated with

P. T. McGovern

1974-01-01

31

Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters. PMID:25322789

Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

2014-11-01

32

The Effect of Castration and Age on the Development of the Shetland Sheep Skeleton and a Metric Comparison Between Bones of Males, Females and Castrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given its abundance on archaeological sites, the sheep has clearly played a major rôle in the economy of our ancestors. An understanding of its osteology is therefore important to the zoo-archaeologist. The aims of this study are: (a) to determine when the epiphyses of long-bones of wethers and rams fuse; (b) to understand how castration affects dental and limb-bone development;

Simon J. M. Davis

2000-01-01

33

Supplementation of isonitrogenous oil seed cakes in cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica)–tef straw ( Eragrostis tef) based feeding of Tigray Highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted at Maichew Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training College, Ethiopia. Twenty four male yearling Tigray Highland sheep with mean body weight (BW) of 21±2.6kg (mean±S.D.) were used to investigate the effect of different protein sources on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, BW change and carcass parameters in a study comprising of 90 days feeding trial, followed by

Amare Degu; Solomon Melaku; Gebreyohannes Berhane

2009-01-01

34

Nutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs  

E-print Network

Organic matter decomposition Weathering of soil minerals and rocks Atmosphere & precipitation OrganicNutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs Carrie Laboski Dept. of Soil Science UW-Madison #12;Sources of nutrients available for plant uptake Nutrients in the soil solution are: In ionic form At low

Balser, Teri C.

35

Performance and digestibility of growing sheep fed with açai seed meal-based diets.  

PubMed

This trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of açai seeds in the diet of sheep, specifically, to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets containing four different mixtures of açai seeds and coastcross hay. Sixteen noncastrated male sheep with an average initial body weight of 22 kg were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments using initial body weight as a covariate. The diets used coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. The concentrate was the same in all the treatments. The açai seed was added to the diet as a partial substitute for the coastcross hay to make up four diet treatments: 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 % açaí added to the diet on a dry matter basis. The daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake were found to linearly increase with the increase in added dietary açai seed meal (P < 0.05). Moreover, increasing the proportions of açai seed meal did not significantly alter the nutrient tract digestibility, except that the crude protein level declined in a linear manner. The inclusion of açai seed as a substitute for coastcross hay increases the intake and the daily weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets using coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. PMID:22576274

Gomes, Daiany Iris; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Mezzomo, Rafael; dos Santos, Raphael Bicho; Barcelos, Sandra de Sousa

2012-10-01

36

Wether ewe know me or not: the discrimination of individual humans by sheep 1 Spelling of all words in the title is intentional. A wether refers to a male sheep castrated before maturity and a ewe is a female sheep. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature suggests that animals of various species can discriminate between individual humans. In the present study, 15 experimentally naive sheep were rewarded for making a nosepress response in the presence of one handler (S+) and non-reinforced for this behavior in the presence of a second person (S?). All animals responded significantly more to the S+ handler (P<0.001) during

Hank Davis; Christina Norris; Allison Taylor

1998-01-01

37

Nutrient partitioning during adolescent pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human adolescent mothers have an increased risk of delivering low birth weight and premature infants with high mortality rates within the first year of life. Studies using a highly controlled adolescent sheep paradigm demonstrate that, in young growing females, the hierarchy of nutrient partitioning during pregnancy is altered to promote growth of the maternal body at the expense of the

Jacqueline Wallace; Deirdre Bourke; Patricia Da Silva; Raymond Aitken

2001-01-01

38

Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

Plateau region of Texas i~lucli sickness ancl some deaths llare \\)eel1 observecl in sheep in recent years, which the older sheepmen hacl not previously observecl in spite of their long experience in the sheep business. The symptoms exhibitecl... Plateau region of Texas i~lucli sickness ancl some deaths llare \\)eel1 observecl in sheep in recent years, which the older sheepmen hacl not previously observecl in spite of their long experience in the sheep business. The symptoms exhibitecl...

Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1931-01-01

39

Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

2012-01-01

40

Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic

I. Imbschweiler; M. Kummerfeld; M. Gerhard; I. Pfeiffer; P. Wohlsein

2009-01-01

41

Mixed grazing by sheep and steers of irrigated Digitaria decumbens pastures in Martinique (FWI)  

E-print Network

Mixed grazing by sheep and steers of irrigated Digitaria decumbens pastures in Martinique (FWI) M of regrowth of 28 days. The experimental design was : females or males lambs grazing alone, females or males lambs grazing with heifers (4 lambs for 1 heifer), heifers alone. Stocking rate in sheep and cattle body

Boyer, Edmond

42

Cows and Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solvers of this problem apply number sense and logical reasoning to determine the numbers of cows and sheep in each of five fields by using clues about how many cows and sheep can be seen by each animal. The problem includes questions for getting started, suggestions for implementation and differentiation, a printable student page, and sample solutions.

2014-01-01

43

Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.  

PubMed

The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P < 0.001) DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake and digestibility. The final BW and daily BW gains were higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented compared to the control treatment. The study also revealed supplementation improved feed conversion efficiency and profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P < 0.001) nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study. PMID:20490664

Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

2010-10-01

44

Effect of cadmium on thyroid function in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of long-term low-dose administration of cadmium on thyroid function\\u000a in sheep. In this experiment, ten healthy Iranian male sheep, aged about 1 year old, were randomly allocated into two equal\\u000a groups of control (n?=?5) and experiment (n?=?5). Both groups were kept under the same conditions of food and environment. Treatment group

Khalil Badiei; Pegah Nikghadam; Khodadad Mostaghni

2009-01-01

45

Foraging behaviour and sexual segregation in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many sexually dimorphic ungulates, bighorn sheep,Ovis canadensis, form sexually segregated groups. Nursery groups include females, lambs and subadult males, while adult males form bachelor groups. Previous hypotheses to account for sexual segregation in ungulates have suggested sexual differences in energy requirements, predation risk and social preferences. I tested the hypothesis that differing nutritional demands, due to sexual dimorphism in

KATHREEN E. RUCKSTUHL

1998-01-01

46

Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

1995-01-01

47

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

48

Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27±0.1 °C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three

Shamsuddin Mohammed Mamun; Ulfert Focken; Klaus Becker

2007-01-01

49

DAIRY SHEEP BASICS FOR BEGINNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

History Sheep have been raised for their milk for thousands of years. Today the commercial dairy sheep industry is concentrated in the European and Mideastern countries on or near the Mediterranean Sea. France alone has almost one million ewes in dairy production. Most of the world's sheep milk is processed into cheese. Roquefort, the blue cheese of south central France,

David L. Thomas

50

Comparison of metabolic rates and feed nutrient digestibility in conventional, genetically improved (GIFT) and genetically male (GMNT) Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).  

PubMed

Various aspects of energy metabolism and feed digestibility were evaluated in two reportedly improved strains of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) namely GIFT (genetically improved farmed tilapia) and GMNT (genetically male Nile tilapia) and compared with those of CNT (conventional Nile tilapia). Fish were stocked individually in a computer-controlled respirometer system at 27+/-0.1 degrees C for 10 weeks. Metabolic rates were measured at three different feeding levels: starved, maintenance (3.0 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) and growth (7.5 g kg(-0.8) day(-1)) using a fishmeal based feed containing TiO2 marker (41% crude protein, 9% crude lipid and 19 kJ (g DM)(-1) gross energy). The standard metabolic rate (SMR), measured at the beginning of the experiment (45.4+/-4.6, 52.4+/-7.7 and 46.8+/-4.6 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1) respectively for GIFT, GMNT and CNT), did not differ significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Similarly, non-significant differences were also observed in the routine metabolic rates under starved, maintenance and growth conditions but the variability was higher in the case of GMNT and CNT than in GIFT. The latter group showed a significantly lower active metabolic rate (145 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1)) compared to GMNT and CNT (232 and 253 mg O2 kg(-0.8) h(-1), respectively) at maintenance feeding level. The specific dynamic action (% offered feed energy) showed no significant differences among the groups. Digestibility coefficients of feed dry matter, protein, lipid and energy for the three tilapia groups also did not differ significantly. Therefore, we concluded that the genetic improvement or modification in the GIFT or GMNT might not upgrade the inherent physiological potential compared to CNT as far as energy metabolism and digestion efficiencies are concerned. PMID:17555997

Mamun, Shamsuddin Mohammed; Focken, Ulfert; Becker, Klaus

2007-09-01

51

Growth of sheep fed tannin-rich Albizia gummifera with or without polyethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Twenty-four intact male Bonga lambs were studied in a 100-day experiment to evaluate the effect of feeding tannin rich leaves of Albizia gummifera (AG) on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and carcass composition. The dietary treatments consisted of hay alone (T1, control), AG at 30 % of control diet + T1 (T2), and T2 + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) (T3, 40 mg PEG, 1 kg AG/head on a dry mass (DM) basis. The lambs were individually fed at 50 g DM/kg live weight. In the last 10 days of the experiment, all animals from each treatment were harnessed with feces collection bags. At the end of the experiment, lambs were slaughtered after overnight fasting for measurements of carcass characteristics. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannin contents of AG were 300, 586, and 108 g/kg DM, respectively. Lambs fed AG with PEG had higher (P?nutrient intake and digestibility, carcass weight, and growth performance of lambs supplemented with PEG emphasizes the negative effect of tannins on livestock performance. Leaves of AG enhance digestibility and performance in tropical hay-fed sheep, and the addition of PEG further improves this effect, likely due to the binding of tannins. PMID:24832590

Yisehak, Kechero; Biruk, Kebede; Abegaze, Beyene; Janssens, Geert P J

2014-10-01

52

Horn type and horn length genes map to the same chromosomal region in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of male weaponry in animals is driven by sexual selection, which is predicted to reduce the genetic variability underlying such traits. Soay sheep have an inherited polymorphism for horn type in both sexes, with males presenting with either large, normal horns or small, deformed horns (scurs). In addition, there is additive genetic variation in horn length among males

SE Johnston; D Beraldi; AF McRae; JM Pemberton; J Slate

2009-01-01

53

Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.  

PubMed

Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

2014-01-01

54

Phosphorus Metabolic Disorder of Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep  

PubMed Central

Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

2014-01-01

55

Sweating in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING investigations on the humidity of the fleece atmosphere carried out in the summer of 1946, certain sheep were found to have a consistently higher relative humidity (70-90 per cent) close to the skin than at points farther out in the thickness of the fleece (25-50 per cent); humidity measurements being made with cobalt chloride papers, prepared as described by

J. B. Cragg; Lewis Davies

1947-01-01

56

Rumen enzyme profile and fermentation characteristics in sheep as affected by treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate as defaunating agent and presence of ciliate protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunating agent and effect of rumen protozoa on nutrient utilization, fermentation characteristics and enzyme profile were evaluated in adult sheep maintained on a mixed ration containing 65:35% Pala (Ziziphus numularia) leaf: concentrate. Twenty-one adult Malpura sheep divided into three equal groups (DF, RF and F) were either defaunated by oral administration of

A. Santra; S. A. Karim; O. H. Chaturvedi

2007-01-01

57

Clinical, culture, serology, and histopathology outcomes of bighorn sheep experimentally infected with Brucella ovis.  

PubMed

Disease caused by Brucella ovis has not been previously reported in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis canadensis). Antibodies to B. ovis, however, are occasionally detected in free-ranging BHS, and this has been a concern for managers involved in translocation programs. To investigate the pathogenesis of B. ovis infection in this species, 20 BHS (10 male, 10 female) were inoculated intraconjunctivally (IC) with 5.4 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) B. ovis. Six BHS (three male, three female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline IC and served as in-contact control animals, and eight BHS (one male, seven female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) IC and served as noncontact controls. In addition, 14 domestic sheep (Ovis aries, nine male, five female) were inoculated IC with 5.4 × 10(8) cfu B. ovis (positive controls), and five domestic sheep (three male, two female) received 1 mL PBS IC (contact controls). All domestic sheep were housed separately from BHS. Bighorn sheep experimentally infected with B. ovis became antibody and culture positive and developed clinical signs of B. ovis infection including abortion and epididymal and testicular swelling. Lesions in BHS were consistent with, and in some cases more severe, than those observed in domestic sheep. Antibodies against B. ovis were detected within 4 wk postinoculation and remained positive until the end of the study. These findings have important implications for BHS management. PMID:24502717

McCollum, Matt; Rhyan, Jack; Coburn, Sarah; Ewalt, Darla; Lahr, Carrie; Nol, Pauline; Keefe, Thomas; Kimberling, Cleon; Salman, Mo

2013-10-01

58

Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.  

PubMed

Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to constrain increases in YW. Changes in EPD for MM or fleece traits generally had smaller effects on profitability than changes in PLC, WW, and YW. Two indexes designed to address current rangeland production conditions (low forage costs and discounting of heavy feeder lambs) or more intensive and integrated production with retained ownership and value-based marketing of lambs (higher forage costs and no discounting of heavy lambs) were anticipated to meet the needs of most Targhee producers. PMID:17609470

Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

2007-11-01

59

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

60

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

2010-02-09

61

Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 < b < 2.0. Land management practice appear to have increased the rate of large fires (shallower slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

2011-12-01

62

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PHAGOCYTES FROM ELK, DEER, BIGHORN SHEEP, AND DOMESTIC SHEEP TO PASTEURELLA HAEMOL YTICA CYTOTOXINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture super- natants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from

Ronald M. Silfiow; William J. Foreyt

63

Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.  

PubMed

Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep. PMID:15362833

Kreeger, Terry J; Cook, Walter E; Edwards, William H; Cornish, Todd

2004-04-01

64

Mineral Requirements of Sheep.  

E-print Network

TEXAS Al A31 5-81 &6m LTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 232 AUGUST, 1918 -- DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY MINERAL REQUIREMENTS OF SHEEP B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR OOUEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAIS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION... B YOUNGBLOOD M S Director E. 0. SIECKE, M. F., Forester in Charge; A' I3 CONNER 6 S' ?ice Director State Forester cLAS. A. FEL~E~ chief Clerk A. S. WARE. Secretary DIVISION OF PLANT BREEDING W T BRINK B. S. Execufioe Assistant in E. P. HUMBERT...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1918-01-01

65

Dolly the Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.

2003-01-01

66

Brucellosis in Captive Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Caused by Brucella abortus Biovar 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine (four female, five male) cap- tive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fe- tus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of

Terry J. Kreeger; Walter E. Cook; William H. Edwards; Todd Cornish

67

The role of adrenergic mechanisms in thermoregulatory control of blood flow through capillaries and arteriovenous anastomoses in the sheep hind limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of adrenergic mechanisms in thermoregulatory changes in the partition of femoral blood flow between nutrient (capillary) and non-nutrient (arteriovenous anastomoses, AVA) circuits in the hind limb of conscious sheep has been investigated employing radioactive microsphere and electromagnetic blood flow measurement techniques. Constriction of AVAs, normally induced by spinal cooling, could be inhibited by phentolamine, whereas dilatation of

J. R. S. Hales; A. Foldes; A. A. Fawcett; R. B. King

1982-01-01

68

Effects of shade on welfare and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of providing shade on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature. A total of 120 healthy male Ujumqin wool sheep (a local breed; BW = 18.7 ± 1.27 kg; 14 wk old) were randomly and equally divided into shaded and unshaded treatments with 3 pens per treatment. Sheep were grazed on an unshaded pastureland from 0600 to 1000 h and 1400 to 1800 h. During other times, sheep were confined in shaded or unshaded pens. Body weight was recorded on d 1 and 42 of the experiment. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. At end of the trial, sheep were blood sampled and slaughtered to collect meat samples. Respiration rate was greater (P < 0.05) in the unshaded sheep than shaded sheep on d 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the trial whereas no significant differences were found on d 7. Moreover, no differences were observed in final BW, ADG, or rectal temperature throughout the trial. The pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) and cooking loss were greater (P < 0.01) in unshaded than shaded sheep. On the contrary, lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 24 h postmortem were lower (P < 0.05) in unshaded versus shaded sheep. The sheep in the unshaded group had a greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentration compared with the shaded group. Sheep in the shaded group had lower creatine kinase activity (P < 0.01) as well as observed for glucose (P < 0.05), triiodothyronine (P < 0.01), and thyroxine (P < 0.05) concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.05). Compared with the unshaded group, sheep in the shaded group had a greater lymphocytes (LYM) count (P < 0.05). In contrast, the opposite was true for neutrophils (NEU) count (P < 0.01) and NEU:LYM ratio (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the shade cloth, although not enhancing ADG, improved meat quality traits and certain stress parameters in grazing sheep reared under high ambient temperature. PMID:22871939

Liu, H W; Cao, Y; Zhou, D W

2012-12-01

69

9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...

2012-01-01

70

9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...

2011-01-01

71

9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...

2013-01-01

72

9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...

2014-01-01

73

9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...

2010-01-01

74

Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep  

PubMed Central

Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P?sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P?sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

2013-01-01

75

Selective males and ardent females in pipefishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the pipefishes Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion, males have been shown to limit female reproductive rate, and females to compete for access to males. Hence, these species fit the criteria for sex-role reversal. Males brood the eggs and provide the offspring with nutrients, oxygen and an osmoregulated environment. Moreover, in S. typhle both sexes prefer a larger mate when

Anders Berglund; Gunilla Rosenqvist

1993-01-01

76

Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.  

PubMed

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested. PMID:7760482

Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

1994-10-01

77

Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.  

PubMed

A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds. PMID:23114577

Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor

2013-04-01

78

Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.  

PubMed

The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression. PMID:19016675

Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

2009-02-01

79

Nutrition Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

Alters Amino Acid, but Not Glucose, Metabolism by the Sheep Gastrointestinal Tract1,2 Samer W. El are net metabolized by the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminant sheep when intestinal protein supply: 1261­1269, 2006. KEY WORDS: sheep gastrointestinal tract amino acid urea glucose In ruminants

Bequette, Brian J.

80

Identification of enterotoxigenic staphylococci from sheep and sheep cheese.  

PubMed Central

The total of 127 Staphylococcus aureus strains obtained from sheep and sheep cheese were examined for their biochemical activities, biotypes, phage patterns, and ability to produce enterotoxins. Of the 83 staphylococcal strains isolated from animals 77 (93%) were classified as the C biotype. Of this group of sheep-adapted strains, 61 (79%) were sensitive to phage 78, and 46 (60%) produced enterotoxin C exclusively. The three isolated belonging to the A biotype produced enterotoxin D, and two of the three unclassifiable strains produced enterotoxin A. Of the 44 staphylococcal strains isolated from sheep cheese, there were 37 (84%) identified as the C biotype. From this series, 31 (84%) strains were lysed with phage 78, 6 (16%) strains produced enterotoxin C, and 1 strain produced enterotoxin A. One of the six strains determined as the A biotype produced enterotoxin D. C biotype strains, especially of ovine origin, are an exception among animal staphylococci, because a large number of them are enterotoixgenic. The C antigenic type is the most usual of the known enterotoxins in staphylococci of animal provenance. PMID:637535

Hajek, V

1978-01-01

81

A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.  

PubMed

Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

2014-04-01

82

Root nutrient foraging.  

PubMed

During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2014-10-01

83

Histomorphologic study of the renal artery in post-natal life of sheep (Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the structure of different layers of renal artery and comparing these structures in post-natal male and female sheep. To do so, right and left renal arteries of 6 adult and 6 newborn animals were dissected; the middle parts of arteries were only collected. After tissue processing using paraffin

S. Gholami; Haghighat Jahromi

84

Freemartinism in a Captive Herd of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freemartinism in two animals from a captive herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at the Denver Zoological Gar- dens (Denver, Colorado, USA) is described. A young ewe had female external genitalia, a mas- culine appearance, and demonstrated male be- havior as she matured. Another ewe with female external genitalia died as a yearling. Necropsy revealed a non-patent vagina

David E. Kenny; Richard C. Cambre; Michelle W. Frahm; Thomas D. Bunch; Denver Zoological

1992-01-01

85

Growth hormone secretion and pituitary gland weight in suckling lambs from genetically lean and fat sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found that weaned lambs from Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) backfat depth have higher mean plasma growth hormone (GH) levels and heavier pituitary glands than those selected for high (fat) backfat depth. This study examined whether these differences between genotypes occurred in young suckling lambs. Six ewes from each genotype which were suckling a male\\/female set

S. M. Francis; B. A. Veenvliet; S. K. Stuart; R. P. Littlejohn; J. M. Suttie

1998-01-01

86

Forage utilization from native shrubs Acacia rigidula and Acacia farnesiana by goats and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials, (in vivo and in situ) were conducted to evaluate the influence of shrub leaves on digestion and N retention by goats and ruminal digestion by sheep. In trial one, 12 male castrated Spanish goats (32.5 ± 2.1 kg LW) were housed in metabolism stalls and randomly assigned to three diets (four goats per treatment): (1) 23% alfalfa hay

R. G. Ramírez; R. A. Ledezma-Torres

1997-01-01

87

Biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loading by riverine input into estuarine systems has increased by 6–50 times for the N load from pristine conditions to present, whereas a 18–180 times increase has been observed in the P load. Reductions in the ratio of N to P delivery has also occurred with time. In a review of nutrient limitation in estuarine systems, it is shown

Daniel J. Conley

1999-01-01

88

Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter.METHODS: A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport

MW Fisher; NG Gregory; PD Muir

2012-01-01

89

Ivermectin in Senegalese Peulh Sheep: Influence of Sex on Plasma Disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin following a single subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg\\/kg was investigated\\u000a in male and female Senegalese Peulh sheep. Ten clinically healthy animals (5 males and 5 females) weighing 38–45 kg were used\\u000a in this trial. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture at different times between 0.5 h and 30 days post treatment.\\u000a After plasma

T. Bengone Ndong; Y. Kane; E. H. M. Diouf; M. Alvinerie

2007-01-01

90

FATAL PNEUMONIA FOLLOWING INOCULATION OF HEALTHY BIGHORN SHEEP WITH PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA FROM HEALTHY DOMESTIC SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10? to 8.6 x 10\\

William J. Foreyt; Kurt P. Snipes; Rick W. Kasten

1994-01-01

91

Molecular Biology of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a contagious lung cancer\\u000a of sheep. Until recently, research on JSRV\\/OPA was hampered by the lack of a tissue culture system for the propagation of\\u000a the virus. Historically, pathological samples (lung fluid) collected from sheep affected by OPA were the only source of infectious\\u000a JSRV. Thus studies

M. Palmarini; H. Fan

92

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

2007-03-31

93

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Everton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Debora; Seyffert, Nubia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

2007-01-01

94

Sheep shearing and sudden death.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old sheep shearer collapsed after walking across a shearing shed floor, holding his hand over an incised wound to his neck. Attempted resuscitation was unsuccessful. At the death scene fine arterial blood spatter was noted and at autopsy a single incised wound to the neck was observed, the patterned edges of which corresponded to the teeth of the shears. Dissection revealed injury to the underlying jugular vein and the mid portion of the common carotid artery. Death was attributed to blood loss from an incised wound of the left side of the neck. This case demonstrates the rare event of an accidental death related to the actions of a sheep. Although a relatively small animal, review of the circumstances and interviews with those present revealed that sudden and unexpected movement of the sheep during shearing had caused the shearer to lose control of his electrical shears resulting in a lethal incised wound to the neck. The blood spatter pattern at the scene was supportive of both witness descriptions and the findings at autopsy. PMID:24237795

Irandoust, Shabnum; Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

2013-11-01

95

Placental angiogenesis in sheep models of compromised pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Because the placenta is the organ that transports nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes between the maternal and fetal systems, development of its vascular beds is essential to normal placental function, and thus in supporting normal fetal growth. Compromised fetal growth and development have adverse health consequences during the neonatal period and throughout adult life. To establish the role of placental angiogenesis in compromised pregnancies, we first evaluated the pattern of placental angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors throughout normal pregnancy. In addition, we and others have established a variety of sheep models to evaluate the effects on fetal growth of various factors including maternal nutrient excess or deprivation and specific nutrients, maternal age, maternal and fetal genotype, increased numbers of fetuses, environmental thermal stress, and high altitude (hypobaric) conditions. Although placental angiogenesis is altered in each of these models in which fetal growth is adversely affected, the specific effect on placental angiogenesis depends on the type of ‘stress’ to which the pregnancy is subjected, and also differs between the fetal and maternal systems and between genotypes. We believe that the models of compromised pregnancy and the methods described in this review will enable us to develop a much better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for alterations in placental vascular development. PMID:15760944

Reynolds, Lawrence P; Borowicz, Pawel P; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Redmer, Dale A; Caton, Joel S

2005-01-01

96

Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

2013-01-01

97

An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.  

