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1

Maternal Obesity in Sheep Increases Fatty Acid Synthesis, Upregulates Nutrient Transporters, and Increases Adiposity in Adult Male Offspring after a Feeding Challenge  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6), when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01), gained more weight (P < 0.01) and became heavier (P < 0.05) than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01) compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs F1control males (P < 0.05). Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ? 0.04) in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively). When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05) of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05) compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring. PMID:25875659

Long, Nathan M.; Rule, Daniel C.; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ford, Stephen P.

2015-01-01

2

Feeding value of different levels of malt sprout and katikala atella on nutrient utilization and growth performance of sheep fed basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.  

PubMed

Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4?±?0.74 kg (mean?±?SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella?+?25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella?+?50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella?+?75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P?sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P?sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P?Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P?>?0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P?sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P?nutrient characteristics. PMID:24390794

Nurfeta, Ajebu; Abdu, Yunus

2014-03-01

3

Placental nutrient transport is affected by pregnancy rank in sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the link between placental function and fetal growth is critical to comprehend the mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth. This study investigated the relationship between fetal weight and placentome type and size in placentae of singleton and twin fetuses and fetuses within a twin pair from ad libitum-fed ewes at d 140 of pregnancy. In addition, insulin, IGF-I, metabolites, and free AA profiles in fetal, umbilical artery, and vein plasma of singleton and twin fetuses were investigated and used as an indicator of placental nutrient transport. Individual placentae per fetus were dissected, placentomes were classed per type (A to D) and size (light to heavy), and placentome number and individual weight were recorded. Twin fetuses were 16% lighter (P = 0.01) than singletons and had a smaller placenta, with 28% decreased placentome weight (P = 0.03) and 35% fewer placentomes (P = 0.001). Twins also had a different distribution of placentome type and size compared with placentae of singletons, such that twins showed a greater proportion of type B and light placentomes compared with singletons. In twins, umbilical artery plasma had less Glu (P < 0.05) and greater Gln (P < 0.05) concentrations than fetal plasma or umbilical vein plasma, but no differences in AA concentrations were observed between these pools in singletons. Glutamate is a major oxidation energy source for the placenta, and the fetal liver is the net producer of Glu using Gln as its main precursor, indicating that the functionality of the fetoplacental unit may be different between singletons and twins. Twin fetuses had 13% less insulin (P = 0.04) concentrations in umbilical artery plasma than singletons. plasma of twin fetuses had 39% less IGF-I (P = 0.003), 33% less His (P = 0.03), and 22% less Gln (P = 0.02) concentrations and tended to have 44% less Arg (P = 0.07) and 20% less Leu (P = 0.06) concentrations than singletons. Arginine, His, and Leu are examples of AA that can promote insulin secretion, and in turn, insulin can increase fetal IGF-I concentrations. In addition, insulin and IGF-I are important fetal growth factors by stimulating and regulating AA transport across the placenta. Collectively, these results indicate that the functionality of the fetoplacental unit may be different between singletons and twins and that AA transport may be reduced in twin placentae. PMID:23097400

van der Linden, D S; Sciascia, Q; Sales, F; McCoard, S A

2013-02-01

4

Prenatal exposure to androgen excess increases LH pulse amplitude during postnatal life in male sheep.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone has a profound impact on reproductive and metabolic functions in young and adult female sheep. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the impact of prenatal exposure to an excess of androgens on reproductive and metabolic functions in males. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to an excess of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone on the luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse characteristics during sexual development in male sheep. Control male sheep (C-males) and males born to mothers exposed to twice weekly injections of 30 mg testosterone or dihydrotestosterone from day 30-90 and 40 mg from day 90-120 of gestation (T-males, DHT-males) were studied at 5, 10, and 20 weeks of age, ages that represent infancy, early prepubertal, and late prepubertal stages of sexual development in this species, respectively. Patterns of LH pulsatility showed that T- and DHT-males exhibited a higher secretion of LH during the 6-h study and a higher amplitude of the LH pulses compared with C-males. Moreover, nadir of the pulses was higher in T- and DHT-males compared with C-males. Frequency of LH pulses, however, was not different within ages or between groups. These results show that males can be responsive to prenatal androgenization and suggest that treatment transiently alters the amplitude of LH pulses probably as the result of defects in the pituitary responsiveness pattern or in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release pattern. PMID:22763652

Recabarren, S E; Recabarren, M; Rojas-Garcia, P P; Cordero, M; Reyes, C; Sir-Petermann, T

2012-09-01

5

The Influence of Maternal Early to Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction of Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fetal Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tis...

