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Adult-Onset Obesity Reveals Prenatal Programming of Glucose-Insulin Sensitivity in Male Sheep Nutrient Restricted during Late Gestation  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. Methods/Principal Findings Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n?=?6) or energy restricted (0.7M) diet during early (1–65 days; LEE, n?=?6) or late (65–128 days; LEL, n?=?7) gestation (term ?147 days). Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT) and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6–7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were ‘lean’ (1.5 years). Obesity revealed generalised metabolic ‘inflexibility’ and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulinAUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] mins) during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16]; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively). Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. Conclusions This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and ‘reveals’ programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young prenatally ‘programmed’ animals so long as weight is adequately controlled. Nutritional excess in adulthood exacerbates any programmed phenotype, indicating greater vigilance over weight control is required for those individuals exposed to nutritional thrift during gestation.

Rhodes, Philip; Craigon, Jim; Gray, Clint; Rhind, Stuart M.; Loughna, Paul T.; Gardner, David S.



Maternal nutrient restriction in early pregnancy programs hepatic mRNA expression of growth-related genes and liver size in adult male sheep.  


The liver is a major metabolic and endocrine organ of critical importance in the regulation of growth and metabolism. Its function is determined by a complex interaction of nutritionally regulated counter-regulatory hormones. The extent to which hepatic endocrine sensitivity can be programed in utero and whether the resultant adaptations persist into adulthood is unknown and was therefore the subject of this study. Young adult male sheep born to mothers that were fed either a control diet (i.e.100% of total live weight-maintenance requirements) throughout gestation or 50% of that intake (i.e. nutrient restricted (NR)) from 0 to 95 days gestation and thereafter 100% of requirements (taking into account increasing fetal mass) were entered into the study. All mothers gave birth normally at term, the singleton offspring were weaned at 16 weeks, and then reared at pasture until 3 years of age when their livers were sampled. NR offspring were of similar birth and body weights at 3 years of age when they had disproportionately smaller livers than controls. The abundance of mRNA for GH, prolactin, and IGF-II receptors, plus hepatocyte growth factor and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 were all lower in livers of NR offspring. In contrast, the abundance of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel and the pro-apoptotic factor Bax were up regulated relative to controls. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation results in adult offspring with smaller livers. This may be mediated by alterations in both hepatic mitogenic and apoptotic factors. PMID:17210746

Hyatt, M A; Gopalakrishnan, G S; Bispham, J; Gentili, S; McMillen, I C; Rhind, S M; Rae, M T; Kyle, C E; Brooks, A N; Jones, C; Budge, H; Walker, D; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E



Male mate choice influences female promiscuity in Soay sheep  

PubMed Central

In most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. However, when males’ rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in ‘quality’, male mate choice is also predicted to occur. Such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral Soay sheep on St Kilda, Scotland, where a highly synchronized mating season, intense sperm competition and limitations on sperm production constrain males’ potential reproductive rate, and females vary substantially in their ability to produce successful offspring. We show that, consistent with predictions, competitive rams focus their mating activity and siring success towards heavier females with higher inclusive fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first time that male mate choice has been identified and shown to lead to assortative patterns of parentage in a natural mammalian system, and occurs despite fierce male–male competition for mates. An additional consequence of assortative mating in this population is that lighter females experience a series of unstable consorts with less adept rams, and hence are mated by a greater number of males during their oestrus. We have thus also identified a novel male-driven mechanism that generates variation in female promiscuity, which suggests that the high levels of female promiscuity in this system are not part of an adaptive female tactic to intensify post-copulatory competition between males.

Preston, B.T.; Stevenson, I.R.; Pemberton, J.M.; Coltman, D.W.; Wilson, K.



Nutrient supplementation: improving male fertility fourfold.  


Oxidative stress can contribute to impairment in spermatogenesis leading to male-factor infertility. The effectiveness of various antioxidants (such as carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10) is variable with respect to improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates. A recent Cochrane review determined that men taking antioxidants had a statistically significant increase in both live birth rates and pregnancy rates. For those undergoing assisted reproduction, the odds ratio that antioxidant use would improve pregnancy rates was 4.18, with a 4.85-fold improvement in live birth rate also noted. Further investigation with randomized, controlled clinical trials is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the medical management and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23775385

Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Shin, David



Preference of sheep for foods varying in flavors and nutrients.  


Our objective was to better understand the importance of flavor and nutrients in food preferences of lambs. Three foods differing in flavor and nutritional quality were created by grinding and mixing grape pomace, barley, alfalfa pellets, and soybean meal in different proportions. food 1 (2.21 Mcal/kg DE, 8.1% DP), food 2 (2.42 Mcal/kg DE, 11.0% DP), and food 3 (2.68 Mcal/kg DE, 13.8% DP). Intake of each food, offered singly and together, was assessed when foods 2 and 3 were flavored with 1% onion or 1% oregano. Lambs (n = 24) preferred food 3 > 2 > 1, regardless of flavor (P < .05), and they continued to prefer food 3 > 2 > 1, even when they received the toxin LiCl after eating one of the three foods (P < .05). When offered a choice, lambs always ate substantial amounts of all three foods, even though they might have been expected to eat food 3 exclusively. We hypothesize selection of a varied diet resulted from a decrease in preference for food just eaten as a result of sensory input (taste, odor, texture, i.e., a food's flavor) and postingestive feedback (effects of nutrients and toxins on chemo-, osmo-, and mechano-receptors) unique to each food. Thus, we submit that offering different foods of similar nutritional value, offering foods of different nutritional value, and offering the same food in different flavors are all means of enhancing food preference and intake. PMID:8904703

Provenza, F D; Scott, C B; Phy, T S; Lynch, J J



Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.  


This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention. PMID:22436162

Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L



Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.  


The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals. PMID:24980034

Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven



Decreasing maternal nutrient intake during the final third of pregnancy in previously overnourished adolescent sheep: effects on maternal nutrient partitioning and feto-placental development.  


When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ?20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation. PMID:22154692

Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M



Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  


Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L



Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.  


Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989

Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko



Consideration for Dietary Nutrient Density and Energy Feeding Programs for Growing Large Male Broiler Chickens for Further Processing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials with identical experimental design were conducted to examine the effects of dietary nutrient density and energy feeding programs on male broiler chickens grown to heavy weights for further processing. Diets were formulated to provide a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid requirements, maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Diets with different nutrient density were obtained

E. A. Saleh; S. E. Watkins; A. L. Waldroup; P. W. Waldroup


Food deprivation affects preference of sheep for foods varying in nutrients and a toxin.  


We investigated how food deprivation affected preference of lambs for foods that varied in concentrations of nutrients and a toxin. Thirty lambs (10 lambs/treatment) were fed different amounts of alfalfa pellets (high in protein, marginal in energy for growth) as a basal ration (20, 40, or 60 g/kg body weight). Every morning, prior to ingesting the basal ration of alfalfa pellets, each lamb was offerend three foods for 15 min. The foods contained different amounts of energy and a toxin, depending on the addition of barley (energy) and LiCl (toxin) to alfalfa. The proportions of barley and LiCl changed every five days during the 25-day study. The results showed: (1) all lambs preferred food that was high > intermediate > low in energy (barley) in the absence of LiCl, but all lambs decreased consumption of foods high in energy as LiCl concentrations increased; (2) the greater the level of food deprivation, the lower the consumption of foods containing LiCl, even if the foods provided high levels of energy; (3) lambs moderately food deprived or fed ad libitum ingested more LiCl than lambs that were highly deprived; and (4) lambs quickly (15 min/day) regulated intake of foods in response to changes in barley and LiCl concentrations. Thus, our results suggest that the interaction between nutritional status and toxicosis plays an important role in food preference of lambs. Our findings also suggest that toxic plants may kill herbivores that lack nutritious alternative foods not only because the animals are forced to be less discriminating, but also because they are more susceptible to toxins. PMID:24227213

Wang, J; Provenza, F D



Toxicologic studies with male sheep grazing on municipal sludge-amended soil  

SciTech Connect

Growing sheep were grazed for 152 d on grass-legume forage growing on soil that had been amended with municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, NY, at 224 metric tons per hectare. Cadmium was higher, but not significantly, in tissues of sheep fed the sludge-grown forage as compared to controls. No significant differences between the sludge or control treatments were found in weight of the complete or cauda epididymis or in percent progressive motility of cauda epididymal sperm. The sludge-treatment group had significantly larger testes when expressed as a percentage of body weight, and higher blood uric acid values. There were no observable changes in tissue ultrastructure of liver, kidney, muscle, or testes as examined by electron microscopy in either of the treatment groups. There were no significant differences for rate of animal weight gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, or quality or yield grade of the carcases between the treatment groups. 21 references, 5 tables.

Hogue, D.E.; Parrish, J.J.; Foote, R.H.; Stouffer, J.R.



Nutrient Intake Evaluation of Male and Female Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutrient intakes of male and female cadets were evaluated during the 1979-80 academic year as part of a study to determine factors contributing to weight gain in the West Point cadets. Five consecutive days of dietary data were collected from 136 males an...

H. E. Sauberlich M. J. Kretsch P. M. Conforti



Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep.

Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.



Antenatal Betamethasone Exposure Alters Renal Responses to Angiotensin-(1-7) in Uninephrectomized Adult Male Sheep  

PubMed Central

Antenatal corticosteroid exposure reduces renal function and alters the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system to favor angiotensin activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediated responses in ovine offspring. This study aimed to assess whether antenatal steroid exposure would affect renal responses to the direct intrarenal infusion of angiotensin-(1–7) in rams and the Ang receptors involved in mediating responses to the peptide. Adult, uninephrectomized rams exposed to either betamethasone or vehicle before birth received intrarenal angiotensin-(1–7) infusions (1ng/kg/min) alone or in combination with antagonists to Ang receptors for 3 hours. Basal sodium excretion (UNa) was significantly lower and mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in betamethasone compared to the vehicle treated sheep. Angiotensin-(1–7) decreased UNa more in betamethasone than in vehicle treated sheep. Candesartan reversed the response to Angiotensin-(1–7) but D-Ala7-Angiotensin-(1–7) did not. Angiotensin-(1–7) infusion decreased effective renal plasma flow in both groups to a similar extent and the response was reversed by candesartan, but was not blocked by D-Ala7-Angiotensin-(1–7). Glomerular filtration rate increased significantly in both groups after 3h infusion of Angiotensin-(1–7) plus candesartan. These results suggest that antenatal exposure to a clinically relevant dose of betamethasone impairs renal function in rams. Moreover, Angiotensin-(1–7) appears capable of activating the AT1R in uninephrectomized rams.

Bi, Jianli; Contag, Stephen A.; Carey, Luke C.; Tang, Lijun; Valego, Nancy K.; Chappell, Mark C.; Rose, James C.



Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.  


This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences. PMID:24901092

Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A



Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.  


A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S



Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under limited nutrient conditions in Drosophila male germline stem cells  

PubMed Central

Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient conditions mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient conditions. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient conditions.

Roth, Therese M.; Chiang, C.-Y. Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.



Maternal Nutrient Restriction During Late Gestation and Early Postnatal Growth in Sheep Differentially Reset the Control of Energy Metabolism in the Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.

Sebert, S. P.; Dellschaft, N. S.; Chan, L. L. Y.; Street, H.; Henry, M.; Francois, C.; Sharma, V.; Fainberg, H. P.; Patel, N.; Roda, J.; Keisler, D.; Budge, H.



Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.  


This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?sheep with PH were higher (P?

Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M



Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight.  


A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific map. This map was employed in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses on body-weight and growth-rate traits between birth and 98 weeks of age. A custom maximum likelihood program was developed to map QTL in half-sib families for non-inbred strains (QTL-MLE) and is freely available on request. The new analysis package offers the advantage of enabling QTL x fixed effect interactions to be included in the model. Fifty-four putative QTL were identified on nine chromosomes. Significant QTL with sex-specific effects (i.e. QTL x sex interaction) in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 SD were found on ovine chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, 23, 24 and 26. PMID:19389264

Raadsma, Herman W; Thomson, Peter C; Zenger, Kyall R; Cavanagh, Colin; Lam, Mary K; Jonas, Elisabeth; Jones, Marilyn; Attard, Gina; Palmer, David; Nicholas, Frank W



Nutrient intake and use of beverages and the risk of kidney stones among male smokers.  


High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study and completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up (1985-1988), 329 men had been diagnosed with kidney stones. After data were controlled for possible confounders, the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.85) as compared with men in the lowest quartile. Intake of fiber was directly associated with risk (relative risk (RR) = 2.06, 95% CI 1.39-3.03). Calcium intake was not associated with the risk of kidney stones. Beer consumption was inversely associated with risk of kidney stones; each bottle of beer consumed per day was estimated to reduce risk by 40% (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.76). In conclusion, the authors observed that magnesium intake and beer consumption were inversely associated and fiber intake was directly associated with risk of kidney stones. PMID:10412964

Hirvonen, T; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J



Progress towards the development of a transgenic strain of the Australian sheep blowfly ( Lucilia cuprina) suitable for a male-only sterile release program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important pest species involved in cutaneous myiasis (flystrike) of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. In New Zealand L. cuprina is primarily controlled through the application of insecticides. However, there is an increased interest in biological methods of control of this species. We have proposed to develop a genetically modified strain

Maxwell J Scott; Jörg C Heinrich; Xuelei Li



Deriving nutrient requirements of growing Indian sheep under tropical condition using performance and intake data emanated from feeding trials conducted in different research institutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 19 feeding trials conducted on growing sheep from different institutes across India were subjected to regression analysis to derive requirements of TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance and body weight gain. Maintenance requirements for TDN, CP and DCP were 37.0, 6.68 and 4.43g\\/kg W0.75, respectively for the BW range of 7–15kg, and the corresponding maintenance requirements for the

S. S. Paul; A. B. Mandal; G. P. Mandal; A. Kannan; N. N. Pathak



Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.



Nutrient Requirements and Interactions Normalization of Serum Calcium Restores Fertility in Vitamin D-Deficient Male Rats1»2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed experiments to determine whether treatment with vitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxy- cholecalciferol could reverse male infertility caused by vitamin D deficiency. Additionally, an attempt was made to distinguish between a direct and an indirect effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on reproductive tissue. Vi tamin D-deficient male rats with impaired fertility were treated with vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol for 3 wk, then



Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the ‘boss cow of the nutrient herd’ and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken



Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.  


Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. PMID:24326024

Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina



Nutrient Depletion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.


Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.



Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan



The effects of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality in sheep differing in age.  


The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 h of road transportation on physiological responses and meat quality traits of sheep at 6, 12, and 24 mo of age. Seventy-two male sheep were equally divided into transported (TRANS) and nontransported (CON) treatments (n = 36), and each treatment was subdivided into 3 groups by age (n = 12). Sheep in CON groups were weighed, blood sampled, and slaughtered, whereas sheep in TRANS groups were weighed, transported, blood sampled, and slaughtered to collect meat samples. The BW of sheep in TRANS groups was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep, and older sheep lost more BW than younger animals. However, dressing percentages of TRANS sheep were significantly (P < 0.001) greater than those of CON sheep. Some meat quality variables were affected by transportation, and responses of different ages of sheep varied. Total pigment content and lipid oxidation of LM and gluteus medius of TRANS sheep increased significantly (P < 0.001) compared with CON sheep. Cooking loss of LM and gluteus medius was influenced significantly (P < 0.01) by interaction effect between transportation and age, and the values for 6-mo-old TRANS sheep were less than those of CON sheep. Serum total protein (P = 0.036), globulin (P = 0.026), triglyceride (P < 0.001), and total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.028) of TRANS sheep decreased compared with CON sheep. Serum NEFA concentration of TRANS sheep increased in relation to CON sheep with a significant interaction (P < 0.001) between transportation and age effect. Numbers of white blood cells were influenced (P = 0.002) by an interaction effect between transportation and age, and values for 6-mo-old sheep were not influenced by transportation. Numbers of platelets were influenced (P = 0.014) by age; they decreased more in 6-mo-old sheep than in older sheep. Transportation and age had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on packed cell volume and lymphocyte number. Serum creatine kinase activities in TRANS sheep were affected (P = 0.01) by an interaction effect between transportation and age. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in serum of TRANS sheep increased (P = 0.009) with the greatest change for 6-mo-old compared with older sheep. In conclusion, 8 h of road transportation resulted in greater heme pigment concentrations but improved meat tenderness and induced physiological responses of sheep. However, different ages of sheep showed different responses to the present transportation pattern. PMID:21680786

Zhong, R Z; Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Sun, H X; Zhao, C S



Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic

I. Imbschweiler; M. Kummerfeld; M. Gerhard; I. Pfeiffer; P. Wohlsein



Effects of Exogenous Somatostatin and Cysteamine on Net Nutrient Flux Across the Portal-Drained Viscera and Liver of Sheep During Intraduodenal Infusion of Starch Hydrolysate and Casein1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used eight Polypay wethers (36 ± .6 kg BW) fitted with hepatic portal, hepatic venous, mesenteric arterial and venous, and duodenal catheters in a crossover design experiment to deter- mine the influence of somatostatin (SRIF) on splanchnic metabolism. Each crossover period con- sisted of 14 d, with net flux of nutrients and hormones (venoarterial differences × blood flow) measured

K. R. McLeod; M. L. Bauer; D. L. Harmon; C. K. Reynolds; G. E. Mitchell



Regulation of sheep ?-TTP by dietary vitamin E and preparation of monoclonal antibody for sheep ?-TTP.  


?-Tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma ?-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that ?-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the ?-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep ?-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then ?-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep ?-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine ?-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep ?-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-?-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep ?-TTP. PMID:24583170

Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan



Experimental trichinosis in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Trichinella spiralis spiralis infections were established in sheep by administering infective larvae via gavage or feeding infected musculature. Trichinella spiralis nativa infective larvae had a low infectivity for sheep although light infections may be established in some animals with large infective doses. For the most part, sheep were averse to ingesting musculature mixed in a grain ration unless it was camouflaged with molasses. The heaviest infections usually occurred in the masseter muscle. The fact that sheep are averse to ingesting muscle tissue may reduce the likelihood of trichinosis. Anti-Trichinella antibodies to both T: spiralis spiralis and T. spiralis nativa were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroconversion occurred in several sheep challenged with T. spiralis nativa even though larvae were not recovered from the musculature by pepsin-digestion.

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E



Seasonal levels of minerals, enzymes, nutrients and metabolic products in plasma of intact and castrated adult male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  


1. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) were measured in the plasma of three intact and three castrated male deer. 2. A statistically significant seasonal cycle of AP, cholesterol, creatinine and uric acid was found in intact but not in castrated animals. 3. Monthly levels of total protein, albumin, urea nitrogen, bilirubin and calcium were significantly higher in castrated deer. 4. On the other hand, monthly levels of LDH and SGOT were higher in intact animals. PMID:6130880

Morris, J M; Bubenik, G A



Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Tswana goats and sheep breeds in Botswana: continuous traits.  


The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenous breeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814

Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B



Nutritive value of maize stover/pasture legume mixtures as dry season supplementation for sheep.  


Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutrient contents and relative preferences of maize stover and three legumes forages and their feeding on intake and digestibility of sheep. Maize stover was blended with three legumes, stylo (Stylosanthes guainensis), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) and centro (Centrocema pubescens), to produce four treatments, namely, only maize stover (control), stover/stylo, stover/siratro and stover/centro mixtures. The first experiment evaluated the relative preference of the stover and the various stover/legume mixtures when offered to sheep. Six rams were offered pair combinations of the treatments in a 6x6 Latin square with a split plot arrangement such that each ram had access to two feeds at a time in each period of 6 days. The second experiment included measurements of intake and digestibility of the stover and stover/legume mixtures. Four intact and four castrated male sheep were used in two, 4x4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. The least (P<0.05) preferred feed was maize stover when it was offered as the sole feed. There were no significant differences in preference among the stover/legume mixtures. Dry matter intake (DMI) was highest (P<0.05) when sheep were offered the stover/centro mixture and lowest (P<0.05) when maize stover was fed as the sole feed. Dry matter digestibility did not differ significantly among treatments. Sheep that were offered maize stover only lost weight, those fed stover/centro gained weight and those that were fed either stover/siratro or stover/stylo maintained weight. However, these short-term weight changes may reflect changes in fill as much as changes in body tissue. Addition of legumes to maize stover improved the nutritive value, possibly by increasing the nitrogen content of the stover. The results suggest that maize stover, which is normally left to rot in the field, could be better utilised by intercropping with legumes and allowing animals access after grain harvest. PMID:11323211

Undi, M; Kawonga, K C.; Musendo, R M.



[Imported coenurosis in sheep].  


Thirteen sheep from a milk producing farm in the Canton of Grisons that presented chronic coenurosis were examined and subjected to treatment trials at the veterinary hospital in Zurich. Symptoms were first observed around two months after the import of two dogs from Italy (Abruzza) of which one was infected with Taenia multiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. The most frequently observed clinical symptoms of the sheep were reduced general condition, circling, reduced menace reflex, apathy, unsteady gait and head tilt. Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid revealed an increased leucocyte count in 3 sheep and eosinophilia in 4 sheep. In 4 animals that underwent computertomography, one or more hypodense, definable lesions were found in the brain. In 2 sheep surgical treatment and in 10 animals medical treatment with either Praziquantel (n=8) or Oxfendazol (n=2) was attempted. Only one animal treated with Praziquantel needed not to be euthanized. At necropsy, one or two coenurus cysts could be found either in a side ventricle (n=2), in the cerebellum (n=3) or in the cerebrum (n=7). The locations corresponded with the clinical findings. Despite Praziquantel or Oxfendazol treatment, living protoscoleces could be found in the parasite cysts. PMID:17024978

Schweizer, G; Grünenfelder, F; Sydler, T; Rademacher, N; Braun, U; Deplazes, P



SFRSF: Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.


[Hypericum poisoning in sheep].  


A report about a case of St. John's wort poisoning in German Blackface sheep is given. After the ingestion of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) all slightly pigmented parts of the skin, that were rarely covered with hair, were photosensitized. In summer many sheep suffered from inflammatory skin alterations at the ears, the bridge of the nose and at the surroundings of the eyes. A literature review informs about etiology and treatment of photosensitivity disease and the St. John's wort is exactly described to facilitate recognition. PMID:2815063

Kümper, H



Effect of different rumen degradable nitrogen levels on microbial protein synthesis and digestibility in sheep fed on finger millet straw (Eleucine coracana) based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to determine adequate rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN) levels for optimum microbial protein synthesis and digestibility of nutrients in adult Bandur sheep fed on finger millet straw (FMS) based diet. Thirty Bandur sheep were divided into five groups of six animals each using a balanced completely randomized design. Animals in all groups were fed FMS as a basal

M. Chandrasekharaiah; A. Thulasi; K. T. Sampath


Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.



Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.


The Coat of Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE letter under this title, by Prof. J. Cossar Ewart, in NATURE of Mar. 19, contains some observations so divergent from those we have made here that it seems desirable to contrast the two. He remarks: `` From an investigation which has been in hand for some time on the structure of the fibre forming the coat of sheep, it

J. E. Duerden



Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.


Birth sex ratios in sheep over six lambing seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth sex ratio of a commercial flock of Suffolk × sheep, Ovis aries, were studied over six consecutive lambing seasons. In all, data from 1820 lambs were recorded and analysed. The overall birth sex ratio was 49.56% male lambs. Significantly more males (56.23%) were born to ewes with single lambs than to ewes with like-sex twins (47.73%). Significantly more

J. P. Kent



Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep.  


A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic problem in veterinary medicine. Reported cases are often linked to sadism and often lead to the animal's death. Veterinarians should keep in mind animal sexual abuse as a differential diagnosis in cases of anogenital injuries of unknown origin. PMID:18848792

Imbschweiler, I; Kummerfeld, M; Gerhard, M; Pfeiffer, I; Wohlsein, P



Electric Sheep 2.6  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The title of this rather compelling application is derived from the thought-provoking novel by Philip K. Dick, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Essentially, what this open source screen saver does is allow a vast number of computers to communicate with each other to create abstract animations known as "sheep". Visitors can also vote for their favorite "sheep" as well, thereby allowing other fellow users the ability to learn about their own preferences for abstract art. This version of Electric Sheep is compatible with most operating systems.


Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)



Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 < b < 2.0. Land management practice appear to have increased the rate of large fires (shallower slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.



Comparative productivity and grazing behaviour of Huacaya alpacas and Peppin Merino sheep grazed on annual pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Huacaya alpaca (mixed sex, mean±S.D., age 5.2±2.7 years, live weight 72.0±9.5kg) were grazed with Peppin Merino sheep (castrated male, age 3±0.1 years, live weight 54.0±3.9kg) for 2 years on improved annual pasture at commercial grazing pressures (10–17 dry sheep equivalents\\/ha) near Melbourne, Australia. Alpacas and sheep gained weight during the first year and then lost weight (proportional loss: alpacas

B. A McGregor



Evaluation of tagasaste ( Chamaecytisus palmensis) forage as a substitute for concentrate in diets of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was carried out for 90 days to asses the supplementing effect of tagasaste forage as a substitute for a concentrate supplement (wheat bran–noug seed cake (Gizotia abyssinica) mixture in 3:1 proportion) using 24 Menz male sheep (initial weight of 18.3±1.6 kg). The sheep were fed on natural pasture hay as basal diet. The treatments were iso-nitrogenous supplements of 100%

Getnet Assefa; C. Kijora; A. Kehaliew; S. Bediye; K. J. Peters



Contribution of nitric oxide to adaptation of tibetan sheep to high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on pulmonary hemodynamics in awake sheep living at low and high altitudes to evaluate the role of NO in adaptation to an hypoxic environment. Unanaesthetized male sheep in three places—Matsumoto, Japan (680m above sea level), Xing, China (2300m) and Maxin, China (3750m)—were prepared for measurements of pulmonary artery (Ppa)

Tomonobu Koizumi; Zonghai Ruan; Akio Sakai; Takeshi Ishizaki; Takaaki Matsumoto; Muneo Saitou; Tetsuya Matsuzaki; Keishi Kubo; Zhangang Wang; Qiuhong Chen; Xiaoqin Wang



Dolly the Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.



Alternative feedstuffs and their effects on performance of Awassi sheep: a review.  


Fat-tailed sheep (FTS) is a group of breeds characterized by large (fatty) tails that it is commonly distributed in Africa, Middle East, Pakistan, and to a lesser extent in other countries. Awassi, a common FTS breed in many Mediterranean countries, is adaptive and suitable to live in harsh conditions of the arid and semiarid areas. One of the main constraints for sheep industry in those areas is the limited supply and variable quality and quantity of feedstuffs. Using several alternative feedstuffs (AF) has been a common practice to decrease production cost of Awassi sheep industry in those areas. The appropriate AF to be used is determined by several animal and feed factors. These AF includes, but not limited to, unconventional feedstuffs, agricultural byproducts, and agro-industrial byproducts. A good body of literature about the use of AF and the effects of such use on performance of Awassi sheep is available. Some of these AF have been shown to be safely used in Awassi diets with no detrimental effects on sheep performance or health and, thus, recommended to lower the production cost. Other AF has controversial effects and recommendations. This paper reviews the effects of using AF on performance of Awassi ewes and lambs. Effects on intake, nutrient digestibilities, growth rate, and carcass characteristics of lambs and on intake, nutrient digestibilities, body weight change, milk yield, and milk composition of ewes will be emphasized. Recommendations and limitations for using AF will also be briefly discussed. PMID:21512727

Awawdeh, Mofleh S



Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n?3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n?6) into n?3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=?925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n?3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n?6/n?3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.



Epidemiology of nematode parasites of sheep around Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia.  


An investigation was made into the epidemiology of nematode infections of sheep in two districts of Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. We used two approaches--long-term monitoring of identified sheep for nematode infection and abattoir or market survey for analysis. In the first monitoring regime, we used 80 lambs [40 sheep (20 per sex) from each district (Dedo and Yebu)] averaging 4-5 months of age. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and body weight changes were monitored over a period of 1 year. Additionally, faecal samples were collected (on a weekly basis) from sheep brought to abattoir/market for 1 year to monitor faecal egg counts. The nematode parasite burden, as judged by FEC and PCV, was generally low indicating that the climatic conditions are not conducive to the development and survival of nematode eggs and the free-living stages; hence, little transmission occurred. In the experimental flocks, the highest FEC and lower PCV were recorded during the long rainy season (June to September) with peak in August and September. Faecal samples collected from abattoir/market also followed the same trend. Results from experimental sheep indicated that location had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on FEC, PCV and average daily body weight gain. The FEC and PCV for sheep in Yebu (mid-altitude) district were 126 +/- 3.33 and 30.6 +/- 0.26, whereas the values for Dedo (highland) were 93 +/- 4.35 and 32.0 +/- 0.21, respectively. The results indicate that the highland areas are comparatively less favourable to the survival and development of nematodes. Female lambs had lower FEC and higher PCV compared to male lambs (P < 0.05). The overall nematode parasite challenge in the area, however, is low. We, therefore, recommend rotational grazing management combined with monitoring parasite load and selective treatment to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination. PMID:19882224

Haile, Aynalem; Gashaw, Abebaw; Tolemariam, Taye; Tibbo, Markos



Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.  


Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6) into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

Zhang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z



Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.  


Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F



Treatment and control of ectoparasites in sheep.  


Ectoparasites are a major concern in sheep flocks, wherever sheep are kept. Techniques to control and eradicate lice, ked, or scab have been available since the beginning of the 20th century, but the parasites still exist. Sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis) was eradicated from Australia in the late 1800s, before many of the more effective chemicals were available, and sheep ked is believed to also have been eradicated. Sheep scab has also been eradicated from North America. This article provides an overview of the common ectoparasites of sheep, effective products to control these parasites, and management factors that affect the success of these treatments. PMID:21215904

Plant, John W; Lewis, Christopher J



Effects of shade on welfare and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of providing shade on growth performance, welfare, and meat quality of grazing sheep under high ambient temperature. A total of 120 healthy male Ujumqin wool sheep (a local breed; BW = 18.7 ± 1.27 kg; 14 wk old) were randomly and equally divided into shaded and unshaded treatments with 3 pens per treatment. Sheep were grazed on an unshaded pastureland from 0600 to 1000 h and 1400 to 1800 h. During other times, sheep were confined in shaded or unshaded pens. Body weight was recorded on d 1 and 42 of the experiment. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. At end of the trial, sheep were blood sampled and slaughtered to collect meat samples. Respiration rate was greater (P < 0.05) in the unshaded sheep than shaded sheep on d 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the trial whereas no significant differences were found on d 7. Moreover, no differences were observed in final BW, ADG, or rectal temperature throughout the trial. The pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) and cooking loss were greater (P < 0.01) in unshaded than shaded sheep. On the contrary, lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values at 24 h postmortem were lower (P < 0.05) in unshaded versus shaded sheep. The sheep in the unshaded group had a greater (P < 0.05) cortisol concentration compared with the shaded group. Sheep in the shaded group had lower creatine kinase activity (P < 0.01) as well as observed for glucose (P < 0.05), triiodothyronine (P < 0.01), and thyroxine (P < 0.05) concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.05). Compared with the unshaded group, sheep in the shaded group had a greater lymphocytes (LYM) count (P < 0.05). In contrast, the opposite was true for neutrophils (NEU) count (P < 0.01) and NEU:LYM ratio (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the shade cloth, although not enhancing ADG, improved meat quality traits and certain stress parameters in grazing sheep reared under high ambient temperature. PMID:22871939

Liu, H W; Cao, Y; Zhou, D W



Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep from Predators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A livestock guarding dog is one that generally stays with sheep without harming them and aggressively repels predators. The dog chooses to remain with sheep because it has been reared from puppyhood with them. Its protective behaviors are largely instinct...



Effect of Intravenous Glucose Infusion on Metabolism of Portal-Drained Viscera in Sheep Fed a Cereal\\/Straw-Based Diet1r2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the effect of intrajugular infusion of glucose on whole-body glucose metabolism and the absorption of nutrients by the portal-drained viscera of four Suffolk-cross sheep, average BW 46 f: 7 kg, fed a cerealfstraw-based pelleted diet. Each sheep received by random alloca- tion 0 (control), 1.0, or 2.0 mg of BW-l.min-l for 8 h infused into the

J. Balcells; C. J. Seal; D. S. Parker



Morphological characterization of Pelibuey sheep in Colima, México.  


A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Pelibuey sheep in the state of Colima, Mexico. A total of 386 sheep were scored for 12 body measurements in addition to live weight and five racial and eight functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex on the body measurements and indices was analyzed, and morphological harmony was determined through Pearson correlation. The sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 67 % heavier than females. Females and males had a high and moderate degree of harmony in their morphological model, respectively. Pelibuey sheep were dolichocephalous, tended to be medium- to large-sized according to the thoracic index, with a convex curve rump; they were a homogeneous breed, well adapted to environmental and production conditions of the state of Colima, Mexico, and show an undefined zootechnical aptitude and therefore a great potential to be oriented towards meat or milk production through genetic selection or terminal crossbreeding systems using specialized breeds. PMID:23114577

Arredondo-Ruiz, Victalina; Macedo-Barragán, Rafael; Molina-Cárdenas, Jaime; Magaña-Álvarez, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar; García-Márquez, Luis J; Herrera-Corredor, Alejandra; Lee-Rangel, Héctor



Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

Sabol, Joe


Nutrient Density Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.




EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...


Differentiation of sexual behavior in cattle, sheep and swine.  


Gonadal steroid hormones influence an animal's sexual behavior through two primary means. During development they affect differentiation of the brain (primarily in males), and after puberty, circulating concentrations of steroids influence expression of sexual behaviors. In mammals, sexual behaviors of females are regarded as inherent (independent of steroids secreted by the developing ovary). Males, on the other hand, must undergo active differentiation that is brought about by actions of testicular steroids on the brain during discrete sensitive periods of early development. Sexual differentiation in mammals is referred to as processes of defeminization and masculinization. Defeminization is loss of behavioral traits inherent to females and occurs prenatally in sheep but postnatally in swine. Comparative data are lacking for cattle, but preliminary evidence indicates prenatal defeminization of sexual behaviors. Masculinization is acquisition of behavioral traits characteristic of males. Adult females of all three species show mounting behavior after prolonged treatment with testosterone, and in cattle and swine, there is, as yet, no strong evidence that males undergo masculinization of sexual behaviors. In sheep, limited observations are suggestive of two sensitive periods for masculinization; one prenatally and one postnatally. The earlier concept that differentiation of sexual behaviors in mammals occurs prenatally in species with a long gestation and postnatally in species with a short gestation must now be modified in view of recent findings in swine, in which defeminization occurs postnatally. Further studies will likely identify additional species differences with respect to differentiation of sexual behaviors. PMID:2670872

Ford, J J; D'Occhio, M J



Angiogenesis in male breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer is a rare but aggressive and devastating disease. This disease presents at a later stage and in a more advanced fashion than its female counterpart. The immunophenotype also appears to be distinct when compared to female breast cancer. Angiogenesis plays a permissive role in the development of a solid tumor and provides an avenue for nutrient

Evan M Frangou; Joshua Lawson; Rani Kanthan



Uterine biology in pigs and sheep  

PubMed Central

There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species.



Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis

Bashir M. Jarrar



Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L.)*  

PubMed Central

Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs.

Luedke, A. J.; Jochim, M. M.; Bowne, J. G.



Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L.).  


Five experiments indicated that the sheep ked MELOPHAGUS OVINUS (L.), can transmit bluetongue virus (BTV) in sheep. It was not determined whether these were mechanical or biological transmissions, although the results suggested mechanical transmission. Sheep keds were manually transferred from a BTV-host sheep to 18 susceptible test sheep. Of these, 10 were positive (5 with mild reactions), 6 questionable, and 2 negative for BTV. Three of the mildly reacting sheep and 3 of the questionable sheep had highly intensified reactions on challenge inoculation. Five of the positive sheep were immune on challenge inoculation. Blood from 2 positive reactors was subpassaged into susceptible sheep, which reacted with typical disease signs. PMID:4221988

Luedke, A J; Jochim, M M; Bowne, J G



Body measurements in Bergamasca sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the evolution of Bergamasca sheep breed in the last two decades body measurements recently taken were compared with the breed standard (BMST) and with those from a previous study conducted in 1984 (BM84). Height at withers (HW), height at rump (HR), depth of body (DB), width at shoulders (WS), hearth girth (HG), anterior pelvic width (APW), middle pelvic

J. Riva; R. Rizzi; S. Marelli; L. G. Cavalchini



Desulfovibrio of the sheep rumen.  

PubMed Central

A sulfate-reducing bacterium has been isolated in pure culture from sheep rumen contents. Its properties agree in all respects tested with those ascribed to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The populations observed (about 10(8)/ml) are sufficient to account for published rates of ruminal sulfide production. Images

Howard, B H; Hungate, R E



Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

Sam, Chris Lam



Multivariate characterisation of the phenotypic traits of Djallonke and Sahel sheep in Northern Ghana.  


The characterisation of the small ruminant populations in developing countries will play a major role in the maintenance of the genetic resources as the basis for future improvement in livestock production. The present study aimed at morphological characterisation of the two main breeds of sheep in Ghana by assessing variation within and between breed populations using principal component and discriminant analyses. The two breeds were the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep of both sexes and of two groups namely, young (1 year old, consisting of 74 animals) and mature sheep (? 2 years old, comprising 219 animals). The analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences in the morphological traits of the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep breeds with higher values recorded for the former. Sexual dimorphism was in favour of male animals in all the morphological traits examined. Mature animals also had comparative advantage over the young. Two principal components were extracted to discern the structure of the two genetic groups. The most discriminating traits between the two sheep breeds were rump height, height at withers, neck girth and pin-bone width. Mahalanobis distance between the two genetic groups was 5.723 (P < 0.0001). The developed discriminant functions clearly discriminated and classified the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep into their breeds of origin, thus yielding 100, 93.4 and 90.4 % accurate classification for the rams, ewes and the overall sheep population, respectively. The present approach would greatly help in establishing management and conservation policies for the sustainable production of the two Ghanaian sheep breeds. PMID:22710941

Birteeb, Peter T; Peters, Sunday Olusola; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Adeleke, Matthew Adekunle; Ozoje, Michael Ohiokhuaobo



Female desert bighorn sheep in the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Desert bighorn sheep use a lot of energy to regulate their internal temperature in the desert. During the summer the sheep eat plants and drink water every few days. In the winter, desert plants contain enough water for sheep survival.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)



75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural...and regulations establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC) program...and enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United...



Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.  


The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis. PMID:6108949

Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M



Birth sex ratios in sheep over nine lambing seasons: years 7–9 and the effects of ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth sex ratio of a commercial flock of Suffolk cross sheep, Ovis aries, was studied over nine consecutive lambing seasons. In all data from 2704 lambs were recorded and analysed. The overall (1985–1993) birth sex ratio was 49.96% male lambs. Ewes with single lambs produced significantly more males (53.04%) than ewes with triplets (45.54% male). A significant positive correlation

J. P. Kent



Seasonality of reproduction in sheep and its control by photoperiod.  


Seasonality of the reproductive cycle in sheep is a general phenomenon for mid-latitude breeds. The proximal part (breeding season) and also partially distal part (end of gestation and beginning of lactation) of this cycle is controlled by photoperiod, whatever the form of light regimens. Data are presented which indicate that male and female do not necessarily have the same photoperiodic sensitivity. Gonadal stimulation in the ram starts 1.5-2 months earlier than in the ewe under annual variations. Photoperiod controls the reproductive cycle by the intermediary of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. There are both a steroid-independent and a steroid-dependent effect of light, depending on both decreasing and increasing daylength in mid-latitudes. Data are also presented which support Bunning's hypothesis on photoperiodic time measurement in mammals. Sheep measure photoperiodic time by using a circadian rhythm of photosensitivity. Daylength is not measured by the total duration of exposure to light but by the illumination of two special set points during the day, one of them entraining the circadian rhythm of photosensitivity and the other inducing or not inducing a physiological response if it is coincident, or not coincident, with photoinducible phase of that rhythm. A photoinducible phase has been found for prolactin secretion, and perhaps also for LH secretion. Melatonin secretion is used by sheep for measuring daylength. However, that secretion disappears during two set points during the day, thus raising the possibility of using alternatively melatonin and light pulse for controlling the reproductive cycle in sheep. PMID:3077741

Ortavant, R; Bocquier, F; Pelletier, J; Ravault, J P; Thimonier, J; Volland-Nail, P



Male contraception  

PubMed Central

Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception.

Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi



[Male contraception].  


Contraception allows within a heterosexual couple to have a more fulfilling as possible sexuality while protecting against the occurrence of unintended pregnancy. In a majority of couples, contraception is assumed by women. Currently, male contraceptive methods most commonly used are the male condom and vasectomy. Many other strategies, including hormonal contraceptive regimens, have been proposed and evaluated. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the various current and future male contraceptive methods. PMID:24412108

Robin, Geoffroy; Marcelli, François; Rigot, Jean-Marc



Foetal anasarca in Awassi sheep.  


Two anasarcous foetuses of Awassi sheep are described. The foetuses were removed from the dams by caesarean section because of dystocia due to failure of cervical dilation. Uterine incision was made in situ because uteri were so distended they could not be brought out from the site of incision. Large quantities of uterine fluids and abnormal thick placentas were found. One foetus weighed about 7 kg and the other 13 kg. The foetal heads were deformed: the upper jaw was prognathic and the left ear of the small foetus was cystic. Necropsy revealed subcutaneous musculature was soft and flabby and abdominal and thoracic cavities contained serosanguinous fluid. Histopathological examination revealed that only the larger foetus had focal aggregates of basophilic nucleated red blood cells and scattered megakaryocytes in the liver. We conclude that anasarca can occur in Awassi sheep, with and without associated extramedullary haematopoiesis. PMID:9140650

Hailat, N; Lafi, S Q; al-Darraji, A; el-Maghraby, H M; al-Ani, F; Fathalla, M



Sheep feed and scrapie, France.  


Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie; Calavas, Didier



Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France  

PubMed Central

Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor.

Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie



Sheep psoroptic mange: an update.  


Psoroptic mange is one of the most severe skin conditions of sheep. This highly contagious disease is responsible for huge economical losses in many sheep-raising countries. It is also a significant welfare concern. Our understanding of the biology of Psoroptes ovis and of the host-parasite relationship during psoroptic mange made remarkable progress during the last decade. These data combined with the availability of powerful molecular tools have opened new avenues of research. Clearly, there is still a long way to go before a vaccine becomes a reality. Additionally, other diagnostic tools and control methods should be further investigated such as breeding for genetic resistance and the use of biocontrol agents. PMID:22525584

Losson, Bertrand Jacques



Physiologic and hematologic values in Nelson desert bighorn sheep.  


Physiologic and hematologic values were established for two groups of free ranging Nelson desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni). Eleven sheep (Group I) were captured with a drop net, 16 sheep (Group II) were immobilized with Etorphine introduced in projectile syringes. The mean glucose level, respiration rate and leucocyte count values for Group I sheep were more than twice those observed in Group II sheep. There were no differences between the groups in the other values. Data obtained were compared to values previously established for free ranging and captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis), California bighorn sheep (O. c. californiana) and domestic sheep (O. aries). PMID:7253095

McDonald, S E; Paul, S R; Bunch, T D



Sheep Welfare: A Future Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is every indication that animal welfare will continue to be a major issue affecting livestock farming in the future.\\u000a At the same time sheep farming is under pressure worldwide to become a lower-input farming enterprise. The drive to lower\\u000a inputs and, in particular, restrictions on labour could have important implications for animal welfare by reducing levels\\u000a of care and

A. B. Lawrence; J. Conington


Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity.

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.



Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.  


A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E



Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.  


Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n?=?12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P?sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures. The saponin (protodioscin) concentrations in the pastures varied from 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg DM in B. decumbens, from 2.8 to 9.1 g/kg DM in B. brizantha, and from 1 to 1.5 g/kg DM in A. gayanus. No saponins were found in P. maximum. It is concluded that sheep from flocks reared in pastures of B. decumbens and B. brizantha were resistant to steroidal saponin poisoning and showed similar weight gains to those of sheep grazing in other tropical pastures. PMID:24557590

Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; de Castro, Márcio Botelho



Biological soil nutrient system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A biological soil nutrient system that combines beneficial soil fungi and bacteria in a growth promoting nutrient medium, embedded in an inorganic porous ceramic particle for direct delivery during soil aerification to the rhizosphere of adventitious plants, including sports turf, landscape and agricultural applications.



Clinical and pathological aspects of experimental oleander (Nerium oleander) toxicosis in sheep.  


Dried Nerium oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep. Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria and polakiuria. Electrocardiography revealed bradycardia, atrio-ventricular blocks, depression of S-T segments, ventricular premature beats and tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Five sheep died within 4-12 h and one survived. At necropsy there were varying degrees of haemorrhages in different organs and gastroenteritis. Histopathological examination of tissue sections revealed myocardial degeneration and necrosis, degeneration and focal necrosis of hepatocytes, necrosis of tubular epithelium in kidneys, oedema in the lungs, and ischemic changes in the cerebrum. PMID:15563108

Aslani, M R; Movassaghi, A R; Mohri, M; Abbasian, A; Zarehpour, M



Effects of protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 days of age on their subsequent growth, blood constituents, and carcass compositions.  


The effects of protein source and amino acid (AA) and AME levels in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age on subsequent growth and blood and carcass traits were investigated in the current study. Fourteen Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to each of 80 floor pens arranged in a randomized complete block design. Each diet contained 1 of 2 dietary protein sources (high inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles or high inclusion of meat and bone meal), 1 of 2 AA densities (moderate or 10% higher), and 1 of 2 AME densities (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg). Experimental diets were fed from 8 to 21 d of age, and common diets from 1 to 7 and 21 to 55 d of age. The higher AME density in high inclusion of meat and bone meal diets increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels on d 20. The dietary inclusion of high inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles or lower levels of AA increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on d 20. Feeding the high-AA-density diet decreased feed intake without affecting BW gain, which resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). A high-AME-density diet lowered feed intake but increased BW gain, which resulted in a lower FCR from 8 to 21 d of age. Feed intake, BW gain, FCR from 21 to 54 d of age, and carcass weight on 42 and 55 d of age were not affected by treatments from 8 to 21 d of age. However, early dietary manipulation from 8 to 21 d of age affected fat and meat yield at 42 and 55 d of age. Moreover, a high-AME diet decreased feed cost per carcass weight gain from 8 to 55 d of age. In conclusion, high AA or AME densities during the grower phase, from d 8 to 21 of age, may improve growth during the grower feeding phase, but may also affect meat yield during the latter grow-out phases. Furthermore, high-AME diets from 8 to 21 d of age may save on feed costs for meat production. PMID:24879696

Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W



Sheep as an important source of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in Turkey.  


Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a globally important foodborne pathogen and has been mainly associated with cattle as the reservoir. However, accumulating data shows the importance of sheep as an E. coli O157:H7 vehicle. The presence of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in recto-anal mucosal swap and carcass sponge samples of 100 sheep brought to the slaughterhouse in Kirikkale were analyzed over a year. Molecular characteristics (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3, espA, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?1, eae-?2/?, stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f, stx2g, blaampC, tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), sul1, sul2, floR, cmlA, strA, strB and aadA) of 79 isolates were determined and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 different antibiotics were investigated. E. coli O157/O157:H7 was found in 18% of sheep included in the study and was more prevalent in yearlings than lambs and mature sheep, and male than female sheep, though none of the categories (season, sex or age range) had significant effect on prevalence. Furthermore, Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 was determined in 2% and 8% of sheep feces and carcasses, respectively. Additionally, lpfA1-3 and eae-?1 were detected in all isolates. None of the isolates showed resistance against investigated antibiotics, even though 4 sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157 isolates were positive for tet(A), sul1 and aadA. This is the first study in Turkey that reveals the potential public health risk due to the contamination of sheep carcasses with potentially highly pathogenic STEC O157:H7 strains. PMID:25042529

Gencay, Yilmaz Emre



Clinical and pathological effects of Calotropis procera exposure in sheep and rats.  


This study aimed to describe the toxic effects resulting from the administration of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton latex to rats and C. procera leaves to sheep. We studied male sheep that received C. procera leaves by gavage. Twenty male rats were separated into 5 groups and were subjected to an intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. All rats were treated with the highest dose, but none of the rats from the other groups, died. The histological lesions were restricted to rats dosed with 1.0 ml of latex/kg body weight and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. Subsequently, three groups of two sheep were treated with (1) a single dose of 30 g/kg, (2) a single dose of 60 g/kg or (3) 60 g/kg per day for 10 consecutive days. Exposure to the C. procera leaves was responsible for tachycardia and transitory cardiac arrhythmias in sheep from all groups. Gross pathological analysis of sheep dosed with 60 g/kg per day for 10 days revealed mild ascites, exudates on the trachea, pulmonary edema, mild hemorrhage in the liver, hydropericardium, flaccid heart, ulcers on the abomasum and kidneys presenting pale juxtamedullary cortex. The histological findings of the rat and sheep studies were similar and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that C. procera is a cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic plant. PMID:21087619

de Lima, Joseney Maia; de Freitas, Francisco Joelson Correia; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson Lima; Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Batista, Jael Soares; Soto-Blanco, Benito



QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep.

Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W



Prevalence of Theileria spp. infection in sheep in South Khorasan province, Iran.  


The prevalence of Theileria spp. infection was studied in sheep in the South Khorasan province in Iran from 2003 to 2004. A total of 840 sheep from 34 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of Theileria spp. in the appropriate blood smears and any tick species on the body of the animals. In this study, 11.9% of sheep were infected with Theileria spp., with a parasitemia of 0.02-0.1%. Differences in the infection rates were statistically significant among different areas of the South Khorasan province. The highest prevalence was found in the Ferdows area (31.4%) and the lowest rate in the Nehbandan area (0.7%). The prevalence of Theileria spp. infection in males and females and between different age groups of sheep were not statistically significant. Seasonally, the prevalence of Theileria spp. infection in sheep reached its highest level in June (26.3%), whereas it decreased in July and August. It was found that 50.5% of the animals harbored Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 48.5% harboured Hyalomma anatolicum and 0.89% harboured Hyalomma dromedari. PMID:16730905

Razmi, G R; Eshrati, H; Rashtibaf, M



Bundles of Primary Wool Follicles in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardy and Lyne1 have shown that bundles of secondary (S) wool follicles are formed by branching in the merino foetus. The same method of bundle formation is also known to occur in karakul sheep2. Bundles of S follicles, with common openings at the skin surface, were found in the adults of many breeds of sheep examined by Spöttel and Tänzer3,

A. G. Lyne



Investigations Relating to Fat-Tail Sheep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The only Fat-tail type of sheep known to be present in the U.S. is the Karakul. In 1979 a small number of Karakul sheep were obtained and brought to the experimental flock maintained at San Angelo, Texas. The animals were obtained from range flocks in New...

M. Shelton R. Lewis T. Willingham G. C. Smith J. W. Savell



Sheep Behaviour, Needs, Housing and Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sheep (Ovis aries) are an attractive animal for scientific procedures; for medical, veterinary and fundamental biological research. They are docile, rarely show aggression, have a (relatively) short flight distance and are gregarious. In the UK, of 3 million animal scientific procedures in 2006, over 36,000 involved sheep. Small as a proportion perhaps, but exceeded only by the number involving


Male Sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of pollen fertility is central to the production of F1-hybrid seed in self-pollinating crops, and is potentially\\u000a applicable to the containment of transgenes deployed in crop plants. Pollen sterility can be achieved through cytoplasmic\\u000a male sterility (CMS) encoded by the plant mitochondrial genome, or through genic male sterility encoded by the nuclear genome.\\u000a Both routes have been exploited

C. D. Chase; A. Ribarits; E. Heberle-Bors


Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection.



The use of a concentrate containing Meskit ( Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial using twenty-four ten-month old Omani native male sheep (BW 31.4±1.10kg) was carried out to evaluate the use of a local by-product based concentrate to replace a commercial concentrate. Sheep were divided into three groups of eight animals each. One group was fed a concentrate pelleted feed made mainly from local by-products including Prosopis pods, wheat bran, date

Osman Mahgoub; Isam T. Kadim; Eugene H. Johnson; A. Srikandakumar; Naseeb M. Al-Saqri; Abdullah S. Al-Abri; Andrew Ritchie



Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  


A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S



Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth âÃÂàthe process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.




EPA Science Inventory

Determining the effects of morphological conditions, turbidity and watershed land use / land cover patterns on nutrient levels in Central Plains lakes and reservoirs. The study involves intensive field monitoring for the calibration and verification of basin and watershed models...


21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia.  


A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1%) of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%), Melophagus ovinus (16.4%), Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%), Linognathus africanus (1.2%), Linognathus ovillus (0.3%), Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%), Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%), Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (1.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%), Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%). Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus in the highland (31.7%) than in both the lowland (0%) and midland (1.9%) was observed. The risk of tick infestation in the lowland and midland was 9.883 times and 13.988 times higher than the risk in the highland, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of Ctenocephalides species was encountered in both the lowland (OR = 4.738, p = 0.011) and midland (OR = 8.078, p = 0.000) than in the highland agro-ecological zone. However, a significant difference (p = 0.191) amongst agro-ecological zones was not found for the prevalence of Linognathus and Sarcoptes species. Statistically significant variation (p > 0.05) was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006) higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country. PMID:23327319

Kumsa, Bersissa; Beyecha, Kebede; Geloye, Mesula



Effects of lucerne particle size and source of dietary carbohydrates on in situ degradation and ruminal variables in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of altering forage particle size and source of rapidly degradable carbohydrates on in situ degradation and ruminal variables were studied in four Iranian male sheep. The study was designed as a Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including two carbohydrate sources (pel - leted beet pulp vs. maize- and barley-based concentrate) and two

A. Asadi Alamouti; G. R. Ghorbani; M. Alikhani; H. R. Rahmani; A. Teimouri Yansari; K. H. Südekum



Microsoft Academic Search

(WITHFIVEFIGURES) Although thequalitative needsofplants forvarious mineral nutrients havebeenrecognized foroveracentury, nomethod hasbeenaccepted for measuring thequantitative mineral nutrient requirements ofplants. Herein isdeveloped arelationship between thepercentage content ofanutrient in aplant andthesufficiency ofthenutrient forgrowth. Reviewofliterature andanalysis ofprevious data LIEBIG (14)considered thepercentage nutrient content ofplants ascon- stant andthenutrient composition, therefore, asrepresenting their nutrient needs.Heproposed returning tothesoil inthefertilizer allofthe\\



Lower maternal body condition during pregnancy affects skeletal muscle structure and glut-4 protein levels but not glucose tolerance in mature adult sheep.  


Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm(2), P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm(2), P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

Costello, Paula M; Hollis, Lisa J; Cripps, Roselle L; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A; Ozanne, Susan E; Green, Lucy R



The effect of high grain versus all forage rations on plasma ghrelin level in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghrelin, produced mainly in abomasum of ruminants, is a peptide with roles in the regulation of feeding. The present study\\u000a assessed the alterations of plasma ghrelin in sheep fed with all forage or high-grain rations and the probable effects of\\u000a altered ghrelin secretion on feed intake in animals with acidic rumen. Eight Karakul male lambs were divided into the control

Javad Sajedianfard; Mehdi Mohebbi-Fani; Saeed Nazifi


Sex steroid modulation of cortisol secretion in sheep.  


There is strong evidence that the gonads modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To investigate these sex differences at the adrenal glands of sheep we compared the cortisol response to ACTH (experiment 1) and measured the relative expression of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERS1), androgen receptor (AR), melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) and steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) mRNA in adrenal glands (experiment 2) of gonadectomised rams and ewes either with or without sex steroid replacement. In experiment 1 six castrated adult rams and four ovariectomised adult ewes were used in two ACTH trials. On each trial blood samples were taken every 15 min for 4 h through an indwelling jugular catheter and each animal received 0.5 mg of an ACTH analogue i.v., immediately after the sample at 1 h from the beginning of the trial. Four days after the first trial the males received 100 mg of Testosterone Cyclopentilpropionate (TC) i.m. and the females received 2.5 mg of Oestradiol Benzoate (EB) i.m. At 72 h after TC or EB administration the second trial was performed. In experiment 2 the adrenal glands were obtained from gonadectomised adult rams (n=8) and adult ewes (n=8). Four rams received 100 mg of TC i.m. and four females received 0.5 mg of EB i.m. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to steroid replacement and the animals were thereafter slaughtered. Cortisol, testosterone and 17?-oestradiol were determined by radioimmunoanalysis. The transcripts of ERS1, AR, MC2R and STAR were determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR in adrenal tissue. Cortisol secretion was higher in female sheep than in male sheep, and higher in EB-treated than non-treated ewes. No difference in cortisol secretion was observed between TC-treated and non-treated rams. Gonadectomised rams treated with TC presented greater AR mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than males without the steroid replacement. Gonadectomised ewes treated with EB tended to present lower AR mRNA than the ones without steroid replacement. Gonadectomised rams with TC also had greater AR mRNA, ERS1 mRNA and MC2R mRNA expression than ewes treated with EB. The relative amount of STAR transcript was not different among the different groups. The results confirm sex differences in ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in sheep, as well as in the expression of the receptor proteins for both 17?-oestradiol and testosterone in the sheep adrenal gland. However, the underlying mechanisms for sex steroid modulation remain unresolved. PMID:24703387

van Lier, E; Carriquiry, M; Meikle, A



GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.  


GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E



Genetic relationships among Spanish sheep using microsatellites.  


Five indigenous Spanish breeds of sheep, Churra, Latxa, Manchega, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino, with Awassi sheep as a reference breed were genotyped for 19 DNA microsatellites. Allele frequencies and mean heterozygosities revealed the greatest genetic variation in Merino sheep and the lowest in Awassis. Differences in variability were not great in the other breeds studied. The dendrograms obtained based on genetic distances showed a large differentiation between Awassi sheep and the Spanish breeds, as was to be expected from their distinct genetic origin. Merinos appeared separated from the other four breeds, of which, according to a classification based on the fleece characteristics, Churra and Latxa belong to the churro type and Manchega and Rasa-Aragonesa to the so called entrefino type, though no clear separation was evident between the two types. These results suggest that morphological data alone are insufficient for determining relationships between breeds and that studies involving genetic markers may be of great assistance. PMID:9883504

Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; San Primitivo, F



Art feature for 2008: electric sheep.  


The cover designs are still images from the Electric Sheep, a distributed screen-saver that harnesses idle computers into a render farm with the purpose of animating and evolving artificial life-forms. The votes of the audience of 50,000 users form the basis for the fitness function for a genetic algorithm on a space of abstract animations, each known as a "sheep". Users also may design sheep by hand for inclusion in the gene pool, so crowd-sourcing, or intelligent design, collaborates and competes with evolution. The images were drawn with the Fractal Flame algorithm, a generalization and refinement of Iterated Function Systems. Essentially the images are interference patterns between groups of nonlinear geometric transformations of the plane. The hundreds of floating-point parameters of these transformations comprise the genome of each sheep. This nonlinear map from genome to image defines a visual language, whose search and incantation brings the machine to life. PMID:18157931

Draves, Scott



Generalized aspergillosis in dairy sheep.  


Two cases of systemic aspergillosis are described in dairy sheep from a flock in which fungal mastitis appeared subsequent to the antibiotic treatment of animals before parturition. Lesions characterized by necrosis and a pyogranulomatous exudate were observed in the mammary glands, supramammary and mediastinal lymph nodes, kidneys, lung, liver, heart, forestomachs and brain. The intense vasculitis with thrombosis observed in various organs, but especially in the mammary glands, suggested a haematogenous dissemination of the infection from this organ. The aetiological diagnosis was accomplished by the immunohistochemical staining of the fungal structures seen in the histological sections by the specific Aspergillus monoclonal antibody Mab-WF-AF-1 together with the isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus in pure culture from affected tissues. PMID:10605371

Pérez, V; Corpa, J M; Gar?ia Marín, J F; Adúriz, J J; Jensen, H E



Pulmonary myxoma in a sheep.  


Pulmonary myxomas are rare in domestic animals and only two cases have been reported previously in sheep. An 8 x 6 x 4 cm mass was detected in the diaphragmatic lobe of the right lung of a 4-year-old Persian Karakul ewe. The mass was well demarcated, multilobulated, soft in consistency and white in colour. The cut surface exuded a mucoid substance and a distinct capsule was evident. Microscopically, the tumour comprised a hypocellular myxomatous matrix, rich in acid mucopolysaccharides, with scattered spindle-shaped or stellate cells. These cells had uniform, oval-shaped nuclei without visible nucleoli and expressed vimentin and S100 on immunohistochemical examination. These gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features are characteristics of myxoma. PMID:19406435

Oryan, A; Ahmadi, N; Ghane, M; Daneshbod, Y



Acute urea toxicity in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-seven sheep were assigned to three groups in order to study acute urea toxicity. Groups I, II and III were dosed with 0.5, 0.6 annd 0.75 g/kg of urea, respectively. The mean survival times were 165, 109 and 60 minutes, respectively. The following clinical signs such as pronounced muscle fasciculation, trembling, grinding teeth, ataxia, lateral recumbency, bloating, regurgitation, hyperesthesia, mydriasis and convulsions were observed. Anuria and lack of salivation were also present. The primary cause of death in this study was due to respiratory arrest and not cardiovascular collapse. Plasma examinations showed a marked increase in glucose, ammonia and urea levels but no change in ketone body concentration.

Edjtehadi, M; Szabuniewicz, M; Emmanuel, B



Pathology of GM2 gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep.  


The G(M2) gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for the enzyme hexosaminidase or the G(M2) activator protein. Four Jacob sheep from the same farm were examined over a 3-year period for a progressive neurologic disease. Two lambs were 6-month-old intact males and 2 were 8-month-old females. Clinical findings included ataxia in all 4 limbs, proprioceptive deficits, and cortical blindness. At necropsy, the nervous system appeared grossly normal. Histologically, most neurons within the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia were enlarged, and the cytoplasm was distended by foamy to granular material that stained positively with Luxol fast blue and Sudan black B stains. Other neuropathologic findings included widespread astrocytosis, microgliosis, and scattered spheroids. Electron microscopy revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the cytoplasm of neurons. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of G(M2) gangliosidosis. This form of G(M2) gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep is very similar to human Tay-Sachs disease and is potentially a useful animal model. PMID:21123862

Porter, B F; Lewis, B C; Edwards, J F; Alroy, J; Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Bretzlaff, K N; Kolodny, E H



Nutrient intakes and blood pressure in normotensive males.  


The association of dietary intakes with blood pressure levels was examined in a cross-sectional sample of 805 men aged 40-69 years free from clinical hypertension, coronary heart disease or cancer. After controlling for age, body habitus, and alcohol consumption, blood pressure levels were inversely associated with the intake of fruit (r = -0.09, p less than 0.05, for both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure) and of fruit fibre (r = -0.07, p = 0.05 for SBP; r = -0.07, p = 0.07 for DBP). This association was independent of the intake of minerals and fibre from other sources. Calcium and magnesium intake were not significantly associated with blood pressure levels, but our results are statistically compatible with the modest inverse associations previously reported. These cross-sectional data suggest that some component of fruit has a blood pressure lowering effect. PMID:1666065

Ascherio, A; Stampfer, M J; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; McKinlay, J



Male Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk.

Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep



Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.  


Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex ?-subunit with human Hex ?-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H



Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)



Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...



EPA Science Inventory

This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...


Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra



Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8?months old sheep, weighing on average 30?kg, from which 15?mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8?days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p?sheep slightly altered the physiological, biochemical and haematological responses of sheep, indicating that the technique proposed is safe and can be applied in the clinical practice of this species. The 8 d period was not sufficient for complete recovery of the haematological parameters after blood collection.



Nutrient formulations for disease reduction  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The instant invention provides a combination of multiple nutrients useful to reduce colon rectal cancer in a mannalian or human subject. Further, the combination provides synergistic ratios of the useful nutrients.



Nutrients from Tile Drainage Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tile drainage systems of the San Joaquin Valley were monitored for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). The objectives were to determine: (1) the average nutrient concentrations in tile drainage, (2) the magnitudes of annual, areal and seasonal variabilit...

W. R. Gianelli



Variation in fleece characteristics of Awassi sheep at different ages.  


Fleece characteristics have economic significance in sheep. When assessing fiber characteristics, the importance of sex, age of sheep and the body location of the sample taken are important considerations. Triplicate fleece samples were obtained from the shoulder, right mid-side and hip of 12 male and 17 female lambs (6-10 months), 62 yearling ewes (14-20 months) and 235 mature ewes (28-84 months) by hand shearing. The greasy fleece weight, staple length, fiber length and fiber diameter measures were 2.1+/-0.03kg, 14+/-0.18cm, 24+/-0.26cm and 36+/-0.33&mgr;m, respectively. Correspondingly, the medullated fibers, inner coat, outer coat and kemp fibers were 11.6+/-0.33, 59.7+/-0.29, 34.0+/-0.23 and 6.3+/-0.16%, respectively. Age had a significant influence on body weight and greasy fleece weight, but male and females were similar. Body location of the sample had a significant effect on the fiber diameter, and percentages of medullated fibers, kemp fibers, and inner coat fibers. The finest fibers and a lower percentage of medullated fibers were found on the shoulder and mid-side, whereas, the percentage of inner coat fibers was highest on the hip. Although there was no significant interaction between body location and age-sex groups for fiber characteristics, it was important for staple and fiber length (P<0.05). The wide variation in fiber diameter and percentage of medullated fibers suggest potential for improvement of economical traits. PMID:11445417

Tabbaa, M J.; Al-Azzawi, W A.; Campbell, D



The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield



[Male contraception].  


Various methods of contraception in men are reviewed. One of the methods of contraception is the use of hormonal agents (estrogens, androgens, antiandrogens, progestins, or their combinations), which block spermatogenesis. More advantageous is the use of nonhormonal agents (alpha-chlorhydrine, 6-chloro-6-deoxyglucose, salsosulfapyridine), which act on the process of sperm maturation in the epididymis. Plant extracts show marked contraceptive activity in men. The preparation gossypol isolated from cotton seeds and roots was found to inhibit male fertility. Various isomers of gossypol decreased sperm mobility by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Major side-effect of gossypol was hepatotoxicity. Glycosides isolated from the herb Tripterigium Wilfordii (TW) were found to have the antifertility activity. The antifertility effect of TW glycosides was dose- dependent: large doses were shown to inhibit spermatogenesis, while small doses were found to decrease sperm motility and viability. TW glycosides were free of toxic side-effects. Another approach to regulation of male fertility is the use of surgical methods of contraception including vasectomy. Development of less invasive and reversible surgical methods showed effectiveness of subcutaneous occlusion of vas deferens with various chemical substances (calcium chloride, p-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). The best results were achieved with high molecular weight medical polyurethane. PMID:2042728

Khomasuridze, A G; Marshaniia, Z S



Analysis of genetic effects on nutrient quality traits in indica rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine cytoplasmic male-sterile lines and five restorer lines were used in an incomplete diallel cross to analyze seed effects, cytoplasmic effects, and maternal gene effects on nutrient quality traits of indica rice (Oryza sauva L.). The results indicated that nutrient quality traits were controlled by cytoplasmic and maternal effects as well as by seed direct effects. Maternal effects for lysine

C. H. Shi; J. M. Xue; Y. G. Yu; X. E. Yang; J. Zhu



Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine duode- nal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet

R. L. Atkinson; E. J. Scholljegerdes; S. L. Lake; V. Nayigihugu; B. W. Hess



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).  


Serum samples from 697 Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from North America were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol and formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 25 of 697 (3.6%) sheep in titers of 1:25 (8 sheep), 1:50 (4 sheep), 1:100 (7 sheep), 1:200 (1 sheep), 1:400 (1 sheep), 1:800 (1 sheep), and 1:1,600 (3 sheep). This is the first record of T. gondii exposure in bighorn sheep. PMID:10864265

Dubey, J P; Foreyt, W J



Molecular Diversity of Rumen Methanogens from Sheep in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and

Andre ´-Denis G. Wright; Andrew J. Williams; Barbara Winder; Claus T. Christophersen; Sharon L. Rodgers; Kellie D. Smith



Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep in Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 771 regularly slaughtered Sardinian breed sheep, 580 (75%) were found infected with Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. Seventy-nine sheep (10.3%) had at least 1 fertile cyst. The prevalence of sheep infected with purulent\\/caseous cysts, calcified cysts and sterile cysts was 13, 59 and 28%, respectively. The age of sheep was positively associated with the probability of infection that increased 1.15

A. Scala; G. Garippa; A. Varcasia; V. M. Tranquillo; C. Genchi



Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.


Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition\\u000a relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic\\u000a studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases\\u000a such as coronary heart disease,

Regina C. Casper



Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada  

PubMed Central

A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.

McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.



Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare.



Male hypogonadism.  


Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

Basaria, Shehzad



Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...


USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  


... to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods ... program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville ...


Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Myopathy of dogs resembling white muscle disease of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThe occurrence of selenium-responsive myopathies in sheep, cattle, pigs, horses, and poultry in New Zealand has been reviewed by Hartley and Grant (1961). The present paper records a case of severe acute polymyopathy in a sheep dog and congenital myopathy in two litters of sheep dog pups, which resembled white muscle disease of hoggets and congenital white muscle disease of

B. W. Manktelow



Goat and sheep milk products in the United States (USA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat and sheep milk represent only about 0.08% of the total annual milk production in the USA. Currently about 24% of the goat milk is used for fluid consumption. Approximately 75% of goat milk and 95% of the sheep milk produced is used in the production of cheeses. Predictive cheese yield formulas have been developed for both goat and sheep

F. X. Milani; W. L. Wendorff


9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...



9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...



9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...



9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...



A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep.  


The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 10(3)TCID(50) each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV-Sungri/96 strain) were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of four weeks post immunization (pi) and two week post challenge (pc). Specific antibodies directed to sheep pox virus could be demonstrated by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). Competitive ELISA and SNT were used for demonstration of antibodies to PPR virus. All the immunized animals resisted challenge with virulent SPV or PPRV on day 30pi, while control animals developed characteristic signs of disease. Specific virus could be detected in the unvaccinated control animals after challenge but not from any of the immunized sheep. Combined vaccine was found to be safe and potent as evident from sero conversion as well as challenge studies in sheep. This indicates that component vaccines did not interfere each other and can be used in target population for economic vaccination strategies. PMID:19428860

Chaudhary, S S; Pandey, K D; Singh, R P; Verma, P C; Gupta, P K



Tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed as fiber source in spineless cactus diets for sheep.  


The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of three different sources of fiber (tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed) in spineless cactus diets for sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one sheep in finishing phase with indeterminate breed, non-castrated, and with initial weight of 18.90 ± 1.07 kg were randomly distributed to individual stalls where they were confined for the duration of the experiment. The intakes of dry and organic matter, total carbohydrates, and total digestive nutrients were not influenced (P > 0.10) by the different fiber sources (1.10, 0.97, 0.73, and 0.80 kg/day, respectively). However, sheep which received the whole cottonseed diet were characterized by a lower (P < 0.10) intake of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and greater (P < 0.10) intake of ether extract (0.11, 0.29, and 0.048 kg/day, respectively). The different sources of fiber resulted in similar times spent feeding (P > 0.10), although the rumination time was greater for tifton hay (P < 0.10) (429.05 min/day). The digestibility coefficient of dry and organic matter differed between the treatments (P < 0.10), with the soybean hull diet showing a higher level of digestion (83.23 and 86.72 %, respectively). The whole cottonseed diet gave the smallest digestibility coefficient of crude protein (68.95 %) and greatest for ether extract (85.94 %). The daily weight gain of animals fed on whole cottonseed was significantly lower (P < 0.10). On the basis of these findings, we recommend the use of tifton hay or soybean hulls as important additional source of fiber in forage spineless cactus diets for sheep in finishing phase. PMID:22618190

de Miranda Costa, Suellen Brandão; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Pessoa, Ricardo A Silva; Batista, Angela Maria Vieira; Ramos, Alenice Ozino; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; dos Santos Gomes, Luiz Henrique



Microbiological status of Australian sheep meat.  


Two studies were undertaken to determine the microbiological status of sheep carcass meat and frozen, bulk-packed sheep meat produced in Australia. Samples were collected from 470 sheep carcasses and 415 cartons of frozen sheep trimmings over a period of approximately 12 months. Samples were collected from plants processing sheep carcasses for domestic or export markets. On carcasses, where bacterial counts were obtained, the mean of the log10 aerobic plate count (APC) was 3.92/cm2, the geometric mean of the most probable number (MPN) per square centimeter of Escherichia coli (biotype I) was 23, and the geometric mean of the coliform count was 38 MPN per cm2. A high percentage (75%) of samples was positive for E. coli (biotype I), 81% were positive for coliforms, 5.74% were positive for Salmonella spp., and 1.29% were positive for Campylobacter. Bacterial counts were higher on carcasses chilled over a weekend than on carcasses chilled for 24 h. The total number of bacteria on carcasses processed for domestic markets was similar to that on carcasses processed for export markets. E. coli O157 was not isolated from any of the 465 samples tested. Of the frozen export samples that tested positive, the mean of the log10 APC was 3.47/g, the geometric mean of the E. coli (biotype I) count was 9 MPN per g, and the geometric mean of the coliform count was 19 MPN per g. Of the frozen export samples tested, 48% were positive for E. coli (biotype I), 58% were positive for coliforms, and 6.5% were positive for Salmonella spp. E. coli O157 was recovered from 1 of 343 frozen sheep meat samples tested (0.29%). Bacterial counts were higher on samples of domestic product than on samples of export product. Results from both surveys are compared with data from similar studies conducted in other countries. PMID:10419211

Vanderlinde, P B; Shay, B; Murray, J



Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials  

PubMed Central

Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB) of the indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) internal markers. The study used eight Santa Inês castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg) distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg) distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 m2 individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage), corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets) fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05), indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of ?9.12% (p<0.05) in the sheep evaluation and ?3.02% (p<0.05) in the goat evaluation.

de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Garcia, Rasmo; Pires, Aureliano Jose Vieira; Silva, Roberio Rodrigues; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira



Male Pattern Alopecia  


newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss, Male Pattern Baldness (Male Pattern Alopecia) Information for adults A A A This man has worsening male-pattern hair loss resulting from the medication Tenormin. Overview Male pattern ...


Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.  


Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed



Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts



Effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements to teff straw given to Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using 102 male Ethiopian highland sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented with graded levels (15, 30, 45, 60% of ration dry matter intake)

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. Van Bruchem



Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.  


The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations. PMID:24690757

Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M



Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic




Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6–8months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was

Paola A. Torres; Bai Jin Zeng; Brian F. Porter; Joseph Alroy; Fred Horak; Joan Horak; Edwin H. Kolodny



Successful direct transfer of vitrified sheep embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a simple cryopreservation method, adapted to direct transfer of thawed embryos may help to reduce the costs of embryo transfer in sheep and increase the use of this technique genetic improvement of this species. Two experiments were made to test a vitrification method that is easy to apply in field conditions. All embryos were collected at Day

G. Baril; A. L. Traldi; Y. Cognié; B. Leboeuf; J. F. Beckers; P. Mermillod



Myiasis in sheep in The Netherlands.  


In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, 225 rams, 3393 ewe- and 3339 ram lambs. On 86 (52.4%) of the farms 349 (2.9%) of all sheep and/or lambs contracted myiasis, of which two died. Myiasis was seen significantly more frequently on farms with over 25 ewes compared to smaller farms. Cases of myiasis were detected from April to September, with a peak (47.1%) in August. Occurrence of myiasis was most frequently associated with hot and humid weather and was mainly observed (69.1%) in the area around the tail.Ewes and ewe lambs had significantly more myiasis when compared with rams and ram lambs. There was no relationship with tail docking, with breed, with the time of shearing, with the kind of soil (clay, sand, etc.), with the environment (bush, trees, water, etc.), with the type of treatment (pour on, dipping, spraying), the used insecticides (synthetic pyrethroïds, diazinon, cyromazin, etc.), the number of preventive treatments, the time of treatment or the number of observations on the herd (once a day, once a week, etc.). PMID:12079741

Snoep, J J; Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Roeters, N; Elbers, A R W; Scholten, H W; Borgsteede, F H M



Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy in Wiltshire sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the nature of a neurological disease in Wiltshire sheep.METHODS: Three affected lambs were examined, humanely killed and necropsied. Selected neurological tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy.RESULTS: Primary neurological lesions were confined to the cerebellum and were characterised by loss of Purkinje cells and the presence of large hypertrophied dendrites of surviving Purkinje cells. These contained

AC Johnstone; CB Johnson; KE Malcolm



Black sheep and walls of silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the frequently observed phenomenon that (i) some members of a team (“black sheep”) exhibit behavior disliked by other (honest) team members, who (ii) nevertheless refrain from reporting such misbehavior to the authorities (they set up a “wall of silence”). Much cited examples include hospitals and police departments. In this paper, these features arise in equilibrium.

Gerd Muehlheusser; Andreas Roider



Isolation of Bartonella sp. from Sheep Blood  

PubMed Central

A Bartonella sp. was isolated from sheep blood. Bacterial identification was conducted by using electron microscopy and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, citrate synthase, riboflavin synthase, and RNAase P genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ovine Bartonella infection.

Kania, Stephen A.



Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep.  


Mulesing is traditionally performed on approximately 80% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia. Mulesing produces a stress response that persists for 24 to 48 hours. Behavioural changes indicative of pain and discomfort resolve within 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Reductions in weight gain may persist for 14 days. The acute stress response to mulesing has been shown to be similar to that produced by shearing, castration and mild flystrike, but mulesing has a longer duration of response (24 to 48 hours) than shearing (1 hour) or knife castration (8 to 24 hours), whereas flystrike response persists for the duration of infection. Theoretically, if mulesing were not used, with Merino sheep of existing genetics, increased chemical use and flock inspections could keep flystrike rates to approximately equivalent to present levels in some production systems. Increased handling events for chemical preventative application would represent a mild stressor for sheep, but cumulatively not more than that of mulesing. If producers were able and prepared to sufficiently increase resources into alternative anti-flystrike methods, then the welfare of Merino sheep would probably be equivalent or better to that of today. If constraints such as property size or finances dictate a sub-optimal level of flystrike prevention and treatment, then animal welfare will unquestionably be worse. The result of that equation would depend on individual flock managers, the physical characteristics of their production system, the profitability of their business, and seasonal variations in flystrike risk. It is likely that there would be some occasions when flystrike would increase. This highlights the need for alternative strategies, such as genetic selection, to reduce the susceptibility of Australian Merino sheep to flystrike. PMID:17359305

Lee, C; Fisher, A D



Successful vitrification of day-6 sheep embryos.  


The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate cryopreservation of day-6 sheep embryos by vitrification methods in which the preliminary procedures can be performed at room temperature using VS1 (5.5 mol ethylene glycol l-1 and 2.5 mol glycerol l-1), VS11 (6.0 mol ethylene glycol l-1 and 1.8 mol glycerol l-1) and VS14 (5.5 mol ethylene glycol l-1 and 1.0 mol sucrose l-1). None of the day-6 sheep embryos vitrified with VS1 survived. Day-6 sheep embryos with the exception of blastocysts were vitrified with VS11 with no loss of viability in vitro. The viability of transferred day-6 embryos vitrified with VS11 was however extremely poor. Osmotic damage was avoided by initially exposing the embryos to one of four dilutions (20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) of VS11 for 5 min at 25 degrees C and then vitrifying with the undiluted VS11. The highest survival (88.2%) in vitro was obtained when embryos were exposed to 30% VS11 before vitrification with the undiluted VS11. Survival of transferred embryos exposed to 30% VS11 and then vitrified with undiluted VS11 was 55% (16 of 29) for morulae and 62% (18 of 29) for blastocysts. The pregnancy rate for recipients that received two vitrified sheep embryos of these developmental stages per ewe was 79% (22 of 28). In a small study performed with VS14 the survival of day-6 sheep embryos vitrified with VS14 (in one-step) was 100% in vitro and 50% after transfer. PMID:8283454

Ali, J; Shelton, J N



Chemical Composition and Meat Quality Attributes of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (3.77°C vs 3.15°C) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa.

Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.



Effect of Partial Replacement of Concentrates with Sugar Beet Pulp on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Energy Utilization of Growing Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve five months old (Ossimi X Rahmani) male lambs weighing 20.80 + 2.60 kg were used to evaluate the effect of feeding ration containing 50% (w\\/w) feed sugar beet pulp to replace the common concentrate feed mixture (CFM) on carcass traits, body composition and utilization efficiency of metabolizable energy by growing Egyptian sheep. Four lambs randomly chosen were slaughtered at



Molecular Diversity of Rumen Methanogens from Sheep in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 65 phylotypes whose sequences (1,260 bp) were similar to those of cultivated methanogens belonging to the order Methanobacteriales. Pasture-grazed sheep had more methanogen diversity than sheep fed either the oaten hay or lucerne hay diet. Methanobrevibacter strains SM9, M6, and NT7 accounted for over 90% of the total number of clones identified. M6 was more prevalent in grazing sheep, and SM9, despite being found in 16 of the 17 sheep, was more prevalent in sheep fed the lucerne-based diet. Five new species were identified. Two of these species exhibited very little sequence similarity to any cultivated methanogens and were found eight times in two of the six sheep that were grazing pasture. These unique sequences appear to represent a novel group of rumen archaea that are atypical for the rumen environment.

Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Williams, Andrew J.; Winder, Barbara; Christophersen, Claus T.; Rodgers, Sharon L.; Smith, Kellie D.



Skin transcriptome profiles associated with coat color in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Previous molecular genetic studies of physiology and pigmentation of sheep skin have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog global gene expression profiles in skin of sheep with white versus black coat color. Results There were 90,006 and 74,533 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from white and black sheep skin, respectively. Genes encoding for the ribosomal proteins and keratin associated proteins were most highly expressed. A total of 2,235 known genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, with 479 genes up-regulated and 1,756 genes down-regulated. A total of 845 novel genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, consisting of 107 genes which were up-regulated (including 2 highly expressed genes exclusively expressed in black sheep skin) and 738 genes that were down-regulated. There was also a total of 49 known coat color genes expressed in sheep skin, from which 13 genes showed higher expression in black sheep skin. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as DCT, MATP, TYR and TYRP1, are members of the components of melanosomes and their precursor ontology category. Conclusion The white and black sheep skin transcriptome profiles obtained provide a valuable resource for future research to understand the network of gene expression controlling skin physiology and melanogenesis in sheep.



Nutrient Cycling Study  

SciTech Connect

The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

Peter A. Pryfogle



Molecular cloning of sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 and localization in sheep testis.  


Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 (PDIA3) is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family and is multifunctional in many processes. Recently, it has been confirmed as a sperm membrane component and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion under which the molecular mechanism is still obscure. Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 cDNA has been cloned in several mammals; however, goat and sheep counterparts have not been identified. To facilitate the studies on the potential function of PDIA3 protein in sperm-egg fusion in sheep and goat, we cloned the cDNA encoding for Pdia3 of sheep (Ovis aries) and cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and studied its transcript and protein localization in sheep testis. The cloned sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 cDNA are 1660 bp and 1591 bp, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that sheep and goat Pdia3 cDNA both have a coding region of 1518 bp with the same nucleotides encoding the same 505 amino acids. The predicted peptide, with two typical motifs of Trp-Cys-Gly-His-Cys-Lys (WCGHCK) which is a hallmark of the PDI family, has high homology to that of bovine (99.21%), human (95.05%), rat (89.50%) and mouse (90.89%). Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 protein was observed in cells of various stages of spermatogenesis, from the primary spermatocyte to spermatozoa phases, as well as in the Leydig cells. It was observed in the entire sheep spermatozoa and mostly at the equatorial segment and the forepart of the flagellum. The Pdia3 mRNA was detected over the seminiferous epithelium in all stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:21382104

Lv, L X; Ujisguleng, B; Orhontana, B; Lian, W B; Xing, W J



Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda



Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.



Fetal programming by co-twin rivalry in sheep.  