PubMed

The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the Pasteurellaceae distribution between the White Mountains bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. PMID:19901369

Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

2009-10-01

98

QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep. PMID:21847139

Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

2012-01-01

99

Postoperative Analgesia from Intrathecal Neostigmine in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal neostigmine produces analgesia in chronically prepared rats, but not in sheep. However, since pain itself activates bulbospinal inhibitory pathways, neostigmine may be more effective in the postoperative period. We examined in sheep the antinociceptive effect of intrathecal neostigmine in the acute postoperative period and determined the muscarinic receptor sub- type activated by neostigmine. A cervical intrathecal catheter was inserted

Herve Bouaziz; Chuanyao Tong; James C. Eisenach

1995-01-01

100

Hemorrhagic Disease in Bighorn Sheep in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bighorn sheep from Arizona (USA) were submitted for necropsy. One was a Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis can- adensis) and the other was a desert bighorn (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Both had lesions consistent with those of hemorrhagic disease (HD). Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) type-2 and bluetongue virus (BTV) type-17, respectively, were isolated from the sheep tissues. To our

Ted H. Noon; Shannon Lynn Wesche; Dave Cagle; Daniel G. Mead; Edward J. Bicknell

101

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause States is the gastrointestinal roundworm Haemonchus contortus, also known as the barber pole worm of the parasites most common to sheep and goats. Figure 1: The lifecycle of a gastrointestinal parasite. This image

102

Gold-coloured Teeth of Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the early part of the war the transport of sheep about the country districts was strictly regulated so that a local butcher could state definitely in which locality his meat had been fed. I noticed a large number of sheep's teeth encrusted with bright yellow tartar, identical in appearance with good average bright non-arsenical iron pyrites. I was assured

W. J. Lewis Abbott

1921-01-01

103

LOW-QUALITY ROUGHAGES IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE PELLETED DIETS FOR SHEEP:DIGESTION AND METABOLISM OF NITROGEN AND ENERGY AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY FIBER CONCENTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted to evaluate effects of, and interactions between, level and source of fiber in the diet on ruminal environment, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-fistulated sheep (trial 1 ; 4  4 Latin square design) and on ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (trial 2; randomized

A. R. Kinser; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger; N. R. Merchen

104

Estimating nutrient surplus and nutrient use efficiency from farm characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on nutrient losses from agricultural systems should try to relate these losses to farm characteristics. This was done for private farms in two districts in Poland. Using data from a farm survey, nutrient surpluses and Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of outgoing and incoming nutrients) were calculated for nitrogen and phosphorus. Both nutrient surplus and NUE

J. W. A. Langeveld; G. B. Overbosch

1995-01-01

105

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

that the condition appeared only after the sheep had been grazing in the orchards for several months. Symptoms and lesions similar to those described by previous investigators were noted. In addition, Beijers counted 3,190,000 red blood cells and 26,100 white... either by contact or through injections of spleen tissue emulsions or blood from typical cases. No blood parasites were found. Schmidt (5) noted the extreme red-cell destruction and remarked upon the difficulty of satisfactory examination of blood...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

106

Farm Sheep Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

at shear- Hampshire rams (left) and Suffolk rams (right) are used extensively with fine-wool ewes to sire fast-growing market lambs. 4 3-ljeay-old Smooth ilfouth The age of a sheep is determined by the number and condition of its incisor teeth: A... lamb (upper left) has eight milk teeth. A 1-year-cld (upper right) has two permanent teeth replacing its central pair of milk teeth. At 2 years of age, it has twa pairs of permanent teeth and two pairs of milk teeth. A 3-year-old (lower left) has...

Jones, J. M.; Gray, James A.

1956-01-01

107

Immunocompetence, Ornamentation, and Viability of Male Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocompetence (i.e., the ability to produce an immune response to pathogens) can be predicted to influence the chances that organisms have to survive and reproduce. In this study we simulated a challenge to the immune systems of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) by injecting them intraperitoneally with a multigenic antigen, sheep red blood cells, and we analyzed long-term survival in

Nicola Saino; Anna Maria Bolzern; Anders Pape Moller

1997-01-01

108

Effects of transportation during the hot season and low voltage electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of sheep longissimus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of transportation during the hot season (42°C) and low voltage electrical stimulation on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of Omani sheep was studied. Forty intact male sheep were divided into two equal groups: 3h transported or non-transported. The non-transported group remained in holding pens for 48h prior to slaughter, while the transported group was transported 300km (approximately

I. T. Kadim; O. Mahgoub; W. Al-Marzooqi; S. Khalaf; S. S. H. Al-Sinawi; I. S. Al-Amri

2009-01-01

109

COMPARATIVE LEUKOTOXICITIES OF PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA ISOLATES FROM DOMESTIC SHEEP AND FREE-RANGING BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight isolatesof Pasteurella haemolytica from domestic sheep (n = 14 isolates) and bighorn sheep (n = 14 isolates) were evaluated for leucotoxicity against peripheral blood neutrophils of bighorn sheep by adding bacterial culture supernatants to bighorn sheep neutrophils in vitro. Leukotoxic isolates of P. haemolytica, defined as causing >50% neutrophil death as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase into culture

Steven J. Sweeney; Ronald M. Silflow; William J. Foreyt

1994-01-01

110

Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  

PubMed

A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

2013-10-01

111

Control of ovine brucellosis in najdi sheep in saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical programme for control of ovine brucellosis in a Najdi sheep flock at Haradh and protection of sheep handlers from infection was implemented. Haradh sheep were serologically tested three times at six-month intervals. Of 2,721 sheep subjected to the first test, 387 (14.2%) were positive reactors. At the second test 2,072 sheep were tested and 31 (1.5%) were positive.

Ahmed I. Radwan; Saad I. Bekairi; Abdullah A. Al-Mukayel; Osama S. Abu Agla

1984-01-01

112

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

113

Marketing Sheep and Lambs in Texas.  

E-print Network

ambs.at stockyards have in- lreased in relation to net marketings. This is rimarily the result of packer purchasing activi- ies, both at auction markets and in direct buy- ng. These sheep and lambs which come through ;ockyards to the packing plants... inspectors. Since little mutton and lamb is consumed in Texas, most of the com- mercial slaughter of sheep and lambs in Texas is conducted in federally inspected packing plants. Between 1946-55, the percentage of sheep and lambs slaughtered in federally...

Winn, John H.; Miller, Jarvis E.

1957-01-01

114

Effects of lairage time after road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lairage time after 8?h road transport on some blood indicators of welfare and meat quality traits in sheep. A total of 84 Ujimqin male sheep (average body weight 27.5?kg, 6?months old) were randomly allotted to one of seven groups: one control group (untransported) and six lairage groups (8?h road transport with 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48?h lairage times respectively). No significant lairage time effects were observed on weight loss. Sheep in 48?h group showed lower hot carcass weight, dressing percentage and higher pH(24?h) than that in other groups. The total haem pigment contents in sheep meat rose and were higher in 24 and 48?h groups than that in the control group. After transport, sheep in 0, 2, 24 and 48?h groups showed higher serum creatine kinase activities, cortisol and glucose concentrations than that in control group. Sheep in lairage groups had higher serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels compared with the control sheep. Sheep in 48?h group showed significant higher packed cell volume, total protein and blood urea nitrogen than that in other groups. Compared with the control group, the white blood cell counts were higher in 0 and 48?h groups. The neutrophil counts in 24 or 48?h groups were higher than that in the control group. The opposite was true for lymphocyte counts. A 6-12?h lairage is recommended in terms of the present transported pattern. PMID:21929728

Liu, H W; Zhong, R Z; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S

2012-12-01

115

Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

2013-01-01

116

Nutrients in an Estuary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model estuaries, artificially enriching both fresh and salt water samples with different amounts of nutrients and observing the growth of algae over several weeks. Learners relate their results to the phenomenon of algae blooms in estuaries. Learners then analyze data for different sites at the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTMNERR) in Florida to discover the relationships between nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen. Finally, learners study how nutrients cycle through an estuary and suggest recommendations for reducing nutrient inputs to estuary waters.

Terc; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

2012-06-26

117

Energetics of Sheep Concerned with the Utilization of Acetic Acid1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of utilization for growth-fattening, of the energy of diets resulting in high (5.4:1) and low (3.1:1) ratios of acetic acid to propionic acid in the ruminai ingesta was determined in 24 intact male and 24 female sheep by means of a slaughter-analysis experiment. To establish the chemical composition and energy value of the body at the beginning of

L. S. BULL; J. T. REID; E. JOHNSON

2010-01-01

118

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep,...

2010-01-01

119

Abortion in sheep near Kano, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A sporadic natural infection of sheep with Brucella abortus in a sheep breeding centre in Kano State, Nigeria, is reported. Sera and milk samples from the flock of Sudanese long- and fat-tailed sheep used for cross-breeding purposes were examined for brucellosis by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and Milk Ring test (MRT) respectively. The overall positive reactor rate to SAT was 14.5%. All 22 ewe milk samples examined by MRT were positve and Brucella abortus was cultured from 5 of the 22 ewes sampled. This is believed to be the first report of bacteriological isolation of Brucella in sheep in Kano, Nigeria. PMID:7368315

Okoh, A E

1980-02-01

120

The marketing of Texas sheep  

E-print Network

~000 Ie551 Xfp545 1SpNI 75~IN XIe845 15, 0ff SS Sf4 ~ SeIN ffeSN Ne081 Slg4N NeQl0 fleNS fOefN le000 4eNf 4eNf ~500 D~N1 10e805 15eOf5 15, SN NeIN SSeISS SSg, 801 50ylIO ~855 NeNI N, ~ fN 1 NO ~Jr~ 88~150 Oig NI 105e...Mon area ~ s weil os oa the terjcdccal aarkets and livestock auotiens. It is the respcucsibLlity of Chose aea te ~e sheep sn4 laibs direst' frea tho producer as thuf are needed lac the peskeri 5? paoker relies upon thf. s aethed when tho voluao...

Wootan, Charley V

2012-06-07

121

LAKE NUTRIENT MODELING STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining the effects of morphological conditions, turbidity and watershed land use / land cover patterns on nutrient levels in Central Plains lakes and reservoirs. The study involves intensive field monitoring for the calibration and verification of basin and watershed models...

122

Food Groups and Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Perry, Miss

2007-11-08

123

Male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if the infant's condition is stable and healthy. Male circumcision should be performed by tra

2012-09-01

124

Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

125

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

·Partial reclamation since 1988, no new operation 6 #12;7 #12;Titan Sheep Mountain Project: ·Mine·Mine ·Underground and Open Pit Mining ·Current Mine Permit (381C) ·Updating POO, Reclamation Plan & Bond ·Uranium Recovery to pit or used in reclamation ·Sheep Mountain Underground ·To extent possible all wastes reclaimed

126

Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm2, P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm2, P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Green, Lucy R.

2013-01-01

127

Growth of sheep's burnet and two dryland legumes under periodic mob-stocking with sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of established pure and mixed swards of sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated under periodic sheep-grazing for 19 months in the lower North Island. Swards were 16 months at the start of grazing and consisted of 34–73% weeds (mainly perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover

G. B. Douglas; A. G. Foote

1993-01-01

128

Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.  

PubMed

In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

2011-12-01

129

The incidence of sheep strike by Lucilia sericata on sheep farms in Britain: a simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of a temperature-dependent simulation of the population dynamics of Lucilia sericata and a logistic model of sheep susceptibility, based on patterns of faecal soiling, fleece length and fleece humidity, a deterministic simulation model has been constructed to predict the incidence of sheep strike by L. sericata on lambs and ewes in Britain. Strikes are assigned to individual

A Fenton; R Wall

1998-01-01

130

Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8?months old sheep, weighing on average 30?kg, from which 15?mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8?days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p?sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection. PMID:22607611

2012-01-01

131

Effects of steroids on beta-adrenergic binding sites in sheep pineal glands.  

PubMed

As an initial step in investigations of putative differences between central nervous system light-sensitive mechanisms in seasonally shedding and non-shedding breeds of sheep, some beta-adrenoceptor characteristics of Merino sheep pineal glands were determined, using [3H]dihydroalprenolol as the labelled ligand. Overall, a dissociation constant of 17.2 +/- 2.6 nmoles/l and a daytime beta-receptor density of 1.6 +/- 0.3 pmoles/mg were determined at 37 degrees. The binding sites exhibited stereospecificity, saturability and apparent homogeneity. 17 beta-Estradiol and progesterone implants that provided hormone concentrations in the physiological range had no significant effect on pineal beta-receptors in male sheep castrated shortly after birth. Dexamethasone injections, on the other hand, in doses sufficient to loosen the attachment of wool fibres to the skin, resulted in decreased pineal beta-receptor density and increased receptor affinity for dihydroalprenolol. This effect was apparently not mediated by altered plasma catecholamine concentrations, since the glucocorticoid treatment did not affect jugular venous noradrenaline, adrenaline or dopamine levels. The possible involvement of glucocorticoids in the regulation of wool growth could thus have a central neuronal component, medicated via action on pineal beta-adrenoceptors in sheep; however, the existence of the putative gonadal steroid feedback on beta-adrenoceptor-mediated pineal function remains to be demonstrated in this species. PMID:6284175

Foldes, A; Maxwell, C A; Hinks, N T; Hoskinson, R M; Scaramuzzi, R J

1982-04-01

132

Farming Systems for Sheep Production and Their Effect on Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep are raised by humans all over the world for a variety of reasons and in many different management systems. In this chapter,\\u000a we briefly describe the use of sheep worldwide. We then describe how the welfare of sheep is affected by human activity using\\u000a three production systems as examples. The three systems chosen are extensively managed sheep raised for

R. J. Kilgour; T. Waterhouse; C. M. Dwyer; I. D. Ivanov

133

The subtropical nutrient spiral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

2003-12-01

134

Male osteoporosis.  

PubMed

As a result of population ageing worldwide, osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious problem in the western world. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with a significant burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Although less frequent than in women, male osteoporosis is also a relatively common problem. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as a serious medical condition, over the last two decades several studies have investigated a number of aspects related to the pathogenesis, diagnosis and assessment, prevention and treatment of male osteoporosis. A better understanding of factors underlying increased bone fragility in men has led to the definition of appropriate screening and diagnostic strategies, and the development of treatments that have shown to improve bone mineral density and, in some cases, reduce fracture risk in men as well as in women. This review will summarize recent findings on male osteoporosis with a particular focus on risk factors and causes of bone loss, and available therapeutic options. PMID:25069495

Giusti, A; Bianchi, G

2014-01-01

135

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

136

Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep. PMID:22247385

Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2012-01-01

137

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS...

2010-04-01

138

Cougar predation on bighorn sheep in southwestern Alberta during winter  

E-print Network

'AmCrique (Ovis canadensis) dans le sud-ouest de l'Alberta, au cours des hivers de 1985-1986 ?I 1993- 1994. Nous] Introduction studies of some desert bighorn sheep (0. c. nelsoni) herds Many bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis. Jalkotzy, and Marco Festa-Bianchet Abstract: Predation by cougars (Puma concolor) upon bighorn sheep (Ovis

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

139

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations commonly experience pneumonia outbreaks caused by Pasteurella spp. that result in a partial or complete dieoff. Although several factors can contribute to Pasteurella spp. transmission or infectivity in bighorn sheep, to date the importance of such factors in population declines has not been rigorously examined. We evaluated the relationship between pneumonia-induced dieoffs in bighorn sheep

Ryan J. Monello; Dennis L. Murray; E. Frances Cassirer

2001-01-01

140

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds  

E-print Network

. Murray, and E. Frances Cassirer Abstract: Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations commonly experience sheep serving as reservoir hosts. Résumé : Les populations du Mouflon d'Amérique, Ovis canadensis] 1432 Monello et al.Introduction Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations often expe- rience

141

Demography, population dynamics and sustainability of the Patagonian sheep flocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep production is the main agricultural activity in Patagonia. Since the middle of the 20th century, sheep numbers have declined steadly. We used historical records of stock numbers in four ranches to analyze the importance of regional factors so as to explain the decline of the Patagonian sheep flocks. We found that the stocks of all the four ranches declined

Marcos Texeira; Jose M. Paruelo

2006-01-01

142

4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

143

Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan  

E-print Network

Short note Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan Centre for Food and Animal Research) Summary ― Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be anal- yzed for copper or vitamin E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Conservation genetics of reintroduced California bighorn sheep in Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) historically occupied North American alpine habitats in great numbers from the Baha Peninsula north into Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Unfortunately, like most big game species in North America, bighorn sheep experienced a period of exploitation following European settlement that resulted in massive range declines and extirpations. Reintroduction efforts for bighorn sheep began as early as

Zachary H Olson

2010-01-01

145

MENINGEAL WORM IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INFECTED BIGHORN AND DOMESTIC SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first (July 1989) of two experiments, each of three bighorn sheep (Ovis can- aderzAis) and three domestic sheep, respectively, was exposed to 25, 150, or 300 infective third- stage larvae (L3) of the meningeal worm, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Two bighorn sheep had temporary mild paresis and lumbar weakness; one developed paralysis and died suddenly 32 days after exposure. Adult

M. J. Pybus; S. Groom; W. M. Samuel

146

Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria. PMID:23604639

Chikhaoui, Mira; Khoudja, Fatima Benchaib

2013-10-01

147

Surveillance of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in sheep in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan.  

PubMed

Surveillance of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood DNA samples collected from 40 sheep and goats in 10 different flocks in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan. No exogenous (oncogenic) JSRV sequence was detected by PCR in these samples, while the ovine endogenous retrovirus sequence was successfully amplified in all samples. Our paper is the first demonstration of JSRV surveillance in Japan and shows no evidence of oncogenic JSRV infection in sheep and goats in Hokkaido. PMID:21712639

Maeda, Naoyoshi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Oouchi, Satoshi; Uede, Toshimitsu

2011-11-01

148

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis  

PubMed Central

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env) protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or oncogenesis has been studied in a variety of cell systems and in animal models. Moreover, JSRV studies have provided insights into retroviral genomic RNA export/expression mechanisms. JSRV encodes a trans-acting factor (Rej) within the env gene necessary for the synthesis of Gag protein from unspliced viral RNA. This review summarizes research pertaining to JSRV-induced pathogenesis, Env transformation, and other aspects of JSRV biology. PMID:21994634

Hofacre, Andrew; Fan, Hung

2010-01-01

149

Ocean nutrient enhancer \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean nutrient enhancer (ONE) is composed of a spar type floating structure from which is suspended a 175 m long compliant steel riser. The ONE was installed at the center of Sagami-Bay in May 2003 for the purpose of discharging density controlled water, which is adjusted by mixing the up-welled deep ocean water (DOW) and surface water, into the

Satoshi Masuda; Masayuki Yonezawa; Masao Morikawa

2004-01-01

150

Exploring estuarine nutrient susceptibility.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of estuaries to nutrient loading is an important issue that cuts across a range of management needs. We used a theory-driven but data-tested simple model to assist classifying estuaries according to their susceptibility to nutrients. This simple nutrient-driven phytoplankton model is based on fundamental principles of mass balance and empirical response functions for a wide variety of estuaries in the United States. Phytoplankton production was assumed to be stoichiometrically proportional to nitrogen load and an introduced "efficiency factor" intended to capture the myriad processes involved in converting nitrogen load to algal production. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm of Bayesian inference was then employed for parameter estimation. The model performed remarkably well for chlorophyll estimates, and the predicted estimates of primary production, grazing, and sinking losses are consistent with measurements reported in the literature from a wide array of systems. Analysis of the efficiency factor suggests that estuaries with the ratio of river inflow to estuarine volume (Q/V) greater than 2.0 per year are less susceptible to nutrient loads, and those with Q/V between 0.3 and 2.0 per year are moderately susceptible. This simple model analysis provides a first-order screening tool for estuarine susceptibility classification. PMID:19544842

Scavia, Donald; Liu, Yong

2009-05-15

151

Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

152

Nutrient Sharing between Symbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we consider the exchange of nutrients between the host plant and the bacterial microsym- biont in nitrogen-fixing legume root nodules. During nodule formation, the host tissues and the bacterial microsymbiont develop in response to each other to formaspecializedtissuethatmaintains anenvironment where nitrogen fixation can occur (Brewin, 2004; Mergaert et al., 2006; Prell and Poole, 2006). This com- plex

James White; Jurgen Prell; Euan K. James; Philip Poole

2007-01-01

153

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

154

[Male contraception].  

PubMed

Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion. PMID:3648976

Demery, A

1987-05-01

155

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

156

Urban nUtrient Urban nUtrient  

E-print Network

Urban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook #12;#12;Urban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook Content Coordinators of the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. May 2011 #12;#12;Urban Nutrient Management Handbook I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Chapter 3. Managing Urban Soils What Is an Urban Soil

Liskiewicz, Maciej

157

Nutrient Needs at a Glance  

E-print Network

This publication defines nutritional terms and lists the nutrients, vitamins, minerals and electrolytes for which recommended dietary allowances have been established. Additional information is provided on the sources of these nutrients...

Bielamowicz, Mary K.

2003-02-10

158

The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield

2004-01-01

159

Sex-specific effect of antenatal betamethasone exposure on renal oxidative stress induced by angiotensins in adult sheep.  

PubMed

Prenatal glucocorticoid administration in clinically relevant doses reduces nephron number and renal function in adulthood and is associated with hypertension. Nephron loss in early life may predispose the kidney to other insults later but whether sex influences increases in renal susceptibility is unclear. Therefore, we determined, in male and female adult sheep, whether antenatal glucocorticoid (betamethasone) exposure increased 8-isoprostane (marker of oxidative stress) and protein excretion after acute nephron reduction and intrarenal infusions of angiotensin peptides. We also examined whether renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) could contribute to alterations in 8-isoprostane excretion in a sex-specific fashion. In vivo, ANG II significantly increased 8-isoprostane excretion by 49% and protein excretion by 44% in male betamethasone- but not in female betamethasone- or vehicle-treated sheep. ANG-(1-7) decreased 8-isoprostane excretion but did not affect protein excretion in either group. In vitro, ANG II stimulated 8-isoprostane release from PTCs of male but not female betamethasone-treated sheep. Male betamethasone-exposed sheep had increased p47 phox abundance in the renal cortex while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased only in females. We conclude that antenatal glucocorticoid exposure enhances the susceptibility of the kidney to oxidative stress induced by ANG II in a sex-specific fashion and the renal proximal tubule is one target of the sex-specific effects of antenatal steroids. ANG-(1-7) may mitigate the impact of prenatal glucocorticoids on the kidney. P47 phox activation may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress and proteinuria in males. The protection from renal oxidative stress in females is associated with increased SOD activity. PMID:25209867

Bi, Jianli; Contag, Stephen A; Chen, Kai; Su, Yixin; Figueroa, Jorge P; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

2014-11-01

160

Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

2013-01-01

161

Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive Alexei A. Maklakov,1  

E-print Network

Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing Alexei A. Maklakov,1 Matthew D. Hall,1- related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance

Lailvaux, Simon

162

CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting  

E-print Network

or "themes": · Animal Waste Management · Drinking Water and Human Health · Environmental RestorationWelcome CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting May 4 and 5, 2004 Atlanta, GA #12;University Objectives · Information Sharing Among States ­ Nutrient management regulations ­ Nutrient management

163

Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.

164

Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition\\u000a relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic\\u000a studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases\\u000a such as coronary heart disease,

Regina C. Casper

2004-01-01

165

Black sheep and walls of silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the frequently observed phenomenon that (i) some members of a team (“black sheep”) exhibit behavior disliked by other (honest) team members, who (ii) nevertheless refrain from reporting such misbehavior to the authorities (they set up a “wall of silence”). Much cited examples include hospitals and police departments. In this paper, these features arise in equilibrium.

Gerd Muehlheusser; Andreas Roider

2008-01-01

166

Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION Inbreeding depression has been found been designed so that the reduction of fitness resulting from inbreeding depression can be avoided, no inbreeding depression has been detected (Kalinowski, Hedrick & Miller, 1999). It is not clear how often low

Kalinowski, Steven T

167

Pasteurellaceae from Colorado bighorn sheep herds.  

PubMed

We compared phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of 88 Pasteurellaceae isolates from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the course of exploring epizootiologic relationships. Based on our observations, adopting contemporary taxonomic conventions and using molecular methods to detect and compare Pasteurellaceae may help improve understanding of bighorn respiratory disease epizootiology and management. PMID:21719858

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L

2011-07-01

168

Addressing pain caused by mulesing in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgical operation of mulesing cuts wool-bearing and wrinkled skin from the perineal region and adjoining hindquarters of Australian Merino sheep, and has been shown in combination with tail docking to provide significantly enhanced protection against flystrike for the remainder of the animal's life. There is strong evidence that mulesing is a painful procedure, and its medium term future is

Andrew D. Fisher

169

Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

1997-08-01

170

Monensin toxicosis in 2 sheep flocks.  