Fetal rivalry for space and nutrients compromises intrauterine environment and fetal growth, this leading to further consequences during adult life (i.e., fetal programming). Focusing on sheep, relevant fetal programming effects have been revealed on body composition and growth although little is known about their potential impact on the reproductive performance of adult ewes. This research focused on the analysis of fetal programming-related effects on 41,475 litter size (LS) records from 7,177 purebred Ripollesa ewes. Fetal programming sources of variation accounted for the linear and quadratic effect of absolute birth BW (ABBW), relative birth BW (RBBW) of twin-born ewes (i.e., both magnitude and direction of the birth BW difference between the ewe and its co-twin), and sex of twin ewe's littermate (SLM). More specifically, data were analyzed under a threshold mixed model and the statistical relevance of models accounting for different combinations of ABBW, RBBW, and SLM effects was compared by Bayes factors (BF; i.e., the ratio between the posterior probability of 2 competing models). The model accounting for RBBW and discarding both ABBW and SLM effects was clearly preferred; its posterior probability was 35.2 to 362.3 times higher than from remaining models and provided very strong (31.6 < BF < 100) and decisive evidences (BF > 100) supporting the relevance of RBBW and the negligibility of both ABBW and SLM. Single-born ewes were included as reference group and they reached a predicted LS of 1.189 lambs per lambing. Twin-born ewes being >600 g lighter than their co-twins suffered from an impaired reproductive ability with 1.162 lambs per lambing (95% credible interval [95CI], 1.147 to 1.179), and this estimate increased until ewes were 151 to 300 g lighter than their co-twins (1.226 lambs per lambing; 95CI, 1.208 to 1.244). Remaining categories (i.e., ewes being heavier or equal than their co-twins) did not provide significant differences and showed an enhanced reproductive ability of approximately 1.23 lambs per lambing. These significant differences in LS highlighted the influence of fetal programming in sheep under rangeland conditions, which implies decisive economic consequences worldwide. Moreover, these results could contribute additional information on twin biology, which could be useful in other mammalian species such as humans. PMID:24243893

Casellas, J; Caja, G



Ruminal degradation of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal using In sacco procedure in sheep.  


This research was conducted in order to investigate rumen degradability of some factors includes; Dray Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) in three different plant protein supplements includes; soybean, canola and cottonseed meal. The experiment was carried out using in three castrated and fistulated male Zel sheep. Each feedstuff was weighed into duplicate nylon bags and incubated in each of the three rumen fistulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Results revealed that effective degradability of DM of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal were 55.8, 73.8 and 48.5%, respectively. Effective degradabilities of the CP in feedstuffs were 55.8, 62 and 48.3% for the respective feedstuffs. Effective degradabilities of the OM were 55.7, 56.4 and 47.4%, respectively. Results also showed that effective degradabilities of the ADF were 55, 56.4 and 37.6, respectively. According to the results the researchers concluded that canola and soybean were more degradable in the rumen of the sheep while cottonseed meal were less degradable and, hence resulted in higher rumen undegradable protein. PMID:24498847

Jafari Khorshidi, K; Abedi Chemazkoti, S; Kioumarsi, H; Shariman Yahya, Z



Plasma Disposition of Conventional and Long-Acting Moxifloxacin in Sheep after Intravenous Administration  

PubMed Central

This study describes disposition of long-acting moxifloxacin and conventional formulations of moxifloxacin in sheep after intravenous administration in five male sheep. Long acting moxifloxacin solution (10% moxifloxacin in solution with L-arginine, N-butyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol) and conventional moxifloxacin (10%) were injected in jugular vein. Blood samples were collected from contralateral jugular vein in test tubes containing 30–50?IU heparin (anticoagulant) periodically from 0.083 to 72?h of drug administration. Drug concentrations in plasma were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of buffer (10?gm of tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate per liter-deionised water) and acetonitrile (80?:?20). The buffer was 0.067M of disodium hydrogen phosphate with pH of 7.5. The flow rate was 1?mL·min?1 at ambient temperature. The effluent was monitored at 296?nm excitation and 504?nm emissions wavelength. HPLC with fluorescence detector method for plasma moxifloxacin assay was standardized with specific modification for plasma of sheep in the present study. After single-dose intravenous administration of long acting moxifloxacin the plasma concentration of 0.016 ± 0.001??g·mL?1 was maintained for up to 72?h. Conventional formulation of moxifloxacin remained in body for up to 24?h of drug administration with the level of 0.015 ± 0.005 ?g·mL?1.

Modi, C. M.; Mody, S. K.; Modi, F. D.; Patel, H. B.



Resource use efficiency in urban and peri-urban sheep, goat and cattle enterprises.  


Urban livestock husbandry receives growing attention given the increasing urban demand for livestock products. At the same time, little is known about the resource use efficiency in urban livestock enterprises and eventual negative externalities. In livestock production, feeds are an important resource whose nutrients are transformed into products (meat and milk) to generate financial return to the producer. The lack of knowledge on nutrient supply through feed might lead to oversupply with severe environmental impacts. In Niamey, a typical West African city and capital of the Republic of Niger, urban livestock production is constrained by feed scarcity, especially during the dry season. Here, the issue of resource use efficiency was studied in 13 representative and differently managed sheep/goat and cattle enterprises characterized by high and low feed inputs, respectively, during a period of 28 months. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) inflows into each farm through livestock feeds and outflows through manure were determined using a semi-structured questionnaire; interviews were accompanied by regular weighing of feed supplied and dung produced. Live weight gain (LWG) and efficiency of conversion of total feed dry matter offered (kg TDMO/kg LWG) were computed along with nutrient balances (NBs) per metabolic body mass (kg0.75). NBs (per kg0.75/day) in the high-input (HI) sheep/goat enterprises were +1762.4 mg N, +127.2 mg P and +1363.5 mg K and were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those in low-input (LI) units (+69.1 mg N, -98.3 mg P and +16.5 mg K). In HI cattle enterprises, daily balances averaged +454.1 mg N, +40.1 mg P and +341.8 mg K compared to +34.4 mg N, -9.0 mg P and +68.3 mg K (P > 0.05) in LI cattle systems. All systems were characterized by poor conversion efficiencies of offered feed, which ranged from 13.5 to 46.1 kg TDMO/kg LWG in cattle and from 15.7 to 43.4 kg TDMO/kg LWG in sheep/goats. LWG in HI sheep/goats was 53 g/day in the rainy season, 86 g/day in the hot dry season and 104 g/day in the cool dry season, while HI cattle lost 79 g/day in the hot dry season and gained 121 g/day and 92 g/day in the cool dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The data indicate that there is nutrient wasting and scope for improvement of feeding strategies in Niamey's livestock enterprises, which might also decrease nutrient losses to the urban environment. PMID:22445127

Diogo, R V C; Buerkert, A; Schlecht, E



9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...



75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments...



9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...



9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....



9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...



76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit...related to the potential renewal of domestic sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing...



9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...



9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a)...



9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. 79.2...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a)...



9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....



New Zealand sheep with scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes succumb to experimental challenge with a sheep-passaged scrapie isolate (SSBP\\/1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie does not occur in New Zealand (NZ), although PrP gene alleles associated with sus- ceptibility to the disease are found at relatively high frequencies in NZ sheep. The hypothesis that scrapie is a genetic disease of sheep is thus unlikely to be true. To confirm that NZ sheep are actually susceptible to scrapie infection, NZ sheep of various PrP

E. F. Houston; S. I. Halliday; M. Jeffrey; W. Goldmann; N. Hunter


A Nutrient Density Standard for Vegetables and Fruits: Nutrients per Calorie and Nutrients per Unit Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommended that consumers give priority to nutrient-dense foods, those that contain substantial amounts of key nutrients in relation to the dietary energy they provide. This study developed a scoring system to estimate the nutritional adequacy of vegetables and fruits, on a per weight, per calorie, and per unit cost basis.

Nicole Darmon; Michel Darmon; Matthieu Maillot; Adam Drewnowski



21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein... (3) Each of the listed nutrients, and the caloric density, may also be declared on...that any additionally declared nutrient (i) has been...



21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supplied by 100 kilocalories: Nutrients Unit of measurement Protein... (3) Each of the listed nutrients, and the caloric density, may also be declared on...that any additionally declared nutrient (i) has been...



Pathological and biochemical studies of experimental hypothyroidism in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to determine pathological and biochemical changes in hypothyroid sheep. Experiments were carried out using 12 Iranian crossbred sheep aged between 3-3.5 years old and weighing 45-65 kg. The animals were divided into two groups, 4 sheep as control and 8 as the experimental group. Hypothyroidism was induced in experimental animals by giving thiourea 50

Khodadad Mostaghni; Khalil Badiei; Azizollah Khodakaram-Tafti; Ali Bashari Maafi


Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep ( Ovine aries )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA\\u000a D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence somain, and PCR-SSCP of the D-loop 5? end region of\\u000a a 253 bp fragment. Our findings have provided the first evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in sheep and possible mechanisms\\u000a of

Xingbo Zhao; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li; Changxin Wu



Nutrient intake and utilisation in sheep fed with prickly pear cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of prickly pear cactus (Opuntiaspp.) was assessed on 18 adult rams divided into three equal groups fed either (i)Cenchrus ciliarishay to appetite plus 200 g concentrate (G1), (ii) chopped cactus andCenchrus ciliaris(G2), and (iii) chopped cactus andSorghum helepense(G3in a cafeteria system.Opuntia-fed groups G2and G3consumed 6·31 and 4·21 kg fresh cactus daily, amounting to 79 and 54% of

S. K. Sirohi; S. A. Karim; A. K. Misra



Molecular survey of Toxoplasma infection in sheep and goat from Fars province, Southern Iran.  


Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in human fetus and in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, it becomes a major cause of abortion in sheep and goats. Since consumption of meat of infected lamb and goat is considered as the main sources of human infection in Iran, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in edible tissues of sheep and goats in Shiraz in 2008. Samples of brain, tongue, liver, and muscles of neck, intercostals, and femoral were taken from 56 sheep and 22 goats and tested by PCR. The total prevalence of Toxoplasma infection among animals was found to be 33.3%. Five out of 22 goats (22.7%) and 21 out of 56 sheep (37.5%) were infected by Toxoplasma. Differences between the prevalence rate of infection among females (nine out of 14 = 46%) and males animals (12 out of 45 = 29.5%) was significant (P = 0.013). Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the age of animals and the rate of infection; animals greater than 2 years old showed a higher rate of infection (47%) in comparison with those less than 2 years old (25%, P = 0.04). The highest infected tissue was tongue (21.8%) followed by brain (19.2%) and femoral and intercostal muscles (17.9%). This study demonstrated a high level of Toxoplasma infection in slaughtered animals in Shiraz and these should be considered as the main sources of infection for human population in the region. PMID:20936348

Asgari, Qasem; Sarnevesht, Jamshid; Kalantari, Mohsen; Sadat, Seyed Jafar Adnani; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Sarkari, Bahador



Effect of lead in water on the absorption of copper, iron, manganese and zinc by sheep (Ovis aries) infected with sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa).  


The sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its host Ovis aries were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for their copper, iron, manganese, zinc and lead levels. Element concentrations in cestode parasites were compared to those in various organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep. Tapeworms in the small intestine of sheep that were administered 2g of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) per os daily (7 days) had significantly higher lead concentrations than sheep tissues. Cu levels significantly increased after Pb administration in sheep muscle and sheep tapeworms. Contrarily, Zn content significantly decreased in sheep muscle, but significantly increased in sheep tapeworms. However, Mn content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep tapeworms. Furthermore, Fe content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep liver and kidneys. PMID:22425750

Jankovská, I; Száková, J; Lukešová, D; Langrová, I; Válek, P; Vadlejch, J; ?adková, Z; Petrtýl, M



Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.  


The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting. PMID:21996478

Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor



First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep.  


Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. PMID:21247018

Derakhshanfar, A; Mozaffari, A A



Genital sores - male  


Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear or straw-colored fluid) ...


Ubiquitination in plant nutrient utilization  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitin (Ub) is well-established as a major modifier of signaling in eukaryotes. However, the extent to which plants rely on Ub for regulating nutrient uptake is still in its infancy. The main characteristic of ubiquitination is the conjugation of Ub onto lysine residues of acceptor proteins. In most cases the targeted protein is rapidly degraded by the 26S proteasome, the major proteolysis machinery in eukaryotic cells. The Ub-proteasome system is responsible for removing most abnormal peptides and short-lived cellular regulators, which, in turn, control many processes. This allows cells to respond rapidly to intracellular signals and changing environmental conditions. This perspective will discuss how plants utilize Ub conjugation for sensing environmental nutrient levels. We will highlight recent advances in understanding how Ub aids nutrient homeostasis by affecting the trafficking of membrane bound transporters. Given the overrepresentation of genes encoding Ub-metabolizing enzymes in plants, intracellular signaling events regulated by Ub that lead to transcriptional responses due to nutrient starvation is an under explored area ripe for new discoveries. We provide new insight into how Ub based biochemical tools can be exploited to reveal new molecular components that affect nutrient signaling. The mechanistic nature of Ub signaling indicates that dominant form of any new molecular components can be readily generated and are likely shed new light on how plants cope with nutrient limiting conditions. Finally as part of future challenges in this research area we introduce the newly discovered roles of Ub-like proteins in nutrient homeostasis.

Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari



Immune responses to Staphylococcus aureus and Psoroptes ovis in sheep infected with P. ovis--the sheep scab mite.  


In sheep, lesions caused by Psoroptes ovis, the sheep scab mite, may become colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. The present study compares clinical signs, lesional area and the immune response to P. ovis and S. aureus in P. ovis-infested sheep with and without secondary S. aureus infection. No differences were detected in the clinical signs or lesional areas in the S. aureus-positive and -negative sheep. However, 6 weeks after infestation an IgG but not IgE isotype antibody response to S. aureus was detected in the S. aureus-positive but not the S. aureus-negative group of sheep. This response targeted S. aureus antigens with molecular weights of approximately 36, 38, 50 and 65 kDa. In addition, 6 weeks after infestation an IgE response to P. ovis was detected in the S. aureus-positive but not the S. aureus-negative group of sheep. PMID:16790280

Oliveira, A M; MacKellar, A; Hume, L; Huntley, J F; Thoday, K L; van den Broek, A H M



Mapping risk foci for endemic sheep scab.  


Psoroptic mange in sheep, resulting from infestation by the astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis, is increasingly prevalent in Europe and other parts of the world. As a step towards improved national control, regional or local scab management programmes that target high-risk areas and aim to maintain the number of outbreaks below an acceptable level may be an effective initial use of time and resource. To facilitate such a management approach, in this paper scab outbreak farms are identified using a questionnaire survey of sheep farmers, the data from which are then used to build a national scab risk model for Great Britain. The questionnaire results indicate a national prevalence of scab, between March 2007 and February 2008, of 8.6% (+/-1.98). However, previous exposure to sheep scab significantly affected the respondent's probability of reporting a scab outbreak during the survey period (chi(2)=53.2, d.f.=1, P<0.001); 85% of the farms that reported at least one scab outbreak had experienced outbreaks in previous years, 27% had experienced outbreaks in more than five of the previous 10 years. In contrast, 76% of farms that did not report scab had not had a previous outbreak. The highest prevalence areas were in Northern England, Wales, Southwest England and Scotland. Modelling the distribution of the reported scab outbreaks identified height above sea level, temperature and rainfall as significant predictors of the probability of an outbreak, superimposed on an underlying pattern of sheep abundance. It is argued that scab management programmes directed at these foci have the potential to allow a more targeted approach to scab control and significantly reduce the prevalence of scab in the UK and other European countries. PMID:19713045

Rose, H; Learmount, J; Taylor, M; Wall, R



Maedi-visna in Canadian sheep.  

PubMed Central

Lesions of maedi-visna were seen in sheep from the institutional research flock of the Animal Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada in Ottawa. Viral particles demonstrated by electron microscopy in tissue culture cells and serological results confirm the diagnosis of maedi-visna. The extent of the problem in this flock will be described in a future paper. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8.

Dukes, T W; Greig, A S; Corner, A H



Pythiosis of the digestive tract in sheep.  


Cutaneous and rhinofacial infections by Pythium insidiosum have previously been reported in sheep in Brazil. In the current study, a new form of pythiosis involving the alimentary tract of 2 nursing lambs from 2 different farms in the semiarid region of Brazil is described. The first lamb showed food regurgitation, lethargy, and anorexia, and died 5 days after the presentation of clinical signs. The second lamb had no history of gastrointestinal disease before death. Necropsy findings were similar in both lambs. The mucosa of the esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum showed ulcerated areas covered by yellowish caseous granular exudate. The lesions were transmural and extended to the serosal surfaces, and adhesions were observed between the serosa of the forestomachs and abomasum to the liver and diaphragm. Histologic lesions consisted of pyogranulomatous necrotizing transmural esophagitis, rumenitis, reticulitis, omasitis, and abomasitis with vascular thrombosis and intralesional hyphae. Pythium insidiosum was confirmed as the etiology by immunohistochemistry and culture. The presence of sheep in the vicinity of water ponds during the hot, dry season when forage is not available in the pastures seems to be the main predisposing factor for the occurrence of pythiosis in sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. PMID:23051827

Pessoa, Clarice R M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Pimentel, Luciano A; Garino, Felício; Dantas, Antônio F M; Kommers, Glaucia D; Tabosa, Ivon M; Reis-Júnior, Janildo L



A survey of sheep diseases in Canada.  

PubMed Central

A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates, incidence of a variety of lamb and ewe diseases and reasons for culling were obtained. At the same time a retrospective evaluation of records of diagnoses of sheep diseases recorded at diagnostic laboratories across the country was performed. Data from the years 1978 to 1982 were obtained and summarized. A lambing percentage of 153% (1.53 lambs live born per ewe lambing) was observed and an additional 0.05 lambs were stillborn. The major identified causes of mortality amongst lambs were starvation, pneumonia, scours and accidents. Pasteurella spp. were the etiological agents most commonly associated with pneumonia in lambs and Escherichia coli had the same predominant position with regards to nonparasitic scours. A large discrepancy existed between the proportional mortality rates for internal parasites and coccidiosis as determined from the farm survey data compared to diagnostic laboratory data. This suggests that clinical parasitism may not be adequately recognized at the farm level. Abortions in ewes occurred in approximately half the flocks, but generally at a low level and no severe abortion storms occurred. Pneumonia was the most commonly identified cause of mortality in ewes and although Pasteurella spp. appear to be the most important etiological agents, regional differences were apparent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Dohoo, I R; Curtis, R A; Finley, G G



Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.  


Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2?. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region. PMID:21509455

Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M



Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.

Arranz, Juan-Jose; Bayon, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermin San



Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites.  


Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep--Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino--with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from F(ST) diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; San Primitivo, F



Renal clearance of plasma allantoin in sheep.  


The recovery in urine of an intrajugular infusion of physiological amounts of allantoin was measured in four sheep nourished by an intragastric infusion of volatile fatty acids and casein (to eliminate rumen fermentation). The recovery was 72% (S.E.M. 7) and the remainder was presumed to have been lost by diffusion into the gut and degradation by gut microflora. Measured in two sheep, allantoin was removed from the blood at a fractional rate of 0.30 h-1, and excreted in urine at 0.23 h-1. Calculation based on creatinine excretion showed glomerular filtration rate and tubular reabsorption of allantoin to be unchanged by the intravenous infusion. Maximal tubular reabsorption at 1.28 mmol day-1 was saturated by the load of endogenous allantoin alone. In a second experiment with seven normally fed sheep (28-50 kg live weight, all given 1 kg feed), urinary excretion and plasma concentration of allantoin were linearly related. However, the errors were such that plasma allantoin concentration would be of little value as a predictor of urinary excretion. There was a nearly twofold range in allantoin excretion (the larger animals excreting less), which implied that the supply of microbial biomass to the host animal per unit of feed ingested could be profoundly affected by feeding level. PMID:2015075

Chen, X B; Kyle, D J; Orskov, E R; Hovell, F D



Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.



Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. METHODS: The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents

Reeta Hakkarainen; Timo Partonen; Jari Haukka; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes; Jouko Lönnqvist



Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population.



Operant analysis of chronic locoweed intoxication in sheep.  


Five sheep were fed a 10% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) pellet or alfalfa pellets for 3- to 5-wk periods to determine the effects of intermittent locoweed ingestion on operant responding; three controls were fed alfalfa pellets for 22 wk. Sheep were trained to respond to a multiple schedule with a fixed ratio (FR) 5 and fixed interval (FI) 50 s as major elements; performance was reinforced with rolled barley. Locoweed-treated sheep decreased (P < .05) FR response rate after 4 wk of locoweed feeding, but this decrease first appeared during the first recovery period (wk 6). The FR response rate of intoxicated sheep did not return to baseline during the remainder of the study and differed from controls during most of the study. Controls did not deviate (P > .05) from their FR baseline except during wk 2. Sheep did not stabilize on the FI component. As locoweed-treated sheep became progressively more intoxicated, they altered their pattern of FR responses, with longer post-reinforcement pauses, and a slower overall FR rate. Intoxicated sheep ingested an average of .21 mg Overt signs of intoxication were noted when two sheep were stressed on wk 17. These two sheep had neuroviseral vacuolation typical of locoweed poisoning, whereas the three remaining locoweed-treated sheep that were euthanatized 5 wk later showed little histologic evidence of intoxication. Our findings indicate that "on-off" or cyclic grazing of locoweed ranges should be approached cautiously. Such a grazing program may be feasible because of the rapid resolution of histologic pathology; however, an initial toxic insult of 4 wk seems to be excessive, even at low doses, because sheep may exhibit persistent behavioral abnormalities that require > 6 wk to resolve. PMID:8923176

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; James, L F; Molyneux, R J



Male breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in

Laura Ottini; Domenico Palli; Sergio Rizzo; Mario Federico; Viviana Bazan; Antonio Russo



Abortion due to Brucella abortus in sheep in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reports on a sporadic, naturally acquired infection of sheep with Brucella abortus on a privately owned farm in Toro near Bauchi, Nigeria. The abortions, which occurred in a flock of 28 Yankassa sheep, involved five ewes at the third month of gestation. Serum and milk samples from the flock were examined for Brucella antibodies by the Rose

R. A. Ocholi; I. Ajogi; J. O. O. Bale


Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two

Jennifer RS Meadows; Eva KF Chan; James W Kijas



Field trials in sheep with the anthelmintic thiophanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity and tolerance trials were conducted with the anthelmintic thiophanate (Nemafax; May & Baker) in sheep in the United Kingdom. Tolerance studies, conducted in sheep of various types under several management systems, in which thiophanate was given orally at recommended dosage (50 to 100 mg\\/kg), or multiples thereof, in single or repeated doses showed that treatment was in all cases

DM Baines; AJ Colegrave



Effects of clinoptilolite on Eimeria spp. Infection in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of supplementation with clinoptilolite, a mineral from sedimentary deposits, were evaluated in a controlled and randomized field study conducted on a sheep farm with a known history of coccidiosis. Two groups of 6 pregnant ewes each, with three replicates per group (3 experimental and 3 control groups) were included in the study. Sheep were kept in pens and

Yazmin Alcala-Canto; Lilia Gutierrez-Olvera; Carlos Gutierrez-Olvera; Hector Sumano-Lopez



Effect of abomasal prebiotic supplementation on sheep faecal microbiota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of abomasal fructo-oligosaccharides supplementation on sheep faecal microbiota was investigated in a balanced, two Latin square, cross-over design experiment. Ten fistulated sheep were managed in five consecutive periods, with each of five treatments (an ‘acidified saline’ control or one of four prebiotic candidates chosen to represent different types of oligosaccharides: Arabinogalactan, Fibruline, Raftilose, or Yacon) administered to two

Y. Li; J. Mills; LH Jacobson; M. Manley-Harris; GJ le Roux; RG Bell



Phylogeny of sheep and goat Theileria and Babesia parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S RNA gene structure was addressed in the present study. For this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B.

Leonhard Schnittger; Hong Yin; Marc J. Gubbels; Doreen Beyer; Stefan Niemann; Frans Jongejan; Jabbar S. Ahmed



The repeatability of faecal egg counts in Polish Wrzosówka sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of nematode eggs in the faeces was estimated in Polish Wrzosówka sheep, in the spring and autumn of 1993 and again in 1994. The sheep had been naturally infected. The dominant species were Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, but Trichostrongylus spp., Cooperia curticei, Nematodirus spp. and Chabertia ovina were also present. Anthelmintics were not used. Egg counts were

M. Doligalska; B. Moskwa; R. Niznikowski



[The problems of vaccination against chlamydial abortion in sheep].  


Different vaccines used against chlamydial abortion in sheep are described. Problems associated with insufficient immunity after vaccination are discussed. Reasons for failure of certain vaccine preparations are addressed. Finally new developments in vaccine production are introduced which might be useful in solving problems still existing in the prevention of chlamydial abortion in sheep by vaccination. PMID:1796460

Thiele, D



The grazing preference of sheep is related to prior experience.  


Background - The annual pasture legume Casbah biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L.) is moderately palatable to sheep relative to other species but, in the field, sheep often avoid biserrula and select other plants. We hypothesised that the preference of sheep for biserrula is influenced by their prior grazing experience. Objective - To determine the preference of sheep for biserrula after they had experienced grazing pastures with different proportions of biserrula. Design - Five groups of 10 Merino hoggets grazed for four weeks pastures sown with i) 100% biserrula, ii) 100% crimson clover, iii) 100% annual ryegrass, iv) 50% biserrula and 50% annual ryegrass or v) 50% crimson clover and 50% annual ryegrass. Each group then grazed randomized monoculture rows of biserrula, crimson clover and annual ryegrass and their preference was calculated from pasture samples that were taken from paired sites before and after grazing. The pastures were grazed at the vegetative, reproductive and senesced phases of growth by a new group of hoggets each time. Outcomes - The preference of sheep for biserrula at the vegetative and reproductive phases of growth was influenced by their previous grazing history, but not after senescence. Conclusions - Sheep that have grazed a biserrula dominant pasture can develop an aversion to biserrula at the vegetative and reproductive phases of growth. This may explain why sheep eat other plants late in the growing season. Sheep grazing a pasture with a low proportion of biserrula are less likely to develop an aversion and may continue to eat biserrula. PMID:15023649

Thomas, D T; Milton, J TB; Ewing, M A; Revell, C K; Lindsay, D R



Global Soil Nutrient Depletion and Yield Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient depletion in soils adversely affects soil quality and reduces crop yield and consequently poses a potential threat to global food security and agricultural sustainability. With an emphasis on human-induced nutrient depletion, this paper described the causality among soil nutrient depletion, soil quality, crop production, socio-economic variables, and environmental condition. Then, global soil nutrient budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),

Z. X. Tan; R. Lal; K. D. Wiebe



Seasonal dynamics and variation among sheep in densities of the sheep biting louse, Bovicola ovis.  


Cyclic patterns and variations among sheep in numbers of Bovicola ovis are described in Polypay and Columbia ewes that were initially infested with equal numbers of lice and penned indoors continuously for 2 years. Bovicola ovis populations were censused at 3-4-week intervals at 69 body sites on each animal. In the second year of the study, the ewes were reinfested and half were mated. Louse populations were monitored on the resulting lambs from birth until 25 weeks of age. Strong seasonal cycles in louse numbers were observed on the ewes, with peaks in spring and troughs in summer. These cycles occurred in the absence of shearing, direct solar radiation or rainfall. Populations began to decline when daily mean and maximum temperatures were 11.5 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively, well below temperatures thought to cause warm season decline. Louse densities on Polypay ewes were approximately 10 times higher than on Columbias at most inspections. There were also large differences among sheep within breeds and sheep counts were highly correlated among dates, both within and between years. One third of the ewes failed to become infested despite having lice applied on five separate occasions and being penned together with other infested sheep. Pregnancy and lactation did not significantly affect louse numbers on the ewes. There was a significant negative correlation between louse counts and weight gains in the lambs, and lamb counts were significantly correlated with those of their dams up until, but not after, weaning. It is suggested that sheep may exert regulatory influences on lice which contribute to cycles in B. ovis populations. PMID:9512991

James, P J; Moon, R D; Brown, D R



? -galactosidase activity in fibroblasts and tissues from sheep with a lysosomal storage disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues and fibroblasts of sheep affected with an inherited, neuronal lysosomal storage disease expressed a deficiency of ß-galactosidase activity. Cerebrum, kidney, lung, spinal cord, and spleen from affected sheep had less than 8% of the ß-galactosidase activity present in the respective tissues of normal sheep. No evidence for the presence of an endogenous inhibitor in affected sheep was detected by

Amelia J. Ahern-Rindell; Robert D. Murnane; David J. Prieur



An outbreak of ringworm in sheep in Ireland caused by Trichophyton verrucosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of ringworm in sheep in Ireland caused by Trichophyton verrucosum is described. The flock consisted of 110 sheep and two separate groups within the flock were affected. Eleven of the first group of 23 sheep and five of the second group of 25 sheep showed lesions. Contact with infected cattle and fomites contaminated by the cattle are believed

SB Power; A Malone



Experimental Tribulus terrestris Poisoning in Sheep: Clinical, Laboratory and Pathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven native sheep, 1–2 years old, of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, 6 sheep being allocated to the experimental group and 5 serving as controls. The sheep in the experimental group were fed 80% Tribulus terrestris and 20% alfalfa hay and wheat straw, while the control sheep were given a mixture of 40% alfalfa hay and 60%

M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; M. Pedram; A. Abavisani



Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.  


The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P < 0.001). As a consequence, sheep had greater (P < 0.001) N retention than goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and hypoxanthine (P = 0.007) compared with sheep. In general, differences between sheep and goats were more pronounced for the medium-quality diet (GRC) compared with those of high-quality diet (ALC and CAL). The greater urinary losses in goats would indicate a greater contribution of goats to N environmental contamination compared with sheep. PMID:22585795

Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E



Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  


Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L



Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake for leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. was reduced when the plants were grown at low concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, or K/sup +/. The water vapor conductance was relatively constant for all nutrient levels, indicating little effect on stomatal response. Although leaves under nutrient stress tended to be lower in chlorophyll and thinner, the ratio of mesophyll surface area to leaf area did not change appreciably. Thus, the reduction in CO/sub 2/ uptake rate at low nutrient levels was due to a decrease in the CO/sub 2/ conductance expressed per unit mesophyll cell wall area (g/sub CO/sup cell//sub 2/). The use of g/sub CO//sup cell//sub 2/ and nutrient levels expressed per unit of mesophyll cell wall provides a new means of assessing nutrient effects on CO/sub 2/ uptake of leaves. 14 figures, 1 table.

Longstreth, D.J.; Nobel, P.S.



A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran  

PubMed Central

In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%). Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (P < 0.05). Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin) stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.

Raoofi, Afshin; Rahmani Shahraki, Alireza; Namjoo, Abdolrasool; Momtaz, Hasan



Developmental changes in IGF-I and MyoG gene expression and their association with meat traits in sheep.  


In the present study, real time-polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the expression of IGF-I and MyoG genes in Hu sheep longissimus dorsi at different growth stages and their association with meat traits. Expression of the IGF-I gene in Hu sheep differed significantly between males and females at the two day-old (0.01 < P < 0.05), one-month old (0.01 < P < 0.05), and three month-old (P < 0.01) stages. IGF-I gene expression in male longissimus muscles was higher than that of females at all growth stages, except for the three month-old stage. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between males and females at any growth stage in expression of the MyoG gene. MyoG gene expression in male longissimus muscles tended to be higher than that of females at all growth stages, except for the six month-old stage. IGF-I gene expression was significantly and positively correlated with live weight (P < 0.01) and carcass weight (0.01< P < 0.05), and was non-significantly positively correlated with net meat weight (P > 0.05). In contrast, MyoG gene expression was non-significantly and positively correlated with live weight, carcass, and net meat weight (P > 0.05). Carcass traits showed highly significant positive correlations (P < 0.01). Furthermore, expressions of IGF-I and MyoG genes showed highly significant positive correlations (P < 0.01). We conclude that the expressions of IGF-I and MyoG genes are significantly and positively correlated with early muscle traits of Hu sheep. PMID:24782091

Sun, W; Su, R; Li, D; Musa, H H; Kong, Y; Ding, J T; Ma, Y H; Chen, L; Zhang, Y F; Wu, W Z




EPA Science Inventory

In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...


Male Infertility: Management  


... as their preferred approach, this operation uses the optical magnification of a high-powered microscope to provide ... in Children L Low Testosterone M Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Male Infertility Male Infertility: Management Meatal Stenosis ...


Male pattern baldness (image)  


Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by ...


Nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing knowledge of nutrient limitation for mangrove species and how mangroves adapt to low nutrients, there is\\u000a scant information about the relative importance of N:P ratio and leaf phenolics variability in determining nutrient conservation.\\u000a In this study, we evaluated possible nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation. 1. The leaf nutrient concentrations of R.

Yi-Ming Lin; Xiao-Wei Liu; Hui Zhang; Hang-Qing Fan; Guang-Hui Lin



Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.  


Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. PMID:22168919

Martinkovi?, Franjo; Matanovi?, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G



Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia.  


Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for forage plants. Our aim in this work was to estimate guanaco abundance and account for its variation across nine different sites, two seasons and two years. We conducted over 100 ground surveys of both guanacos and sheep and estimated the availability of the preferred plant species both animal species might select in their diet. We found that (1) sheep densities were up to 23 times higher than guanaco densities in sympatric conditions, (2) at a protected site without sheep, guanaco density was one order of magnitude higher than at the rest of the sites, (3) across nine different sites, sheep densities alone accounted for around 60% of the variation in guanaco abundance, (4) guanaco densities were negatively related to both total plant cover and availability of the preferred plant species in their diet, which were both positively associated with sheep density, and (5) within-site changes in guanaco densities between seasons and years were negatively related to changes in sheep densities. Our results are consistent with predictions on interspecific competition for food resources, although we cannot rule out possible effects of other human-related activities influencing guanaco abundance. We conclude that sheep compete with guanacos for forage in arid Patagonia. PMID:24577696

Baldi, R; Albon, S; Elston, D



New aspects on efficient anticoagulation and antiplatelet strategies in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medicine. Especially in cardiovascular, orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery, the sheep is an important in vivo model for testing innovative therapies or medical devices prior to clinical application. For a wide variety of sheep model based research projects, an optimal anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is mandatory. However, no standardised scheme for this model has been developed so far. Thus the efficacy of antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (sodium enoxaparin, dabigatran etexilate) strategies was evaluated through aggregometry, anti-factor Xa activity and plasma thrombin inhibitor levels in sheep of different ages. Results Responses to antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in different concentrations were studied in the sheep. First, a baseline for the measurement of platelet aggregation was assessed in 20 sheep. The effectiveness of 225 mg clopidogrel twice daily (bid) in 2/5 sheep and 150 mg bid in 3/5 lambs could be demonstrated, while clopidogrel and its metabolite carboxylic acid were detected in every plasma sample. High dose ticagrelor (375 mg bid) resulted in sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation in 1/5 sheep, while acetylsalicylic acid did not show any antiplatelet effect. Therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels were achieved with age-dependent dosages of sodium enoxaparin (sheep 3 mg/kg bid, lambs 5 mg/kg bid). Administration of dabigatran etexilate resulted in plasma concentrations similar to human ranges in 2/5 sheep, despite receiving quadruple dosages (600 mg bid). Conclusion High dosages of clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation merely in a low number of sheep despite sufficient absorption. Ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid cannot be recommended for platelet inhibition in sheep. Efficient anticoagulation can be ensured using sodium enoxaparin rather than dabigatran etexilate in age-dependent dosages. The findings of this study significantly contribute to the improvement of a safe and reliable prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in sheep. Applying these results in future translational experimental studies may help to avoid early dropouts due to thromboembolic events and associated unnecessary high animal numbers.



Seroprevalence of maedi-visna in Canadian sheep.  

PubMed Central

A serological survey of Canadian sheep over one year of age was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of maedi-visna. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used. An analysis of 14,047 sera from 286 randomly selected flocks provided an estimate of the seroprevalence of 19% and a mean flock prevalence of 12%. Sixty-three percent of the sampled flocks had one or more seropositive sheep. There appeared to be higher prevalences in sheep in Quebec (40%) and Nova Scotia (27%). An increased prevalence with increased age and flock size was noted.

Simard, C; Morley, R S



Nutrients for the aging eye  

PubMed Central

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease.

Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J



Modulation of vH+-ATPase is part of the functional adaptation of sheep rumen epithelium to high-energy diet.  


Ruminal vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (vH(+)-ATPase) activity is regulated by metabolic signals. Thus, we tested whether its localization, expression, and activity were changed by different feeding. Young male sheep (n = 12) were either fed hay ad libitum (h) or hay ad libitum plus additional concentrate (h/c) for 2 wk. The vH(+)-ATPase B subunit signal was predominantly found in the cell membrane and cytosol of rumen epithelial cells (REC) with basal/parabasal phenotype. The elevated number (threefold) of these cells in rumen mucosa of h/c-fed sheep reflects a high proliferative capacity and, explains the 2.3-fold increase of the total number of vH(+)-ATPase-expressing REC. However, in accordance with a 58% reduction of the vH(+)-ATPase B subunit mRNA expression in h/c-fed sheep, its protein amount per single REC was decreased. Using the fluorescent probe BCECF and selective inhibitors (foliomycin, amiloride), the contribution of vH(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation was investigated. REC isolated from h/c-fed sheep keep their pH(i) at a significantly higher level (6.91 ± 0.03 vs. 6.74 ± 0.05 in h-fed sheep). Foliomycin or amiloride decreased pH(i) by 0.16 ± 0.02 and 0.57 ± 0.04 pH units when applied to REC from h-fed sheep, but the effects were markedly reduced (-88 and -33%) after concentrate feeding. Nevertheless, we found that REC proliferation rate and [cAMP](i) were reduced after foliomycin-induced vH(+)-ATPase inhibition. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of vH(+)-ATPase in regulation of REC proliferation, most probably by linking metabolically induced pH(i) changes to signaling pathways regulating this process. PMID:22972839

Kuzinski, Judith; Zitnan, Rudolf; Albrecht, Elke; Viergutz, Torsten; Schweigel-Röntgen, Monika



Differential Pathways to Adult Metabolic Dysfunction following Poor Nutrition at Two Critical Developmental Periods in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C) or 50% nutritional requirements (U) from 1–31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks) to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC) or were undernourished (CU, UU) to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1–31 days gestation) or 50% nutritional requirements (104–127 days gestation). Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression) and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during development induces changes in mechanisms of lipid and glucose metabolism which differ between tissues and sexes dependent on the period of nutritional restriction. Such changes may increase later life obesity and dyslipidaemia risk.

Poore, Kirsten R.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Murray, Robert J. S.; Warlow, Anna; Brewin, Andrew; Fulford, Laurence; Cleal, Jane K.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Burdge, Graham C.; Hanson, Mark A.; Green, Lucy R.



Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice

Sarah K Wootton; Michael J Metzger; Kelly L Hudkins; Charles E Alpers; Denis York; James C DeMartini; A Dusty Miller



Supplementation with linseed ( Linum usitatissimum ) cake and\\/or wheat bran on feed utilization and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty yearling male intact Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 15.5?±?0.21 kg (mean ± SD) were used in 90 days\\u000a feeding trial, 10 days digestibility trial followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at Bokoji, Ethiopia. The objectives\\u000a were to evaluate effects of supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake (LSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures at 2:1 and 1:2, respectively on

Abebe Tafa; Solomon Melaku; Kurt J. Peters



Studies on the glycolipids of sheep thymus and of normal and concanavalin A-stimulated sheep peripheral lymphocytes.  


The neutral glycolipids and gangliosides of sheep thymus and of sheep peripheral lymphocytes were compared. The patterns of both of these major classes of glycolipids were more complex in thymus than in the lymphocytes. The incorporation of radioactivity from D-[1-14C]galactose into the individual glycolipids of control and concanavalin A-stimulated sheep peripheral lymphocytes was also studied. A marked enhancement of incorporation into trihexosylceramide and an alteration of the pattern of incorporation into gangliosides were noted in the mitogen-treated cells. The results suggest that significant alterations of glycolipid composition and metabolism may occur during at least certain stages of lymphocyte differentiation. PMID:949491

Narasimhan, R; Hay, J B; Greaves, M F; Murray, R K



Wastewater Treatment with Plants in Nutrient Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associ...

H. DeLancey-Pompe J. J. Madras R. M. Kabrick W. J. Jewell W. W. Clarkson



Confined Animal Production and Manure Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Census of agriculture data were used to estimate manure nutrient production and the capacity of cropland and pastureland to assimilate nutrients. Most farms (78 percent for nitrogen and 69 percent for phosphorus) have adequate land on which it is physical...

C. Lander D. Letson M. Caswell N. Gollehon R. Kellogg R. Ribaudo



Characteristics of drug use on sheep farms in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

This study examined characteristics of the use of drugs, especially antimicrobials, on Ontario sheep farms. Forty-nine sheep farms participated in a 12-month prospective study. Producers documented treatment events during the study period and drug use data from the records were summarized. The most frequently used drugs of the 15 drug categories used by producers belonged to the following categories: antimicrobial (40.7%, n = 2710), vitamin/mineral (12.0%), and biological (11.1%). Short-acting penicillin (27.2%, n = 1103), long-acting oxytetracycline (22.9%), and long-acting penicillin (21.9%) were the most frequently used antimicrobials. The drugs that were used most frequently on sheep farms were antimicrobials, of which 93% of treatments were extra-label. Extensive extra-label drug use may be the result of the limited number of drugs that are approved in Canada for use in sheep.

Moon, Catherine S.; Berke, Olaf; Avery, Brent P.; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Scott, Lisa; Menzies, Paula



Mitochondrial DNA diversity and the origin of Chinese indigenous sheep.  


Large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences data from previous studies were investigated to obtain genetic information which contributes to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and history of modern sheep. In this study, we analyzed mtDNA D-loop sequences of 963 individuals from 16 Chinese indigenous breeds that distributed seven geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined haplogroups A, B, and C were found in all breeds among different regions except in Southwest China mountainous region, which had only the A and B haplogroups. The weak phylogeographic structure was observed among Chinese indigenous sheep breeds distribution regions and this could be attributable to long-term strong gene flow among regions induced by the human migration, commercial trade, and extensive transport of sheep. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A and B had at least one demographic expansion of indigenous sheep in China. PMID:23709123

Zhao, Erhu; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Nanyang; Kong, Deying; Zhao, Yongju



Experimental photosensitization and toxicity in sheep produced by Tetradymia glabrata.  


Factors affecting the phototoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata were investigated. Photosensitization, which occurs regularly in the field situation, was unpredictable and difficult to produce experimentally. In attempting to understand this unpredictability we concluded that the plant does not lose its toxicity after field collection either through volatility of the toxin, plant enzymatic degradation of the toxin or dehydration. The chlorophyll source, from which the suspected phototoxic agent phylloerythrin is derived, did not appear to be important. The single case of photosensitization produced gave no clues as to why it occurred. Some predisposing factors important to the production of tetradymia related photosensitization in sheep are unknown. In disagreement with previous reports the hepatotoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata was extremely variable. Also plants in comparable stages of growth, but from different locations, varied in their toxicity to sheep. Young budding plants are most toxic, however, toxicity of the plant remains through maturity. PMID:4279759

Johnson, A E



Climate Kids: Marmots Get Fat While Sheep Shrink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effects of climate change on marmots in Colorado and sheep in Scotland are presented and compared. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.


Desert Bighorn Sheep: A Guide to Selected Management Practices,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guide summarizes pertinent literature on four topics of desert bighorn sheep ecology and management: (1) their water requirements and adaptations are compared with those of other desert-dwelling ungulates; (2) the effects of human activities such as m...

N. S. Smith P. R. Krausman



The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.  


Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites. PMID:76363

Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P



Single dose pharmacokinetics of medetomidine in sheep.  


The pharmacokinetics of medetomidine hydrochloride (Domitor) administered at a single dose of 15 micrograms/kg i.v. in sheep are described. Plasma medetomidine concentrations were determined using a sensitive radioreceptor assay technique, capable of also measuring metabolites which would bind to alpha 2 adrenergic receptors. Medetomidine was rapidly distributed, with a half-life of distribution of 4.65 +/- 0.65 min. The apparent volume of distribution was 2.69 +/- 0.62 L/kg, while elimination half-life was 37.85 +/- 2.84 min. Total body clearance varied between 16.29 and 151.81 mL/ Pharmacological effects of medetomidine paralleled its plasma concentration. PMID:8735417

Muge, D K; Chambers, J P; Livingston, A



Olfaction in the female sheep botfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria



Vancomycin entry into lung lymph in sheep.  

PubMed Central

The distribution of antibiotics into target tissues is a crucial factor in therapeutic efficacy. To estimate the availability of systemically administered vancomycin to the interstitial fluid in the lung, we have used a sheep model with a chronic pulmonary lymph fistula to collect simultaneously series of plasma and pulmonary lymph specimens during a 6-h period after an intravenous dose of vancomycin (7 mg/kg). After a minor delay in transit from blood to lymph, vancomycin was completely distributed to pulmonary lymph with a ratio of free drug in lymph to free drug in plasma of 0.9. This suggests that vancomycin is an excellent choice for treating pulmonary infections by susceptible organisms.

May, D G; Stratton, C W; Denney, W D; Watts, F L; Bernard, G R; Branch, R A



Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) poisoning in sheep.  


Twenty-four lambs grazing pastures of Panicum coloratum developed photosensitization secondary to hepatic dysfunction. Lesions were necrosis of scattered hepatocytes, obstruction of small bile ducts and bile canaliculi by small aggregates of birefringent crystals, and accumulation of birefringent crystals in phagocytes within sinusoids. The number of crystals in livers of affected sheep varied, depending on the amount of time of exposure to toxic plants and severity of hepatic abnormalities. Crystals in the liver were soluble in acidified ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, pyridine, chloral hydrate, and methanol, but not in xylene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, water, or cold ethyl alcohol. Crystals were not stained by oil red O. There was necrosis of epithelial cells in renal distal convoluted tubules, papillary muscles of the heart, and the adrenal cortex. Lesions of Panicum coloratum-associated disease are similar to those associated with photosensitization induced by Tribulus terrestris, Agave lecheguilla, and Nolina texana. PMID:3455080

Bridges, C H; Camp, B J; Livingston, C W; Bailey, E M



Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW) of 15.62±0.33 kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2), 4 h/d (G4), 8 h/d (G8) and 12 h/d (G12) access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05) increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05) decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.

Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Kun; Jiao, Lijuan; Chang, Yanfei; Zuo, Zhaoyun



Successful direct transfer of vitrified sheep embryos.  


The use of a simple cryopreservation method, adapted to direct transfer of thawed embryos may help to reduce the costs of embryo transfer in sheep and increase the use of this technique genetic improvement of this species. Two experiments were made to test a vitrification method that is easy to apply in field conditions. All embryos were collected at Day 7 of the estrous cycle of FSH-stimulated donor ewes and were assessed morphologically, washed in modified PBS and incubated for 5 min in 10% glycerol, for 5 min in 10% glycerol and 20% ethylene glycol and were transferred into the vitrification solution (25% glycerol and 25% ethylene glycol). All solutions were based on mPBS. Embryos were loaded in straws (1 cm central part, the remaining parts being filled with 0.8 M galactose in mPBS) and plunged into liquid N2 within 30 sec of contact with the vitrification solution. The straws were thawed (10 sec at 20 degrees C) and the embryos were either transferred directly or after 5 min of incubation in the content of the straw (followed by washing in PBS) into the uterus of a recipient ewe. In Trial 1, the pregnancy rates at term (72 vs. 72%) as well as the embryo survival rates (60 vs 50% respectively) were not different between fresh (n = 48 embryos) and vitrified (n = 50) embryos. In a second trial no difference was observed between vitrified embryos transferred after in vitro removal of the cryoprotectant (n = 86 embryos) or directly after thawing (n = 72) both in terms of lambing rate (67 vs. 75%, respectively) and embryo survival rate (lambs born/embryos transferred; 49 vs. 53%). This method of sheep embryo cryopreservation provided high pregnancy and embryo survival, even after direct transfer of the embryos. PMID:11480621

Baril, G; Traldi, A L; Cognié, Y; Leboeuf, B; Beckers, J F; Mermillod, P



Experimental intoxication of sheep and cattle with Wedelia glauca.  


Wedelia glauca was administered experimentally to 11 sheep and 4 cattle. The minimum toxic dose for both species was of 4 to 5 g of fresh plant/kg bw. Clinical signs were depression, muscle fasciculations, increased respiratory and cardiac frequencies, opisthotonous, sternal or lateral recumbency and terminal paddling movements. Time of onset of signs ranged from 12 to 40 h after dosing. Serum AST, LDH and GGT were increased. Three cattle and 5 sheep died after clinical manifestation periods of 2 to 18 h, and 2 sheep survived after being affected for 14 and 46 h. Macroscopic and histologic lesions were similar in cattle and sheep; the liver was swollen and dark reddish, and the wall of the gall bladder was edematous. The cavities had yellowish fluid. Petechiae and echymoses were seen on serous membranes. Microscopically the liver had periacinar hemorrhagic necrosis. Two sheep dosed with 1 g/kg bw daily for 20 d and 1 dosed with 1 g/kg bw for 10 d were not affected. Six sheep were transferred from an area free of W glauca to an area where this plant was present. These animals ate small amounts of the plant and lost weight rapidly, but clinical intoxication did not occur. Two sheep were fed with lucerne hay containing 9% W glauca. They ingested 2.5 g/kg of the dry plant (corresponding to 10 g/kg bw of fresh plant) in 24 h, but did not show intoxication. Because the intoxication occurred in sheep and cattle administered 4 to 10 g/kg bw of the plant in a period of 1 to 2 h, the intoxication may only occur when animals ingest a single toxic dose in a short time. PMID:8727220

Collazo, L; Riet-Correa, F



Efficacy of dry-off treatment in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of dry-off treatment of sheep in curing chronic intramammary infections and preventing new ones during the dry-off period and during the following lactation was studied in the present work. A total of 85 Israeli-Assaf dairy sheep on one farm in their first, second, third or more lactations were divided into pairs according to bacteriological condition, somatic cell count

M Chaffer; G Leitner; S Zamir; M Winkler; A Glickman; N Ziv; A Saran



Microbiological quality of Australian sheep meat in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third national baseline microbiological survey of Australian sheep carcases and frozen boneless sheep meat was conducted in 2004. Carcases (n=1117) sampled at 20 slaughter establishments were found to have a mean log total viable count (TVC, 25°C) of 2.28 cfu\\/cm2 and Escherichia coli was isolated from 43.0% carcases with a mean log 0.03cfu\\/cm2 on positive samples. In samples from

D. Phillips; D. Jordan; S. Morris; I. Jenson; J. Sumner



Sheep Senses, Social Cognition and Capacity for Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep are generally held in low regard as far as cognition and social skills are concerned. However, there is now increasing\\u000a evidence from studies of their behaviour and brain function that they have highly sophisticated social and emotional recognition\\u000a skills using faces, voices and smells. They are able to recognize and remember many different sheep and humans for several\\u000a years

K. M. Kendrick



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Counts were made of the numbers of spermatozoa in the Fallopian tubes of ewes 24 hr after mating or after insemination with either sheep or goat semen. Spermatozoa were recovered from all five mated ewes (10\\/10 tubes), from all eight ewes inseminated with sheep semen (13\\/15 tubes) and from four of eight ewes inseminated with goat semen (7\\/16 tubes).




Phylogeography and Origin of Sheep Breeds in Northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the establishment of modern sheep production systems in China, various forms of hybridization with Western breeds and\\u000a between native breeds have been utilized for genetic improvement. At the same time, the progressive destruction or deterioration\\u000a of sheep habitat has accompanied urbanization in China. Together these factors have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity,\\u000a or even resulted in the extinction

Yue-Hui Ma; Shao-Qi Rao; Shen-Jin Lu; Guan-Yu Hou; Wei-Jun Guan; Hong-Bin Li; Xia Li; Qian-Jun Zhao; Jun Guo




EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...


Nutrient control of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether positive correlations between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton growth in nutrient addi- tion experiments are due to growth coupling or growth stimulation by the same nutrients, we examined phyto- and bacterioplankton growth in a series of eleven nutrient addition (N P) and light\\/dark experiments. In mesotrophic Castle Lake, the phyto- and bacterioplankton growth responses to phosphorus (P) addition were

Michael T. Brett; Fred S. Lubnow; Manuel Villar-Argaiz; Anke Müller-Solger; Charles R. Goldman



78 FR 24380 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. AMS-LPS-13-0020] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of...information collection 0581-0263: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center. OMB...



75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...concolor) predation on desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) on the Kofa...lion predation to help achieve bighorn sheep population objectives on the Refuge....



76 FR 43649 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions...regulations for the interstate movement of sheep and goats and an indemnity program to control...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement...



Biomass and nutrient allocation of sawgrass and cattail along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and nutrient allocation in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) were examined along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades in 1994. This north to south nutrient gradient, created by discharging nutrient-rich agricultural runoff into the northern region of Water Conservatio ea 2A, was represented by three areas (impacted, transitional and reference). Contrasting changes of plant

S. L. Miao; F. H. Sklar



Effects of eutrophication on vitellogenin gene expression in male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17?-ethynylestradiol in field mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of aquatic secondary nutrient supply levels (nitrogen and phosphorus) on the subcellular response of adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a single nominal concentration of 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a potent synthetic estrogen, under quasi-natural field conditions. Outdoor mesocosms were maintained under low, medium, and high nutrient supply conditions as categorized by total phosphorus (TP)

Denise A. Gordon; Gregory P. Toth; David W. Graham; James M. Lazorchak; Tirumuru V. Reddy; Charles W. Knapp; Frank deNoyelles; Scott Campbell; David L. Lattier



A practical and less invasive total cavopulmonary connection sheep model.  


Our goal was to develop a less invasive total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) sheep model for testing total cavopulmonary assist (CPA) devices. Thirteen sheep underwent a right fourth intercostal lateral thoracotomy. In series I (n = 6), a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) extracardiac conduit (ECC) was connected to inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) by end-to-side anastomosis. The SVC/IVC remained connected to right atrium (RA). A PTFE graft bridged ECC to right pulmonary artery (RPA). Clamps between SVC/IVC anastomoses and RA diverted total venous blood to pulmonary circulation. In series II (n = 7), temporary bypasses between SVC/IVC and RA allowed SVC/IVC to be cut off from RA for better RPA exposure. The ECC-SVC/IVC were end-end anastomosed and ECC-RPA side-side anastomosed for total SVC/IVC to pulmonary artery (PA) conversion. In each series, one sheep died of bleeding. In five sheep in series I and six sheep in series II, the TCPC model was successfully created with significantly increased central venous pressure and significantly decreased PA pressure/arterial blood pressure. Our acute TCPC sheep model has a less traumatic right thoracotomy with no cardiopulmonary bypass and less blood loss with no blood transfusion, facilitating future long-term CPA device evaluation. PMID:24399067

Wang, Dongfang; Plunkett, Mark; Gao, Guodong; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Ballard-Croft, Cherry; Reda, Hassan; Zwischenberger, Joseph B



Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  


Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M



Induction of Allergic Responses to Peanut Allergen in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Peanut allergy is the leading cause of deaths due to food-induced anaphylaxis but despite continued research, there are currently no specific treatments available. Challenge testing is limited in patients due to the high risk of adverse reactions, emphasising the need for an appropriate animal model. In the present study we examine the induction of allergic responses in a sheep model for peanut allergy. Sheep were sensitised with peanut (PN) extract and in separate injections with ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) extract. Serum PN-specific IgE responses were detected in 40–50% of immunised sheep, while only 10% (1 of 10 sheep) showed detectable OVA-specific IgE. All PN-allergic sheep tested showed an Ara h 1-specific IgE response, while four out of five allergic sheep showed an Ara h 2-specific IgE response. Animals with high serum IgE levels to HDM were also PN IgE-positive. Of the PN-sensitised animals with high PN-specific IgE, 80% also showed an immediate hypersensitivity reaction following an intradermal PN injection. This new large animal model of peanut allergy may provide a useful tool for future investigations of allergen-associated immune mechanisms and specific immunotherapy.

Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.



An examination of the selenium nutrition of sheep in Victoria.  


The selenium nutrition of sheep throughout Victoria was assessed by a survey of the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in 708 flocks. It was shown that the blood glutathione peroxidase activity in sheep had a seasonal variation with lowest levels in the spring. The enzyme activity was correlated with the blood selenium concentration. Areas where blood selenium was less than 0.03 micrograms/ml in spring were defined. Sheep with low selenium nutrition were grazing pastures in the high rainfall areas on acid soils, particularly those derived from granite. Selenium concentrations in pasture samples examined were greater than 0.02 mg/kg, and it was found that superphosphate application had no significant effect on the selenium content of pasture. However, management practices such as high stocking rates and rates of application of superphosphate to pasture were associated with low blood glutathione peroxidase activities in sheep. It was concluded that the selenium nutrition of most of the sheep flocks in Victoria is adequate, and that the deficient areas are localised. There seems little requirement for supplementation of adult sheep. As the delayed type of white muscle disease in spring lambs appears to be the main selenium-responsive disorder, direct supplementation of lambs in the low selenium areas would be the most effective method of ensuring adequate selenium nutrition. PMID:7436915

Caple, I W; Andrewartha, K A; Edwards, S J; Halpin, C G



Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.