PubMed Central

Several lambs in 2 sheep flocks died suddenly and others were examined for generalized weakness and dyspnea. Postmortem findings were suggestive of degenerative myocardial and skeletal muscle myopathy, which was confirmed histologically. Feed analysis revealed toxic levels of monensin and ionophore toxicosis was diagnosed. PMID:11272459

Jones, A

2001-01-01

171

LOW-QUALITY ROUGHAGES IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE PELLETED DIETS FOR SHEEP:DIGESTION AND METABOLISM CHARACTERISTICS AS AFFECTED BY CORNCOB AND(OR) RICE HULL ADDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted to determine effects of feeding corncobs, rice hulls or a combination of both on nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-can- nulated sheep (55-kg Rambouillet X Dorset rams; trial 1 ; 4 X 4 Latin square) as well as ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (24.1-kg crossbred rams; trial

A. R. Kinser; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger

172

Infl uence of selenate and linseed oil on fatty-acid and amino-acid profi les in the liver, muscles, fat tissues and blood plasma of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty individually-housed male Polish Merino lambs with an initial body weight of 25±2 kg were used in the experiment. Each group comprised 5 lambs. Sheep were fed the control or experimental diets enriched in 5% linseed oil (LO), 2 ppm selenium as selenate (SE) or combined addition of 5% LO and 2 ppm selenium (LOSE). The effects of the experimental

K. M. Nied?wiedzka; J. Kowalczyk; M. Czauderna

2008-01-01

173

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods ... program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville ...

174

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

of governmental and industrial organizations, including the Department for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High for Dairy Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire

Bequette, Brian J.

175

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions Human that hyperglycemia during pregnancy was associated with altered breast milk immune factors. Human milk) or without (n = 16) GDM at wk 24­28 in pregnancy. Milk was analyzed for HMO abundances, protein

Gleeson, Joseph G.

176

Salivary prions in sheep and deer  

PubMed Central

Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of ?0.5 to 1.7 log ID50 U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of ?1.1 to ?0.4 log ID50 U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID50 units for sheep and 7.0 log ID50 units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID50 units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

Tamguney, Gultekin; Richt, Jurgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J

2012-01-01

177

Effect of Partial Replacement of Concentrates with Sugar Beet Pulp on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Energy Utilization of Growing Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve five months old (Ossimi X Rahmani) male lambs weighing 20.80 + 2.60 kg were used to evaluate the effect of feeding ration containing 50% (w\\/w) feed sugar beet pulp to replace the common concentrate feed mixture (CFM) on carcass traits, body composition and utilization efficiency of metabolizable energy by growing Egyptian sheep. Four lambs randomly chosen were slaughtered at

A. Y. EL-BADAWI; R. I. EL-KADY

178

Molecular cloning of sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 and localization in sheep testis.  

PubMed

Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 (PDIA3) is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family and is multifunctional in many processes. Recently, it has been confirmed as a sperm membrane component and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion under which the molecular mechanism is still obscure. Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 cDNA has been cloned in several mammals; however, goat and sheep counterparts have not been identified. To facilitate the studies on the potential function of PDIA3 protein in sperm-egg fusion in sheep and goat, we cloned the cDNA encoding for Pdia3 of sheep (Ovis aries) and cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and studied its transcript and protein localization in sheep testis. The cloned sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 cDNA are 1660 bp and 1591 bp, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that sheep and goat Pdia3 cDNA both have a coding region of 1518 bp with the same nucleotides encoding the same 505 amino acids. The predicted peptide, with two typical motifs of Trp-Cys-Gly-His-Cys-Lys (WCGHCK) which is a hallmark of the PDI family, has high homology to that of bovine (99.21%), human (95.05%), rat (89.50%) and mouse (90.89%). Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 protein was observed in cells of various stages of spermatogenesis, from the primary spermatocyte to spermatozoa phases, as well as in the Leydig cells. It was observed in the entire sheep spermatozoa and mostly at the equatorial segment and the forepart of the flagellum. The Pdia3 mRNA was detected over the seminiferous epithelium in all stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:21382104

Lv, L X; Ujisguleng, B; Orhontana, B; Lian, W B; Xing, W J

2011-12-01

179

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 901910 Density-dependent motheryearling association in bighorn sheep  

E-print Network

, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density 1987). Bighorn, Ovis canadensis, and domestic sheep, O. aries, however, do not seem to fit this pattern

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

180

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must...

2010-01-01

181

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22...BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The...

2010-01-01

182

Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation  

PubMed Central

Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120

Jarrar, Bashir M.

2010-01-01

183

Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) Wild Sheep Working Group Initial Subcommittee Recommendations for Domestic Sheep and Goat Management In Wild Sheep Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the USDA Forest Service (USFS), the two principal federal land management agencies in the western United States, are in the process of reviewing and updating their policies on the management of domestic sheep and goats in wild sheep habitat, with the intention of developing consistent, and potentially joint, policy. Although the risk

Mike Cox; Vic Coggins; Bob Henry; Helen Schwantje; Vern Bleich; Michael Miller; Dale Toweill; Keith Aune; Melanie Woolever; Jim Karpowitz

184

Fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia; an essential resource for smallholders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the historical development of fat-tailed sheep in Indonesia, the dynamics of production systems, production\\u000a and reproduction performances under farmers’ conditions, and roles of sheep in livelihoods. In the eighteenth and nineteenth\\u000a century, fat-tailed sheep from southwest Asia and Africander sheep from South Africa were introduced. Crossing of fat-tailed\\u000a sheep with the local thin-tailed sheep produced the Javanese

Henk Mathijs Johannes Udo; I. Gede Suparta Budisatria

2011-01-01

185

Resource use efficiency in urban and peri-urban sheep, goat and cattle enterprises.  

PubMed

Urban livestock husbandry receives growing attention given the increasing urban demand for livestock products. At the same time, little is known about the resource use efficiency in urban livestock enterprises and eventual negative externalities. In livestock production, feeds are an important resource whose nutrients are transformed into products (meat and milk) to generate financial return to the producer. The lack of knowledge on nutrient supply through feed might lead to oversupply with severe environmental impacts. In Niamey, a typical West African city and capital of the Republic of Niger, urban livestock production is constrained by feed scarcity, especially during the dry season. Here, the issue of resource use efficiency was studied in 13 representative and differently managed sheep/goat and cattle enterprises characterized by high and low feed inputs, respectively, during a period of 28 months. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) inflows into each farm through livestock feeds and outflows through manure were determined using a semi-structured questionnaire; interviews were accompanied by regular weighing of feed supplied and dung produced. Live weight gain (LWG) and efficiency of conversion of total feed dry matter offered (kg TDMO/kg LWG) were computed along with nutrient balances (NBs) per metabolic body mass (kg0.75). NBs (per kg0.75/day) in the high-input (HI) sheep/goat enterprises were +1762.4 mg N, +127.2 mg P and +1363.5 mg K and were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those in low-input (LI) units (+69.1 mg N, -98.3 mg P and +16.5 mg K). In HI cattle enterprises, daily balances averaged +454.1 mg N, +40.1 mg P and +341.8 mg K compared to +34.4 mg N, -9.0 mg P and +68.3 mg K (P > 0.05) in LI cattle systems. All systems were characterized by poor conversion efficiencies of offered feed, which ranged from 13.5 to 46.1 kg TDMO/kg LWG in cattle and from 15.7 to 43.4 kg TDMO/kg LWG in sheep/goats. LWG in HI sheep/goats was 53 g/day in the rainy season, 86 g/day in the hot dry season and 104 g/day in the cool dry season, while HI cattle lost 79 g/day in the hot dry season and gained 121 g/day and 92 g/day in the cool dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The data indicate that there is nutrient wasting and scope for improvement of feeding strategies in Niamey's livestock enterprises, which might also decrease nutrient losses to the urban environment. PMID:22445127

Diogo, R V C; Buerkert, A; Schlecht, E

2010-10-01

186

Kisspeptin Signaling Is Required for the Luteinizing Hormone Response in Anestrous Ewes following the Introduction of Males  

PubMed Central

The introduction of a novel male stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of female sheep during seasonal anestrus, leading to the resumption of follicle maturation and ovulation. How this pheromone cue activates pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) is unknown. We hypothesised that pheromones activate kisspeptin neurons, the product of which is critical for the stimulation of GnRH neurons and fertility. During the non-breeding season, female sheep were exposed to novel males and blood samples collected for analysis of plasma LH profiles. Females without exposure to males served as controls. In addition, one hour before male exposure, a kisspeptin antagonist (P-271) or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle and continued for the entire period of male exposure. Introduction of a male led to elevated mean LH levels, due to increased LH pulse amplitude and pulse frequency in females, when compared to females not exposed to a male. Infusion of P-271 abolished this effect of male exposure. Brains were collected after the male effect stimulus and we observed an increase in the percentage of kisspeptin neurons co-expressing Fos, by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the per-cell expression of Kiss1 mRNA was increased in the rostral and mid (but not the caudal) arcuate nucleus (ARC) after male exposure in both aCSF and P-271 treated ewes, but the per-cell content of neurokinin B mRNA was decreased. There was also a generalized increase in Fos positive cells in the rostral and mid ARC as well as the ventromedial hypothalamus of females exposed to males. We conclude that introduction of male sheep to seasonally anestrous female sheep activates kisspeptin neurons and other cells in the hypothalamus, leading to increased GnRH/LH secretion. PMID:23469121

De Bond, Julie-Ann P.; Li, Qun; Millar, Robert P.; Clarke, Iain J.; Smith, Jeremy T.

2013-01-01

187

DDT Residues in sheep from the ingestion of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topsoil, incorporated into pelleted feed, was fed to ewes at the rate of 20 g soil\\/sheep\\/day from mid-pregnancy until 3 months after they had lambed. Four ewes received soil containing traces of DDE (control group), and another 4 ewes were given soil containing “weathered” DDT residues (treated group), the latter sheep receiving, on average, 0.62 mg total DDT\\/sheep\\/day.Highest residues in

D. L. Harrison; J. C. M. Mol; W. B. Healy

1970-01-01

188

Molecular evidence for fat-tailed sheep domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sheep is one of the most successful and widely spread domestic animals. Archaeological evidence traces the first domestic\\u000a sheep back to the Near East region around 9,000 years ago. It is also known that soon after, the domesticated sheep started\\u000a to flow out of the centre of origin and spread all over the ancient world following the expansion of agriculture.

Joana Rocha; Shanyuan Chen; Albano Beja-Pereira

2011-01-01

189

Experimental studies of chronic pneumonia of sheep.  

PubMed

Strains of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from sheep affected with chronic pneumonia were inoculated by endobronchial route to conventionally-reared and SPF (Specific Pathogen-Free) lambs. Changes resembling those of the naturally-occurring disease were produced in most lambs given the organisms in combination and in some given M. ovipneumoniae alone. Similar but less extensive changes were seen in SPF lambs and fewer animals were affected. Different strains of M. ovipneumoniae did not affect the extent of changes produced in SPF lambs. M. ovipneumoniae became established in the lungs of both types of sheep; P. haemolytica did so less readily. It was concluded that chronic pneumonia may be reproduced in conventional animals by combined inoculation of M. ovipneumoniae and P. haemolytica. Age and status of immunity to mycoplasmas may account for the different responses of conventional and SPF lambs. PMID:318238

Gilmour, J S; Jones, G E; Rae, A G

1979-01-01

190

First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep.  

PubMed

Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. PMID:21247018

Derakhshanfar, A; Mozaffari, A A

2010-06-01

191

Immune responses to Staphylococcus aureus and Psoroptes ovis in sheep infected with P. ovis--the sheep scab mite.  

PubMed

In sheep, lesions caused by Psoroptes ovis, the sheep scab mite, may become colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. The present study compares clinical signs, lesional area and the immune response to P. ovis and S. aureus in P. ovis-infested sheep with and without secondary S. aureus infection. No differences were detected in the clinical signs or lesional areas in the S. aureus-positive and -negative sheep. However, 6 weeks after infestation an IgG but not IgE isotype antibody response to S. aureus was detected in the S. aureus-positive but not the S. aureus-negative group of sheep. This response targeted S. aureus antigens with molecular weights of approximately 36, 38, 50 and 65 kDa. In addition, 6 weeks after infestation an IgE response to P. ovis was detected in the S. aureus-positive but not the S. aureus-negative group of sheep. PMID:16790280

Oliveira, A M; MacKellar, A; Hume, L; Huntley, J F; Thoday, K L; van den Broek, A H M

2006-09-15

192

Genetic aspects of sheep parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

There is evidence of genetically determined host resistance mechanisms for most of the sheep parasites evaluated. The mechanisms vary; from no or reduced establishment, early expulsion, to suppression of parasites resulting in reduced size and fecundity. There is a need to integrate breeding for parasite resistance with the genetic improvement of production traits in farm animals, aiming for optimum solutions for potentially conflicting responses. Sustainable parasite control must be based on Integrated Parasite Management utilising an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:22525587

Karlsson, L J E; Greeff, J C

2012-09-30

193

Selecting Sheep for Wool and Mutton Production.  

E-print Network

wools making the proportionate grease price even qreat; for the longer staple wools. DENSITY. Density is the number of fibers r:. unit of area. This is more difficult to measure than stact: length. The following methods can be used to estimz... should be eliminated. Wool containing dark colored fibers cannot be used to make white or light colored fabrics. Sheep with kemp, white, hairlike fibers scattered through their fleeces should be eliminated. Kemp fibers are brittle and increase...

Gray, James A.; Groff, Jack L.

1971-01-01

194

Endogenous Retroviruses Related to Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ovine betaretroviruses consist of exogenous viruses [jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus, (ENTV)]\\u000a associated with neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract and 15–20 endogenous viruses (enJSRV) stably integrated in the\\u000a ovine and caprine genome. Phylogenetic analysis of this group of retroviruses suggests that the enJSRV can be considered as\\u000a ‘modern’ endogenous retroviruses with active, exogenous counterparts. Sequence

J. C. DeMartini; J. O. Carlson; C. Leroux; T. Spencer; M. Palmarini

195

Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.  

PubMed

Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2?. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region. PMID:21509455

Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

2011-10-01

196

Gestational psittacosis in a Montana sheep rancher.  

PubMed

In humans, psittacosis is primarily a flulike illness following exposure to psittacine birds. In rare cases, pregnant women exposed to Chlamydia psittaci can contract gestational psittacosis: atypical pneumonia, sepsis, and placental insufficiency resulting in premature birth or miscarriage. In the United States, only two cases of gestational psittacosis have been reported, both from exposure to psittacine birds. Eleven other cases have been reported worldwide, mostly in the United Kingdom, all from exposure to infected birth fluids and membranes of farm mammals, notably sheep and goats. In these mammals, C. psittaci inhabit the reproductive tract, are transmitted sexually or by the fecal-oral route, and cause miscarriages. The case of gestational psittacosis in a Montana sheep rancher is the first farm animal-related case reported in the United States. Pregnant women should avoid close contact with C. psittaci-infected animals, particularly sheep and goats during the birthing season. Obstetricians should consider this diagnosis along with early antibiotic treatment and cesarean section delivery in the context of the patient's case history. PMID:9204302

Jorgensen, D M

1997-01-01

197

Nutrient intake of range sheep on a buffelgrass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to estimate and compare the organic matter (OM), energy and mineral intakes of grazing lambs in a buffelgrass pasture during 1 year. Vegetation in the study area (10 ha) consisted mainly of buffelgrass (70% of covered area) and shrubs such as blackbrush (Acacia rigidula), palo verde (Cercidium macrum) and cenizo (Leucophyllum texanum). Shrubs comprised about 27%

R. G. Ramírez; D. S. Alonso; G. Hernández; B. Ramírez

1995-01-01

198

Operant analysis of chronic locoweed intoxication in sheep.  

PubMed

Five sheep were fed a 10% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) pellet or alfalfa pellets for 3- to 5-wk periods to determine the effects of intermittent locoweed ingestion on operant responding; three controls were fed alfalfa pellets for 22 wk. Sheep were trained to respond to a multiple schedule with a fixed ratio (FR) 5 and fixed interval (FI) 50 s as major elements; performance was reinforced with rolled barley. Locoweed-treated sheep decreased (P < .05) FR response rate after 4 wk of locoweed feeding, but this decrease first appeared during the first recovery period (wk 6). The FR response rate of intoxicated sheep did not return to baseline during the remainder of the study and differed from controls during most of the study. Controls did not deviate (P > .05) from their FR baseline except during wk 2. Sheep did not stabilize on the FI component. As locoweed-treated sheep became progressively more intoxicated, they altered their pattern of FR responses, with longer post-reinforcement pauses, and a slower overall FR rate. Intoxicated sheep ingested an average of .21 mg swainsonine.kg-1.d-1. Overt signs of intoxication were noted when two sheep were stressed on wk 17. These two sheep had neuroviseral vacuolation typical of locoweed poisoning, whereas the three remaining locoweed-treated sheep that were euthanatized 5 wk later showed little histologic evidence of intoxication. Our findings indicate that "on-off" or cyclic grazing of locoweed ranges should be approached cautiously. Such a grazing program may be feasible because of the rapid resolution of histologic pathology; however, an initial toxic insult of 4 wk seems to be excessive, even at low doses, because sheep may exhibit persistent behavioral abnormalities that require > 6 wk to resolve. PMID:8923176

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; James, L F; Molyneux, R J

1996-11-01

199

Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to…

Cassel, Russell N.

1987-01-01

200

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

201

Nutrient Influences on Leaf Photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

The net rate of CO2 uptake for leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. was reduced when the plants were grown at low concentrations of NO3-, PO42-, or K+. The water vapor conductance was relatively constant for all nutrient levels, indicating little effect on stomatal response. Although leaves under nutrient stress tended to be lower in chlorophyll and thinner, the ratio of mesophyll surface area to leaf area did not change appreciably. Thus, the reduction in CO2 uptake rate at low nutrient levels was due to a decrease in the CO2 conductance expressed per unit mesophyll cell wall area (gcellCO2). The use of gcellCO2 and nutrient levels expressed per unit of mesophyll cell wall provides a new means of assessing nutrient effects on CO2 uptake of leaves. PMID:16661231

Longstreth, David J.; Nobel, Park S.

1980-01-01

202

Composition and nutrient digestibility of weather-damaged sorghum in swine  

E-print Network

normal wheat when fed to White Leghorn cockerel chicks. Paul. Sci. 48(5): 1772-1774. Jones, A. R. , L. M. Bezequ, B. D. Owen and F. Whiting. 1955. The effects of mold growth on the digestibility and feeding value of grains for swine and sheep. Part I.... Swine Experiments. Can. J. Agr. Sci. 35:525-530. Sibbald, I. E. , S. J. Slinger and W. F. Pepper. 1962. Sprouted, fro- zen and moldy wheats as sources of nutrients foz chicks. Poul. Sci. 41:1003-1004. Steele, R. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles...

Bailey, Wendell Craig

2012-06-07

203

Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for

Ricardo Baldi; S. D. Albon; D. A. Elston

2001-01-01

204

Applied Sheep Behavior Prepared by: Warren Gill, Professor  

E-print Network

to that environment is a fairly predictable composite of innate (inherited) and acquired (learned) components their food before consuming it. Sheep merely graze. These and many other feeding behavioral traits can rumination to abruptly cease. During rumination, sheep and cattle often acquire a pensive, sleepy expression

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

205

Tools and Technology Techniques for Capturing Bighorn Sheep  

E-print Network

to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms, netgun, Ovis canadensis, vaginal implant transmitter. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations declined dramatically. These declines have been attributed

206

Experiments in DNA Extraction and PCR Amplification from Bighorn Sheep  

E-print Network

materials used. For bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) fecal samples we compare different fecal pellet extraction procedures relative to reliability of genotypes obtained. Our example involves bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), an herbivore for which blood and tissue samples are mostly difficult and costly to obtain

Epps, Clinton Wakefield

207

CHARACTERIZATION OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA ASSOCIATED WITH PNEUMONIA IN BIGHORN SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Pasteurella multocida is a highly diverse group of bacteria recognized as important pathogens. Although P. multocida is not ordinarily associated with disease in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), numerous isolates were cultured in high numbers from free-ranging bighorn sheep in the Hells Canyon area of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon (USA) during the winter of 1995?96. Animals captured

Glen C. Weiser; Walter J. Delong; Julia L. Paz; Bahman Shafii; William J. Price; Alton C. S. Ward

2003-01-01

208

An integrated model for intestinal development in the fetal sheep  

E-print Network

An integrated model for intestinal development in the fetal sheep J. F. TRAHAIR P. M. ROBINSON is maintained in the developing intestine. The need to develop integrated models of gut structure and function and development in utero of most components of the intestinal wall of the sheep takes place in a very orderly man

Boyer, Edmond

209

HAEMOGLOBIN SWITCHING DURING DEVELOPMENT IN NORMAL AND HYPOPHYSECTOMISED FETAL SHEEP  

E-print Network

HAEMOGLOBIN SWITCHING DURING DEVELOPMENT IN NORMAL AND HYPOPHYSECTOMISED FETAL SHEEP W.G. WOOD J pituitaire. Introduction During human development fetal haemo- globin (Hb F; a2y2) is replaced by the major examined the switch from fetal to #12;adult haemoglobin in developing sheep to determine whether

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Original article The evaluation of selenium status of sheep  

E-print Network

Original article The evaluation of selenium status of sheep from the major production areas September 1989) Summary ― In order to evaluate the selenium status of sheep in the major raising areas of Moroc- co, blood selenium concentration, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and feed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Evaluation of Factors Potentially Influencing a Desert Bighorn Sheep Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) population in the Mazatzal Mountains (primary study area) in central Arizona and population indices on reference areas between 1989 and 2003. We evaluated disease exposure and nutritional status of desert bighorn sheep, vegetation parameters, predator diets, and mountain lion (Puma concolor) harvest and abundance (1999-2003) and mountain lion predation (1995-2003) as factors

TED McKINNEY; THORRY W. SMITH; JAMES C. deVOS

2006-01-01

212

MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE IN SHEEP VERSUS CATTLE  

E-print Network

MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE IN SHEEP VERSUS CATTLE J. FIORAMONTI Marie-Françoise HUBERT excrete moister faeces than sheep despite an identical length of the large intestine and a greater rate INTESTIN CHEZ LE MOUTON ET LA VACHE. - La motricité des différents segments du gros intestin (caecum, côlon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Adrenal-associated changes in experimental sporidesmin poisoning of sheep.  

PubMed

Sporidesmin-dosed hoggets which developed photosensitisation were shown to have enlarged adrenal glands and premature involution of the thymus. These sheep also developed high concentrations of plasma cortisol after the onset of photosensitisation. Sporidesmin-dosed sheep which did not show photosensitisation showed less or no adrenal associated changes. PMID:16031618

Smith, B L; Payne, E

1991-06-01

214

Labour Management for Profit and Welfare in Extensive Sheep Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep welfare is an emerging topic in research and food marketing, and recent studies suggest that farm labour is a key factor for both animal welfare and productivity in extensive sheep farming systems, although little research has been done into labour utilisation in these systems. This paper reports field data collection on two commercial farms and the use of a

Susanne Kirwan; Kenneth J. Thomson; Ian E. Edwards; Alistair W. Stott

2009-01-01

215

Operant Analysis of Chronic Locoweed Intoxication in Sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sheep were fed a 10% locoweed ( Oxytropis sericea) pellet or alfalfa pellets for 3- to 5-wk periods to determine the effects of intermittent locoweed ingestion on operant respond- ing; three controls were fed alfalfa pellets for 22 wk. Sheep were trained to respond to a multiple schedule with a fixed ratio (FR) 5 and fixed interval (FI) 50

James A. Pfister; Bryan L. Stegelmeier; Carl D. Cheney; Lynn F. James; Russell J. Molyneux

2010-01-01

216

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending to frequent oscillation of the digesta. It was concluded that accurate quantitative electromagnetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats -- AS-595-W Restricting traffic in and outCommon Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student will not be as efficient as possible. There are some human health risks when dealing with diseased animals. While most

218

Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep  

PubMed Central

Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:23083136

2012-01-01

219

A review of some characteristics, socio-economic aspects and utilization of Zulu sheep: implications for conservation.  