Foods, nutrients and prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the risk of prostate cancer associated with foods and nutrients, including individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Methods: Population-based case–control study of 858 men aged Results: Inverse associations with prostate cancer were observed for (Odds ratio, OR, 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI for tertile III compared with tertile I) allium vegetables 0.7, 0.5–0.9; p trend 0.01, tomato-based foods

Allison M. Hodge; Dallas R. English; Margaret R. E. McCredie; Gianluca Severi; Peter Boyle; John L. Hopper; Graham G. Giles



Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle



The development of male-oriented behavior in rams.  


The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same-sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Kaufman, Katherine R



The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams  

PubMed Central

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference.

Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine



Androgenic and oestrogenic steroid participation in feedback control of luteinizing hormone secretion in male sheep.  


The acute castrate ram (wether) was used as an experimental model to investigate the site(s) of feedback on luteinizing hormone (LH) by testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and oestradiol. At the time of castration, wethers were implanted subdermally with Silastic capsules containing either crystalline testosterone (three 30 cm capsules), dihydrotestosterone (five 30 cm capsules) or oestradiol (one 6.5 cm capsule). Blood samples were taken at 10 min intervals for 6 h 2 weeks after implantation to determine serum steroid concentrations and to characterize the patterns of LH secretion. Pituitary LH response to exogenous LRH (5 ng/kg body weight) were also determined at the same time. The steroid implants produced serum concentrations of the respective hormones which were either one-third (testosterone) or two-to-four times (dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol) the levels measured in rams at the time of castration. Non-implanted wethers showed rhythmic pulses of LH (pulse interval 40-60 min) and had elevated LH levels (16.1 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; mean +/- SE) 2 weeks after castration. All three steroids suppressed pulsatile LH release and reduced mean LH levels (to below 3 ng/ml) and pituitary LH responses to LRH. Inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion by all three steroids indicated that testosterone as well as its androgenic and oestrogenic metabolites can inhibit the LRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus. Additional feedback on the pituitary was indicated by the dampened LH responses to exogenous LRH. PMID:6342323

D'Occhio, M J; Schanbacher, B D; Kinder, J E



Nutrients in the Atlantic thermocline  

SciTech Connect

A set of maps are presented of nutrient distribution on isopycnal surfaces in the North and tropical Atlantic Ocean main thermocline. The data used in producing these maps are from the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) North Atlantic Study and Tropical Atlantic Study, an associated German study (Meteor 56/5), two cross-Atlantic sections from cruise 109 of the Atlantis II, and the GEOSECS program. The nutrient distributions reflect primarily the sources at the northern and southern outcrops of the isopycnal surfaces, the in situ regeneration due to decomposition of sinking organic materials, and the interior physical processes as inferred from thermocline models and the distribution of conservative properties such as salinity. However, silica also exhibits behavior that cannot be explained by in situ regeneration. A simple phenomenological model suggests that cross-isopycnal advection and mixing in the equatorial region may play an important role in the nutrient dynamics. These data should prove of great value in constraining models of physical as well as biogeochemical processes. 43 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

Kawase, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.



Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

Barzen, J. A.; Serie, J. R.



Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared to prior studies of the other three NOAA-managed reference marshes in the Hudson Valley. The data supplements carbon content data (presented in a companion poster) to estimate the carbon cycling and sequestration capacity of the Marsh sediments. Nutrient data is being collected as one component of a broad ecological and geochemical study of the Marsh and its adaptation to human influence (see companion posters on carbon cycling and habitat utilization in the Marsh). All data were collected and analyzed as part of Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program, which engages NYC high school teachers and students in research in the Hudson/Raritan estuarine environment.

Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Diaz, K.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.



Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce



Gay Male Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of empirically-based publications on gay male gerontology was conducted. A total of 58 articles is presented. Findings indicate that the long-held negative stereotypes of gay male elders are unwarranted and have been repeatedly debunked. Happiness and successful adaptation to old age are possible and are frequently reported by older gay men. Substantial and unique competencies in old age

Jim Wahler; Sarah G. Gabbay



Male butterflies bounce back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About five years ago, on the islands of Samoa, most of the male Hypolimnas bolina butterflies, also known as the Eggfly or Blue Moon butterfly, disappeared. Now, scientists report that the males have made a comeback and are almost as common as females.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Black Male Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

Feintuch, Howard



Accuracy of genotype imputation in sheep breeds.  


Although genomic selection offers the prospect of improving the rate of genetic gain in meat, wool and dairy sheep breeding programs, the key constraint is likely to be the cost of genotyping. Potentially, this constraint can be overcome by genotyping selection candidates for a low density (low cost) panel of SNPs with sparse genotype coverage, imputing a much higher density of SNP genotypes using a densely genotyped reference population. These imputed genotypes would then be used with a prediction equation to produce genomic estimated breeding values. In the future, it may also be desirable to impute very dense marker genotypes or even whole genome re-sequence data from moderate density SNP panels. Such a strategy could lead to an accurate prediction of genomic estimated breeding values across breeds, for example. We used genotypes from 48?640 (50K) SNPs genotyped in four sheep breeds to investigate both the accuracy of imputation of the 50K SNPs from low density SNP panels, as well as prospects for imputing very dense or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K SNPs (by leaving out a small number of the 50K SNPs at random). Accuracy of imputation was low if the sparse panel had less than 5000 (5K) markers. Across breeds, it was clear that the accuracy of imputing from sparse marker panels to 50K was higher if the genetic diversity within a breed was lower, such that relationships among animals in that breed were higher. The accuracy of imputation from sparse genotypes to 50K genotypes was higher when the imputation was performed within breed rather than when pooling all the data, despite the fact that the pooled reference set was much larger. For Border Leicesters, Poll Dorsets and White Suffolks, 5K sparse genotypes were sufficient to impute 50K with 80% accuracy. For Merinos, the accuracy of imputing 50K from 5K was lower at 71%, despite a large number of animals with full genotypes (2215) being used as a reference. For all breeds, the relationship of individuals to the reference explained up to 64% of the variation in accuracy of imputation, demonstrating that accuracy of imputation can be increased if sires and other ancestors of the individuals to be imputed are included in the reference population. The accuracy of imputation could also be increased if pedigree information was available and was used in tracking inheritance of large chromosome segments within families. In our study, we only considered methods of imputation based on population-wide linkage disequilibrium (largely because the pedigree for some of the populations was incomplete). Finally, in the scenarios designed to mimic imputation of high density or whole genome re-sequence data from the 50K panel, the accuracy of imputation was much higher (86-96%). This is promising, suggesting that in silico genome re-sequencing is possible in sheep if a suitable pool of key ancestors is sequenced for each breed. PMID:22221027

Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Daetwyler, H D; Kijas, J W; van der Werf, J H J



Prepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep.  


In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brain's sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH analog (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 3 weeks, beginning just before puberty. To determine the effects of GnRHa treatment on sex-specific behavior and emotion regulation in different social contexts, we employed the food acquisition task (FAT) and measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). ANOVA revealed significant sex and sex×treatment interaction effects, suggesting that treated males were more likely to leave their companions to acquire food than untreated, while the opposite effect was observed in females. Concordant results were seen in HRV; treated males displayed higher HRV than untreated, while the reverse pattern was found in females, as shown by significant sex and sex×treatment interaction effects. We conclude that long-term prepubertal GnRHa treatment significantly affected sex-specific brain development, which impacted emotion and behavior regulation in sheep. These results suggest that GnRH is a modulator of cognitive function in the developing brain and that the sexes are differentially affected by GnRH modulation. PMID:20934426

Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Sütterlin, Stefan; Erhard, Hans W; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Olberg, Dag Erlend; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold



Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep: some biochemical changes.  


The effect of high dietary sulfur (S) supplementation on blood thiamine (B1) concentration, biochemical indices of liver, muscle and kidney damage and selected plasma electrolytes was studied in six sheep. Three of these sheep received an additional 230 mg thiamine/kg diet (Group 2). After approximately 2.5-3 weeks on this diet, all three sheep in the non-B1-supplemented group (Group 1) showed loss of appetite and developed mild neurological signs: depression, intermittent signs of excitation and head pressing. Increases in blood B1 concentration and plasma creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed during this time in all affected animals. Clinical signs lasted only for two to five days. Sheep in group 2 were clinically normal throughout the experiment, but all of these animals also had elevated blood B1 concentrations and plasma CK activity at the 3 wk sampling. Plasma magnesium concentrations of group 1 sheep were elevated at the 2.5-3 wk and 6 wk samplings but they declined significantly (p less than 0.05) to low normal levels thereafter. Magnesium concentrations of group 2 sheep were low at the beginning but progressively increased during the course of the experiment. At necropsy, brain lesions suggestive of polioencephalomalacia (PEM) were observed in all sheep but were most marked in group 1. It is speculated that PEM may be caused by a direct toxic effect of S, S metabolites or B1 antimetabolites in the brain rather than by an in vivo B1 deficiency per se. PMID:2574073

Gooneratne, S R; Olkowski, A A; Christensen, D A



Sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia in sheep: some biochemical changes.  

PubMed Central

The effect of high dietary sulfur (S) supplementation on blood thiamine (B1) concentration, biochemical indices of liver, muscle and kidney damage and selected plasma electrolytes was studied in six sheep. Three of these sheep received an additional 230 mg thiamine/kg diet (Group 2). After approximately 2.5-3 weeks on this diet, all three sheep in the non-B1-supplemented group (Group 1) showed loss of appetite and developed mild neurological signs: depression, intermittent signs of excitation and head pressing. Increases in blood B1 concentration and plasma creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed during this time in all affected animals. Clinical signs lasted only for two to five days. Sheep in group 2 were clinically normal throughout the experiment, but all of these animals also had elevated blood B1 concentrations and plasma CK activity at the 3 wk sampling. Plasma magnesium concentrations of group 1 sheep were elevated at the 2.5-3 wk and 6 wk samplings but they declined significantly (p less than 0.05) to low normal levels thereafter. Magnesium concentrations of group 2 sheep were low at the beginning but progressively increased during the course of the experiment. At necropsy, brain lesions suggestive of polioencephalomalacia (PEM) were observed in all sheep but were most marked in group 1. It is speculated that PEM may be caused by a direct toxic effect of S, S metabolites or B1 antimetabolites in the brain rather than by an in vivo B1 deficiency per se.

Gooneratne, S R; Olkowski, A A; Christensen, D A



Executive Decision-Making in the Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque) and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the ‘gold-standard’ laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting). Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID) and extradimensional (ED) set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform ‘executive’ cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

Morton, A. Jennifer; Avanzo, Laura



A Study on BMPR-IB Genes of Bayanbulak Sheep  

PubMed Central

The average twin lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep is 2% to 3%. However, a flock of sheep with a close genetic relationship and an average of 2 to 3 lambs per birth has been found recently. To determine the major genes controlling the prolificacy of the flock in the present study, the flock was designated A while 100 normal Bayanbulak sheep were randomly selected to comprise the control flock B. Ligase detection reaction method was applied to detect and analyze the 10 mutational loci of the 3 candidate prolificacy genes including bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and growth differentiation factor 9. The 10 mutational loci are as follows: FecB locus of the BMPR-IB gene; FecXI, FecXB, FecXL, FecXH, FecXG, and FecXR of the BMP15 gene; and G1, G8, and FecTT of the GDF9 gene. Two mutations including BMPR-IB/FecB and GDF9/G1 were found in Bayanbulak sheep. Independence test results of the two flocks demonstrate that the FecB locus has a significant effect on the lambing number of Bayanbulak sheep. However, the mutation frequency of the G1 locus in GDF9 is very low. Independence test results demonstrate that the GDF9 locus does not have a significant impact on the lambing performance of Bayanbulak sheep. Among the 10 detected loci, BMPR-IB/FecB is the major gene that influences the high lambing rate of Bayanbulak sheep.

Zuo, Beiyao; Qian, Hongguang; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Xu; Nisa, Noor; Bayier, Aierdin; Ying, Shijia; Hu, Xiaolong; Gong, Changhai; Guo, Zhiqin; Wang, Feng



Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

Udevitz, M. S.; Shults, B. S.; Adams, L. G.; Kleckner, C.



High periconceptional protein intake modifies uterine and embryonic relationships increasing early pregnancy losses and embryo growth retardation in sheep.  


The effects of supplemented protein level (PL) during the periconceptional period and their interaction with body condition were evaluated in sheep. Multiparous Rambouillet ewes (n = 12) received two PL of rumen undegradable protein (UIP) during a 30-day pre-mating and 15-day post-mating period: low [LPL, 24% crude protein (CP), 14 g UIP and 36 g/CP animal/day] and high [HPL, 44% CP, 30 g UIP and 50 g/CP animal/day]. While ovulation rate (OR) did not differ between treatments (1.6 +/- 0.5, mean +/- SEM), a lower fertility rate, a decreased embryo number and a reduced uterine pH (UpH) was observed in the HPL group (p < 0.05), irrespective of BC. Luteal tissue weight, volume and progesterone secretion did not differ among treatments. Sheep with lower UpH also had lower conceptus weight (Cwt; p < 0.05, r = 0.65) and conceptuses with lower mass tended to secrete less INF-tau and IGF-1, and the correspondent endometrial explants had a higher basal PGF(2alpha) release. Current study indicates that high protein diets during the periconceptional period in sheep modify uterine and embryonic relationships, increasing early pregnancy losses and inducing embryo growth retardation. Surviving embryos were affected by weight reductions, which could compromise later foetal growth and birth weight. Results evidence the key role of a balanced diet in reproductive success and indicate that the quality and nutrient composition of the maternal diet are essential for an adequate establishment of pregnancy, having paramount effects on the interplay of the embryo and the uterus. PMID:19220796

Meza-Herrera, C A; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Hawkins, D E; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A



Biological control of nematode parasites in sheep.  


In a world in which sheep producers are facing increasing problems due to the rapid spread of anthelmintic resistance, the battle against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes is a difficult one. One of the potential new tools for integrated control strategies is biological control by means of the nematode-destroying microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. This fungus forms sticky traps that catch developing larval stages of parasitic nematodes in the fecal environment. When resting spores (chlamydospores) of this fungus are fed daily to grazing animals for a period of time, the pasture infectivity and thus, the worm burden of grazing animals are lowered, especially in young lambs. Research has been conducted throughout the world covering many different climates and management systems. An Australian parasite model showed that if the fungus performs efficiently (> or =90% reduction in worm burden) for 2 or 3 mo, it should contribute significantly to a reduction in the number of dead lambs otherwise occurring when managed only by anthelmintic treatment and grazing management. Feeding or field trials have clearly demonstrated that dosing with a few hundred thousand spores per kilogram of live BW not only reduced the number of infective larvae but also increased the BW of the lambs compared with controls not given fungus. Initial Australian work with feeding spores by means of a block formulation or a slow-release device has shown some promise, but further work is needed to fully develop these delivery systems. In tropical Malaysia, small paddock trials and field studies resulted in significant improvements, in terms of lower worm burdens and increased live BW, when feeding half a million spores daily to grazing lambs. Additional benefits have been observed when the fungus is employed in combination with a fast rotational grazing system. Research has also demonstrated that spores can be delivered in slightly moist feed block material, but only if such blocks are consumed rapidly, because of their very short shelf life. In the northern, temperate Danish climate it has been demonstrated that daily feeding of half a million spores per kilogram of live BW can lead to significant production benefits, with increased live BW gain in fungus-exposed animals. Biological control of parasitic nematodes in sheep seems to hold promise for the future, but to be able to assist producers, the optimal delivery system needs to be refined and further developed. In addition, more work will be needed to define the best use of this technology in different geographic regions. PMID:16582084

Larsen, M



Soil Moisture, Plant Nutrient Uptake, and Computer Simulation of Nutrient Export  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correct estimate of nutrient discharge from soil is important in nutrient management for protecting water quality of receiving water. Solute property, soil physical and chemical property, climatic factors, water supplies, microorganism activities, and plant uptake play important rolls in sub-ground nutrient cycle. Soil water movement provides forcing for transport of dissolved nutrients within the soil and their discharge from land to a receiving water. Solute export is proportional to water discharge and solute concentration in the soil pool. Plant uptake reduces the amount of nutrient in the soil and reduces export potential. Soil moisture level has a significant effect on the uptake of nutrient by plant, which involves both solute transport and complex physiological responses of plant. Plant nutrient uptake is not a monotonic function with soil moisture. Experiments show that plant uptake increases from a dry soil to moist soil, hence, reducing the potential of nutrient export. However, when moisture is over-sufficient in a wet soil, then more moisture would not cause higher nutrient uptake but increase export potential due to higher water discharge. This paper discusses the relationship among soil moisture, nutrient concentration, evapotranspiration, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient export from land, and presents a computer model on these processes, providing a method to simulate plant nutrient uptake and nutrient export under various moisture conditions.

Wang, P.; Linker, L. C.



Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse  

PubMed Central

Background Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual identity by descent rate. Results Depending on breed and method, effective population sizes ranged from 15 to 133 056, computation method and interaction between computation method and species showing a significant effect on effective population size (P < 0.0001). On average, methods based on number of breeding males and females and variance of progeny size produced larger values (4425 and 356, respectively), than those based on identity by descent probabilities (average values between 93 and 203). Since breeding practices and genetic substructure within dog breeds increased inbreeding, methods taking into account the evolution of inbreeding produced lower effective population sizes than those taking into account evolution of coancestry. The correlation level between the simplest method (number of breeding males and females, requiring no genealogical information) and the most sophisticated one ranged from 0.44 to 0.60 according to species. Conclusions When choosing a method to compute effective population size, particular attention should be paid to the species and the specific genetic structure of the population studied.



Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

Michalzik, B.



Predictors of male microchimerism.  


The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne



? -galactosidase activity in fibroblasts and tissues from sheep with a lysosomal storage disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues and fibroblasts of sheep affected with an inherited, neuronal lysosomal storage disease expressed a deficiency of\\u000a ?-galactosidase activity. Cerebrum, kidney, lung, spinal cord, and spleen from affected sheep had less than 8% of the ?-galactosidase\\u000a activity present in the respective tissues of normal sheep. No evidence for the presence of an endogenous inhibitor in affected\\u000a sheep was detected by

Amelia J. Ahern-Rindell; Robert D. Murnane; David J. Prieur



Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: An Australasian perspective.  


Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. PMID:25015875

Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H



Arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland.  


Cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an ICP-MS and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenocholine (AsC), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). The arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in the urine and blood serum of seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland. The sheep eat 2-4 kg of seaweed daily which is washed ashore on the most northern Island of Orkney. The urine, blood and wool of 20 North Ronaldsay sheep and kidney, liver and muscle from 11 sheep were sampled and analysed for their arsenic species. In addition five Dorset Finn sheep, which lived entirely on grass, were used as a control group. The sheep have a body burden of approximately 45-90 mg arsenic daily. Since the metabolism of arsenic species varies with the arsenite and arsenate being the most toxic, and organoarsenic compounds such as arsenobetaine the least toxic compounds, the determination of the arsenic species in the diet and their body fluids are important. The major arsenic species in their diet are arsenoribosides. The major metabolite excreted into urine and blood is DMAA (95 +/- 4.1%) with minor amounts of MMAA, riboside X, TMA and an unidentified species. The occurrence of MMAA is assumed to be a precursor of the exposure to inorganic arsenic, since demethylation of dimethylated or trimethylated organoarsenic compounds is not known (max. MMAA concentration 259 microg/L). The concentrations in the urine (3179 +/- 2667 microg/L) and blood (44 +/- 19 microg/kg) are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the level of arsenic in the urine of the control sheep or literature levels of blood for the unexposed sheep. The tissue samples (liver: 292 +/- 99 microg/kg, kidney: 565 +/- 193 microg/kg, muscle: 680 +/- 224 microg/kg) and wool samples (10470 +/- 5690 microg/kg) show elevated levels which are also 100 times higher than the levels for the unexposed sheep. PMID:11220824

Feldmann, J; John, K; Pengprecha, P



Sheep scab control using trans-cinnamic acid.  


A series of in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to examine the effects of trans-cinnamic acid ethyl ester on Psoroptes mange mites. In vitro, 24h after exposure to the test material at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1% (v/v), 100, 74 and 20% of mites had died, respectively, compared to 8% following exposure to the control (0.05% SDS only). The different life-cycle stages were affected similarly by the test compound. The concentration required to produce 95% mortality 24h after exposure to the test compound was 6.29% (95% confidence interval 4.98-8.88). Tarsal contact of the mites with the test compound was also sufficient to achieve high levels of mortality; 100% death was observed when the mites were placed in contact with either sheep skin circles treated to give 0.01 ml/cm(2) or polyester cloth circles treated with 0.03 ml/cm(2). However, the residual activity of both skin and cloth treated with 0.03 ml/cm(2) was completely lost after 7 days. In vivo, trans-cinnamic acid ethyl ester suspended in 2% (w/v) lecithin was applied as a spray formulation to eight sheep with active artificial infestations of sheep scab. Seven of the 8 treated sheep were cured and remained completely clear of scab mites for 56 days. However, 33 days after treatment 2 adult female mites were observed on one of the eight treated sheep and the mite population on this sheep subsequently recovered. In contrast, in a control group of two infested sheep, treated with a 2% (w/v) lecithin only, mite populations increased as expected in a typical scab infestation, but eventually self-cured in one animal. The data suggest that, with appropriate development of suitable application technology, trans-cinnamic acid ethyl ester could have a role as a potential therapeutic treatment for active sheep scab, however the short residual period of activity is likely to limit its use in commercial sheep flocks. PMID:20947252

Wall, R; Bates, P



Estrus synchronization in sheep with synthetic progestagens.  


Sixteen female sheep of Degua breed were assigned to receive either the full dose of norgestomet ear implant and injectable solution containing norgestomet and estradiol valerate (n = 8) or half the dose (n = 8). The ear implants were removed in both groups on day 12. All ewes received an intramuscular administration of 500 IU PMSG at implant withdrawal. Synchronized ewes were individually hand mated twice at 48 and 60 hours after implant removal. One ewe in each group however refused mating on both occasions. Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted by bimanual external palpation 90 to 100 days post mating. The conception rates (3/7, 42.85%) and (5/7, 71.42%) were recorded in the two treatment groups, respectively. All eight ewes lambed between 145 to 153 days post mating. In group I ewes carried only singletons (prolificity rate 1.0) whereas in group II two ewes delivered twins, producing 7 lambs with prolificity rate of 1.4 (N.S). From this preliminary investigation it appears that the lower dose of norgestomet ear implants offers better option for estrus synchronization accompanied by higher fertility. PMID:19343528

Awel, Hayatu; Eshetu, Lisanework; Tadesse, Gebrehiwot; Birhanu, Alemselam; Khar, S K



Experimental T-2 toxicosis in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Lambs received T-2 toxin at a rate of 0.6 or 0.3 mg/kg body weight per day in a protein reduced diet for 21 days to study the immunological and pathological effects of T-2 toxin in sheep. Blood was collected before T-2 treatment and on days 7, 14 and 21 of the trial for hematological and biochemical examination and for the separation of peripheral blood lymphocytes for the mitogen assay. Myeloid:erythroid ratios were determined from sternal bone marrow samples taken a day before T-2 treatment began, on day 12 and at death (day 22). Lambs treated with 0.6 mg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin daily were leukopenic on day 7 and lymphopenic on days 7 and 14. Also, on day 7, the mitogenic responses of these lambs to the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide, were significantly depressed and prothrombin times were prolonged. At necropsy, lymphoid atrophy of mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens was most marked in lambs treated with 0.6 mg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin per day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of leukopenia, lymphopenia and lymphoid depletion in ruminants fed T-2 toxin. Images Fig. 3a. Fig. 3b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b. Fig. 6a. Fig. 6b.

Friend, S C; Hancock, D S; Schiefer, H B; Babiuk, L A



Sheep antibodies to soluble rat collagen  

PubMed Central

Sheep were immunized by multiple injections of acid-extracted rat tail tendon tropocollagen. Antibody activity could be demonstrated by quantitative precipitation and passive haemagglutination against denatured tropocollagen. Immunodiffusion experiments showed strong precipitin lines with denatured tendon tropocollagen, and with peptides obtained by CNBr digestion of whole rat tail tendon. Immunoelectrophoresis showed one line with denatured tropocollagen but four lines with the CNBr digest of whole tendon indicating at least four antigenic determinants. Immunosorbents prepared from antisera raised against tropocollagen readily absorbed labelled peptides from CNBr digests of rat tail tendons reduced with tritiated borohydride. These peptides were recoverable by desorption with 1 M ammonia and had a hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine content typical of collagen but increased tyrosine levels. Presence of the normal reducible components of collagen known to be involved in cross-linking was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography, and there was an increase in the proportion of fraction C. The majority of the tritium label was found in a cross-linked peptide, or group of peptides, with molecular weight around 60,000. The technique therefore has the potential for further development in the isolation of specific collagen peptides. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4

Chidlow, J. W.; Bourne, F. J.; Bailey, A. J.



Occurrence of non-cerebral coenurosis in sheep.  


This study reports seven rare cases of non-cerebral coenurosis in sheep. The sheep were slaughtered in abattoirs of Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) but originated from India, Iran, Oman and Sudan. The prevalence of infection with non-cerebral coenurosis was 0.008%. The locations of the cysts were the triceps brachii muscle, the diaphragm, the infraspinatus muscle of the shoulder, the muscles of the thigh and the abdomen, and the ommentum. The Coenurus cysts were surrounded by a fibrous, semi-opaque membrane, cloudy white in colour. Altogether, 12 cysts were recovered and all contained a single bladderworm. Cysts had a volume of 7.3 ± 1.30 cm3 (ml), with 7.3 ± 4.0 clusters of scolices, and an average number of scolices 75.3 ± 24.4. These features in sheep were similar to those reported for non-cerebral Coenurus cysts in goats. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord of any of the infected sheep. No clinical evidence of non-cerebral coenurosis had been recorded during the antemortem veterinary inspection of the infected sheep. PMID:22260813

Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G



Ultrasound as a monitoring tool for cystic echinococcosis in sheep.  


An ultrasound-based survey for cystic echinococcosis (CE) in sheep was carried out in Sardinia in 2012. The study was done on three farms (A, B, C) which had been pre-selected for different CE prevalence levels (A: >80%, B: 50-80%, C: <50%). In total, 129 sheep were examined on the farms using portable ultrasound equipment (A: n=51, B: n=30, C: n=48). Within a period of 20 days after ultrasound examination, all sheep were slaughtered and underwent a parasitological post-mortem examination for cysts in the liver and lungs. With post-mortem as gold standard, ultrasonography gave a test sensitivity of 88.7% and a specificity of 75.9%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 81.8% and 84.6%, respectively. When only sheep with fertile cysts were considered, the sensitivity of the test increased to 100%. We conclude that the ultrasound examination of the liver in sheep - using state-of-the-art technology - is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool, which is cost-effective, highly appropriate for field use and requires only moderate time (no shaving required). The method can also be applied to other livestock species and will be useful tool in epidemiological studies, monitoring schemes and vaccination/control trials. PMID:24704343

Dore, F; Varcasia, A; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Corda, A; Romig, T; Scala, A



Mitochondrial diversity and the origin of Iberian sheep  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds.

Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-Jose; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermin; Bayon, Yolanda



Mitochondrial diversity and the origin of Iberian sheep.  


Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds. PMID:17212950

Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-José; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermín; Bayón, Yolanda



Separate Critical Periods Exist for Testosterone-Induced Differentiation of the Brain and Genitals in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Sheep exposed to testosterone during a critical period from gestational day (GD) 30 to GD 90 develop masculine genitals and an enlarged male-typical ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (oSDN). The present study tested the hypothesis that separate critical periods exist for masculinization of these two anatomical end points. Pregnant ewes were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) either from GD 30 to GD 60 (early TP) or GD 60 to GD 90 (late TP). Control (C) pregnant ewes were treated with corn oil. Fetuses were delivered at GD 135 and the volume of the oSDN was measured. Early TP females possessed a penis and a scrotum devoid of testes, whereas late TP and C females had normal female genitals. Neither period of TP exposure grossly affected the genitals of male fetuses. Despite masculinized genitals, the mean volume of the oSDN in early TP females (0.32 ± 0.06 mm3) was not different from C females (0.24 ± 0.02 mm3) but was significantly enlarged in late TP females (0.49 ± 0.04 mm3; P < 0.05 vs. C) when the genitals appeared normal. In contrast, the volume of the oSDN in late TP males (0.51 ± 0.02 mm3) was not different from C males (0.51 ± 0.04 mm3) but was significantly smaller in the early TP males (0.35 ± 0.04 mm3; P < 0.05 vs. C). These results demonstrate that the prenatal critical period for androgen-dependent differentiation of the oSDN occurs later than, and can be separated temporally from, the period for development of masculine genitals.