PubMed

Zulu sheep are Nguni sheep of Zululand and are adapted to the harsh conditions of KwaZulu-Natal. They are used by rural farmers for economic purposes. Their numbers are declining, indicating a potential extinction threat. Knowledge of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics is essential for conservation planning. In this review, there is a focus on the utilization, socio-economic aspects, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as well as a proposed breeding programme. A survey has shown that rural farmers in the areas of northern KwaZulu-Natal prefer to keep this breed for its adaptability, resistance to diseases and meat quality. Zulu sheep are small-framed multi-coloured animals. Mature males weigh up to 38 kg and females up to 32 kg. Based on four morphological traits and live weight, phenotypic diversity between three populations was estimated at 48%. A genetic diversity between these three populations was estimated at 22%. Live weight of Zulu sheep can be estimated using the heart girth and wither height measurements. Scrotum circumference of young rams (up to 22 months old) is reliable for estimating the live weight. Animals that were characterized in the studies were grazed extensively and no supplements were provided. There is therefore a potential of weight increase if these animals are reared in a semi-extensive environment. An open nucleus breeding scheme is thus recommended for a sustainable use and conservation of this breed. For more conclusive results, larger numbers of phenotypic and genetic characteristics, in larger numbers of Zulu sheep populations, should be investigated. PMID:21509458

Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred; Bezuidenhout, Carlos C; Nsahlai, Ignatius V; Nesamvuni, Edward A

2011-08-01

220

Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in china.  

PubMed

The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

2014-01-01

221

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

E-print Network

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

222

Seasonal dynamics and variation among sheep in densities of the sheep biting louse, Bovicola ovis.  

PubMed

Cyclic patterns and variations among sheep in numbers of Bovicola ovis are described in Polypay and Columbia ewes that were initially infested with equal numbers of lice and penned indoors continuously for 2 years. Bovicola ovis populations were censused at 3-4-week intervals at 69 body sites on each animal. In the second year of the study, the ewes were reinfested and half were mated. Louse populations were monitored on the resulting lambs from birth until 25 weeks of age. Strong seasonal cycles in louse numbers were observed on the ewes, with peaks in spring and troughs in summer. These cycles occurred in the absence of shearing, direct solar radiation or rainfall. Populations began to decline when daily mean and maximum temperatures were 11.5 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively, well below temperatures thought to cause warm season decline. Louse densities on Polypay ewes were approximately 10 times higher than on Columbias at most inspections. There were also large differences among sheep within breeds and sheep counts were highly correlated among dates, both within and between years. One third of the ewes failed to become infested despite having lice applied on five separate occasions and being penned together with other infested sheep. Pregnancy and lactation did not significantly affect louse numbers on the ewes. There was a significant negative correlation between louse counts and weight gains in the lambs, and lamb counts were significantly correlated with those of their dams up until, but not after, weaning. It is suggested that sheep may exert regulatory influences on lice which contribute to cycles in B. ovis populations. PMID:9512991

James, P J; Moon, R D; Brown, D R

1998-02-01

223

Nutrient removal from farm effluents.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a two-pond system used to treat dairy farm effluent was monitored over a period of 7 months. The retention of nutrients by two porous materials was examined both in the laboratory batch (zeolite and bark) and pilot-scale field (bark) experiments. The results indicated that biological treatment of farm effluents using the two-pond system was not effective in the removal of nutrients, which are likely to become pollutant when discharged to waterways. Both the bark and zeolite materials were effective in the removal of N, P and K from effluent. These materials can be placed in the second (i.e., aerobic) pond to treat effluents, which can then be discharged to streams with minimum impact on water quality. The nutrient-enriched porous materials can be recycled as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. PMID:15182831

Bolan, N S; Wong, L; Adriano, D C

2004-09-01

224

CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAPLASMA OWS ISOLATE FROM DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis, we recovered a field isolate from a suspected enzootic area in southern California (USA). Whole blood was collected from three desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and inoculated into a susceptible splenectomized domestic sheep, calf and a susceptible spleen-intact bighorn sheep. No infection occurred in the

Will Goff; David Stiller; David Jessup; Peter Msolla; Wafter Boyce; William Foreyt

225

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted on 252 farms randomly distributed over all the sheep raising areas in Uruguay. The study involved farms with more than 600 sheep, which represented 80% of the total sheep population of the country. Three anthelmintic groups were assessed, namely, benzimidazoles, levamisole and avermectins. Overall, the results showed 80% of sheep flocks had benzimidazole resistance, 71% had

A. Nari; J. Salles; A. Gil; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

226

Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep.  

E-print Network

feeding was started, both animals having shown symptoms 24 hours prior to death. Each consumed, .9 per cent of its body weight of the weed. Sheep 390 received the last weed on the 10th day, was typically sick on the 11th day, and found dead the next... rations were fed vary'ng quanti- ties of the minimum lethal dose of bitterweed daily showed very definitely that the poisoning is cumulative in character and that such poisoning results in sickness and death or in chronicity when the animals have...

Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1937-01-01

227

Energy Nutrient Status of Adolescent Athletes Participating in Accelerated Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescents have increased energy and protein requirements. Exercise training augments such requirements. The purpose of the present study was to determine if adolescent athletes participating in an accelerated speed and strength training program are consuming sufficient energy nutrients. Six athletic males and 6 athletic females (mean age 16yr.and 15yr,respectively) completed a 7-day diet record (DR) midway through the program (week

J. T. Baer; T. A. Miszko

1999-01-01

228

Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

2014-01-01

229

SOUTHERN REGION NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

SOUTHERN REGION NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PUBLICATIONS BY CROP Bermudagrass Corn Cotton Forages Forage Sugarcane Turfgrasses and Lawn Vegetables Wetlands Wheat BY STATE Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Kentucky.) #12;Cotton Managing Nitrogen Fertilization in Cotton (Texas) (Hons, F.) Correcting Nitrogen Based

230

Developmental changes in IGF-I and MyoG gene expression and their association with meat traits in sheep.  

PubMed

In the present study, real time-polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the expression of IGF-I and MyoG genes in Hu sheep longissimus dorsi at different growth stages and their association with meat traits. Expression of the IGF-I gene in Hu sheep differed significantly between males and females at the two day-old (0.01 < P < 0.05), one-month old (0.01 < P < 0.05), and three month-old (P < 0.01) stages. IGF-I gene expression in male longissimus muscles was higher than that of females at all growth stages, except for the three month-old stage. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between males and females at any growth stage in expression of the MyoG gene. MyoG gene expression in male longissimus muscles tended to be higher than that of females at all growth stages, except for the six month-old stage. IGF-I gene expression was significantly and positively correlated with live weight (P < 0.01) and carcass weight (0.01< P < 0.05), and was non-significantly positively correlated with net meat weight (P > 0.05). In contrast, MyoG gene expression was non-significantly and positively correlated with live weight, carcass, and net meat weight (P > 0.05). Carcass traits showed highly significant positive correlations (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expressions of IGF-I and MyoG genes showed highly significant positive correlations (P < 0.01). We conclude that the expressions of IGF-I and MyoG genes are significantly and positively correlated with early muscle traits of Hu sheep. PMID:24782091

Sun, W; Su, R; Li, D; Musa, H H; Kong, Y; Ding, J T; Ma, Y H; Chen, L; Zhang, Y F; Wu, W Z

2014-01-01

231

Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

H. Marschner

1994-01-01

232

Nutrient Sensing in Plant Meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants need nutrient to grow and plant cells need nutrient to divide. The meristems are the factories and cells that are left\\u000a behind will expand and differentiate. However, meristems are not simple homogenous entities; cells in different parts of the\\u000a meristem do different things. Positional cues operate that can fate cells into different tissue domains. However, founder\\/stem\\u000a cells persist in

Dennis Francis; Nigel G. Halford

2006-01-01

233

Conservation genetics of cattle, sheep, and goats.  

PubMed

Cattle, sheep and goats were domesticated about 10,000 years ago, spread out of the domestication centers in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the next few thousands years, and gave many populations locally adapted. After a very long period of soft selection, the situation changed dramatically 200 years ago with the emergence of the breed concept. The selection pressure strongly increased, and the reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced, leading to the fragmentation of the initial gene pool. More recently, the selection pressure was increased again via the use of artificial insemination, leading to a few industrial breeds with very high performances, but with low effective population sizes. Beside this performance improvement of industrial breeds, genetic resources are being lost, because of the replacement of traditional breeds by high performance industrial breeds at the worldwide level, and because of the loss of genetic diversity in these industrial breeds. Many breeds are already extinct, and genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are thus highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. The recent development of next generation sequencing technologies opens new avenues for properly characterizing the genetic resources, not only in the very diverse domestic breeds, but also in their wild relatives. Based on sound genetic characterization, urgent conservation measures must be taken to avoid an irremediable loss of farm animal genetic resources, integrating economical, sociological, and political parameters. PMID:21377620

Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pansu, Johan; Pompanon, François

2011-03-01

234

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

2014-12-01

235

COMPARATIVE ESTROGENICITY OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYL ESTRADIOL AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN AN IN VIVO, MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), VITELLOGENIN BIOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...

236

Sheep Cervical Spine Biomechanics: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models are often used to make the transition from scientific concepts to clinical applications. The sheep model has emerged as an important model in spine biomechanics. Although there are several experimental biomechanical studies of the sheep cervical spine, only a limited number of computational models have been developed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a C2-C7 sheep cervical spine finite element (FE) model to study the biomechanics of the normal sheep cervical spine. Methods The model was based on anatomy defined using medical images and included nonlinear material properties to capture the high flexibility and large neutral zone of the sheep cervical spine. The model was validated using comprehensive experimental flexibility testing. Ten adult sheep cervical spines, from C2-C7, were used to experimentally ascertain overall and segmental flexibility to ±2 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The ranges of motion predicted by the computational model were within one standard deviation of the respective experimental motions throughout the load cycle, with the exception of extension and lateral bending. The model over- and under predicted the peak motions in extension and lateral bending, respectively. Nevertheless, the model closely represents the range of motion and flexibility of the sheep cervical spine. Discussion This is the first multilevel model of the sheep cervical spine. The validated model affords additional biomechanical insight into the intact sheep cervical spine that cannot be easily determined experimentally. The model can be used to study various surgical techniques, instrumentation, and device placement, providing researchers and clinicians insight that is difficult, if not impossible, to gain experimentally. PMID:25328473

DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Gandhi, Anup A; Fredericks, Doug C; Smucker, Joseph D; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

237

Performance and Nutrient Retention Responses of Broilers to Dietary Oxyhalogenic and Ionic Salts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twoexperimentswereconductedtodeter- mine the effects of 2 ionic and antimicrobial mixtures on broilerperformanceandnutrientretention.Inexperiment 1, male broilers were fed 6 diets in a 2 × 3 factorial experi- ment (5 cages\\/diet, 9 chicks\\/cage) from 0 to 21d of age. Diets with 2 nutrient densities(normal industry diet (ND) and a low nutrient density diet (82% of ND)) and 3 ionic and antimicrobial mixtures

K. L. Thompson; Z. Kounev; J. A. Patterson; T. J. Applegate

238

The effect of zinc deficiency on wool growth and skin and wool follicle histology of male Merino lambs.  

PubMed

The aims of this work were to quantify the requirements of Zn for wool growth in growing male Merino lambs, and to describe the histological lesions of Zn deficiency in skin and wool follicles. Four groups of male Merino lambs (n 4) weighing 22 kg were fed ad lib. for 96 d on diets that contained 4 (basal diet), 10, 17 or 27 mg Zn/kg. Sheep in a fifth group were fed on the diet containing 27 mg Zn/kg, but were pair-fed to sheep on the 4 mg Zn/kg diet. Zn was added to the basal diet as ZnSO4 to give the respective treatment concentrations. Sheep fed on the diet containing 4 mg Zn/kg showed clinical signs of Zn deficiency and lower feed intakes and wool growth than sheep in the other groups. Their wool fibres were improperly keratinized and the wool follicles contained a higher proportion of apoptotic bodies than other groups. There was no evidence of parakeratosis and the rate of bulb-cell production was not affected. Sheep from other groups showed no clinical signs of Zn deficiency, and mean feed intakes and growth rates did not differ significantly between sheep fed on diets containing 10, 17 or 27 mg Zn/kg. However, wool growth was reduced in sheep fed on the diet containing 10 mg Zn/kg compared with those fed on diets containing 17 or 27 mg/kg. The mean concentration of Zn in the plasma at which wool growth was 90% of maximum was 0.5 mg/l. The equivalent value for the diet was 12 mg/kg, with 95% confidence intervals of 8 to 16 mg/kg. The results suggest that Zn deficiency reduces wool growth through a specific mechanism, perhaps involving impaired protein synthesis. PMID:8172871

White, C L; Martin, G B; Hynd, P I; Chapman, R E

1994-03-01

239

Sex reassignment: Male to female to male  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male patient planned and achieved sex-reassignment surgery which subsequently proved to have been performed prematurely. Postoperatively, the patient experienced a sudden change of conviction and was confronted with the realization that he could not live as a woman. Threatened by suicide, he finally found a resolution to his dilemma by reverting to the male role. Similar mistakes in the

John Money; George Wolff

1973-01-01

240

New aspects on efficient anticoagulation and antiplatelet strategies in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medicine. Especially in cardiovascular, orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery, the sheep is an important in vivo model for testing innovative therapies or medical devices prior to clinical application. For a wide variety of sheep model based research projects, an optimal anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is mandatory. However, no standardised scheme for this model has been developed so far. Thus the efficacy of antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (sodium enoxaparin, dabigatran etexilate) strategies was evaluated through aggregometry, anti-factor Xa activity and plasma thrombin inhibitor levels in sheep of different ages. Results Responses to antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in different concentrations were studied in the sheep. First, a baseline for the measurement of platelet aggregation was assessed in 20 sheep. The effectiveness of 225 mg clopidogrel twice daily (bid) in 2/5 sheep and 150 mg bid in 3/5 lambs could be demonstrated, while clopidogrel and its metabolite carboxylic acid were detected in every plasma sample. High dose ticagrelor (375 mg bid) resulted in sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation in 1/5 sheep, while acetylsalicylic acid did not show any antiplatelet effect. Therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels were achieved with age-dependent dosages of sodium enoxaparin (sheep 3 mg/kg bid, lambs 5 mg/kg bid). Administration of dabigatran etexilate resulted in plasma concentrations similar to human ranges in 2/5 sheep, despite receiving quadruple dosages (600 mg bid). Conclusion High dosages of clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation merely in a low number of sheep despite sufficient absorption. Ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid cannot be recommended for platelet inhibition in sheep. Efficient anticoagulation can be ensured using sodium enoxaparin rather than dabigatran etexilate in age-dependent dosages. The findings of this study significantly contribute to the improvement of a safe and reliable prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in sheep. Applying these results in future translational experimental studies may help to avoid early dropouts due to thromboembolic events and associated unnecessary high animal numbers. PMID:24088206

2013-01-01

241

Ketone body and fatty acid metabolism in sheep tissues. 3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, a cytoplasmic enzyme in sheep liver and kidney  

PubMed Central

1. 3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.30) activities in sheep kidney cortex, rumen epithelium, skeletal muscle, brain, heart and liver were 177, 41, 38, 33, 27 and 17?mol/h per g of tissue respectively, and in rat liver and kidney cortex the values were 1150 and 170 respectively. 2. In sheep liver and kidney cortex the 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase was located predominantly in the cytosol fractions. In contrast, the enzyme was found in the mitochondria in rat liver and kidney cortex. 3. Laurate, myristate, palmitate and stearate were not oxidized by sheep liver mitochondria, whereas the l-carnitine esters were oxidized at appreciable rates. The free acids were readily oxidized by rat liver mitochondria. 4. During oxidation of palmitoyl-l-carnitine by sheep liver mitochondria, acetoacetate production accounted for 63% of the oxygen uptake. No 3-hydroxybutyrate was formed, even after 10min anaerobic incubation, except when sheep liver cytosol was added. With rat liver mitochondria, half of the preformed acetoacetate was converted into 3-hydroxybutyrate after anaerobic incubation. 5. Measurement of ketone bodies by using specific enzymic methods (Williamson, Mellanby & Krebs, 1962) showed that blood of normal sheep and cattle has a high [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, in contrast with that of non-ruminants (rats and pigeons). This ratio in the blood of lambs was similar to that of non-ruminants. The ratio in sheep blood decreased on starvation and rose again on re-feeding. 6. The physiological implications of the low activity of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in sheep liver and the fact that it is found in the cytoplasm in sheep liver and kidney cortex are discussed. PMID:5485753

Koundakjian, Patricia P.; Snoswell, A. M.

1970-01-01

242

Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep. PMID:20688676

Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2010-07-01

243

Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice

Sarah K Wootton; Michael J Metzger; Kelly L Hudkins; Charles E Alpers; Denis York; James C DeMartini; A Dusty Miller

2006-01-01

244

Enhanced control of sheep ticks in upland sheep flocks: repercussions for red grouse co-hosts.  

PubMed

Sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases cause major economic losses in both upland sheep farming and moorland shoots of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Sheep were treated with acaricide four times between March and October and double-vaccinated against louping ill virus (LIV), instead of the conventional regime of two acaricide treatments and no vaccinations, on two moors in northern England. Enhanced treatment started at Westerdale Moor in 1995 and at Danby Moor in 2000; the latter had previously represented a spatial control site. From 1992 to 2003, grouse chick condition, tick burdens, reproductive success, shooting bags and LIV seroprevalence were measured. A total of 1297 grouse chicks from 398 broods were examined for ticks. Enhanced acaricide treatment reduced tick burdens by 90%, and LIV seroprevalence decreased in relation to the number of years since treatment began. Breeding success and post-breeding densities of grouse in the current sample area remained unrelated to acaricide treatment, tick burdens or LIV seroprevalence, but 25% and 60% more grouse were shot on Westerdale and Danby, respectively, after treatment enhancement than before. By improving shooting bags, tick management schemes help to maintain the economic viability of grouse moors, which, in turn, provide upland landscape and wildlife benefits. PMID:22112150

Newborn, D; Baines, D

2012-03-01

245

Cells infected with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus are detected in the bone marrow of asymptomatic sheep.  

PubMed

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer caused by Jaggsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is difficult to identify animals infected with JSRV but are clinically healthy. The virus does not induce a specific antibody response and, although proviral DNA sequences of JSRV can be found in mononuclear blood cells, the detection is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JSRV in the bone marrow of infected sheep and develop a more consistent screening method. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow samples from 8 asymptomatic JSRV-infected sheep revealed the presence of positively labelled cells. However, JSRV could not be detected by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bone marrow aspirates periodically collected from these animals. Results suggest that JSRV-infected cells may be present in the bone marrow of symptomless animals, but the number is below the detectable level for PCR. Therefore, this technique does not seem to be helpful for preclinical diagnosis of OPA. PMID:24982557

Borobia, Marta; Ortín, Aurora; Ferrer, Luis M; Ramos, Juán J; Lacasta, Delia; De Las Heras, Marcelo

2014-07-01

246

Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.  

PubMed

The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment. PMID:23054805

Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

2013-02-01

247

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules,  

E-print Network

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules, Regulations, andManure Production Poultry ­ 40% Cow ­ 48% Swine ­ 12% #12;Nutrient Management ofNutrient Management of Confined and certification of all confined animal producers prior to July 2004 #12;Nutrient Management Requirements

248

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1  

E-print Network

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1 and J. Baglama2 1. Department recycling can actually stabilize the nutrient- plankton interaction. Keywords: instantaneous nutrient of nutrient-plankton interaction with dif- ferent complexity have been constructed and analyzed since

Baglama, James

249

Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-05-01

250

Completion of the cycle for transmission of sarcosporidiosis between cats and sheep reared specific pathogen free.  

PubMed

The confirmation of a cat-sheep transmission for visible sarcocysts was achieved in specific pathogen free (SPF) animals by completing sheep-cat-sheep-cat passages during 1977-79. The study used 22 laboratory cats and 15 specially bred sheep. Experimental sheep were dosed with sporocysts recovered from cats fed visible sarcocysts. "Giant" or "fat" form of macroscopic sarcocysts commonly found on the oesophagus were first demonstrated in the SPF sheep at 17 months after dosing. The sarcocysts from these sheep were infective to cats. Thus, the cycle of transmission for cat-borne ovine sacosporidiosis was completed. Grazing sheep in some situations develop visible cysts earlier, around one year of age, hence it is considered that the infections of experimental sheep in SPF conditions may not reflect all the circumstances leading to natural infection. PMID:2938569

Ford, G E

1986-02-01

251

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian. Faecal egg and larval nematode outputs were studied. Marshallagia and Nematodirus infections were higher in the driest areas; infections by other nematodes, Dictyocaulus and small lung- worms (Cystocaulus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

2003-02-20

253

Male Infertility: Management  

MedlinePLUS

... Imaging (MRI) Male Infertility Male Infertility: Management Meatal Stenosis Megaureter N Neonatal Testicular Torsion Neurogenic Bladder Normal ... multiple sclerosis: A serious progressive disease of the central nervous system. needle aspiration: Removing fluid or contents ...

254

Evolution and Collective Intelligence of the Electric Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Electric Sheep is a collective intelligence composed of 40,000 computers and people mediated by a genetic algorithm. It is made with an open-source screen- saver that harnesses idle computers into a render farm with the purpose of animating and evolving artificial life-forms known as sheep. The votes of the users form the basis for a fitness function for exploring

Scott Draves

2008-01-01

255

The effect of Panicum coloratum on sheep and rabbits  

E-print Network

of photosensitization of sheep in Texas. Several plants have been associated with photosen- sitization of animals in the field. Among these is Tetradymia glabrata and Tetradymia canescens. These two plants have been associated with hepatogenous photosen- 6, 41... of photosensitization of sheep in Texas. Several plants have been associated with photosen- sitization of animals in the field. Among these is Tetradymia glabrata and Tetradymia canescens. These two plants have been associated with hepatogenous photosen- 6, 41...

Muchiri, Daniel James

2012-06-07

256

THE TRANSPORT OF SHEEP AND GOAT SPERMATOZOA IN THE EWE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Counts were made of the numbers of spermatozoa in the Fallopian tubes of ewes 24 hr after mating or after insemination with either sheep or goat semen. Spermatozoa were recovered from all five mated ewes (10\\/10 tubes), from all eight ewes inseminated with sheep semen (13\\/15 tubes) and from four of eight ewes inseminated with goat semen (7\\/16 tubes).

J. L. HANCOCK; P. T. McGOVERN

1968-01-01

257

A Classical Live Attenuated Vaccine for Sheep Pox  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classical live attenuated sheep pox vaccine was prepared using the Ranipet strain of sheep pox virus (SPV) at the 50th passage in a secondary lamb testicular cell system. The TCID50 and RD50 were 109.63\\/ml and 109.51\\/ml, respectively. The SID50 of SPV challenge virus was 10\\/ml. The vaccine was found to have no adverse effects in laboratory animals, and was

V. Bhanuprakash; B. K. Indrani; R. Hegde; M. M. Kumar; A. R. S. Moorthy

2004-01-01

258

Hematology and blood microelements of sheep in south Bohemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of sheep is dependent on their health and well-being. The blood markers can be critical for improving of the\\u000a physiological, nutritional and pathological status of sheep organism. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that\\u000a the red and white blood cells and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) plasma contents are impacted by altitude and season.

Miloslav Šoch; Jan Brou?ek; Pavla Šrejberová

2011-01-01

259

A study of clean wool production in performance tested sheep  

E-print Network

and Hampshire Sheep Traits 41 Means, Standard Deviations and Coefficients of Variation for Right and Left Side Samples of 87 Rambouillet Rams 43 8. Coxnparison of Means of Right and Left Side Samples of 87 Rambouillet Rams. . . . . . . . Page 44 9. Means..., Standard Deviations and Coefficients of Variation for Corriedale, Coluxnbia and Hampshire Wool Sample Characteristics 10. Correlation Coefficients between Rsxnbouillet Sheep Traits 49 11. Correlation Coefficients between Wool Character- istics of Side...

Williams, Gwynn Lloyd

2012-06-07

260

Subchronic toxicity of croton oil (Croton tiglium L.) to sheep  

E-print Network

2 ewes and 2 wethers. Croton oil induced anorexia, weight loss, mental depression, vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration at all levels of dosage. Aspiration pneumonia and gastroenteritis were usually the most serious consequences of croton oil... administration. Pneumonia developed sooner, was more intense, and death usually occurred earlier in sheep given the highest dosage of croton oil. Lethargy& anorexia, dyspnea, and dehydration were associated with the development of pneumonia in most iv sheep...

Harvey, Roger Bruce

2012-06-07

261

INDUSTRIAL COPPER INTOXICATION IN SHEEP: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elgerwi A., J. Bíre‰, M. Levkut: Industrial Copper Intoxication in Sheep: Clinical and Pathological Findings. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 197-202. Experiments were carried out to investigate the clinical symptoms and pathological and histological findings resulting from industrial copper intoxication in improved Vallachian sheep (five-year-old females) that had been reared for five years in the deposition area of a copper-

A. ELGERWI; J. BÍRE; M. LEVKUT

1999-01-01

262

Density-dependent mother-yearling association in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-weaning mother-daughter associations are typical of many ungulates, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density, strong mother-yearling associations were found involving mostly ewes whose lamb-of-the-year died at or soon after birth. At low population density, there were no mother-yearling associations regardless of maternal reproductive status. Non-lactating ewes and most ewes caring

MAURO LUCHERINI; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; JON T. JORGENSON

263

75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES...payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis,...

2010-06-04

264

78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal...payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES...payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis,...

2013-09-05

265

Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2014-06-01

266

Physicochemical and kinetic properties of purified sheep's milk xanthine oxidoreductase.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) was purified for the first time from sheep's milk. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum was essentially identical to those of the corresponding bovine, human, and goats' milk enzymes and showed an A280/A450 ratio of 5.35 +/- 0.24, indicating a high degree of purity. Like milk XOR from other species, sheep's milk enzyme showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a subunit with approximate Mr 150,000. Xanthine oxidase activity of purified sheep's milk XOR (0.69 +/- 0.04 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)) was low relative to that of the bovine milk enzyme (1.83 +/- 0.02 micromole urate min(-1) mg(-1)), but higher than those of human or goats' milk XOR. As in the latter 2 cases, the low activity of sheep's milk XOR can be attributed to its relatively low molybdenum content (0.18 atoms per subunit), compared with that of the bovine milk enzyme (0.56 atoms Mo per subunit). Consistent with this, NADH oxidase activity of sheep's milk XOR was similar to that of enzymes purified from bovine, human, or goats' milk. The presence of desulpho-enzyme in sheep's milk XOR was demonstrated by resulfuration experiments, whereby xanthine oxidase activity was increased by approximately 75%. PMID:15453470

Benboubetra, Mustapha; Baghiani, Abderahmene; Atmani, Djebbar; Harrison, Roger

2004-06-01

267

Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in sheep from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health. PMID:23832639

Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

2013-09-01

268

Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W., III; Stephenson, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

269

Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru  

SciTech Connect

Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

1989-06-01

270

Coevolution of endogenous Betaretroviruses of sheep and their host  

PubMed Central

Sheep betaretroviruses offer a unique model system to study the complex interaction between retroviruses and their host. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a pathogenic exogenous retrovirus and the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The sheep genome contains at least 27 copies of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) highly related to JSRV. enJSRVs have played several roles in the evolution of the domestic sheep as they are able to block the JSRV replication cycle and play a critical role in sheep conceptus development and placental morphogenesis. Available data strongly suggest that some dominant negative enJSRV proviruses (i.e. able to block JSRV replication) have been positively selected during evolution. Interestingly, viruses escaping the transdominant enJSRV loci have recently emerged (less than 200 years ago). Thus, endogenization of these retroviruses may still be occurring today. Therefore, sheep provide an exciting and unique system to study retrovirus-host coevolution. (Part of a Multi-author Review) PMID:18818869

Arnaud, F.; Varela, M.; Spencer, T. E.

2014-01-01

271

A practical and less invasive total cavopulmonary connection sheep model.  

PubMed

Our goal was to develop a less invasive total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) sheep model for testing total cavopulmonary assist (CPA) devices. Thirteen sheep underwent a right fourth intercostal lateral thoracotomy. In series I (n = 6), a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) extracardiac conduit (ECC) was connected to inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) by end-to-side anastomosis. The SVC/IVC remained connected to right atrium (RA). A PTFE graft bridged ECC to right pulmonary artery (RPA). Clamps between SVC/IVC anastomoses and RA diverted total venous blood to pulmonary circulation. In series II (n = 7), temporary bypasses between SVC/IVC and RA allowed SVC/IVC to be cut off from RA for better RPA exposure. The ECC-SVC/IVC were end-end anastomosed and ECC-RPA side-side anastomosed for total SVC/IVC to pulmonary artery (PA) conversion. In each series, one sheep died of bleeding. In five sheep in series I and six sheep in series II, the TCPC model was successfully created with significantly increased central venous pressure and significantly decreased PA pressure/arterial blood pressure. Our acute TCPC sheep model has a less traumatic right thoracotomy with no cardiopulmonary bypass and less blood loss with no blood transfusion, facilitating future long-term CPA device evaluation. PMID:24399067

Wang, Dongfang; Plunkett, Mark; Gao, Guodong; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Reda, Hassan; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

2014-01-01

272

Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis in northern Iraq.  

PubMed

Myiasis is the feeding of fly larvae on vertebrates. The sheep bot fly larva of Oestrus ovis is a mammalian parasite of the skin, nose, ears, and eyes. When the larvae infest and feed on the structures of the eye, the condition is termed ophthalmomyiasis. Most often this infestation is limited to the external structures of the eye and is referred to as ophthalmomyiasis externa. The features of this condition are severe local inflammation, positive foreign body sensation, erythema, and lacrimation. Vision may or may not be reduced, depending on involvement of the cornea. A 20-year-old white male soldier sought treatment for an inflamed eye and an irritated cornea OS. His eyelids were swollen with marked periorbital edema and conjunctival erythema OS. On slitlamp examination, small whitish organisms were viewed on the conjunctiva OS. The organisms were removed, preserved, and sent to Nova Southeastern University where they were identified as O. ovis first-stage larvae. The patient was treated with antibiotic ointment, and the inflammation resolved within 1 week. O. ovis has a worldwide distribution, and although sheep are the preferred host, humans may also serve as an intermediate host in the organism's life cycle. This case represents one of several reports of ophthalmomyiasis in the Middle East caused by O. ovis. U.S. troops stationed in Iraq and surrounding areas are vulnerable to eye infestation by fly larvae, and health care providers need to include this condition in their differential diagnosis of anterior segment inflammatory disorders. PMID:15300116

Gregory, Andrew R; Schatz, Scott; Laubach, Harold

2004-08-01

273

Paranasal sinus masses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).  

PubMed

This article describes 10 cases of paranasal sinus masses in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Among 21 bighorns that were examined from 11 herds in Colorado, 10 individuals (48%) from 4 herds (36%) had masses arising from the paranasal sinuses. Affected animals included 9 of 17 females (53%) and 1 of 4 males (25%), ranging in age from approximately 2 years to greater than 10 years. Defining gross features of these masses included unilateral or bilateral diffuse thickening of the respiratory lining of the maxillary and/or frontal sinuses, with abundant seromucinous exudate in the affected sinus cavities. Defining histologic features of these masses included chronic inflammation and proliferation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells of the mucosa and submucosa. Epithelial changes included hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium, hyperplasia of submucosal glands and ducts, and neoplasia (adenocarcinoma). Mesenchymal changes included submucosal myxedema, submucosal fibroplasia/fibrosis, bone destruction, and neoplasia (myxomatous fibroma). Specific immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and enzootic nasal tumor virus were performed with negative results. PMID:20926735

Fox, K A; Wootton, S K; Quackenbush, S L; Wolfe, L L; Levan, I K; Miller, M W; Spraker, T R

2011-05-01

274

Chemical, microbiological and plant analysis of soil fertilized with alkaline hydrolysate of sheep’s wool waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of adding alkaline hydrolysate of sheep’s wool waste on the chemical and microbiological properties of a park soil\\u000a (Sofia, Bulgaria) has been assessed in a 9 month laboratory experiment. The waste product contained 75–80% water-soluble materials:\\u000a peptides, amino acids, salts, dyes, lipids, some carbohydrates, potassium ions, and it seemed likely that the hydrolysate\\u000a obtained could be used as a

Maya Nustorova; Diana Braikova; Adriana Gousterova; Evgenia Vasileva-Tonkova; Peter Nedkov

2006-01-01

275

Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep  

PubMed Central

Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPAR? (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P?sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. PMID:24267720

2013-01-01

276

The chromosomal distribution and organization of sheep satellite I and II centromeric DNA using characterized sheep-hamster somatic cell hybrids.  

PubMed

A panel of sheep-hamster somatic cell hybrids containing single sheep chromosomes was used to study the chromosomal distribution and organization of two families of sheep centromeric satellite DNA. This study shows that the centromeres of the sheep metacentric chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 differ in their organization and relative quantities of sheep satellite I DNA. The results, when correlated with the proposed formation of these metacentric chromosomes by ancient Robertsonian translocations, suggest a loss or replacement of satellite I centromeric DNA from the centromeres of these sheep chromosomes. Using Southern blot analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, this study shows that the recent centric fusion chromosome t2 (rob 9;10) contains little satellite II DNA. Together these results suggest the possibility of substantial reorganization of sheep centromeric DNA families after Robertsonian translocations. PMID:8653269

Burkin, D J; Broad, T E; Jones, C

1996-01-01

277

Nutrient enrichment of natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented to show the numerous sources of nutrient enrichment of natural waters. Factors affecting soil and water losses and their relationship to water pollution are discussed. The value and use of soil maps in predicting potential areas of water pollution from runoff and erosion is discussed. Small scale maps of the world are used to show how soil

A. A. Klingebiel

1973-01-01

278

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans  

E-print Network

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding

Mukhtar, Saqib

279

Nutrient Management in Organic Production  

E-print Network

, septic waste prohibited #12;Soils and Plants ­ Authorized Methods and Materials (Minerals) · Agricultural inputs · Holistic- emphasis on soil building, soil health, crop rotation, nutrient recycling · Requires, labeling ­Assure consumers of consistent standards in growing and labeling · Effect of history

Balser, Teri C.

280

Insulin deficiency alters the metabolic and endocrine responses to undernutrition in fetal sheep near term.  

PubMed

Insulin deficiency affects the adult metabolic response to undernutrition, but its effects on the fetal response to maternal undernutrition remain unknown. This study examined the effects of maternal fasting for 48 h in late gestation on the metabolism of fetal sheep made insulin deficient by pancreatectomy (PX). The endocrine and metabolic responses to maternal fasting differed between intact, sham-operated and PX fetuses, despite a similar degree of hypoglycemia. Compared with intact fetuses, there was no increase in the plasma concentrations of cortisol or norepinephrine in PX fetuses during maternal fasting. In contrast, there was a significant fasting-induced rise in plasma epinephrine concentrations in PX but not intact fetuses. Umbilical glucose uptake decreased to a similar extent in both groups of fasted animals but was associated with a significant fall in glucose carbon oxidation only in intact fetuses. Pancreatectomized but not intact fetuses lowered their oxygen consumption rate by 15-20% during maternal fasting in association with increased uteroplacental oxygen consumption. Distribution of uterine oxygen uptake between the uteroplacental and fetal tissues therefore differed with fasting only in PX fetuses. Both groups of fetuses produced glucose endogenously after maternal fasting for 48 h, which prevented any significant fall in the rate of fetal glucose utilization. In intact but not PX fetuses, fasting-induced glucogenesis was accompanied by a lower hepatic glycogen content. Chronic insulin deficiency in fetal sheep therefore leads to changes in the counterregulatory endocrine response to hypoglycemia and an altered metabolic strategy in dealing with nutrient restriction in utero. PMID:22669894

Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

2012-08-01

281

Effects of bromocriptine treatment on the expression of sexual behavior in male sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Twenty-three rams were treated twice daily with subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine or vehicle over 30 d during two seasons, spring and fall. Sexual behavior was observed and quantified to determine the effects of bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia on mount attempt (MA), mount (M), and ejaculation (E) frequency of the rams upon exposure to estrous ewes. Behavioral responses and serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were determined on a weekly basis before, during, and after the treatment period in each season. Treatment with bromocriptine caused a significant decrease in serum concentrations of PRL during both seasons (P < .01). Post-treatment period concentrations of PRL returned to pretreatment levels during the spring, whereas during the fall, post-treatment period PRL concentrations remained low (P < .05). The frequency of MA and M was lower during bromocriptine treatment relative to control rams in the spring (P < .05). The frequency of MA and M returned to pretreatment values after bromocriptine treatment was withdrawn. Ejaculation frequency tended to decrease during and after bromocriptine treatment relative to controls (P < .09). There was no effect of bromocriptine treatment on frequency of MA and M during the fall. During the fall, the frequency of E tended to decrease in bromocriptine-treated rams (P < .1). These data indicate that bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactinemia is associated with a significant diminution in expression of sexual behavior in rams. It is suggested that PRL modulates the intensity of expression of sexual behavior in rams, and this effect may be season-dependent. PMID:8181974

Gloria, E; Regisford, C; Katz, L S

1994-03-01

282

Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The structural style exposed in the Palozoic reservoir rocks of Sheep Mountain may serve as a model for the other structural features in the Wind River Basin. As in the case of the Derby Dome and Winkleman Dome, Sheep Mountain is typically asymmetric to the southwest. Local east-directed thrusts exposed in the core of the anticline place Pennsylvania over Permian age rocks. A major change in the trend of the anticlinal crest within Sheep Mountain, suggests development of separate left-stepping en echelon closures at depth. The northwest end of Sheep Mountain also forms a left-stepping en echelon pattern with Derby Dome. The northwest plunge of Sheep Mountain is facilitated by compartmentalization across an east-northeast trending, high angle fault. North of this fault, Mesozoic rocks are thrust to the southwest along a low angle, northeast-dipping out of the basin thrust, which obscures the en echelon bypass with Derby Dome. Sheep Mountain is transected at the southeast end by the east-northeast trending Spring Creek fault which has possible left lateral offset. South of the Spring Creek Fault, the southwest vergent Beaver Creek thrust places Precambrian to Missisippian rocks over Cretaceous rocks, and may represent the fault which controls the entire fold trend at depth.

Abercrombie, S.

1988-01-01

283

Quantitative aspects of the transformations of sulphur in sheep.  

PubMed

1. [35S]sulphate was used to obtain quantitative estimates of the transfer of sulphur between the blood, rumen and postruminal tract of four sheep given brome grass (Bromus inermis) pellets or lucerne (Medicago sativa) pellets at the rate of 33 or 66 g/h. Sodium sulphate (0-4 g S/d) was infused into the rumen or abomasum of sheep given brome grass during four periods of 19 d and was not infused into the sheep during a subsequent period in which lucerne was given. The flow of sulphide, sulphate, microbial S and non-microbial organic S from the abomasum was estimated using 103Ru and 51Cr. 2. The concentration of inorganic sulphate in serum was increased to maximum values of 35-46 mg S/l by infusion of sulphate into the rumen or abomasum. The rate of irreversible loss of serum sulphate and rumen sulphide was positively related to the amount of sulphate infused. 3. Reabsorption of sulphate by the kidney reached a maximum of 0.69-1.1 mmol sulphate/l glomerular filtrate. 4. The transfer of sulphate from blood to the rumen was related to the concentration of inorganic sulphate in serum, attaining maximum values of 133 (+/- 13) mg S/d for sheep given brome grass plus sulphate, and 127-159 mg S/d for sheep given lucerne. 5. Bacteria derived 0.52-0.67 of organic S from rumen sulphide in sheep given brome grass, and approximately 0.45 of bacterial organic S was derived from sulphide for sheep given lucerne. Protozoa derived approximately 0.90 of organic S from bacteria. 6. It was estimated that endogenous organic S contributed 300-340 mg S/d to the rumen, and that 0.24-0.45 of S digested in the rumen was derived from endogenous sources. PMID:619981

Kennedy, P M; Milligan, L P

1978-01-01

284

A Study on BMPR-IB Genes of Bayanbulak Sheep.  

PubMed

The average twin lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep is 2% to 3%. However, a flock of sheep with a close genetic relationship and an average of 2 to 3 lambs per birth has been found recently. To determine the major genes controlling the prolificacy of the flock in the present study, the flock was designated A while 100 normal Bayanbulak sheep were randomly selected to comprise the control flock B. Ligase detection reaction method was applied to detect and analyze the 10 mutational loci of the 3 candidate prolificacy genes including bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and growth differentiation factor 9. The 10 mutational loci are as follows: FecB locus of the BMPR-IB gene; FecX(I) , FecX(B) , FecX(L) , FecX(H) , FecX(G) , and FecX(R) of the BMP15 gene; and G1, G8, and FecTT of the GDF9 gene. Two mutations including BMPR-IB/FecB and GDF9/G1 were found in Bayanbulak sheep. Independence test results of the two flocks demonstrate that the FecB locus has a significant effect on the lambing number of Bayanbulak sheep. However, the mutation frequency of the G1 locus in GDF9 is very low. Independence test results demonstrate that the GDF9 locus does not have a significant impact on the lambing performance of Bayanbulak sheep. Among the 10 detected loci, BMPR-IB/FecB is the major gene that influences the high lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep. PMID:25049703

Zuo, Beiyao; Qian, Hongguang; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Xu; Nisa, Noor; Bayier, Aierdin; Ying, Shijia; Hu, Xiaolong; Gong, Changhai; Guo, Zhiqin; Wang, Feng

2013-01-01

285

Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

2006-01-01

286

Direct evidence for embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients in two pipefishes (Syngnathidae: Syngnathus spp.).  

PubMed

Seahorses, sea dragons and pipefishes of the teleost family Syngnathidae are unique in that embryos develop within specialized brooding structures of the male. We enriched brooding Syngnathus fuscus and Syngnathus floridae males with injections of L-lysine-[(15)N(2)] and 16:0-palmitic acid 1-[(13)C] to demonstrate embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients. While all embryos demonstrated amino acid enrichment, late stages showed significantly higher [(15)N], indicating greater utilization of paternal resources as yolk reserves diminished and embryonic energy demands increased. Limited embryonic [(13)C] uptake, defined as less than 10% of adult enrichment, in 75 and 81% of S. floridae and S. fuscus respectively signified rapid lipid metabolism and thus the need for greater enrichment. Interspecific differences in embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients were not demonstrated. However, interspecific differences in egg nutrient reserves and fry size but comparable fry nutrient levels along with data from a published paternal exposure study indicate paternal transfer in S. fuscus most likely compensates for the comparative egg nutrient deficiency. This study is the first to our knowledge to provide direct evidence for the functional significance of the brood pouch in nutrient provisioning. These results add comparative information on the diversity of Syngnathid paternal care and further our understanding of paternal influence on development. PMID:19005657

Ripley, Jennifer L; Foran, Christy M

2009-04-01

287

21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

...the following nutrients supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water Do. Linoleic acid Milligrams. Vitamins: Vitamin A International units. Vitamin D...

2014-04-01

288

21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the following nutrients supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water Do. Linoleic acid Milligrams. Vitamins: Vitamin A International units. Vitamin D...

2012-04-01

289

21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the following nutrients supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water Do. Linoleic acid Milligrams. Vitamins: Vitamin A International units. Vitamin D...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the following nutrients supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein Grams. Fat Do. Carbohydrate Do. Water Do. Linoleic acid Milligrams. Vitamins: Vitamin A International units. Vitamin D...

2013-04-01

291

Agronomy Facts 60 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING  

E-print Network

impact of nutrients on the environment. Programs such as the Chesapeake Bay Program and the Nutrient as pollutants. The leaching of nitrogen through the soil can raise groundwater nitrate levels. In addition

Kaye, Jason P.

292

Wastewater Treatment with Plants in Nutrient Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associ...

H. DeLancey-Pompe, J. J. Madras, R. M. Kabrick, W. J. Jewell, W. W. Clarkson

1983-01-01

293

Quantitative genetics and sex-specific selection on sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep  

E-print Network

mass) in a wild population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and quantified sex-specific selection sheep (Ovis canadensis; figure 1) have attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists (Geist 1966

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

294

76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley...related to the potential renewal of domestic sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing...

2011-06-02

295

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn...

2010-05-14

296

The development of male-oriented behavior in rams.  

PubMed

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same-sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Kaufman, Katherine R

2011-04-01

297

Phytoplanktonic nutrient utilisation and nutrient signature in the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation in Southern Ocean provinces of silicate excess at nitrate exhaustion and of nitrate excess at silicate exhaustion was already introduced by Kamykowski and Zentara (Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1985. Nitrate and silicic acid in the world ocean: patterns and processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 26, 47–59; and Kamykowski, D., Zentara, S.J., 1989. Circumpolar plant nutrient covariation in the

L. Goeyens; M. Semeneh; M. E. M. Baumann; M. Elskens; D. Shopova; F. Dehairs

1998-01-01

298

Status of sheep and goat farming in Lagkada Province of Thessalonika prefecture, in Central Macedonia, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagkada Province of Thessalonika prefecture is located in Central Macedonia-Greece. In this region, 103,943 sheep and 100,281 goats are farmed. The total number of sheep and goat farms is 898. The number of sheep farms, goat farms and mixed farms with sheep and goat are 278, 357 and 263 respectively. With regard to the farm size 12.9, 23.6, 26.5, 31.8

J. Katanos; K. Karabalis

299

Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse  

PubMed Central

Background Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual identity by descent rate. Results Depending on breed and method, effective population sizes ranged from 15 to 133 056, computation method and interaction between computation method and species showing a significant effect on effective population size (P < 0.0001). On average, methods based on number of breeding males and females and variance of progeny size produced larger values (4425 and 356, respectively), than those based on identity by descent probabilities (average values between 93 and 203). Since breeding practices and genetic substructure within dog breeds increased inbreeding, methods taking into account the evolution of inbreeding produced lower effective population sizes than those taking into account evolution of coancestry. The correlation level between the simplest method (number of breeding males and females, requiring no genealogical information) and the most sophisticated one ranged from 0.44 to 0.60 according to species. Conclusions When choosing a method to compute effective population size, particular attention should be paid to the species and the specific genetic structure of the population studied. PMID:23281913

2013-01-01

300

Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

1997-01-01

301

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.01.2013 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient Management Program Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative and programmatic guidance

Guiltinan, Mark

302

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.03.2014 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient & Odor Management Programs Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative

Guiltinan, Mark

303

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality Considerations and Regulations by Susan Mc about water quality considerations and regulations. This module covers Rocky Mountain CCA Nutrient, the reader should: 1.Recognize nutrient impacts on different water bodies 2.Understand common water quality

Lawrence, Rick L.

304

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

305

Adolescents living in boarding houses in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria II: Quality of school meals and snacks and their contribution to nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of school meals and snacks and their contribution to nutrient intake of 25 male and 25 female adolescents aged 13–18 years were determined. The composition of the meals\\/snacks were determined by chemical analysis and use of food composition tables. Their quality was determined using the nutrient density concept and their ability to meet the nutritional needs of the

1993-01-01

306

Cell adhesion molecule expression in the sheep thymus.  

PubMed

Cell adhesion molecules are potential regulating factors in both prethymic and intrathymic T cell development. An experimental challenge has been the development of a large animal model that facilitates in vivo studies of both intrathymic development and lymphocyte migration. To extend earlier studies of thymic development, we have developed a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to a variety of sheep cell adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemistry was used to define mAb reactivity and flow cytometry was used to quantify expression of cell adhesion molecules within the thymus. To facilitate flow cytometry definition of cortical thymocytes, mAbs were developed to the sheep CD1 antigen. Dual parameter flow cytometry provided a phenotypic characterization of cell adhesion molecule expression on both CD1(+) and CD1(-) sheep thymocyte populations. These studies demonstrated significantly enhanced cortical thymocyte expression of three cell adhesion molecules: beta1 integrin (CD29), ICAM-2 and LFA-3. The beta1 integrin cell adhesion molecule was also expressed at higher levels on CD1(+) thymocytes in post-natal lambs as compared to adult sheep. These studies of thymocyte membrane molecule expression should facilitate future investigations of sheep intrathymic development and T lymphocyte immigration. PMID:11356231

Zhao, T; He, C; Su, M; West, C A; Swanson, S J; Young, A J; Mentzer, S J

2001-01-01

307

Experimental infection of bighorn sheep with liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica).  

PubMed

Nine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were each inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the time of inoculation and at 5, 10, 14, and 20 wk after inoculation. Numbers of fluke eggs in feces, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and eosinophil values were determined. Five of the bighorn sheep were treated with triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight 14 wk after inoculation. Based on fecal evaluations, all bighorns developed patent infections. Six weeks after treatment, fluke eggs were not detected in feces from the five treated animals but were present in two of four untreated animals. One untreated bighorn sheep was euthanized 20 wk after inoculation, and 57 adult F. hepatica were recovered from the liver. Results from this experiment indicated that bighorn sheep are efficient hosts for F. hepatica. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight was safe and, based on fluke egg recovery in feces, apparently an effective treatment. To my knowledge, this is the first published report of F. hepatica in bighorn sheep. PMID:19901401

Foreyt, William J

2009-10-01

308

Identification, characterization and expression analysis of hepcidin gene in sheep.  