Estill, Charles T.; Stadelman, Henry L.; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred



An epidemiological study of sheep pox infection in Karnataka state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Analysis of retrospective quantitative sheep pox epidemiological data from the Government Animal Husbandry Department, Karnataka, India, covering 24 years revealed significant information on sheep pox. The state has a dense sheep population including some valuable breeds. Data revealed the endemicity of the disease: there were a considerable number of outbreaks and attacks, high mortality and case fatality rates and

V. Bhanuprakash; G. Krishnappa; R. N. Srinivasa Gowda; B. K. Indrani



Sheep May Not Be an Important Zoonotic Reservoir for Cryptosporidium and Giardia Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in sheep and the genotypes that they harbor, although potentially sheep may contribute significantly to contamination of watersheds. In the present study, conducted in Western Australia, a total of 1,647 sheep fecal samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. using microscopy, and a subset (n

Una M. Ryan; Caroline Bath; Ian Robertson; Carolyn Read; Aileen Elliot; Linda Mcinnes; Rebecca Traub; Brown Besier



Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild and domestic animal populations are known to be sources and reservoirs of emerging diseases. There is also a growing recognition that horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. We used molecular phylogenetic methods to assess diversity and cross-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep and domestic goats. Members

Scott T. Kelley; E. Frances Cassirer; Glen C. Weiser; Shirin Safaee



Nitrogen mineralization from sheep faeces can be predicted from the apparent digestibility of the feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to predict plant availability of N in faeces because most faecal N is bound in organic form. In this study the influence of diet and faeces composition on mineralization of sheep faeces in soil were investigated. Net mineralization of C and N from 16 different samples of sheep faeces originating from sheep fed different known diets was

Peter Kyvsgaard; Peter Sørensen; Erik Møller; Jakob Magid



Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

Keller, B. J.; Bender, L. C.



Complications in Dall Sheep Management in Alaska: A Case of Agency Abdication?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen years ago, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) essentially withdrew from Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) management. This withdrawal was driven by a regulatory change which defined surplus Dall sheep for harvest as full curl rams. Subsequently, changes in prevailing weather put sheep populations in decline throughout the state. About the same time predator management was suspended.



Extensive Variation and Sub-Structuring in Lineage A mtDNA in Indian Sheep: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of Sheep in India  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 ± 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 ± 0.005 to 0.01 ± 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route.

Singh, Sachin; Kumar Jr, Satish; Kolte, Atul P.; Kumar, Satish



Nutrient transports in a Swedish estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Himmerfjärd is a Swedish estuary bordering on the Baltic. The estuary lacks astronomical tides and its circulation is driven by winds and freshwater runoff. Because of a tertiary sewage treatment plant located at its inner end, the estuary is becoming increasingly eutrophic. A field study was carried out for a 78-day period in late summer and early fall of 1977 to determine rates of nutrient transport and to construct nutrient budgets. Since physical parameters (current velocity, temperature, salinity, winds and water level changes) were measured more frequently than nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) it was necessary to develop a suitable method to calculate nutrient flux time series and net nutrient fluxes. Over the study period, Himmerfjärd imported phosphorus and exported nitrogen. Direction of nutrient fluxes and changes in flux direction were consistent with the structure of the baroclinic currents.

Wilmot, Wayne; Toll, Peter; Kjerfve, Björn



Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.  


Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. PMID:24746891

Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan



Males and Eating Disorders  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...


Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina



Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.



[Nutrient supplements - possibilities and limitations].  


The consumption of micronutrient-supplements by the general public has become widespread; between 25 and more than 40% of individuals questioned in western developed nations confirm to regularly consume such products. In principle, there are two product categories for micronutrient-supplements - medicinal products (drugs) and foodstuffs. The latter are marketed as food supplements (FS) and dietary foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). FS serve the general supplementation of any consumer whilst foodstuffs for particular nutritional uses are directed at consumers with special dietary requirements; FSMP are intended for the dietary management of patients. There are clearly defined legal frameworks for those product categories. Independently of their legal product status, six areas of application can be characterised for micronutrient-supplements: general and special supplementation, primary prevention, compensation of disease-related deficits, therapeutic function and containment of diseases or avoidance of subsequent damages (secondary and tertiary function). Gauged with the mean-intake, micro nutrient supply in Germany is sufficient (exception: folic acid and vitamin D; partially also iodine). However, the intake of vitamins E, C, B1 and B2 as well as the minerals calcium, magnesium, zinc and iodine could be improved in 20-50% of the general public. Micro nutrient preparations in physiological dose could contribute to closing this gap in supply. PMID:23758028

Ströhle, Alexander; Hahn, Andreas



Male Hormonal Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis has been established\\u000a over the last three decades. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone\\u000a alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required\\u000a of which progestins are favored. Current clinical trials concentrate

E. Nieschlag


Thyroid and male reproduction  

PubMed Central

Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana



Cultivating male allies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships\\u000a with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies”\\u000a and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality,\\u000a producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests,

Bonnie Lori Hooks; Penny Anthon Green



Counseling Gay Male Clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the removal of homosexuality from the DSM-II in 1973, practicing clinicians tended to focus on one goal in treating gay male clients (i.e., attempting to “convert” gay men to heterosexuality). However, as views toward homosexuality began to change in mental health, therapeutic goals in working with gay males concomitantly changed. Unfortunately, practitioners have had limited treatment efficacy (i.e.,

John H. Dunkle



Nutrient sensing, metabolism, and cell growth control  

PubMed Central

Summary Cell growth is regulated by coordination of both extracellular nutrients and intracellular metabolite concentrations. AMP activated kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 serve as key molecules that sense cellular energy and nutrients levels, respectively. In addition, the dioxygenase family, including prolylhydroxylase, lysine demethylase, and DNA demethylase, has emerged as possible sensors of intracellular metabolic status. The interplay among nutrients, metabolites, gene expression, and protein modification are involved in the coordination of cell growth with extracellular and intracellular conditions.

Yuan, Hai-Xin; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang



Abomasal coccidiosis associated with proliferative abomasitis in a sheep.  


Abomasal coccidiosis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old female sheep that died after a 2-week period of anorexia and diarrhea. The abomasal mucosa was grossly thickened with a nodular surface and focal areas of hemorrhage. Microscopically, the middle to deep abomasal mucosa contained many intact and ruptured giant protozoal schizonts associated with hyperplasia of mucous neck cells, parietal cell atrophy, moderate lymphocytic-plasmacytic inflammation, and fibrosis centered on mineralized remnants of degenerate schizont walls. Sexual tissue stages and oocysts were not present. Microscopic features of schizonts and ultrastuctural features of merozoites were comparable to previous descriptions of Eimeria (Globidium) gilruthi, a coccidian of uncertain taxonomic status historically associated with incidental infections of the abomasum in sheep and goats. The distinctive lesions suggest that, similar to ostertagiasis, heavy coccidial infection of the abomasum should be considered as a cause of anorexia, diarrhea, and proliferative abomasitis in sheep. PMID:17459846

Maratea, Kimberly A; Miller, Margaret A



An Autosomal Genetic Linkage Map of the Sheep Genome  

PubMed Central

We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation fullsib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 222. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes.

Crawford, A. M.; Dodds, K. G.; Ede, A. J.; Pierson, C. A.; Montgomery, G. W.; Garmonsway, H. G.; Beattie, A. E.; Davies, K.; Maddox, J. F.; Kappes, S. W.; Stone, R. T.; Nguyen, T. C.; Penty, J. M.; Lord, E. A.; Broom, J. E.; Buitkamp, J.; Schwaiger, W.; Epplen, J. T.; Matthew, P.; Matthews, M. E.; Hulme, D. J.; Beh, K. J.; McGraw, R. A.; Beattie, C. W.



An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome  

SciTech Connect

We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [and others



Trace minerals in serum of sheep infected with Trypanosoma congolense.  


Yankassa sheep (20) were grouped into A and B and infected with Trypanosoma congolense isolated from a cow and maintained in mice. Two milliliter x 10(7) parasites were used to infect group A. The course of the infection and serum trace minerals (Iron, (Fe) and Copper, (Cu) were studied and determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). There was significant drop in concentration of iron (p<0.001) Post Infection (pi) while that of copper, no significant change (p>0.05). The values of the contemporaneously uninfected control sheep were significantly higher for iron and not for copper. Sheep are susceptible to isolate from cow and passaged in mice and with the fluctuating concentrations of Fe and consistency of Cu, it may suggest that these minerals may have a role in the pathogenesis of trypanosomosis due to T. congolense. PMID:19070033

Neils, J S; Sackey, A K B; Abdullahi, U S; Esievo, K A N



Antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin in naturally parasitized sheep.  


Sixteen sheep harboring naturally acquired parasitisms were allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups: (i) sheep given ivermectin in an oral solution at the dosage rate of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, and (ii) those given the vehicle at a dosage rate of 0.25 ml/kg. All animals were necropsied at 2 weeks after treatment. Parasites and percentages of parasitic reductions, as demonstrated in this trial, were: Dictyocaulus filaria (99.4%), Oestrus ovis first stage instars (100%), Trichuris ovis (98.9%), Strongyloides papillosus (99.8%), Nematodirus spathiger (100%), arrested 4th stage Nematodirus spp (96.2%), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (100%), T axei (100%), Oster tagia circumcincta (100%), Haemonchus contortus (100%), and arrested Haemonchus spp 4th stage larvae (99.9%). The sheep showed no adverse effects due to ivermectin or vehicle administration. PMID:6689112

Yazwinski, T A; Greenway, T; Presson, B L; Pote, L M; Featherstone, H; Williams, M



Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sheep is an important model animal for testing novel fracture treatments and other medical applications. Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes. RESULTS: In this work we have

Jochen Hecht; Heiner Kuhl; Stefan A Haas; Sebastian Bauer; Albert J Poustka; Jasmin Lienau; Hanna Schell; Asita C Stiege; Volkhard Seitz; Richard Reinhardt; Georg N Duda; Stefan Mundlos; Peter N Robinson



Can Nutrient Spiralling be Used to Detect Seasonal Nutrient Uptake in a Forested Stream?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient spiralling measurements were conducted in Lyrebird Creek, a forested stream in the Dandenong Ranges, Victoria, Australia.\\u000a Spiralling indices from several nutrient ($${\\\\text{NH}}^{ + }_{4} $$, $${\\\\text{PO}}^{{3 - }}_{4} $$) enrichment experiments were correlated with seasonal variation in factors thought to control nutrient uptake, i.e., temperature,\\u000a light and algal biomass. It was hypothesized that nutrient uptake would be higher in

Sulfikar Hanafi; Michael R. Grace; Barry T. Hart



The seroprevalence of coxiellosis (Q fever) in Ontario sheep flocks.  

PubMed Central

A serological survey for Coxiella burnetii was undertaken on a randomly selected population of 103 Ontario sheep flocks. Twenty-two flocks had at least one positive ewe; seven flocks had two or more reactors. The positive flocks were geographically clustered northwest of Guelph. Crutch-clipping of the ewe's wool prior to lambing, and total confinement housing at lambing in winter and spring seemed to lower the probability of seroreactivity of the flock (p less than 0.05). The study suggests that sheep are not a major reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in Ontario.

Lang, G; Waltner-Toews, D; Menzies, P



Ophthalmoscopic characteristics in sheep and goats: comparative study.  


The ocular fundus was examined in 40 goat eyes and 40 sheep eyes by studying ophthalmoscopic characteristics and retinograms. Similarities and differing characteristics were described. In common: tapetal colour; peripheral yellowish area surrounding the Winslow stars; unpigmented areas in the non-tapetal zone; a great amount of myelin in the optic disc; the Bergmeister's papilla and the holoangiotic retinal vascular pattern. Differences: big size of the Winslow stars in goats; myelinizated fibre over the non-tapetal zone in sheep; shape, position and myelin distribution of the optic disc; and the presence of a 'primary artery' in goats. PMID:16629956

Galán, A; Martín-Suárez, E Ma; Molleda, J Ma



Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.


Heritability estimates of methane emissions from sheep.  


The objective of this study was to determine the genetic parameters of methane (CH4) emissions and their genetic correlations with key production traits. The trial measured the CH4 emissions, at 5-min intervals, from 1225 sheep placed in respiration chambers for 2 days, with repeat measurements 2 weeks later for another 2 days. They were fed in the chambers, based on live weight, a pelleted lucerne ration at 2.0 times estimated maintenance requirements. Methane outputs were calculated for g CH4/day and g CH4/kg dry matter intake (DMI) for each of the 4 days. Single trait models were used to obtain estimates of heritability and repeatability. Heritability of g CH4/day was 0.29 ± 0.05, and for g CH4/kg DMI 0.13 ± 0.03. Repeatability between measurements 14 days apart were 0.55 ± 0.02 and 0.26 ± 0.02, for the two traits. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of CH4 outputs with various production traits (weaning weight, live weight at 8 months of age, dag score, muscle depth and fleece weight at 12 months of age) measured in the first year of life, were estimated using bivariate models. With the exception of fleece weight, correlations were weak and not significantly different from zero for the g CH4/kg DMI trait. For fleece weight the phenotypic and genetic correlation estimates were -0.08 ± 0.03 and -0.32 ± 0.11 suggesting a low economically favourable relationship. These results indicate that there is genetic variation between animals for CH4 emission traits even after adjustment for feed intake and that these traits are repeatable. Current work includes the establishment of selection lines from these animals to investigate the physiological, microbial and anatomical changes, coupled with investigations into shorter and alternative CH4 emission measurement and breeding value estimation techniques; including genomic selection. PMID:23739473

Pinares-Patiño, C S; Hickey, S M; Young, E A; Dodds, K G; MacLean, S; Molano, G; Sandoval, E; Kjestrup, H; Harland, R; Hunt, C; Pickering, N K; McEwan, J C



Unstable pyrethroid resistance in sheep body lice Bovicola ovis (Schrank), (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) and its implications for lice control on sheep.  


A retrospective study in which the 18 years treatment history of a mob of sheep hosting a pyrethroid resistant strain of sheep body lice was compared with the coincidental changes in that strain's response to cypermethrin, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the stability of pyrethroid resistance in this species. Resistance levels remained very high (resistance factors (RF)=75-145) for at least five years following the cessation of pyrethroid treatments but within ten years had dropped to only 5, a level similar to many normal field strains and certainly not indicative of high-level resistance. Resumption of pyrethroid treatment of sheep infested with these lice caused a coincidental increase in resistance to an extreme level (RF=321) within two years. Wool producers considering a return to pyrethroid use to control louse infestations should be aware that such a strategy may not be sustainable in the long term and that in Australia effective registered alternative treatments are available. PMID:22004914

Levot, Garry



Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many wetlands, Atlantic White Cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps are experiencing anthropogenic disturbances causing changes in hydrology and increased nutrient loading. In this study, I examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients in two initial cores. I incubated eight cores in the laboratory—two fertilized with phosphate, two fertilized with nitrate, two fertilized




Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are leading causes of water quality impairment in the Nation's rivers, lakes and estuaries. To address this problem, states need the technical resources to establish nutrient criteria, adopt them into their water quality standards, and implement them in regulatory programs. In recent years EPA developed and finalized a series of nutrient criteria documents to assist the

Richard A. Park; Jonathan S. Clough; Marjorie C. Wellman; Anthony S. Donigian


Negative effects of alcohol consumption and tobacco use on bone formation markers in young Korean adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in young Korean adult males. A total of 463 healthy adult males 20 to 26 years of age participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated for anthropometric characteristics, amount of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and nutrient

Mi-Hyun Kim; Yoon-Sok Chung; Chung-Ja Sung



Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students.  


The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225

Nesli?ah, Rak?c?o?lu; Emine, Akal Y?ld?z



Genetics of male fertility.  


Early in embryogenesis, cells that are destined to become germ cells take on a different destiny from other cells in the embryo. The germ cells are not programmed to perform "vital" functions but to perpetuate the species through the transfer of genetic materials to the next generation. To fulfill their destiny, male germ cells undergo meiosis and extensive morphogenesis that transforms the round-shaped cells into freely motile sperm propelled by a beating flagellum to seek out their missing half. Apparently, extra genes and additional regulatory mechanisms are required to achieve all these unique features, and an estimated 11 % of genes are involved in fertility in Drosophila (Hackstein et al., Trends Genet 16(12):565-572, 2000). If comparative numbers of male fertility genes are needed in mammals, extra risks of male fertility problems are associated with disruptive mutations in those genes. Among human male infertility cases, approximately 22 % were classified as "idiopathic," a term used to describe diseases of unknown causes, with idiopathic oligozoospermia being the most common semen abnormality (11.2 %) (Comhaire et al., Int J Androl (Suppl 7):1-53, 1987). "Idiopathic" is a widely used adjective that is used to reflect our lack of understanding of the genetics of male fertility. Fortunately, after more than two decades of phenotypic studies using knockout mice and identifying genes disrupted in spontaneous mutant mice, we have unveiled new and unexpected aspects of crucial gene functions for fertility. Other efforts to categorize genes involved in male fertility in mammals have suggested a total of 1,188 genes (Hermo et al., Microsc Res Tech 73(4):241-494, 2010). Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to bypass many fertilization obstacles to achieve fertilization with only a few extracted sperm, the widespread use of ICSI without proper knowledge for genetic testing and counseling could still potentially propagate pleiotropic gene mutations associated with male infertility and other genetic diseases (Alukal and Lamb, Urol Clin North Am 35(2):277-288, 2008). In this chapter, we give a brief account of major events during the development of male germ cells and focus on the functions of several crucial genes that have been studied in mutant mouse models and are potential causes of human male infertility. PMID:24782004

Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M



Maternal nutrient restriction between early-to-mid gestation and its impact upon appetite regulation following juvenile obesity  

PubMed Central

The impact of maternal nutrient restriction during early-to-mid gestation, a period coinciding with early fetal brain development, on appetite regulation and energy balance in the offspring following juvenile obesity was examined. Pregnant sheep were either fed to fully meet their nutritional requirements throughout gestation or 50% of this amount between 30-80 days gestation. Following weaning, offspring were either made obese through exposure to a sedentary obesogenic environment or remained lean. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on birth weight or subsequent growth. At one week of age, only, gene expression for neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus was reduced in nutrient restricted offspring. By 1 year of age, all obese animals had raised plasma leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin, with the latter effect amplified in nutrient restricted offspring. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and cortisol were unaffected by obesity. The entrained reduction in physical activity that led to obesity persisted when all animals were maintained within individual pens. Obese nutrient restricted offspring, however, exhibited reduced daily food intake and were, therefore, no longer in positive “energy balance”. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated hypothalamic gene expression for the melanocortin-4 and insulin receptors, AMP-activated kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase ?. In conclusion, nutrient restriction specifically targeted over the period of early fetal brain development, contributes to a profoundly different adaptation in energy balance following juvenile obesity. The extent to which this adaptive response may benefit the offspring or result in an exacerbated risk for type II diabetes remains to be established.

Sebert, S.P.; Hyatt, M.A.; Chan, L.L.Y.; Patel, N.; Bell, R. C.; Keisler, D.; Stephenson, T.; Budge, H.; Symonds, M.E.; Gardner, D.S.



Prenatal Androgen Treatment Alters Body Composition and Glucose Homeostasis in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Prenatal androgen produces many reproductive and metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome in female rodents, sheep, and monkeys. We investigated the impact of such prenatal treatment in adult male rats. Pregnant dams received free testosterone (T; aromatizable androgen), dihydrotestosterone (D; non-aromatizable androgen), or vehicle control (C) on embryonic day 16–19. Neither of the prenatal androgen treatments resulted in increased body weight from weaning to age 65 days in males. However, at 65 days, there were significant increases in retroperitoneal (P<0.001 T vs C; P<0.05 D vs C), epididymal (P<0.05 T vs C), and subcutaneous (sc; P<0.01 T vs C) fat pads in prenatally androgenized males. While both androgens altered body composition, sc fat depots increased only in T males. T males had elevated glucose levels (P<0.01) compared to C males. There were no differences among the 3 groups in insulin sensitivity, circulating lipid and leptin levels, or hepatic triglyceride content. Real-time PCR analysis of insulin signaling pathway genes in retroperitoneal fat revealed a transcriptional down-regulation of adipsin and insulin receptor substrate-1 in T and ?-1D adrenergic receptor in D compared to C males. We conclude that transient exposure to androgen excess in utero increases body fat in adult male rats. Only T males exhibit increased circulating glucose levels and sc fat suggesting that these changes may be mediated by aromatization of androgen to estrogen rather than by direct androgenic actions.

Lazic, Milos; Aird, Fraser; Levine, Jon E.; Dunaif, Andrea



Techniques of Male Circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.



Induction of photosensitivity in sheep with Erodium moschatum (L.) L'Hérit.  


Erodium moschatum is an exotic weed in the southern and southwestern coastal areas of the Western Cape Province (WCP), South Africa. It has been suspected as the cause of photosensitivity in sheep. However, attempts to induce photosensitivity by dosing it to sheep have thus far been unsuccessful. During August 1999, 2 sheep suffering from severe photosensitivity were presented for clinical examination to the Western Cape Provincial Veterinary Laboratory (WCPVL). One sheep was sacrificed for autopsy. Except for skin lesions associated with photosensitivity, no icterus or other lesions were present. Histopathological examination of affected skin revealed epidermal necrosis while the liver had no microscopic lesions. It was therefore concluded that the sheep might have been suffering from primary photosensitivity. The farm from which the sheep came, situated in the Malmesbury district, WCP, was visited to determine the source of the photodynamic agent. The flock from which the sheep originated had been grazing in a camp where E. moschatum was growing abundantly and had been heavily grazed. Some remaining Erodium in the camp was collected, pulped and dosed over a period of 7 days to an adult sheep. Another sheep was dosed simultaneously with Erodium growing on the premises of the WCPVL. Both sheep developed mild photosensitivity, which was confirmed by histopathological examination of skin biopsies. It was concluded that E. moschatum can induce photosensitivity (probably the primary type) in sheep if ingested in large quantities. PMID:12240770

Stroebel, J C



Regeneration of large bone defects in sheep using bone marrow stromal cells.  


Bone repair was addressed in a critical-sized defect model in sheep, combining a ceramic biomaterial and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The defects in the tibial mid-diaphysis were treated with autologous bone or with a silicon-stabilized tricalcium phosphate biomaterial, implemented or not by the addition of expanded bone marrow stromal cells. An internal locking compression plate and an external fixator were applied for stabilization. Radiographies were taken during the 8 months follow-up: the pixel grey levels of the lesion areas were determined to evaluate the repair process radiologically. Microradiography, histology and vascular density tests were performed. The autologous bone-treated group performed best, as assessed radiologically, within 20-24 weeks after surgery. Very limited healing was detected in the other experimental group: a partial bone deposition occurred at the periphery of the bony stumps only in the cell-seeded scaffolds. Interestingly, this effect ended within 20-24 weeks, as for the autologous bone, suggesting similar kinetics of the repair processes involved. Moreover, bone deposition was located where a significant reduction of the ceramic scaffold was detected. Faxitron microradiography and histology data confirmed these results. Vascular density analysis evidenced that cell-seeded scaffolds supported an increased vascular ingrowth. Thus, the interactions with the proper microenvironment and the oxygen and nutrient supply in the inner part of the constructs seem fundamental to initiate scaffold substitution and to improve cell performance in tissue-engineered approaches to bone repair. PMID:18537203

Giannoni, P; Mastrogiacomo, M; Alini, M; Pearce, S G; Corsi, A; Santolini, F; Muraglia, A; Bianco, P; Cancedda, R



Genomic regions associated with antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken.  


F(1) and F(2) populations were generated by crossing two lines of chickens divergently selected from a common founder population for 32 generations for either high or low antibody response 5 days post-injection of a non-pathogenic antigen, sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). The number of loci with major effects on day 5 SRBC titers was estimated to be more than 7 in this population. There was a significant association between MHC haplotype and day 5 antibody titers as well as body weight at sexual maturity. A significant difference between reciprocal F(2) crosses for both 5- and 12-day antibody titers suggests that sex chromosome and/or parent of origin effects on autosomal loci have an important role in immune response. A single marker-trait association analysis on 1024 genetic markers and 128 F(2) individuals detected 11 genomic regions associated with antibody response traits and 17 regions associated with body weight gain. Several of the genomic regions identified as being associated with antibody response have been described previously, while novel regions associated with antibody response were identified on chromosomes 11 and 24. Based on the lack of overlap of the regions associated with body weight and antibody response, we conclude that while these phenotypes are inversely correlated in the selected lines, they are controlled by distinct genetic loci and may be reflective of intense selection pressure on loci affecting the partitioning of nutrients between the immune system and growth pathways. PMID:21198697

Dorshorst, B J; Siegel, P B; Ashwell, C M




EPA Science Inventory

Mechanistic models of nutrient dynamics in natural wetlands were developed and applied in a study of Kissimmee River (Florida) flood-plain marshes. The models describe hydrodynamics and transport diffusion in wetland basins and the ecological processes of nutrient uptake, convers...


Assessing Nutrient Recovery from Piggery Effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past few decades has seen an increase in livestock intensification within the Australian pig industry, which has lead to a waste management problem due to increased volumes of nutrient rich effluent leaving these facilities. Land application of these nutrient-rich effluents is economically and environmentally unsustainable in some circumstances. One promising alternative is to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds

M. I. Ali; P. A. Schneider; N. Hudson


A Method for Developing a Nutrient Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new approach to developing a tool for teaching nutrition and food selection. It allows adjustments as new information becomes available and takes into account both dietary recommendations and food composition. Steps involve nutrient composition; nutrient density; and ratings for fat, cholesterol, and sodium. (Author/CT)

Gillespie, Ardyth H.; Roderuck, Charlotte E.



Nutrient Adequacy of Urban Food Assistance Provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine nutrient composition of a random sample of emergency food bagsContinued expansion of private food assistance has sensitized dietitians to the need to understand what foods and nutrients are being offered. Fifty-seven food assistance sites with provision of emergency food as a primary objective were sorted into strata using the number of clients served as the indicator

L. Jacobs Starkey; H. V. Kuhnlein



Enteral feeding: Drug\\/nutrient interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition support via a feeding tube is the first choice for artificial nutrition. Most patients also require simultaneous drug therapy, with the potential risk for drug–nutrient interactions which may become relevant in clinical practice. During enteral nutrition, drug–nutrient interactions are more likely to occur than in patients fed orally. However, there is a lack of awareness about its clinical





EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...


Modelling nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acid deposition's threat to fresh water and forest environments became an issue in the late 1960s. Acid deposition and forest nutrient cycling then began to be researched in greater co-operation. This thesis studies nutrient cycling processes in Norway sp...

S. H.S.B. Kvindesland



SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)

Hedgepeth, David J.



Osteopenia and Male Hypogonadism  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old male, with a history of chronic myelogenous lymphoma (CML) previously successfully treated 20 years earlier with chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, and donor lymphocyte infusion therapy, presented with fatigue and low serum testosterone level. Evaluation revealed male hypogonadism from primary testicular failure due to prior CML therapy in addition to osteopenia. The patient received supplementary calcium, vitamin D, and testosterone; improvement in serum testosterone level was noted in 6 weeks, along with increased energy level and good libido and erectile function. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan showed improvement in bone status. Male hypogonadism is associated with increased risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Supplemental testosterone therapy, because of its direct effect and its aromatization to estrogen, can improve bone density in these patients.

Dupree, Kendall; Dobs, Adrian



Treatment of male infertility.  


Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev



[Male contraception in 1987].  