PubMed

Hepcidin is part of the innate immune system, and it plays a central role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This peptide has been previously characterized in man, non-human primates, rat, mouse, dog, swine, cattle, horse, fishes, reptiles and birds but until now not in sheep. The aim of this study was to sequence, characterize and perform hepcidin expression analysis in different tissues collected from healthy sheep. The resulting open reading frame consisted of 249 bp predicted to encode an 82 aa peptide with a putative 23 aa signal peptide, a 34 aa pro-region and the 25 aa mature hepcidin. The deduced sequence of the sheep hepcidin precursor was most homologous to Bos taurus and Bubalus bubalis. Hepcidin was predominantly expressed in liver, although high expression was present in abomasum and lower level expression occurred in other tissues. These findings extend our comparative knowledge showing the relationship of sheep hepcidin to other mammalian hepcidins and will be helpful for additional studies on iron metabolism and inflammatory processes in sheep. PMID:20723953

Badial, Peres R; Oliveira Filho, José P; Cunha, Paulo Henrique J; Cagnini, Didier Q; Araújo, João P; Winand, Nena J; Borges, Alexandre S

2011-06-01

309

Biomass and nutrient allocation of sawgrass and cattail along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and nutrient allocation in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) were examined along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades in 1994. This north to south nutrient gradient, created by discharging nutrient-rich agricultural runoff into the northern region of Water Conservatio ea 2A, was represented by three areas (impacted, transitional and reference). Contrasting changes of plant

S. L. Miao; F. H. Sklar

1997-01-01

310

Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Technical Service Providers  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Management Planning Technical Guidance.Management Planning Technical Guidance. Manure and Wastewater Handling Nutrient ManagementNutrient Management ­­ Record KeepingRecord Keeping ­­ Feed ManagementFeed Management

311

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling  

E-print Network

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling Sophia Jang1's by Riley et al. [24] for modeling the profiles of marine plankton. Since then numerious nutrient-plankton, 29, 30, 34, 35]. The intensive investigation of nutrient-plankton interactions is motivated in large

Baglama, James

312

BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

1988-01-01

313

Effects of dopamine in the renal vascular bed of fetal, newborn, and adult sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The renal hemodynamic response to renal arterial dopamine infusions was compared in unanesthetized fetal, newborn, and adult sheep. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged during intrarenal dopamine infusions. Dopamine produced dose-related decreases in mean renal blood flow velocity in all three groups. When compared with adult sheep fetal sheep were slightly more sensitive to the vasoconstrictive effects

K. T. Nakamura; R. A. Felder; P. A. Jose; J. E. Robillard

1987-01-01

314

Group size, foraging, and antipredator ploys: An analysis of bighorn sheep decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Several aspects of the foraging behavior of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) were studied in homogeneous habitats in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. The manner in which an individual sheep foraged was based upon the size of group within which it was found.2.In small groups (five or less individuals) sheep foraging efficiency was poor and interruptions of foraging

Joel Berger

1978-01-01

315

Fecal counts of lungworm larvae and reproductive effort in bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis  

E-print Network

Fecal counts of lungworm larvae and reproductive effort in bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Fanie lungworm (Protostrongylus spp.) larvae counts in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) over four years to examine. 1994). In mammals, a study on bighorn sheep ewes (Ovis canadensis), revealed a positive association

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

316

Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline  

E-print Network

Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline Joshua B causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding, Klaver RW (2014) Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline

317

Zootechnical and Economic Characteristics of Sheep Genetic Resources in Plovdiv Area Lowlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIMOV, D., and D. KUZMANOVA, 2007. Zootechnical and economic characteristics of sheep genetic resources in Plovdiv area lowlands. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 12: 105-118 The study took place within 2002 - 2004 in 17 towns and villages of Plovdiv area lowlands. Zootechnical and economic characteristics of three sheep genetic resources was made, namely, the Synthetic dairy sheep population, White Maritza

D. DIMOV; D. KUZMANOVA

318

Effect of solids concentration on the rheology of labneh (concentrated yogurt) produced from sheep milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of solids concentration on the apparent viscosity of labneh made from sheep milk has been investigated using a rotary viscometer. Sheep labneh was manufactured following the traditional method by using cloth bags. Apparent viscosity of labneh with four different solids concentration was studied as a function of the shear rate. It is found that sheep labneh with different

Hazim A. Mohameed; Basim Abu-Jdayil; Ali Al-Shawabkeh

2004-01-01

319

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF BREEDING COYOTES IN REDUCING SHEEP PREDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect on sheep losses of selectively rentocing breeding coyotes (Canis htrans) frorrl trrri- tories experiencing depreclations. Breeding pairs of coyotes were the primarv predators of sheep, and they killed sheep only within or on the periphery of their territories. Removal of either or both members of a breeding pair reduced or eliminated predation in that territory during

KAREN M. BLEJWAS; BENJAMIN N. SACKS; John Muir; MICHAEL M. JAEGER; DALE R. McCULLOUGH

320

Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

2007-01-01

321

DIGESTION DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION IN SHEEP R.H. WESTON  

E-print Network

DIGESTION DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION IN SHEEP R.H. WESTON C. S. /. R. O., Division of Animal on changes in the digestive function in the sheep during pregnancy and lactation although such information is basic to an understanding of the nutrition of the sheep at those times. Accordingly, the objective

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Supplementary protein and gastro-intestinal parasitism in young grazing sheep  

E-print Network

Supplementary protein and gastro-intestinal parasitism in young grazing sheep MFJ van Houtert IA the influence of protein nutrition on the impact of nematode infections in young grazing sheep. The present study assessed the effects of protein sup- plementation on production responses in young grazing sheep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Evaluation of sheep grazing as a tool to restore mountain pastures invaded by Euphorbia polygalifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Two experiments were conducted to (i) study whether sheep grazing pastures infested by a spurge (Euphorbia polygalifolia) consume this invasive weed and its consequences on animal performance, and (ii) detect differences between sheep and cattle in ruminal degradation of infested pastures. In the first trial, sheep grazed fenced paddocks highly invaded by spurge at instantaneous stocking rates of

M. J. Mora; J. Busqué; G. Hervás; A. R. Mantecón; B. Fernández; P. Frutos

324

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

325

Extensive Variation and Sub-Structuring in Lineage A mtDNA in Indian Sheep: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of Sheep in India  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 ± 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 ± 0.005 to 0.01 ± 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route. PMID:24244282

Singh, Sachin; Kumar Jr, Satish; Kolte, Atul P.; Kumar, Satish

2013-01-01

326

Plant Nutrient Phytoremediation Using Duckweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last 40 years a great deal of research has been published on the use of duckweed to treat wastewater both from point\\u000a sources (feedlots, food processing plants) and from non-point sources. These plants can recover nutrients such as nitrogen\\u000a and phosphorus from contaminated waters in those agricultural practices. They can also remove or accumulate metals, radionuclides,\\u000a and other

Louis Landesman; Clifford Fedler; Runbin Duan

327

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.  

PubMed

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

2013-01-01

328

Black Male Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

Feintuch, Howard

2010-01-01

329

Educating Gay Male Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, in the case of Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium, the Canadian Supreme Court was asked to determine whether gay male pornography violated the sex equality protections guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Throughout this case, gay male activists and academics emphasised the risk posed by antipornography legal strategies to the dissemination of materials intended

Christopher N. Kendall

2004-01-01

330

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

331

Detection probability and Pasteurellaceae surveillance in bighorn sheep.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of detection probability (i.e., the probability of detecting the disease or organism of interest) on the repeatability of results reported from bacterial culture tests used to demonstrate the presence of species in the Pasteurellaceae family that infect bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We also estimated occupancy probabilities (i.e., the probability an individual bighorn in a herd is infected) for each cultured biovariant and examined the effects of detection probability on the number of samples needed to detect the Pasteurellaceae biovariants from within an individual sheep as well as from within a herd. We collected 5-15 samples from free-ranging bighorns in Colorado, using oropharyngeal swabs or swabs of lungs, and submitted these swabs either immediately or after 2 days for bacterial culture. We saw significant variability in results for repeated samples from each of the sheep, and detection probabilities were ? 0.71 for all Pasteurellaceae biovariants cultured. The delayed (? 2 days) sample submission reduced both the microbial diversity detected and the detection probability for the biovariants characterized when compared to samples submitted immediately. Oropharyngeal sampling had higher detection probabilities of the individual biovariants than did lung swabs, and there was a difference in the biovariants detected between oropharyngeal and lung sampling. Depending on the biovariant of interest, estimates of occupancy probabilities ranged from 0.37-0.89, and we estimated that three to >30 swab samples were necessary to obtain a 95% confidence of detecting the cultured biovariants if they were present in an individual sheep. We estimated that the optimal sample sizes to detect the observed biovariants within a sheep herd with a 95% confidence ranged from sampling two bighorns twice to sampling 40 individuals once. Detection probability impacts the results reported from bacterial cultures for Pasteurellaceae in bighorn sheep, and confounding effects of the detection process should be addressed to improve the rigor of surveillance. PMID:22740525

Walsh, Daniel P; Wolfe, Lisa L; Vieira, Mark E P; Miller, Michael W

2012-07-01

332

Inhibition of rumen methanogenesis by tea saponins with reference to fermentation pattern and microbial communities in Hu sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve rumen fistulated Hu sheep were used to assess effects of tea saponins (TS) on methanogenesis, fermentation pattern and rumen microbial communities. All sheep were defaunated by administration of sodium lauryl sulfate. After two weeks, half of the defaunated sheep were refaunated by inoculation with faunate rumen fluid. Both defaunated (DfN) and refaunated (RfN) sheep were divided into two groups,

Y. Y. Zhou; H. L. Mao; F. Jiang; J. K. Wang; J. X. Liu; C. S. McSweeney

2011-01-01

333

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

334

[Wet carcass syndrome in sheep: incidence and geographic distribution].  

PubMed

A map showing the prevalence and geographical distribution of the wet carcass syndrome in sheep is presented. Although isolated cases of this syndrome are sporadically reported throughout all the sheep-producing areas of the country, the incidence of this phenomenon is epidemic in the districts of Gordonia, Kuruman, Postmasburg, Hay and Prieska. Some areas within a certain district tend to have a higher prevalence of wet carcasses especially those round the Orange, Kuruman and Molopo rivers. Vegetation type may be involved in the development of this condition in the live animal and should be investigated. PMID:3783566

Jansen, B N; Pretorius, P S

1986-03-01

335

Lechuguilla (Agave lecheguilla) Poisoning in Sheep, Goats, and Laboratory Animals.  

E-print Network

-sensitization and in addition an icterus similar to that of "tribulosis." Clawson and Huffman (7) feed sheep on Tetradymia glabrata and T. canescens and observed a degeneration of the liver with a subcutaneous edema about the face. The lesions thus observed were similar...-sensitization and in addition an icterus similar to that of "tribulosis." Clawson and Huffman (7) feed sheep on Tetradymia glabrata and T. canescens and observed a degeneration of the liver with a subcutaneous edema about the face. The lesions thus observed were similar...

Mathews, F. P. (Frank Patrick)

1937-01-01

336

The Texas A&M Sheep and Goat Simulation Models  

E-print Network

I UV\\... Z TA24S.7 B873 no.1559 .. ' 8-1559 January 1987 The Texas A&N Sheep and Goat Simulation' Models LIBRARY . MAR 1 2 1987 ? r-----~--------~. I L_===============~~-~_J The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Neville P. Clarke... Station are available to everyone without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. /17 /t~7-. B"/o 5 /9~7: I'\\. The Texas A&M Sheep And Goat Simulation Models Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas 77843 H...

Blackbur, H.D.; Cartwright, T.C.; Smith, G.M.; Graham, N.McC.; Ruvuna, F.

1987-01-01

337

Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

338

Some hepatotoxic actions of hexachloroethane and its metabolites in sheep  

PubMed Central

1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep. 2. Concentrations of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in blood, bile, faeces, urine and tissues after oral administration of hexachloroethane emulsions to sheep. 3. Increased blood concentrations of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were found to follow oral administration of hexachloroethane or pentachloroethane. 4. The rate of bromsulphthalein transfer from liver cells to bile was found to decrease after oral administration of hexachloroethane. PMID:5809742

Fowler, J. S. L.

1969-01-01

339

Behavioural and physiological measures following treadmill exercise as potential indicators to evaluate fatigue in sheep.  

PubMed

The welfare consequences of long-distance transportation of animals remain a controversial topic. Animals that stand for most of the long journey (especially if additional muscular activity is required to deal with postural instability) are at risk of developing fatigue. Previous observational studies of behaviour and physiology suggested either that sheep do not become markedly fatigued by long journeys or that previous methods did not adequately identify fatigue. A range of behavioural and physiological measures were made on eight pairs of sheep during and after treadmill exercise. Within each pair of sheep, a treatment sheep was walked on a treadmill at 0.5 m/s for up to 5 h or until the sheep voluntarily stopped exercising or showed other signs of reduced performance, and a control sheep was exercised for two 10-min periods on either side of the exercise period for the treatment sheep. With the exception of one sheep that only walked for 4.5 h, all treatment sheep walked for 5 h without apparent difficulty. After exercise, the plasma cortisol concentration of treatment sheep was significantly greater than that of control sheep. However, there were no significant treatment effects on plasma creatine kinase activity or blood lactate concentration. After 5 h of exercise, there was a proportionate decrease in the median frequency of the electromyogram recorded over the m. semitendinosus, and this was significantly different from control sheep. There was no evidence that treatment sheep lay down sooner or for longer after treadmill exercise than controls. In sheep tested in a maze to examine whether there was increased motivation to rest after exercise, there was no significant difference between the times taken by treatment and control sheep to obtain a food reward. Qualitative behavioural assessment of the sheep by a panel of observers identified two main dimensions of sheep demeanour, but among descriptors elicited from observers only one person used a term associated with fatigue. No significant difference was found between the scores of treatment and control sheep on these two demeanour dimensions. Thus, there was little evidence that prolonged gentle walking exercise fatigues sheep. Further development of methods to both repeatedly induce and to identify fatigue in sheep is required. PMID:23031523

Cockram, M S; Murphy, E; Ringrose, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Miedema, H M; Sandercock, D A

2012-09-01

340

Predictors of male microchimerism.  

PubMed

The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

2012-01-01

341

The distribution and prevalence of Nairobi Sheep disease and other tick-borne infections of sheep and goats in northern Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats in the northern regions of the Somali Democratic Republic during the years 1970–72 revealed that Nairobi Sheep disease (NSD), not previously reported in the area, was prevalent. Secondary pneumonia caused byPasteurella haemolytica, was relatively common in sheep suffering from NSD. Heartwater and babesiosis were sporadic and more localised in distribution.

R. M. Edelsten

1975-01-01

342

Male accessory gland infection.  

PubMed

Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) is a consequence of canalicular spreading of agents via urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, deferent duct, epididymis and testis. Haematogenous infections are rare. The main infectious agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and also enterobacteriae at a lesser frequency. Characteristic symptoms of MAGI are leukocytospermia, enhanced concentration of cytokines and reactive oxygen species. As complications, obstruction of the ductus epididymidis and/or another duct section, impairment of spermatogenesis in orchitis, impairment of sperm function, and dysfunctions of the male accessory glands may occur. Reduction of male fertility is a rare consequence. The treatment has to consider specific antibiotics. PMID:18336461

Krause, W

2008-04-01

343

Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.  

PubMed

Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. PMID:24629771

Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

2014-06-01

344

Male pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

... baldness. Medications that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

345

Male Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes ...

346

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

347

Regeneration of large bone defects in sheep using bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Bone repair was addressed in a critical-sized defect model in sheep, combining a ceramic biomaterial and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The defects in the tibial mid-diaphysis were treated with autologous bone or with a silicon-stabilized tricalcium phosphate biomaterial, implemented or not by the addition of expanded bone marrow stromal cells. An internal locking compression plate and an external fixator were applied for stabilization. Radiographies were taken during the 8 months follow-up: the pixel grey levels of the lesion areas were determined to evaluate the repair process radiologically. Microradiography, histology and vascular density tests were performed. The autologous bone-treated group performed best, as assessed radiologically, within 20-24 weeks after surgery. Very limited healing was detected in the other experimental group: a partial bone deposition occurred at the periphery of the bony stumps only in the cell-seeded scaffolds. Interestingly, this effect ended within 20-24 weeks, as for the autologous bone, suggesting similar kinetics of the repair processes involved. Moreover, bone deposition was located where a significant reduction of the ceramic scaffold was detected. Faxitron microradiography and histology data confirmed these results. Vascular density analysis evidenced that cell-seeded scaffolds supported an increased vascular ingrowth. Thus, the interactions with the proper microenvironment and the oxygen and nutrient supply in the inner part of the constructs seem fundamental to initiate scaffold substitution and to improve cell performance in tissue-engineered approaches to bone repair. PMID:18537203

Giannoni, P; Mastrogiacomo, M; Alini, M; Pearce, S G; Corsi, A; Santolini, F; Muraglia, A; Bianco, P; Cancedda, R

2008-07-01

348

Genetic diversity and differentiation of 12 eastern Adriatic and western Dinaric native sheep breeds using microsatellites.  

PubMed

Nuclear genetic diversity and differentiation of 341 sheep belonging to 12 sheep breeds from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina were examined. The aim of the study was to provide the understanding of the genetic structure and variability of the analysed pramenka sheep populations, and to give indications for conservation strategies based on the population diversity and structure information. The genetic variation of the sheep populations, examined at the nuclear level using 27 microsatellite loci, revealed considerable levels of genetic diversity, similar to the diversity found in other European indigenous low-production sheep breeds. Population-specific alleles were detected at most loci and in breeds analysed. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.643 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.743 (in Vlasic pramenka), and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.646 (in Lika pramenka) to 0.756 (in Dalmatian pramenka). Significant inbreeding coefficients were found for half of the populations studied and ranged from 0.040 (Pag island sheep) to 0.091 (Kupres pramenka). Moderate genetic differentiation was found between the studied sheep populations. The total genetic variability observed between different populations was 5.29%, whereas 94.71% of the variation was found within populations. Cres island sheep, Lika pramenka and Istrian sheep were identified as the most distinct populations, which was confirmed by the factorial analysis of correspondence and supported through a bootstrapping adjustment to correct for the difference in the sample sizes. The population structure analysis distinguished 12 clusters for the 12 sheep breeds analysed. However, the cluster differentiation was low for Dalmatian, Vlasic, Stolac and Krk pramenka. This systematic study identified Lika pramenka and Rab island sheep as those with the lowest diversity, whereas Istrian sheep and Pag island sheep had the highest. Conservation actions are proposed for Istrian, Rab and Cres island sheep, Lika and Kupres pramenka because of high estimated coefficients of inbreeding. PMID:24433957

Salamon, D; Gutierrez-Gil, B; Arranz, J J; Barreta, J; Batinic, V; Dzidic, A

2014-02-01

349

Cultivating male allies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships\\u000a with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies”\\u000a and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality,\\u000a producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests,

Bonnie Lori Hooks; Penny Anthon Green

1993-01-01

350

Male Gametophyte Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The highly reduced haploid gametophyte generation in seed plants occupies a short but vital phase in the plant life cycle.\\u000a The male gametophytes of flowering plants are highly specialized two- or three-celled pollen grains that nurture and deliver\\u000a twin male gametes or sperm cells to the female gametes at fertilisation. This functional specialization is highly developed\\u000a and a key innovation

D. Twell

351

Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.  

PubMed

This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88?±?2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

2013-03-01

352

Interactive solitonic waves in cosmology generated with a SHEEP program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction and evolution of three solitonic waves on a Bianchi II background is examined. The inverse scattering method is applied to a Bianchi II solution to obtain a three real poles solution from the background. The algebraic calculations to construct the three solitons metric are performed using a SHEEP program.

Bradley, Michael; Curir, A.

353

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Pestivirus from Sheep  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species. PMID:22997427

Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

2012-01-01

354

Partial pulmonary embolization disrupts alveolarization in fetal sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is closely associated with an arrest of alveolar development and pulmonary capillary dysplasia, it is unknown whether these two features are causally related. To investigate the relationship between pulmonary capillaries and alveolar formation, we partially embolized the pulmonary capillary bed. METHODS: Partial pulmonary embolization (PPE) was induced in chronically catheterized fetal sheep by injection of microspheres

Caitlin E Filby; Stuart B Hooper; Megan J Wallace

2010-01-01

355

Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

2005-01-01

356

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE  

E-print Network

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE National Institute for Research in the rates of absorption of both calcium and phosphorus and prevented the negative mineral retention normally, here used as a model ruminant. Material and Methods Eight 2-year-old Suffolk x Scottish black face

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

357

Early development, adult mass, and reproductive success in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable empirical and theoretical work on the individual and population consequences of early development, little is known about the correlations between early mass and adult size or lifetime reproductive success of free-ranging mammals. Using a 26-year study of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we examined how mass as a lamb and mass gain as a yearling affected adult mass for

Marco Festa-Bianchet; Jon T. Jorgenson; Denis Realea

2000-01-01

358

BROWN BEAR PREDATION ON DOMESTIC SHEEP REGISTERED WITH MORTALITY TRANSMITTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1989, 291 lambs in 3 herds of domestic sheep were tagged with silent mortality transmitters prior to release onto open, coniferous forest range in southeast Norway. Twenty-six lamb carcasses were recovered. Lamb mortality was attributed to disease (19%), accidents (22%), and predation (59%). In addition to the dead lambs, the carcasses of 21 ewes were also recovered. Of these,

IVAR MYSTERUD; JERRY T. WARREN

359

Welfare implications of artificial rearing and early weaning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soon after parturition a lasting and mutual ewe–lamb bond is established. However, in an increasing number of intensive sheep farms, lambs are separated from the dam at an early age. When artificial rearing is applied lambs are often kept with mothers for 2 days to allow the ingestion of maternal colostrum and then abruptly removed from their dams. Thus, lambs

Fabio Napolitano; Giuseppe De Rosa; Agostino Sevi

2008-01-01

360

Factors associated with lamb mortalities in Muzaffarnagari sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Muzaffarnagari sheep, a mutton-producing breed of India, is generally known for its fast growth rate and high feed conversion efficiency. The study identified the causes of perinatal and postnatal deaths and factors contributing to the cause of mortalities in lambs. Data were recorded for 4628 lambs born to Muzaffarnagari ewes in single-sire matings from 165 rams, between 1978 and

Ajoy Mandal; H. Prasad; Ashok Kumar; R. Roy; Nagendra Sharma

2007-01-01

361

Prolactin in the Sheep Fetus: Effect of Reserpine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of prolactin, in quantities comparable with the adult, has been confirmed in the plasma of the fetal sheep a few days before term (140 and 144 days) but at 101 and 105 days only traces were occasionally found despite the presence of considerable quantities in the fetal pituitary. Prolactin was undetectable in the plasma of the young fetuses

D. P. Alexander; H. G. Britton; H. L. Buttle

1976-01-01

362

Sheep: The First Large Animal Model in Nuclear Transfer Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto

2013-01-01

363

Productivity Change in the Australian Sheep Industry Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent low estimates of total factor productivity change for wool producers in the Australian sheep industry indicate that they are struggling to improve their performance. This evidence is at odds with the views of many technical observers of industry performance, prompting us to re-estimate total factor productivity change for farmers in a benchmarking group in south-west Victoria who had been

Renato A. Villano; Euan M. Fleming; Terence C. Farrell; Pauline Fleming

2006-01-01

364

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone inducing lactation and growth J, LN.72.A., 78350 Jo2cy-en-Josas (France) An ovine lactogenic hormone (Ovine Placental Lactogen: OPL localization of its cellular synthesis shown. The patterns of prolactin-like and growth hormone-like activities

Boyer, Edmond

365

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated  

E-print Network

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated with a vasopressin analogue Republic (Received 2 March 2000; accepted 22 May 2000) Abstract ­ The renal excretion of selenium providing a daily intake of 129.25 g of crude protein, 12.03 MJ of digestible energy and 0.18 mg of selenium

Boyer, Edmond

366

Original article Urinary selenium excretion in selenite-loaded sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Urinary selenium excretion in selenite-loaded sheep and subsequent Se dynamics Kosice, Slovak Republic (Received 17 March 2003; accepted 25 June 2003) Abstract -- Renal selenium.02 to 7.83 ± 0.33 µmol·L­1 , P selenium concentration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Desert sheep and Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin were studied in five Desert sheep and five Nubian goats after intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Following i.v. injection, the plasma concentration-versus-time data were best described by a two-compartment open model. The kinetic variables were similar in both species except for the volume of the central compartment (Vc), which was larger in sheep (p<0.05). Following i.m. injection, except for the longer half-life time of absorption in goats (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters between sheep and goats. The route of amoxicillin administration had no significant effect on the terminal elimination half-life in either species. The bioavailability of the drug (F) after i.m. administration was high (> 0.90) in both species. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin did not differ between sheep and goats; furthermore, because of the high availability and short half-life of absorption, the i.m. route gives similar results to the i.v. route. Therefore, identical intramuscular and intravenous dose regimens should be applicable to both species. PMID:10672967

Elsheikh, H A; Taha, A A; Khalafalla, A E; Osman, I A; Wasfi, I A

1999-12-01

368

Autumn regrowth of established field-grown sheep's burnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weekly monitoring of the autumn regrowth of previously cut, established stands of the perennial herb sheep's burnet (Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata) was conducted over 7 weeks. Stands were located at a dryland site in the lower North Island of New Zealand. They had been cut to 7–8 cm high and were 7–8 months old when the measurements commenced. Regrowth over

G. B. Douglas; A. G. Robertson; A. C. P. Chu

1991-01-01

369

Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

Minson, D. J.