Male contraception apart from vasectomy and the condom is still in a virtually experimental stage. An acceptable male method must not interfere with sexual function and must meet the same demands for safety, simplicity, efficacy and reversibility as female methods. Condoms are the oldest and most effective reversible male method. Vasectomy is a simple and safe procedure, popular in some countries. Its biggest drawback is its uncertain reversibility even after successful reanastomosis. Hormonal approaches to male contraception are based on use of steroid or peptide compounds to inhibit production of the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary, resulting in azoospermia. The actual development of such methods has been confounded by imperfect knowledge of the hormonal mechanisms regulating spermatogenesis. The method requires 2 months to become effective because the process of human spermatogenesis is so lengthy. Rates of azoospermia greater than 70-80% have never been achieved. Among substances used, testosterone enanthate is unacceptable because of irregular efficacy and secondary effects inherent in the doses of androgens. Several progestins have been studied in combination with injectable, implanted, or percutaneous androgen therapy. Azoospermia is not usually achieved and secondary effects are significant. Medroxyprogesterone acetate has given more promising results in limited trials. Cyproterone acetate and danazol, a synthetic analog of 17 alpha ethinyl testosterone, are powerful but have significant side effects. The expectation that superanalogs to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) would provide a male hormonal method has thus far not been met. GnRH agonists have never yet produced a durable azoospermia in human males, even with continuous perfusion of elevated doses. It has recently been shown that the required androgen substitution interferes with achievement of azoospermia. GnRH antagonists appear more promising, but the androgen substitution poses a similar problem to that encountered with GnRH agonists. The first human trials are now underway. The hormonal approach may ultimately provide an interesting choice for individuals able to have regular spermograms, but does not appear feasible on a wide scale. A direct approach to male contraception at the level of the epididymis or testicles is theoretically interesting because of the rapidity of the effect. Gossypol, a phenolic compound extracted from cotton oil or seeds, provides extreme oligospermia in 99.9% of users, but the effect has been irreversible in a nonnegligible proportion of men using it for more than 2 years. Other compounds tested have been too toxic for clinical use. Immunological approaches pose major theoretical problems and all developments remain experimental. A better knowledge of the physiology of spermatogenesis and of the control of sperm movement will be required for development of a satisfactory male contraceptive method. PMID:3310192

Silvestre, L; Varin, C; Bouchard, P



Male inflammatory breast cancer.  


A case of a 48-year-old male with an inflammatory breast cancer is used to illustrate this uncommon malignancy. The physical examination of thickening and erythema made the clinical diagnosis. Mammographic findings of increased density in the right breast with coarsened stroma and an underlying mass confirmed the clinical findings. The sonographic evaluation revealed a 2-cm ill-defined hypoechoic mass. The pathologic examination of the mastectomy specimen showed an infiltrating duct cell carcinoma with lobular features. Male breast cancer afflicts 1500 men each year. Clinically it must be differentiated from gynecomastia, a much more common and benign condition. PMID:11899787

Spigel, J J; Evans, W P; Grant, M D; Langer, T G; Krakos, P A; Wise, D K



Key determinants affecting sheep wool biodegradation directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis recombinant strain.  


OVAT (one variable at a time) approach was applied in this study to screen the most important physicochemical key determinants involved in the process of sheep wool biodegradation. The process was directed by a keratinase-producing Bacillus subtilis DB 100 (p5.2) recombinant strain. Data indicate that, sheep wool could be degraded efficiently in cultures incubated at 30°C, with initial pH of 7 with agitation at 150 rpm. Two times autoclaved alkali treated and undefatted chopped sheep wool is more accessible to biodegradation. B. subtilis recombinant cells could utilize sheep wool as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Sheep wool-based modified basal medium II, lacking NH?Cl and yeast extract, could greatly support the growth of these bacterial cells. Sheep wool biodegradation was conducted efficiently in the absence of kanamycin consequently; high stability of the recombinant plasmid (p5.2) represents a great challenge upon scaling up this process. Three key determinants (sheep wool concentration, incubation time and inoculum size) imposing considerable constraints on the process are highlighted. Sheep wool-based tap water medium and sheep wool-based distilled water medium were formulated in this study. High levels of released end products, produced from sheep wool biodegradation are achieved upon using these two sheep wool-based water media. Data indicate that, sheep wool hydrolysate is rich in some amino acids, such as tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, valine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Moreover, the resulting sheep wool hydrolysate contains soluble proteins of high and intermediate molecular weights. The present study demonstrates a feasible, cheap, reproducible, efficient and rapid biotechnological approach towards utilization of raw sheep wool waste through a recombinant bacterium. PMID:20652624

Zaghloul, Taha I; Embaby, Amira M; Elmahdy, Ahmed R



Population effects of sarcoptic mange in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park, Spain.  


The nonindigenous Barbary sheep population (Ammotragus lervia) of the Sierra Espuna Regional Park (Murcia, Spain) suffered an outbreak of sarcoptic mange between 1991 and 1995, which contributed to a population decrease of 86%. This study presents the results of two population surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 based on the fixed point and itineraries method (FPI) and the excrement count (EC) method, as well as data from demographic estimates and clinical observations conducted by the Regional Administration of Murcia. Results of surveillance for mange are given between 1992 and 1995, because no animals were observed with sarcoptic mange in 1999. Prevalence of mange peaked in 1994 and then declined. During the regression phase of the epidemic, there was a higher infection rate in males (21.9%) than in females (16.6%) or young animals (5.1%). Males over 5 yr old were the worst affected age group, followed by subadults of both sexes. Few animals had generalized lesions of mange (7%), and most individuals (72%) had lesions of moderate severity. The most common locations of lesions were the neck, head, and back. The density of Barbary sheep in the Sierra Espuna Regional Park increased from introduction in 1972 until it peaked at 13 animals/km(2) in 1991, the year when the first case of sarcoptic mange was detected. After 2 yr of the mange epidemic, the average estimated density was 1.7 animals/km(2) in 1994, which increased to 5.0 animals/km(2) in 1999. The average group size also increased from 7.9 to 19.2 animals/group between 1994 and 1999. The sex ratio, expressed as the proportion of females in the total population observed, decreased from 0.61 in 1994 to 0.49 in 1999. The reproduction rate (kids per females per year) was essentially stable (0.59 in 1994 to 0.65 in 1999). Between 1994 and 1999 the population aged, with the number of young animals (<18 mo of age) decreasing from 45.3% to 36.6% from 1994 to 1999. In the same period, the proportion of males increased 21.4% to 32.6%. We believe sarcoptic mange acted as one of the regulating factors of population density after 1991 and that currently, although no sarcoptic mange lesions were observed in the 1999 survey, there is a demographic imbalance in sex ratio, age structure, and density. PMID:15465713

González-Candela, Mónica; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Cubero-Pablo, María José



Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.  


This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88?±?2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder



Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67?±?3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130?±?1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues.

Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C.; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A.; Penagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E.; Khatib, Hasan



Activin-A differentially regulates steroidogenesis by sheep granulosa cells.  


Intra-ovarian factors, such as activin, are implicated in multiple aspects of follicular development in mammalian ovaries. This study was conducted to investigate a possible effect of activin-A on steroidogenesis in sheep granulosa cells in vitro. Sheep granulosa cells were obtained from medium antral follicles and cultured in a chemically defined RPMI -1640. Oestradiol and progesterone production, secreted by the cultured cells, was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In order to determine the dose effect of activin-A on steroidogenesis, granulosa cells were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of activin-A (0, 0.5, 5 and 50 ng ml(-1)) for 48 hours. The results revealed that activin-A exerts a differential effect on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells in such a way that it significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed progesterone production and enhanced oestradiol production. These results were confirmed by the time effect of activin-A on oestradiol and progesterone production in granulosa cells. In the absence of activin-A treatment, granulosa cells showed enhanced capacity to produce progesterone, but not oestradiol, as the time progressed from 12 to 48 hours. Treatment of sheep granulosa cells with 25 ng ml(-1)activin-A for 12, 24 and 48 hours significantly stimulated oestradiol production but inhibited progesterone production. These results suggest that activin-A is a local regulator of sheep folliculogenesis that might act to support differentiation in granulosa cells and suppress luteinisation. PMID:11666143

Shidaifat, F; Khamas, W; Hailat, N



Reductive biotransformation of xenobiotics by the sheep ruminal content.  


1. Sheep ruminal content was able to reduce nitro groups from nitrobenzene and azo groups from dimethylamino-azobenzene. 2. Results might be of interest in relation to ruminants exposed to environmental chemicals via oral route. 3. Biotransformation of xenobiotics in rumen might give to deleterious products appearing later in meat and/or milk or harming the ruminant itself. PMID:1354141

Acosta de Pérez, O; Bernacchi, A S; Díaz de Toranzo, E G; Castro, J A



Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to

L. M. B. Oliveira; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. T. C. Costa; I. T. F. Macedo; R. S. Barros; A. C. M. Rodrigues; A. L. F. Camurça-Vasconcelos; S. M. Morais; Y. C. Lima; L. S. Vieira; A. M. C. Navarro



Reference gene selection for quantitative PCR studies in sheep neutrophils.  


Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A



Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures.



Organization logics of transhumance in Pyrenean sheep farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - In the Spanish Pyrenees sheep farming systems have traditionally involved an inverse or descending transhumance. In this less favoured areas, farming systems play a relevant role in the protection of the environment. The farming systems practised are conditioned by several factors, amongst them the environment and the family situation in the farms. The present paper analyses the different

A. M. Olaizola; E. Manrique; M. E. López Pueyo


[Foot and mouth disease in sheep and goats].  


Small ruminants play an important role in the epidemiology and transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD). The main reasons therefore are: FMD is difficult to diagnose as infected sheep not always show typical clinical symptoms or as the cardinal signs mimicked other diseases. Sheep and goats may be carriers. Infected herds which practice transhumance or are nomadic can spread the infection to other herds long before diagnose of the disease is established. Shipping and trade with live sheep and goats is much more common world wide than in other FMD susceptible species. Lack of registration of all sheep and goat herds (especially of small hobby herds) and lack of individual identifications signs (ear tags) may result in incomplete control measurements under FMD conditions. Basing on published experiences with the actual FMD epidemic in the UK and basing on the own experiences with the restrictions to prevent from spreading of the FMD from the UK to Germany suggestions for future disease control are made. PMID:11822163

Ganter, M; Graunke, W D; Steng, G; Worbes, H



Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango\\/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb,Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage.Centrosema pubescens was preferred toPueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence.

F. H. K. Asiedu; E. N. W. Oppong; A. A. Opoku



Serosurvey on theileriosis in Awassi sheep in Syria.  


A serological survey using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for Theileria spp. infection of sheep has been carried out from 1994 to 1997 in the provinces Daraa, Hama, Homs and Latakia in Syria. The results revealed a mean seroprevalence of 59.9% without significant differences between years (p = 0.57) and provinces (p = 0.126). PMID:10206101

Alyasino, Y; Greiner, M



Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

SciTech Connect

Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton



South African sheep breeds: Population genetic structure and conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the population genetic structure of South African indigenous, locally developed and introduced breeds using microsatellite markers, and the conservation implications of these results. Blood samples from 622 sheep, comprising 20 breeds, were collected from different regions in South Africa. All animals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite loci. Average unbiased heterozygosity (Hz) was lowest in the fat-rumped breeds

P. Soma; A. Kotze; J. P. Grobler; J. B. van Wyk


The perception of the welfare of sheep in extensive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With financial pressures on farm labour, development of increasingly sophisticated and informed consumer attitudes and decoupling of payments to farmers following revision of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, sheep farmers may increasingly adopt more extensive systems of management. However, these current and new extensive systems of management, at least in the UK, are not, in our view, low-management systems.

Pete Goddard; Tony Waterhouse; Cathy Dwyer; Alistair Stott



Spotting of Dall Sheep, Denali National Park, Alaska  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barry Middleton (left) and Ed Pfeifer (right) of the USGS Southwest Geographic Science Team engaged in field observations of Dall sheep in Denali National Park, Alaska, on July 27, 2009. The study employs satellite remote sensing and field observations to investigate the effect of variable and chang...



Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep.

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.



Scrapie-resistant sheep show certain coat colour characteristics.  


Susceptibility to scrapie is known to be associated with polymorphisms at the prion protein (PrP) gene, and this association is the basis of current selective programmes implemented to control scrapie in many countries. However, these programmes might have unintended consequences for other traits that might be associated with PrP genotype. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between PrP genotype and coat colour characteristics in two UK native sheep breeds valued for their distinctive coat colour patterns. Coat colour pattern, darkness and spotting and PrP genotype records were available for 11 674 Badgerfaced Welsh Mountain and 2338 Shetland sheep. The data were analysed with a log-linear model using maximum likelihood. Results showed a strong significant association of PrP genotype with coat colour pattern in Badgerfaced Welsh Mountain and Shetland sheep and with the presence of white spotting in Shetland sheep. Animals with the ARR/ARR genotype (the most scrapie resistant) had higher odds of having a light dorsum and a dark abdomen than the reverse pattern. The implication of these associations is that selection to increase resistance to scrapie based only on PrP genotype could result in change in morphological diversity and affect other associated traits such as fitness. PMID:19220930

Sawalha, R M; Bell, L; Brotherstone, S; White, I; Wilson, A J; Villanueva, B



Responses of Fetal Sheep to Simulated No-Decompression Dives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of simulated standard no-decompression dives to 60 and 100 ft of seawater was tested in 12 near term sheep carrying 16 fetuses. In the immediate postdive period there were no significant changes in fetal blood pressure or fetal placental or ren...

M. K. Stock E. H. Lanphier D. F. Anderson L. C. Anderson T. M. Phernetton



The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody response (TDAR).  


The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody Response (TDAR) evaluates the ability of animals sensitized in vivo to produce primary IgM antibodies to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC). The assay enumerates the number of antigen specific IgM antibody producing cells in the spleen. When exposure to the test material takes place in vivo, as does sensitization, the actual quantification of the number of antibody producing cells occurs ex vivo. Following the animal being euthanized, a single cell suspension of spleen cells is prepared. These spleen cells containing the IgM secreting plasma cells are incubated in a semisolid matrix of agar, sheep erythrocytes, and guinea pig serum as a single cell layer between a Petri dish and glass cover slip. After a 3 h incubation period, lysis of sRBCs around each of the IgM secreting antigen specific plasma cells results in the formation of a clear plaque, which can easily be counted. The TDAR has been found to be the most sensitive functional assay for evaluating effects on the immune system, particularly the humoral immune component. The TDAR to sheep erythrocytes still remains the gold standard for evaluating the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system. PMID:19967513

White, Kimber L; Musgrove, Deborah L; Brown, Ronnetta D



Pharmacokinetics and biological activity of kinetensin in conscious sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetensin is a nonapeptide, originally isolated from pepsin-treated plasma, that shares some sequence homology with the C-teminal end of neurotensin. The present study was designed to determine, by infusing kinetensin to conscious sheep, the pharmacokinetics and a neurotensin-like biological activity (pancreatic polypeptide response) of kinetensin.

D. Read; A. Shulkes; D. Fletcher; K. Hardy



Neurological disorders in sheep during signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity.  


Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in sheep 4 weeks after grazing on Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). These neurological disorders included the stamping of forelegs, star-gazing, incoordination, head-pressing against the fence and circling movements. Histologically, numerous vacuolations of various sizes were observed in the white matter of the brain giving rise to a spongy appearance. PMID:2929118

Abdullah, A S; Noordin, M M; Rajion, M A



A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

Holloway, Sue



Gay Male Adult Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a qualitative investigation into developmental stage issues, using a sample of older gay males. Twenty Ohio informants were obtained through convenience sampling for unstructured oral interviews. Erik Erikson's developmental stage model serves as representing traditional stage theory. The traditional view portrays life course in heterosexual terms. While the developmental issues addressed across the life course are likely

James R. Peacock



Lycopene and male infertility.  


Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi



Educating African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

Bell, Edward E.



The ageing male  

Microsoft Academic Search

. With prolonged life expectancy, men and women can expect to live one-third of their lives with some form of hormone deficiency. The ageing male, in particular, has the added problem of developing urological diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, continence disorders and erectile dysfunction. When discussing age-related problems, it is often difficult to separate and to

C. Schulman; B. Lunenfeld



[Male infertility: recent developments].  


Although male reproductive functions are impaired in about half of the infertile couples seeking offspring, even today the examination and treatment of the male partner continues to be neglected. Despite the lack of evidence for a "sperm crisis", so highly touted in the press, the public remains worried, while the fact that male fertility declines beyond the age of 40 years and is accompanied by increasing genetic risks for the offspring goes largely unnoticed. In addition to a thorough physical examination supplemented by imaging techniques such as ultrasonography of the scrotal organs, semen analysis according to WHO guidelines, hormone determinations, and cyto- and molecular genetic analyses form part of the routine investigation of the infertile male. Few disorders have become subjects of rational treatment, such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with gonadotropins or GnRH, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases by antibiotics, and microsurgical reconstruction of blocked seminal ducts. Early treatment of maldescended testes in boys or changing lifestyle (e.g., discontinuation of smoking) are important preventive measures. In the age of evidence-based medicine, most empirical treatments have been demonstrated to be ineffective. Thus, pregnancy rates from patients with varicocele who underwent long-practiced surgical or radiologic interventional therapy were not different from those of patients receiving counseling. At present, in cases of non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using single sperm derived from semen or extracted from testicular biopsy tissue (TESE) represents the most successful treatment modality, although it remains symptomatic and not curative. PMID:24337123

Nieschlag, E



Empowering Young Black Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

Kafele, Baruti K.



Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood



Quantifying male attractiveness.  

PubMed Central

Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait.

McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob



Lycopene and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi



Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.  


Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p <0.05) lower carbohydrate intake was noted in cohort group above 80 years. As for vitamins and minerals consumption, more than 50% of the elderly population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis. PMID:22692097

Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M




EPA Science Inventory

Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...


21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Petitions for nutrient content claims. 101.69 Section 101.69 ...LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.69 Petitions for nutrient content claims. (a) This section pertains...



21 CFR 101.69 - Petitions for nutrient content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Petitions for nutrient content claims. 101.69 Section 101.69 ...LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims § 101.69 Petitions for nutrient content claims. (a) This section pertains...



Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy.  


The aim of the study was to determine the burden of Toxoplasma gondii-infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy and the risk factors for infection. Sera from 1961 sheep were collected just before slaughtering from 62 farms located in 8 out of 9 Sicilian administrative districts. The sera were analysed for Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sheep less than 4 weeks old were further analysed by ELISA for Toxoplasma-specific IgM-antibodies. Data on farm size and location were obtained from slaughterhouse sanitary reports and through structured telephone interviews of the veterinary officers from public health districts. The overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG-antibodies were 49.9% (937/1876) by ELISA. Eighty-seven (54/62) percent of the farms had at least one Toxoplasma-positive animal. All the farms fed the animals outdoor on pasture and only one was claiming organic farming. Having cats on the farm, age of the animals, farm size and the use of surface water sources for drinking were all significantly associated with T. gondii-infected animals on the farm. T. gondii infection in mutton used for human consumption is very prevalent, and eating unprocessed sheep and lamb meat has a high risk of transmitting infections to humans. The presence of cats on the farm, farm size and using surface water as drinking water for the animals were risk factors for infection in sheep, with age as a significant confounder. PMID:17383099

Vesco, G; Buffolano, W; La Chiusa, S; Mancuso, G; Caracappa, S; Chianca, A; Villari, S; Currò, V; Liga, F; Petersen, E



The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China) [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China)] [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)



Assessment of plasma profile of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in sheep with a heterologous (anti-caPAG 55+59) RIA and its potential for diagnosing pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to generate pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)-profiles throughout pregnancy in a heterogenous sample of sheep using a radioimmunoassay with a heterologous antibody (anti-caPAG55+59, #708) and utilize them for the purpose of pregnancy detection. From 2 weeks after the introduction of males into the breeding herd until 4 weeks after parturition, weekly blood samples were

R. A. Ledezma-Torres; J. F. Beckers; W. Holtz



Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

Zhang, Jing



Signalling by amino acid nutrients.  


It is clear that mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) is regulated by the presence of ambient amino acid nutrients. However, the mechanism by which amino acids regulate mTORC1 is still open to question, despite extensive efforts. Our recent work has revealed that PR61?, a B56 family regulatory subunit of PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A), associates with and regulates the activity of MAP4K3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3), a protein kinase regulated by amino acid sufficiency that acts upstream of mTORC1. In searching for a physiological process regulated by amino acids, we have demonstrated recently that arginine plays a role in the activation of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase]/ERK signalling in macrophages. PP2A similarly associates with the upstream regulator of MEK in this signalling pathway, TPL-2 (tumour progression locus-2), in response to arginine availability. Thus PP2A is a negative regulator of both MAP4K3 and TPL-2 in both mTORC1 and MEK/ERK signalling pathways. PMID:21428916

Yan, Lijun; Lamb, Richard F



New actions for old nutrients.  


The purpose of this review is to present information regarding new effects for certain nutrients other than those traditionally known. Zinc has been found to prevent and reduce the duration of common colds. In developing countries, zinc has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea and even decrease relapses. Iron supplementation in iron deficient children, has been shown to improve several aspects of brain function. In studies where iron was given to the mother, 3 of 5 randomized, controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of iron supplementation on the Psychomotor Development Index at some time points, whereas 2 did not. The chances for infants supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid in the fi rst year of life of having at least 1 event of allergic manifestation or upper respiratory infection or at least 1 event of wheezing/asthma, wheezing/asthma/atopic dermatitis, any allergy, or an upper respiratory tract infection during the fi rst 3 years of life were significantly lower than in the non supplemented group. Epidemiological studies have established a relationship between low levels of serum vitamin D and reduced lung function in healthy adults and asthma onset and severity in children. There was a trend for an independent association between higher levels of maternal circulating 25(OH)D3 levels in pregnancy and decreased odds of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring. PMID:22493160

Lifschitz, Carlos



Knockdown of myostatin expression by RNAi enhances muscle growth in transgenic sheep.  


Myostatin (MSTN) has been shown to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. MSTN dysfunction therefore offers a strategy for promoting animal growth performance in livestock production. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using RNAi-based technology to generate transgenic sheep with a double-muscle phenotype. A shRNA expression cassette targeting sheep MSTN was used to generate stable shRNA-expressing fibroblast clones. Transgenic sheep were further produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Five lambs developed to term and three live lambs were obtained. Integration of shRNA expression cassette in three live lambs was confirmed by PCR. RNase protection assay showed that the shRNAs targeting MSTN were expressed in muscle tissues of three transgenic sheep. MSTN expression was significantly inhibited in muscle tissues of transgenic sheep when compared with control sheep. Moreover, transgenic sheep showed a tendency to faster increase in body weight than control sheep. Histological analysis showed that myofiber diameter of transgenic sheep M17 were bigger than that of control sheep. Our findings demonstrate a promising approach to promoting muscle growth in livestock production. PMID:23526994

Hu, Shengwei; Ni, Wei; Sai, Wujiafu; Zi, Ha; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Pengyang; Sheng, Jinliang; Chen, Chuangfu



Ovine progressive pneumonia (Maedi-Visna): an emerging respiratory disease of sheep in Ethiopia.  


A serological study was done to assess the role of Maedi-Visna (MV) infection in sheep from flocks with high respiratory tract disease morbidity in Ethiopia. Of 105 sheep examined from central Ethiopia 78 (74%) were positive for MV-infection. However, antibodies to the virus were not detected in 48 sheep and 70 goats from elsewhere in Ethiopia. The infection was detected in all breeds of sheep examined (Awassi, Hampshire, Corriedale, indigenous Menz breeds and their crosses) but with a significant breed difference (chi 2 = 20, p < 0.001) varying from 48% in imported Awassi sheep to 92% in the indigenous Menz sheep. This suggests that Menz sheep are more susceptible to infection, which may support the observation of a higher incidence of clinical disease in these sheep compared to exotic breeds and their crosses. It also supports recent studies indicating that MV is becoming one of the most important respiratory tract diseases in sheep in central Ethiopia. Our findings indicate that MV was introduced into Ethiopia via sheep imported into the central highlands and that it now constitutes an important emerging disease is discussed. Measures to control the disease are suggested. PMID:12494555

Woldemeskel, M; Tibbo, M; Potgieter, L N D



[The occurrence and distribution of maedi-visna virus infection in lower Austrian sheep breeding establishments].  


In a period of one year blood samples of 374 sheep of Lower Austrian flocks were examined in intervals of two months for antibodies against Maedi-Visna (MV). Further on specific attention was paid to the prevalence of MV-infection in the flocks. The antibody-titers were determined by means of agar gel-immunodiffusion test. In 5 (23.8%) of 21 flocks 45 (12.0%) of the sheep were seropositive. Seroprevalence varied within the examined breeds: 19 (27.1%) of 70 Karakul-sheep, 18 (28.1%) of 64 East-Friesian milk-sheep, 7 (9.4%) of 74 Merino sheep and 1 (0.9%) of 111 mountain sheep. None of 55 black-headed sheep showed MV seropositive reaction. Clinical symptoms of Maedi-disease were especially observed in milk-sheep and for the first time in Austria in Karakul-sheep. Unfavorable housing conditions (insufficient room, bad climatic conditions), breed specific behavior patterns (crowding of Karakul-sheep) and a high prevalence of MV infections promote a high incidence the disease. PMID:1963842

Baumgartner, W; Reckinger, M; Pernthaner, A; Leitold, B



Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.  


Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H



Alternative male reproductive tactics and the immunocompetence handicap in the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius parvicornis  

PubMed Central

In the Azorean rock-pool blenny (Parablennius parvicornis) reproductively active males display alternative morphotypes, which differ in the expression of secondary sexual characters (SSC). Males expressing SSC, the M+ morphotype, have high androgen levels and compete for crevices that will be visited by females to spawn. M+ males holding nests court females and care for the eggs. Males with low expression of SSC, the M? morphotype, have low levels of androgens and reproduce by stealing fertilizations from the M+ males. Based on the hypothesis that androgens are immunosuppressive, we expected these morphotypes to differ in immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a field study in which we collected repeated blood samples to monitor leukocyte populations (blood smears), and to measure the primary antibody response of males that were experimentally challenged with a foreign non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells). Circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were higher in M+ males than in M? males. Neither granulocyte nor thrombocyte counts did covariate with androgens or male tactic. In contrast, lymphocyte counts and humoral antibody response were negatively correlated with body size, and as expected, both were lower in M+ than in M? males. Interestingly, in M+ males androgen levels decreased after immunization, and this was less in nest-holder males than in M+ males that were floating around in the pools. Within each morphotype we found no relationship between androgens and immunocompetence. The latter result is not supportive for androgen regulated immunosuppression in M+ males. A possible alternative is enhancement of immunity in M? males. These males had relatively high levels of injuries in comparison with M+ males. High immunity might be a consequence of high infection rate because of such injuries.

Ros, Albert F.H; Bouton, Niels; Santos, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Rui F



Nutrient spiralling in streams: implications for nutrient limitation and invertebrate activity  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient cycling in streams occurs in conjunction with downstream transport as spatially distributed process that has been termed spiralling. The intensity of reutilization of nutrients as they pass downstream can be quantified in terms of the length of stream required for a nutrient atom to complete one (abstract) cycle; this distance is termed the spiralling length. The model for steady-state spiralling of a limiting nutrient predicts that most of the downstream transport of nutrient occurs in particulate or unavailable form when nutrient limitation is severe; in this case, transportability of particulates is a major determinant of spiralling length. On the other hand, when nutrient limitation is moderated by density-dependent mechanisms, transport in the dissolved phase dominates, and transportability of particles has little influence on spiralling length. The potential role of invertebrate consumers in controlling spiralling was investigated by considering their influence on regeneration, transportability, and uptake of nutrients. Functional processes of grazing and filter feeding appear most likely to shorten spiralling length when nutrient limitation is severe, while the process of shredding is more likely to shorten spiralling length when nutrient limitation is weak. In some cases there may be levels of consumer activity at which spiralling length is minimized.

Newbold, J.D.; O'Neill, R.V.; Elwood, J.W.; Van Winkle, W.



Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass



Changes in physical characteristics, hematological parameters and nutrients and food intake during weight reduction in judoists  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in physical characteristics: body composition; muscle and physical strength; hematological parameters;\\u000a and nutrients and food intake in 22 male college judoists who were losing weight purposefully. Nutritional parameters in blood,\\u000a such as triglycerides, decreased immediately before matches and rebounded after matches. Free fatty acid increased before\\u000a matches and returned to previous levels 10 days after matches. IgM

Shigeyoshi Kurakake; Takashi Umeda; Shigeyuki Nakaji; Kazuo Sugawara; Kazuo Saito; Yosuke Yamamoto