1993-02-01

370

Ultrastructure of the pars intermedia of the adult sheep hypophysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopy of coronal sections of the sheep pars intermedia revealed a compact, incompletely lobulated V-shaped region about 15–20 cells thick, situated between the pars distalis and the pars nervosa. A prominent hypophysial cleft and follicles containing a colloid-like substance were seen.

R. A. Perry; P. M. Robinson; G. B. Ryan

1981-01-01

371

New insecticides: As sheep dips against Lucilia sericata  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractTrials were carried out during the years 1966–68 to test the effectiveness of the following sheep dipping compounds against Lucilia sericata: Bayer 9017; Bayer 9037; Supona; RD 14639 + Butimide; bromophos-ethyl; SGH 1942; Dursban; Sumithion and C9491. Diazinon was included in the trials each year as a basic for comparison.

A. C. G. Heath; J. D. Tenquist

1971-01-01

372

Factors influencing changes in articular cartilage following hemiarthroplasty in sheep  

E-print Network

head size and position. Nineteen sheep received unilateral hip arthroplasties and were euthanized one. Regression analyses on the surgical variables explained 75­80% of the changes in tissue biochemistry but did not explain the material changes. Head size mismatch and leg length difference were the most significant

Stanford University

373

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

374

GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF SHEEP  

E-print Network

GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF SHEEP V. LENÁRTOVÁ K. HOLOVSKA T. HAVASSY K. BODA, Czechoslovakia Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is one of the major enzymes affecting the utilization of ammonia. This enzyme, which catalyses glutamic acid synthesis, has been identified in rumen microorganisms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis  

E-print Network

Short note Urine concentrations in the spaces of the sheep renal pelvis S Faix M Szanyiova L Leng / renal pelvis / urine concentration R�sum� ― Les concentrations urinaires dans les espaces du pelvis r�nal chez le mouton. Les concentrations urinaires ont �t� mesur�es dans des �chantillons pr

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Intestinal Carbohydrase Activity and Carbohydrate Utilization in Mature Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to determine the levels of maltase, lactase, sucrase, amylase, and cellobiase in the mucosa of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and the rate of glucose absorption and maltose and starch utilization in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon of mature sheep. Carbohydrase assays show that maltase, amylase, sucrase, lactase, and cellobiase activities were higher in the

F. G. HEMBRY; M. C. BELL

377

Sheep Grazing Decreases Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Pools  

E-print Network

Sheep Grazing Decreases Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in the Patagonian Steppe: Combination of grazing on soil C and N pools in a Patagonian shrub­grass steppe (tem- perate South America). Net effects result from the combination of direct impacts of grazing on bio- geochemical characteristics

Jackson, Robert B.

378

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

379

Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

SciTech Connect

Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

2008-05-01

380

The perception of the welfare of sheep in extensive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With financial pressures on farm labour, development of increasingly sophisticated and informed consumer attitudes and decoupling of payments to farmers following revision of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, sheep farmers may increasingly adopt more extensive systems of management. However, these current and new extensive systems of management, at least in the UK, are not, in our view, low-management systems.

Pete Goddard; Tony Waterhouse; Cathy Dwyer; Alistair Stott

2006-01-01

381

Bighorn sheep habitat use and selection near an urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further understand the impact of urban development on wildlife populations, we examined habitat use and selection by female bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis in two endangered subpopulations near a metropolitan area in southern California. One subpopulation, which had previously been found to have low reproductive success, selected urban environments while the other did not use urban areas. In the subpopulation

Esther S. Rubin; Walter M. Boyce; Chris J. Stermer; Steven G. Torres

2002-01-01

382

Short communication Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep  

E-print Network

1 Short communication Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy sheep E. Vautor*, G. Abadie in the flock was 29% of the nares of the ewes contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus. The genotyping results,version1-16Nov2009 #12;3 Key-words: Staphylococcus aureus; Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE); Ewe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Horner's syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep  

PubMed Central

A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner’s syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed. PMID:17217091

Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan J.; Ferrer, Luis M.; Climent, Salvador; Latre, Maria V.

2006-01-01

384

Regulation of Nutrient Transport across the Placenta  

PubMed Central

Abnormal fetal growth, both growth restriction and overgrowth, is associated with perinatal complications and an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. PMID:23304511

Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa L.

2012-01-01

385

Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.  

PubMed

Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. PMID:24746891

Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

386

Nutrient transports in a Swedish estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärd is a Swedish estuary bordering on the Baltic. The estuary lacks astronomical tides and its circulation is driven by winds and freshwater runoff. Because of a tertiary sewage treatment plant located at its inner end, the estuary is becoming increasingly eutrophic. A field study was carried out for a 78-day period in late summer and early fall of 1977 to determine rates of nutrient transport and to construct nutrient budgets. Since physical parameters (current velocity, temperature, salinity, winds and water level changes) were measured more frequently than nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) it was necessary to develop a suitable method to calculate nutrient flux time series and net nutrient fluxes. Over the study period, Himmerfjärd imported phosphorus and exported nitrogen. Direction of nutrient fluxes and changes in flux direction were consistent with the structure of the baroclinic currents.

Wilmot, Wayne; Toll, Peter; Kjerfve, Björn

1985-08-01

387

Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.

2013-12-01

388

Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67?±?3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130?±?1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues. PMID:23577020

Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C.; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A.; Penagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E.; Khatib, Hasan

2013-01-01

389

A Surgical Model of Permanent and Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke in the Sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Animal models are essential to study the pathophysiological changes associated with focal occlusive stroke and to investigate novel therapies. Currently used rodent models have yielded little clinical success, however large animal models may provide a more suitable alternative to improve clinical translation. We sought to develop a model of acute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke in sheep, including both permanent occlusion and transient occlusion with reperfusion. Materials and Methods 18 adult male and female Merino sheep were randomly allocated to one of three groups (n?=?6/gp): 1) sham surgery; 2) permanent proximal MCA occlusion (MCAO); or 3) temporary MCAO with aneurysm clip. All animals had invasive arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen monitoring. At 4 h following vessel occlusion or sham surgery animals were killed by perfusion fixation. Brains were processed for histopathological examination and infarct area determination. 6 further animals were randomized to either permanent (n?=?3) or temporary MCAO (n?=?3) and then had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4 h after MCAO. Results Evidence of ischemic injury in an MCA distribution was seen in all stroke animals. The ischemic lesion area was significantly larger after permanent (28.8%) compared with temporary MCAO (14.6%). Sham animals demonstrated no evidence of ischemic injury. There was a significant reduction in brain tissue oxygen partial pressure after permanent vessel occlusion between 30 and 210 mins after MCAO. MRI at 4 h demonstrated complete proximal MCA occlusion in the permanent MCAO animals with a diffusion deficit involving the whole right MCA territory, whereas temporary MCAO animals demonstrated MRA evidence of flow within the right MCA and smaller predominantly cortical diffusion deficits. Conclusions Proximal MCAO can be achieved in an ovine model of stroke via a surgical approach. Permanent occlusion creates larger infarct volumes, however aneurysm clip application allows for reperfusion. PMID:22848737

Wells, Adam J.; Vink, Robert; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Brophy, Brian P.; Helps, Stephen C.; Knox, Steven J.; Turner, Renee J.

2012-01-01

390

Nutrient limitation in Crater Lake, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to determine what nutrient (or nutrients) was primarily responsible for limiting phytoplankton\\u000a productivity in ultraoligotrophic Crater Lake. The experiments included in situ and laboratory nutrient addition bioassays\\u000a utilizing the natural phytoplankton community, Selenastrum capricornutum bottle assays, photosynthetic responses, photosynthetic carbon metabolism, and response of dark uptake of 14CO2 with the addition of NH\\u000a 4\\u000a +\\u000a .

Alan W. Groeger

391

Nutrient limitation in Crater Lake, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to determine what nutrient (or nutrients) was primarily responsible for limiting phytoplankton\\u000a productivity in ultraoligotrophic Crater Lake. The experiments included in situ and laboratory nutrient addition bioassays\\u000a utilizing the natural phytoplankton community, Selenastrum capricornutum bottle assays, photosynthetic responses, photosynthetic carbon metabolism, and response of dark uptake of 14CO2 with the addition of NH\\u000a 4\\u000a +\\u000a .

Alan W. Groeger

2007-01-01

392

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.

2008-01-11

393

The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China) [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China)] [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

2012-06-08

394

Variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium between individual sheep.  

PubMed

Considerable variability has been recorded in the radiocaesium activity concentration of muscle between individual sheep in the same flocks in upland areas that received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In a previous paper we demonstrated that there is a propensity for certain sheep within a flock to be always amongst the most contaminated and others to be consistently the least contaminated. Here we report a study to determine the extent to which variation in the metabolism of radiocaesium by individual sheep may contribute to the observed variability within sheep flocks. The transfer coefficient and biological half-life of orally administered ionic radiocaesium in muscle were determined under controlled conditions in 22 ewes from an upland farm in an area of the UK which received comparatively high levels of Chernobyl fallout. There was considerable variation between individuals in both the transfer coefficient (0.19-0.56 day x kg(-1); mean 0.34 day x kg(-1)) and biological half-life in muscle (5.2-18.7 days; mean 9.8 days). Changes in liveweight during the study and feed intake together accounted for 72% of the variation in the derived transfer coefficients; liveweight change also accounted for 56% of the observed variation in biological half-life. In a subsequent study, the true absorption coefficient of radiocaesium was determined in 12 of the ewes. There was a positive correlation between transfer and true absorption coefficients (R = 0.57). We conclude that differences in the metabolism of radiocaesium will contribute to the observed variability in radiocaesium activity concentrations within sheep flocks in areas which were contaminated by Chernobyl fallout. We also suggest that for growing animals, the influence of liveweight change and feed intake on radiocaesium transfer may be greater than observed here. Similarly, in dairy cattle, for which feed intake changes considerably during the course of a lactation, large temporal variation in radiocaesium transfer to milk could be expected. PMID:10052677

Beresford, N A; Mayes, R W; Barnett, C L; MacEachern, P J; Crout, N M

1998-12-01

395

Nutrient-Specific Foraging in Invertebrate Predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to redress specific nutritional imbalances. This selection can take place at different stages of prey handling: The predator may select among foods of different nutritional composition, eat more of a prey if it is rich in nutrients that the predator is deficient in, or extract specific nutrients from a single prey item.

Mayntz, David; Raubenheimer, David; Salomon, Mor; Toft, Søren; Simpson, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

396

Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

397

Sex differences in the expression of estrogen receptor alpha within noradrenergic neurons in the sheep brain stem.  

PubMed

In female sheep, high levels of estrogen exert a positive feedback action on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion to stimulate a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Part of this action appears to be via brain stem noradrenergic neurons. By contrast, estrogen action in male sheep has a negative feedback action to inhibit GnRH and LH secretion. To investigate whether part of this sex difference is due to differences in estrogen action in the brain stem, we tested the hypothesis that the distribution of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) within noradrenergic neurons in the brain stem differs between rams and ewes. To determine the distribution of ER?, we used double-label fluorescence immunohistochemistry for dopamine ?-Hydroxylase, as a marker for noradrenergic and adrenergic cells, and ER?. In the ventrolateral medulla (A1 region), most ER?-immunoreactive (-ir) cells were located in the caudal part of the nucleus. Overall, there were more ER?-ir cells in rams than ewes, but the proportion of double-labeled cells was did not differ between sexes. Much greater numbers of ER?-ir cells were found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (A2 region), but <10% were double labeled and there were no sex differences. The majority of ER?-labeled cells in this nucleus was located in the more rostral areas. ER?-labeled cells were found in several rostral brain stem regions but none of these were double labeled and so were not quantified. Because there was no sex difference in the number of ER?-ir cells in the brain stem that were noradrenergic, the sex difference in the action of estrogen on gonadotropin secretion in sheep is unlikely to involve actions on brain stem noradrenergic cells. PMID:25010022

Rose, J L; Hamlin, A S; Scott, C J

2014-10-01

398

Techniques of Male Circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

2013-01-01

399

Techniques of male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

2013-01-01

400

Nutrient conductivity effects on sweet pepper plants grown using a nutrient film technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were grown using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system with a nutrient solution of electrical conductivity (EC) 2 mS cm. Higher conductivity levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 mS cm were achieved by adding concentrated KC1 solution to the basic nutrient solution. Higher ionic strength of the nutrient solution resulted in smaller sized fruit,

Teshome Tadesse; Michael A. Nichols; Keith J. Fisher

1999-01-01

401

Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the

Ivan Valiela; Joseph E. Costa

1988-01-01

402

Nutrient spiralling in streams: implications for nutrient limitation and invertebrate activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient cycling in streams occurs in conjunction with downstream transport as spatially distributed process that has been termed spiralling. The intensity of reutilization of nutrients as they pass downstream can be quantified in terms of the length of stream required for a nutrient atom to complete one (abstract) cycle; this distance is termed the spiralling length. The model for steady-state

J. D. Newbold; R. V. ONeill; J. W. Elwood; W. Van Winkle

1982-01-01

403

Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225

Nesli?ah, Rak?c?o?lu; Emine, Akal Y?ld?z

2011-04-01

404

Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Three Type D Endogenous Retroviruses of Sheep Reveal a Different Cell Tropism from That of the Highly Related Exogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated into the sheep genome are 15 to 20 copies of type D endogenous loci that are highly related to two exogenous oncogenic viruses, jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV). The exogenous viruses cause infectious neoplasms of the respiratory tract in small ruminants. In this study, we molecularly cloned three intact type D endogenous retroviruses of

MASSIMO PALMARINI; CLAUS HALLWIRTH; DENIS YORK; CLAUDIO MURGIA; TULIO DE OLIVEIRA; THOMAS SPENCER; HUNG FAN

2000-01-01

405

Impact of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation on Nutrient-Induced GLP-1 Secretion In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Increases in L-cell release of GLP-1 are proposed to serve as a negative feedback signal for postprandial changes in gastric emptying and/or motility. Previous ex vivo data suggests that direct electrical stimulation (E-stim) of ileal segments stimulates secretion of GLP-1. This suggests potential feed-forward increases in GLP-1 driven by intestinal neuronal and/or motor activity. To determine if E-stim could increase GLP-1 levels in an in vivo setting, we administered E-stim and nutrients to male Long-Evans rats (300–350g) under general anesthesia. Nutrient infusion into the duodenum or ileum significantly increased plasma GLP-1 levels, but E-stim applied to these locations did not (p<0.05). However, the combination of E-stim and nutrient infusion, in either the ileum or duodenum, significantly increased plasma GLP-1 when compared to nutrient infusion alone (p<0.05), and this effect was not blocked by either norepinephrine or atropine. To test the impact of intestinal motor activity, the effect of extra-luminal mechanical stimulation (M-stim) on GLP-1 levels was assessed. In the duodenum, but not the ileum, M-stim plus nutrient infusion significantly increased GLP-1 over nutrient infusion or M-stim alone (p<0.05). Thus, both E- and M-stim of the duodenum, but only E-stim of the ileum augmented nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release. These data demonstrate that factors beyond enteral nutrients could contribute to the regulation of GLP-1 secretion. PMID:23663526

Sandoval, Darleen; Dunki-Jacobs, Adam; Sorrell, Joyce; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David D.

2013-01-01

406

Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.  

PubMed

Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. PMID:22195293

Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

2011-01-01

407

Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana  

PubMed Central

Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. PMID:22195293

Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P. Ryan

2011-01-01

408

SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

Hedgepeth, David J.

1995-01-01

409

WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH PLANTS IN NUTRIENT FILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...

410

Acidic deposition, nutrient leaching and forest growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Germany and confirmed in North America established that the forest decline that developed in the late 1970's and 80's resulted from a deficiency in one or more of the nutrient cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. These nutrients are essential to the structure of the foliage, to photosynthesis and to the growth of the trees. The reactions and mechanisms

George H. Tomlinson

2003-01-01

411

Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

2013-09-01

412

Docent Briefing NUTRIENTS...Why all the  

E-print Network

substantially reduced Phosphorus Nitrogen #12;Severe Algal Blooms Decreasing · Algal bloom frequency decreased frequency #12;Algal Bloom ­ Nutrient Relationships · Strong relationship between NITROGEN loads and algal to be a nutrient memory (~3 years) · Significant algal bloom reduction was achieved (~50%) Increasing Algal Blooms

Boynton, Walter R.

413

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program  

E-print Network

v.06.2011 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program Certification Trainings the PAPlants program (https://www.paplants.state.pa.us/). In order to use the PAPlants program, registrants must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

414

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

v.09.2013 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program Certification the PAPlants program (https://www.paplants.state.pa.us/). In order to use the PAPlants program, registrants must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

415

Occurrence, diagnosis, and strain typing of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in southwestern Alberta.  

PubMed

The role that wildlife may play in the transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), and the potential consequences of infection in these populations are being given increasing consideration. A yearling male Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) from southwestern Alberta, Canada, was found infected with Map in August 2009. Clinical signs of emaciation and diarrhea and histologic findings of diffuse granulomatous enteritis of the distal ileum, lymphadenitis of the mesenteric lymph nodes, and lymphangitis of the ileum were similar to previously described cases of JD in bighorn sheep. Infection with Map was confirmed by bacterial isolation through fecal culture, acid-fast staining, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of IS900. The Map1506 gene was sequenced, and the isolate was identified as a Cattle (Type II) strain. In a follow-up herd-level survey, three of 44 fecal samples (7%) from individual bighorn sheep from the same herd as the index case were PCR-positive and identified as Type II Map strains. Twenty-five samples from a distant bighorn population were negative. Additional strain typing of the isolates from the index case and the positive fecal samples was done by sequencing three discriminatory short sequence repeat (SSR) regions. All four SSR profiles differed from one another, suggesting multiple introductions or a long-existing circulation of Map within this bighorn population. Detailed molecular analyses are essential for understanding and managing diseases at the wildlife-livestock interface. PMID:22247368

Forde, Taya; Kutz, Susan; De Buck, Jeroen; Warren, Amy; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen; Pybus, Margo; Orsel, Karin

2012-01-01

416

Anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a significant constraint to pasture-based sheep production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in most sheep-raising areas in the world, yet little is known about the AR status in Canada. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of AR in GIN in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada. Forty-seven sheep flocks were enrolled in the study, and their level of parasitism was monitored monthly throughout a grazing season by analyzing owner-acquired fecal samples from 15 grazing lambs per flock. When the mean GIN fecal egg count (FEC) reached a threshold of 200 eggs per gram (epg), oral ivermectin was supplied to producers to check ivermectin efficacy; the reduction in mean FEC 14 days after ivermectin treatment was calculated. 'Drench failure' was defined as a reduction in mean FEC of <95%. In those flocks with apparent drench failure, researchers performed a Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT), dividing sheep into 4 treatment groups (n=10-15): control (i.e. untreated), ivermectin, and, if sufficient numbers of animals - fenbendazole and levamisole. AR was defined as a reduction in mean FEC <95% and a lower 95% confidence interval <90%. Larval cultures were performed on pooled post-treatment FECRT samples. Larval Development Assays (LDAs) to detect the presence of resistance to thiabendazole and levamisole were performed prior to the ivermectin drench check on pooled owner-acquired fecal samples that reached the 200 epg threshold. Approximately 89% (42/47) of the farms reached the FEC threshold of 200 epg; 93% (39/42) of these farms performed an ivermectin drench check, and 88% (34/39) of these farms had drench failure. The FECRT was performed on 29 of the 34 farms. Resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole and levamisole was demonstrated on 97% (28/29), 95% (19/20) and 6% (1/17) of the farms tested, respectively, with considerable variability in resistance levels among farms. Haemonchus sp. was the most commonly cultured parasite from post-treatment fecal samples. LDA results for 21 farms were available; of these, 14% (3/21) and 62% (13/21) had low and high levels of thiabendazole resistance, respectively, while none of the farms exhibited resistance to levamisole. Amongst these tested farms, resistance to both ivermectin and benzimidazoles was very common. These findings strongly suggest that AR, particularly in Haemonchus sp., is a serious problem in these sheep flocks. Thus, marked changes in GIN management need to be instituted immediately to mitigate a worsening situation. PMID:23218224

Falzon, L C; Menzies, P I; Shakya, K P; Jones-Bitton, A; Vanleeuwen, J; Avula, J; Stewart, H; Jansen, J T; Taylor, M A; Learmount, J; Peregrine, A S

2013-03-31

417

Reduced Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep with TMEM154 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10?9). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5–1,100). In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36–3.43). Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection. PMID:22291605

Heaton, Michael P.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G.; Leymaster, Kreg A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Harhay, Gregory P.; White, Stephen N.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W.

2012-01-01

418

Terpenes and carbohydrate source influence rumen fermentation, digestibility, intake, and preference in sheep.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that toxins and nutrients in foods interact to influence foraging behavior by herbivores. Based on this hypothesis we predicted that 1) terpenes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) influence intake and preference in sheep for diets varying in sources of nonstructural (barley grain) and structural (sugar beet pulp) carbohydrates, and 2) these effects are due to the differential effects of terpenes on fermentation products and apparent digestibility of each class of carbohydrates. Lambs were fed 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with varying proportions of the same ingredients (beet pulp- and barley grain-based diet) or offered a choice between the 2 diets; all feeds were fed without and with terpenes, in consecutive periods. We also compared intake and preference of the beet pulp-and barley-based diets before and after the lambs ate a meal of sagebrush. Finally, we assessed the effect of terpenes on ruminal variables and in vivo digestibility. Lambs ate less when fed beet pulp or when they were offered a choice of diets with terpenes (P < 0.001), and intake of the beet pulp-based diet was the most affected (P < 0.05). Lambs preferred the beet pulp-to the grain-based diet with terpenes, but their preference reversed when terpenes were removed from the diets (P < 0.05). When lambs were offered both diets, intake and preference did not differ (P > 0.20) before eating sagebrush, but they preferred the beet pulp-based diet after eating sagebrush (P < 0.05). Intake of sagebrush did not differ among groups consuming the test diets (P = 0.21). Addition of terpenes to both diets increased the digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF and decreased concentrations of total VFA and acetate (P < 0.05). Terpenes also depressed butyrate concentration in the barley-based diet (P < 0.05). Propionate concentrations were not affected by terpenes in either feed (P = 0.63). In summary, the predominant type of feed ingredient (beet pulp, grain) ingested with terpenes influenced fermentation products, intake, and preference in lambs. The source of energy from supplements, or other plants in the diet, is likely to influence intake and preference for sagebrush in sheep foraging on rangelands. Moreover, ingesting terpenes from sagebrush may also influence intake and preference for other plant species or supplements. PMID:16908651

Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Olson, K C

2006-09-01

419

Treatment of male infertility.  

PubMed

Male factor infertility is a general term that describes a situation in which the inability to conceive is associated with an alteration identified in the male partner. This dysfunction may be associated with low sperm concentration (oligozoospermia), poor sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) or abnormal sperm morphology (teratozoospermia); however, generally, a disturbance of all these variables, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, is mostly frequent in male subfertility. For many andrological disorders, it is not possible to find a reasonable cause and various uncontrolled treatments have been applied to infertile men, often just on an empirical basis. More recently, after the explosive development of modern assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs), feasible with a single spermatozoon [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)], the treatment of male infertility has received new meaning and andrologists are no longer expected to achieve a quantitative increase in sperm number but are instead asked to improve the fertility potential of the single sperm cell in order to achieve better results in both in vitro fertilization and ICSI. Additional prospective studies are needed to better understand the possible role of therapy in ART candidate patients. PMID:16181978

Isidori, Aldo; Latini, Maurizio; Romanelli, Francesco

2005-10-01

420

More males run fast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in competitiveness are well established, but it is unknown if they originate from sociocultural conditions or evolved predispositions. Testing these hypotheses requires a quantifiable sex difference in competitiveness and the application of a powerful sociocultural manipulation to eliminate it. Study 1 reviews previous work showing that more male distance runners are motivated by competition and maintain large training

Robert O. Deaner

2006-01-01

421

Lycopene and male infertility.  

PubMed

Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

2014-01-01

422

Recruiting Male Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers practical recruitment and retention strategies for administrators, teacher educators, career counselors, middle and high school educators, and teachers of young children to recruit and retain men in early childhood and elementary education. Includes questions to help educators review their own beliefs and assumptions about male teachers.…

Cunningham, Bruce; Watson, Lemuel W.

2002-01-01

423

Increasing Male Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States, the failing of male students was manifested on

Barbara Talbert Jackson

424

Male hormonal contraceptives.  

PubMed

As the world human population continues to explode, the need for effective, safe and convenient contraceptive methods escalates. Historically, women have borne the brunt of responsibility for contraception and family planning. Except for the condom, there are no easily reversible, male-based contraceptive options. Recent surveys have confirmed that the majority of men and women would consider using a hormonal male contraceptive if a safe, effective and convenient formulation were available. Investigators have sought to develop a male hormonal contraceptive based on the observation that spermatogenesis depends on stimulation by gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). Testosterone (T) and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and have been studied as potential male contraceptives. Results from two large, multi-centre trials demonstrated that high-dosage T conferred an overall contraceptive efficacy comparable to female oral contraceptives. This regimen was also fully reversible after discontinuation. However, this regimen was not universally effective and involved weekly im. injections that could be painful and inconvenient. In addition, the high dosage of T suppressed serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, an effect that might increase atherogenesis. Investigators have attempted to develop a hormonal regimen that did not cause androgenic suppression of HDL cholesterol and that was uniformly effective by suppressing spermatogenesis to zero in all men. Studies of combination regimens of lower-dosage T and a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue have demonstrated greater suppression of spermatogenesis than the WHO trials of high-dosage T but most of these regimens cause modest weight gain and suppression of serum HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, the data suggest that we are close to developing effective male hormonal contraceptives. The focus is now on developing effective oral regimens that could be safely taken daily or long-acting depot formulations of a male hormonal contraception that could be conveniently injected every 3 - 6 months. In this article, we shall review the exciting new developments in male hormonal contraception. PMID:11585019

Anawalt, B D; Amory, J K

2001-09-01

425

Sheep CENPB and CENPC genes show a high level of sequence similarity and conserved synteny with their human homologs.  

PubMed

Sheep CENPB and CENPC clones were isolated from a lung cDNA library. The DNA and predicted amino acid sequences of these clones were compared with their human and mouse homologs and shown to contain a high degree of sequence similarity. Sheep chromosomal assignments were made using a sheep x hamster somatic cell hybrid mini-panel. CENPB was assigned to sheep chromosome 13 and CENPC to chromosome 6. The previously reported assignments of CENPB and CENPC to human chromosomes 20 and 4, respectively, suggest conserved synteny between sheep chromosome 13 and human chromosome 20 and support conserved synteny between sheep chromosome 6 and human chromosome 4. PMID:8893808

Burkin, D J; Jones, C; Burkin, H R; McGrew, J A; Broad, T E

1996-01-01

426

Intravenous Safety Study in Rats Given Paramagnetic, Polystyrene Beads with Covalently Bound Sheep Anti-Mouse Immunoglobulin G (IgG&rpar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for acute toxicity from Dynabeads1 M-450 Sheep Anti-Mouse IgG ST (SAM-Beads) administered once intravenously to male and female rats was assessed. SAM-Beads in saline containing 0.5% plasma protein fraction (PPF) was intravenously administered at dosages of 9.6 times 104 or 8.3 times 108 beads/kg at a rate of ?2.5 ml/min/kg. Rats administered 9.6 times 104 beads/kg were killed

R. D. White; J. A. Glosson; D. E. Gordon; S. J. Northup

1995-01-01

427

Nutrient movement in soils and its relation to ecosystem nutrient retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. We make use of a first principle model of nutrient diffusion and uptake at the root/micorrhizal surface to address how these soil processes shape levels of nutrient concentration in soil water and the magnitude of ecosystem nutrient export. We combine our analytical framework with available data on root properties and parameters for solute movements. Our results show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nutrients. Our predicted levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations are at the upper end of observed levels in soil water and headwater streams. Further efficient reduction of nutrient levels can be achieved through micorrhizal symbiosis, in particular if exudates reduce the buffering of ammonium, phosphate and other nutrients that tend to sorb to soil surfaces. As we scale our results from the environment of a single root to the entire active soil, we find that plant uptake capacity decreases as the intensity of soil water percolation increases, thereby weakening nutrient retention.

Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.

2012-12-01

428

Comparison of Airway Responses in Sheep of Different Age in Precision-Cut Lung Slices (PCLS)  

PubMed Central

Background Animal models should display important characteristics of the human disease. Sheep have been considered particularly useful to study allergic airway responses to common natural antigens causing human asthma. A rationale of this study was to establish a model of ovine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) for the in vitro measurement of airway responses in newborn and adult animals. We hypothesized that differences in airway reactivity in sheep are present at different ages. Methods Lambs were delivered spontaneously at term (147d) and adult sheep lived till 18 months. Viability of PCLS was confirmed by the MTT-test. To study airway provocations cumulative concentration-response curves were performed with different allergic response mediators and biogenic amines. In addition, electric field stimulation, passive sensitization with house dust mite (HDM) and mast cells staining were evaluated. Results PCLS from sheep were viable for at least three days. PCLS of newborn and adult sheep responded equally strong to methacholine and endothelin-1. The responses to serotonin, leukotriene D4 and U46619 differed with age. No airway contraction was evoked by histamine, except after cimetidine pretreatment. In response to EFS, airways in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep strongly contracted and these contractions were atropine sensitive. Passive sensitization with HDM evoked a weak early allergic response in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep, which notably was prolonged in airways from adult sheep. Only few mast cells were found in the lungs of non-sensitized sheep at both ages. Conclusion PCLS from sheep lungs represent a useful tool to study pharmacological airway responses for at least three days. Sheep seem well suited to study mechanisms of cholinergic airway contraction. The notable differences between newborn and adult sheep demonstrate the importance of age in such studies. PMID:25229890

Dassow, Constanze; Konig, Peter; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Uhlig, Stefan; Kramer, Boris W.; Martin, Christian

2014-01-01

429

Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana.  

PubMed

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb, Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage. Centrosema pubescens was preferred to Pueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence. The mean daily digestible dry matter intake of yearling rams (g/kg W0.75) was 34, 31 and 39 for animals on Brachiaria lata/Pueraria phaseoloides, Pueraria phaseoloides and Centrosema pubescens/Aystasia gangetica stands respectively. Intake was not correlated with crude protein levels of the herbage. The mean carrying capacity of the associations was found to be between 11 and 18 sheep/ha/annum. PMID:625790

Asiedu, F H; Oppong, E N; Opoku, A A

1978-02-01

430

A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.  

PubMed

Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets. PMID:21190801

Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

2011-05-20

431

A comparison of dietary atherogenicities, energy balance, and physical activity levels of male and female college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in selected nutrient intakes, dietary atherogenicities, energy balance, and specific physical activity (SPA) as defined between 1.4 and 7.5 Kcal\\/kg\\/hr levels between male and female college students. A total of 122 (50 males and 72 females) completed their three-day dietary records. In addition, 89 (36 males and 53 females) of

Chick F. Tam; Elena Martinez; Sean Tsai; Li C. Chang; Laura Calderon; Rebecca Davis; I-Li Yeh

1996-01-01

432

Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8?±?0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay?+?150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay?+?300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay?+?450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P?Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P?sheep production system. PMID:21786162

Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

2012-03-01

433

SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

434

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in  

E-print Network

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in Castanea sativa coppice stands November 1995) Summary - Aboveground biomass and nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return) and Catania (Italy). Best regression equations for the aboveground biomass were obtained by applying the allo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and risk factors on commercial sheep farms in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence was assessed on Dutch dairy and non-dairy sheep farms using ELISA. Risk factors for seropositivity on non-dairy sheep farms were identified at farm and sheep level by univariate and multivariate multilevel analyses. Based on 953 dairy and 5671 non-dairy serum samples, sheep seroprevalences were 18.7 per cent and 2.0 per cent, respectively, and 78.6 per cent and 30.5 per cent at farm level. Significant risk factors for non-dairy sheep farms were farm location in the south of the country, sheep kept on marginal grounds, one or several supply addresses for ewes during 2007-2009 and wearing farm boots and/or outfit by professional visitors. On sheep level, risk factors included among others farm location in the south of the country, lamb breeding as main farm purpose, goat density within 10?km farm radius, use of windbreak curtain or windshields, and presence of ?6 stillborn lambs in 2009. Farm location in the south of the country and goat density suggests that infected goats have played a role in the transmission to non-dairy sheep. Other risk factors suggest introduction of the bacterium through sheep supply and professional visitors. Biosecurity measures should be strengthened, including avoiding infection during handling of stillborn lambs and birth products in the lambing period. PMID:24789854

Schimmer, B; de Lange, M M A; Hautvast, J L A; Vellema, P; van Duynhoven, Y T H P

2014-07-01

436

A Tool for Sheep Product Quality: Custom Microarrays from Public Databases  

PubMed Central

Milk and dairy products are an essential food and an economic resource in many countries. Milk component synthesis and secretion by the mammary gland involve expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the genomic influence on milk quality and synthesis by comparing two sheep breeds with different milking attitude (Sarda and Gentile di Puglia) using sheep-specific microarray technology. From sheep ESTs deposited at NCBI, we have generated the first annotated microarray developed for sheep with a coverage of most of the genome. PMID:22253981

Bongiorni, Silvia; Chillemi, Giovanni; Prosperini, Gianluca; Bueno, Susana; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

2009-01-01

437

Phylogenetic Position of a Copper Age Sheep (Ovis aries) Mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of the clothes of the so-called Tyrolean Iceman or Ötzi (5,350 - 5,100 years before present). Mitochondrial DNA (a total of 2,429 base pairs, encompassing a portion of the control region, tRNAPhe, a portion of the 12S rRNA gene, and the whole cytochrome B gene) was sequenced using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products. We have compared the sequence with the corresponding sequence of 334 extant lineages. Conclusions/Significance A phylogenetic network based on a new cladistic notation for the mitochondrial diversity of domestic sheep shows that the Ötzi's sheep falls within haplogroup B, thus demonstrating that sheep belonging to this haplogroup were already present in the Alps more than 5,000 years ago. On the other hand, the lineage of the Ötzi's sheep is defined by two transitions (16147, and 16440) which, assembled together, define a motif that has not yet been identified in modern sheep populations. PMID:22457789

Olivieri, Cristina; Ermini, Luca; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Rollo, Franco

2012-01-01

438

Sheep grazing and dynamics of alpine plants in a landscape-scale experiment.  

E-print Network

??Large herbivores such as sheep affect plants directly and indirectly through selective foraging, trampling, urination and defecation, thereby modifying intra- and interspecific interactions and altering… (more)

Evju, Marianne

2009-01-01

439

Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.  

PubMed

Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

1979-04-01

440

Low Genotyping Error Rates and Noninvasive Sampling in Bighorn Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Noninvasive DNA sampling allows studies of natural populations without disturbing the target animals. Unfortunately, high genotyping,error rates often make,noninvasive,studies difficult. We report low error rates (0.0–7.5%\\/locus) when,genotyping,18 microsatellite loci in only 4 multiplex polymerase,chain reaction amplifications using fecal DNA from bighorn,sheep (Ovis canadensis). The average locus- specific error rates varied significantly between the 2 populations (0.13% vs. 1.6%; P

Gordon Luikart; Stephanie Zundel; Delpine Rioux; Christian Miquel; Kim A. Keating; John T. Hogg; Brian Steele; Kerry Foresman; Pierre Taberlet

2008-01-01

441

Mining activity and habitat use by mountain sheep ( Ovis canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mountain sheep in the vicinity of three high-wall limestone mines in San Bernardino County, CA, USA to evaluate\\u000a factors that influenced habitat use and, specifically, to investigate the influence of mining activity on distribution of\\u000a those specialized ungulates. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate a resource selection function by fitting a logistic\\u000a regression model and then comparing

Vernon C. Bleich; James H. Davis; Jason P. Marshal; Steven G. Torres; Ben J. Gonzales

2009-01-01

442

GENETIC VARIABILITY OF REINTRODUCED CALIFORNIA BIGHORN SHEEP IN OREGON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Of the approximately 2,500 California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) in Oregon, USA, the majority descend from a single transplant of 20 animals from British Columbia, Canada, in 1954. Recently, several populations have experienced poor recruitment, raising concerns that populations may be experiencing inbreed- ing depression,resulting from a genetic bottleneck. We sampled 117 animals from 5 populations,in Oregon and

DONALD G. WHITTAKER; STACEY D. OSTERMANN; WALTER M. BOYCE; DeWoody

2004-01-01

443

Reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus in meat sheep and dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate reservoirs and transmission of S. aureus in ewes and lambs in 3 meat sheep flocks. Repeated sampling of milk, teat skin, nasal- and vaginal mucous membranes was performed and samples were analysed for S. aureus. For comparison, samples were also collected from cows and young heifers in 3 dairy cattle herds. Selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus was detected in 8 (1.5%) of 520 milk samples from ewes and in 38 (6.4%) of 588 milk samples from cows. From body site swabs, S. aureus was found in 394 (32.6%) of 1208 samples from sheep and in 67 (16.0%) of 420 samples from cattle. The proportion of S. aureus-positive nasal swabs from ewes and cows were 56.7% and 13.9%, respectively. From lambs, 58.2% of the nasal swabs were S. aureus-positive. In each flock, one S. aureus pulsotype predominated. Identical S. aureus pulsotypes were found in milk and from body sites. Paired S. aureus isolates from the nasal cavity of (i) ewes and their lambs, (ii) twins and (iii) from repeated swabs of individual ewes were compared by PFGE, and in the majority of cases the two isolates were identical. The results contribute new knowledge indicating frequent transmission of S. aureus between the dam and her lambs and within animals in a flock. In contrast to cattle, S. aureus is frequently present in the nose of sheep which may represent the primary reservoir of S. aureus in sheep flocks. PMID:21903348

Mørk, T; Kvitle, B; Jørgensen, H J

2012-02-24

444

Evaluation of the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis (adonis) in sheep, adult Suffolk ewes were administered 1 per cent bodyweight adonis via surgically placed rumen cannulas in an acute, high-dose toxicity study, and 0.2 per cent bodyweight daily in a two-week, low-dose toxicity study. The ewes received cardiac examinations before dosing, 24 and 48 hours after dosing with 1 per cent

L. W. Woods; B. Puschner; M. S. Filigenzi; D. M. Woods; L. W. George

2011-01-01

445

Border disease outbreak leads to ongoing sheep losses.  

PubMed

Botulism in dairy heifers and barley beef bulls Transport-associated acetonaemia in dairy heifers Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in a three-month-old heifer Border disease outbreak in sheep Serological survey for porcine reproductive and respiratory virus and swine influenza virus in pig herds These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for July from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:25395566

2014-11-15

446

Comparison of serological tests for Brucella melitensis infection in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the standard tube agglutination test (SAT), Rose Bengal plate agglutination test and counter immuno-electrophoresis (CIEP) was made on 647 sera from naturally aborting ewes, orchitic, in-contact and apparently healthy sheep with no history of vaccination against brucellosis. No individual test could detect all the 13 known positive reactors (the foetuses of which yieldedBrucella melitensis) but by

N. K. Mahajan; R. C. Kulshreshtha

1991-01-01

447

Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

2013-01-23

448

The Common Sheep-Scab Mite and its Control.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, A 4% M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I BULLETIN NO. 479 3 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE In cooperation with THE BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND THE LIVESTOCK SANITARY COMMISSION OF TEXAS The Common Sheep.... Schmidt, D. V. M., Veterinarian Clarice Mixson, B. A., Secretary **F. P. Mathews, D.V.M., M.S., Veterinarian M. P. Holleman, Chief Clerk J. B. Mims, D. V. M., Asst. Veterinarian J. K. Francklow, Asst. Chief Clerk Plant Pathology and Physiology...

Babcock, O. G. (Orville Gorman); Black, William L. (William Lawrence)

1933-01-01

449

METABOLISM OF ACETATE BY SHEEP LIVER HOMOGE'NATES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of acetate has been studied in sheep liver homogenates. ContraD- to previous reports, acetate was oxidized by fresh liver homogenates, and aeet3,l-CoA was oxidized by both fresh and frozen-stored liver homogenates in the presence of the eofaetors XAI) and earnitine. With these two eofactors, oxidation plateaus after 20-30 rain, unless a 4-ca,'bon TCX cycle acid, such as sueeinate,

E. D. MAYFIELD; AXD B. CONNOR JOHNSON

450

Carbon tetrachloride metabolism in sheep and in Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

1. The excretion of carbon tetrachloride and its metabolites in bile and urine were studied. 2. Liver flukes in vitro metabolized carbon tetrachloride and hexachloroethane by dechlorination. 3. Carbon tetrachloride, liver lipid from rabbits which received carbon tetrachloride and a carbon tetrachloride methyl oleate complex were toxic to liver flukes in vitro, in the presence of sheep bile. 4. A direct fasciocidal action of carbon tetrachloride may contribute to the therapeutic effect of the drug. PMID:5472206

Fowler, J. S. L.

1970-01-01

451

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP  

E-print Network

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des LE MOUTON CARENCÃ? EN COBALT-VITAMINE B12. ― Des lésions cardiovasculaires ont été observées à l'autopsie chez 5 des 6 moutons soumis à une carence expérimentale en cobalt-vitamine B12 pendant 34

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Cellular and humoral components of bronchoalveolar lavage in the sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used as a simple and well tolerated technique for segmental bronchoalveolar lavage and cytologic\\u000a study in unsedated, unanesthetized sheep. In 20 healthy animals, repeated results of analyses (three times every two weeks)\\u000a of selected humoral and cellular components of lung defense mechanisms are described. Yields of 1×107 free airway cells (FAC) per lavage were easily obtained with

M. Rola-Pleszczynski; P. Sirois; R. Bégin

1981-01-01

453

Vestibular caloric responses and behavioral state in the fetal sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional activity of the vestibular system in relation to behavioral state of fetal sheep in utero was studied by cooling and heating of the fetal middle ear and skin (control) with implanted copper-tube heat exchangers. Eye movements and fetal cortical activity were assessed before, during, and after 2 min irrigations with water at 6, 46, or 39.5°C (isothermic). Cold water

Robert M Abrams; Matthias Schwab; Kenneth J Gerhardt; Reinhard Bauer; Thomas Bludau; Patrick J Antonelli

1998-01-01

454

Reduced Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep with TMEM154 Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visna\\/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected

Michael P. Heaton; Michael L. Clawson; Carol G. Chitko-Mckown; Kreg A. Leymaster; Timothy P. L. Smith; Gregory P. Harhay; Stephen N. White; Lynn M. Herrmann-Hoesing; Michelle R. Mousel; Gregory S. Lewis; Theodore S. Kalbfleisch; James E. Keen; William W. Laegreid

2012-01-01

455

Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available\\u000a in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought,\\u000a although this has not been found universally. In this study area,

B. J. Mincher; R. D. Ball; T. P. Houghton; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka

2008-01-01

456

CONSUMPTION OF SIMULATED ACID MINE WATER BY SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water consumption by sheep in 48-h periods was measured in three replicated experiments. Intake was expressed as ml, kg body weight-'73-d-1 and treatments were compared with intake of tap water or distilled water in no-choice situations. Neutralizing two acid mine drainage (AMD) polluted waters having pH values of 2.4 and 2.8, with Ca(OH) 2 did not make either as acceptable

D. J. Horvath

2010-01-01

457

Polymorphisms of ? - defensin genes in Valle del Belice dairy sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study ?-defensin 1 (SBD1) and ?-defensin 2 (SBD2) genes in Valle del Belice dairy sheep in order to identify polymorphisms that can be utilized as markers of the analyzed\\u000a genes, and search for the functional effects and roles of the identified polymorphisms (variation of the amino acid sequence\\u000a of the protein and stability

Giuseppina Monteleone; Davide Calascibetta; Mariangela Scaturro; Paola Galluzzo; Marisa Palmeri; Valentina Riggio; Baldassare Portolano

458

Omasal ciliated protozoa in cattle, bison, and sheep.  

PubMed Central

Omasal contents were collected from slaughtered cattle (n = 54), bison (n = 15), and sheep (n = 40) to determine numbers and generic distribution of ciliated protozoa. Total protozoan numbers were significantly lower in omasal contents than in ruminal contents of all three species, but the percent composition of all protozoan genera was similar between omasal and ruminal populations. The highest numbers of omasal protozoa found were 7.61 X 10(5)/g in cattle, 7.01 X 10(5)/g in bison, and 1.29 X 10(6)/g in sheep. Omasal dry matter was significantly higher than ruminal dry matter in all species and ranged up to 51.5% in cattle fed high-concentrate diets. The omasal pH was similar to the ruminal pH in all species. The number of omasal laminae averaged 149, 145, and 74 for cattle, bison, and sheep, respectively. Although protozoan concentrations in omasal contents were approximately 80% lower than those in ruminal contents, the omasum harbored relatively high numbers of ciliated protozoa. The resident omasal protozoa are extremely difficult to remove, particularly in cattle, and apparently are responsible for reinoculating transiently defaunated rumens. PMID:2306089

Towne, G; Nagaraja, T G

1990-01-01

459

Mother-lamb acoustic recognition in sheep: a frequency coding.  

PubMed Central

Ewes of the domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ) display selective maternal investment by restricting care to their own offspring and rejecting alien young. This trait relies on individual recognition processes between ewes and lambs. Whereas identification at the udder is only olfactory, distance recognition is performed through visual and acoustic cues. We studied the effectiveness and modalities of mutual acoustic recognition between ewes and lambs by spectrographic analysis of their vocal signatures and by playbacks of modified calls in the field. Our results show that ewes and their lambs can recognize each other based solely on their calls. The coding of identity within the vocal signatures, previously unknown in sheep, is similar in lamb and ewe: it uses the mean frequency and the spectral energy distribution of the call, namely the timbre of the call. These results point out a simple signature system in sheep that uses only the frequency domain. This engenders a signal with low information content, as opposed to some highly social birds and mammal species that may integrate information both in the temporal and spectral domains. The simplicity of this system is linked to the roles played by vision and olfaction that corroborate the information brought by the vocal signature. PMID:12964977

Searby, Amanda; Jouventin, Pierre

2003-01-01

460

Analysis of geographic and pairwise distances among sheep populations.  

PubMed

This study investigated geographic and pairwise distances among seven Chinese local and four introduced sheep populations via analysis of 26 microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic polymorphism was rich, and the following was discovered: 348 alleles in total were detected, the average allele number was 13.38, the polymorphism information content (PIC) of loci ranged from 0.717 to 0.788, the number of effective alleles ranged from 7.046 to 7.489, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.700 to 0.768 for the practical sample, and from 0.712 to 0.794 for expected heterozygosity. The Wright's F-statistic of subpopulations within the total (FST) was 0.128, the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 0.115, and the average gene flow (Nm) was 1.703. The phylogenetic trees based on the neighbor-joining method by Nei's genetic distance (DA) and Nei's standard genetic distance (DS) were similar. Sheep populations clustered into group 1 (Ta, M, L, H, O, G, and Q breeds) and group 2 (PD, WS, B, and T breeds). These results will have an important value applied and directive significance for sheep breeding in the future. PMID:25036162

Liu, J B; Yue, Y J; Lang, X; Wang, F; Zha, X; Guo, J; Feng, R L; Guo, T T; Yang, B H; Sun, X P

2014-01-01

461

Genes Contributing to Genetic Variation of Muscling in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. The detailed phenotypic characteristics of sheep carrying these mutations or QTL affecting skeletal muscle show a number of common biological themes, particularly changes in developmental growth trajectories, alterations of whole animal morphology, and a shift toward fast twitch glycolytic fibers. The genetic, developmental, and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the actions of some of these genetic variants are described. This review critically assesses this research area, identifies gaps in knowledge, and highlights mechanistic linkages between genetic polymorphisms and skeletal muscle phenotypic changes. This knowledge may aid the discovery of new causal genetic variants and in some cases lead to the development of biochemical and immunological strategies aimed at enha