6

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on ruminal parameters, nutrient digestibility and growth in sheep: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increased use of dry active Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast supplementation in ruminant feeding, inconsistent results among studies hamper the prediction of its effects on animal performance. A meta-analysis has been conducted to quantify the magnitude of yeast supplementation effects on ruminal parameters, total tract nutrient digestibility, growth and feed conversion across different studies with sheep. Different methodologies and small

James Sales

2011-01-01

7

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports the Hypothesis of Male-Biased  

E-print Network

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports ZFX and ZFY intron sequences in sheep and goat species (the tribe Caprini). The male-driven evolution -- Sex chromosomes -- Generation time -- Caprini -- Sheep -- Goat Introduction From observations

Alvarez, Nadir

8

Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC),\\u000a 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and

Sohail H. Khan; Muhammad Aasif Shahzad; Mahr Nisa; Muhammad Sarwar

2011-01-01

9

Impact of sheep bedding on soil nutrient dynamics in the Centennial Mountains of Montana and Idaho  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep and lamb production is an important industry in the state of Idaho, with sheep grazing in the mountains during summer months a common practice. Sheep are concentrated in bedding areas at night to guard them from theft and predation which leads to concentrated grazing and manure and urine accu...

10

Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention. PMID:22436162

Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

2012-01-01

11

Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina  

PubMed Central

The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) is a major pest of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. From the 1960s to the 1980s there was a major effort to develop "field female killing" or FFK strains of L. cuprina that could be used for a cost-effective genetic control program. The FFK strains carried eye color mutations that were lethal to females in the field but not under conditions in the mass rearing facility. Males did not die in the field as normal copies of the eye color genes had been translocated to the Y chromosome and an autosome. Although the FFK strains showed some promise in field tests, a genetic control program in mainland Australia was never implemented for several reasons including instability of the FFK strains during mass rearing. A stable transgenic strain of L. cuprina that carried one or more dominant repressible female lethal genes offered the potential for efficient genetic control of blowfly populations. Here I review our research on tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic systems, Lucilia germ-line transformation and sex determination genes that ultimately led to the successful development of transgenic "male-only" strains of L. cuprina. The technology developed for L. cuprina should be directly transferable to other blowfly livestock pests including L. sericata and the New World and Old World screwworm. 29 PMID:25472415

2014-01-01

12

Intracerebroventricular melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates food intake in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) stimulates feeding when injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in rats. At present it is not clear whether the function of MCH is similar in ruminants, which are species with a continuous delivery of nutrients. Therefore the current investigation sought to determine the role of MCH in sheep. In the first experiment, six, castrate male sheep were satiated and received

Brian K. Whitlock; Joseph A. Daniel; Chris D. McMahon; Fran C. Buonomo; Christen G Wagner; Barbara Steele; James L Sartin

2005-01-01

13

Seasonal change in nutrient composition of spotted knapweed and preference by sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos) is one of the most troublesome rangeland weeds in western North America. As part of a larger investigation evaluating the use of targeted sheep grazing to control spotted knapweed, we examined sheep preference and forage quality of dried spotted knapweed in different phenological stages. We collected spotted knapweed for preference evaluation trials from a

Amy C. Ganguli; Michael B. Hale; Karen L. Launchbaugh

2010-01-01

14

Effect of prenatal androgens on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in male and female sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were measured in male and female Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries). Some sheep had been administered androgens or estrogens during prenatal development, some were gonadectomized after birth, and some were allowed to develop normally. As previously reported for spotted hyenas, gonadectomy did not alter the OAEs for either sex; accordingly, the untreated/intact and the untreated/gonadectomized animals were pooled to form the control groups. The click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) exhibited by the female control group (N=12) were slightly stronger (effect size=0.42) than those in the male control group (N=15), which is the same direction of effect reported for humans and rhesus monkeys. Females administered testosterone prenatally (N=16) had substantially weaker (masculinized) CEOAEs than control females (effect size=1.15). Both of these outcomes are in accord with the idea that prenatal exposure to androgens weakens the cochlear mechanisms that underlie the production of OAEs. The CEOAEs of males administered testosterone prenatally (N=5) were not different from those of control males, an outcome also seen in similarly treated rhesus monkeys. Males administered dihydrotestosterone (DHT) prenatally (N=3) had slightly stronger (hypo-masculinized) CEOAEs than control males. No spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were found in any ears, a common finding in non-human species. To our knowledge, this is the first ruminant species measured for OAEs. PMID:18834887

McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G; Valero, Michelle D; Roberts, Eila K; Lee, Theresa M

2009-01-01

15

Juvenile rank can predict male-typical adult mating behavior in female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone.  

PubMed

Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30-90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60-90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

Roberts, Eila K; Flak, Jonathan N; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M

2009-04-01

16

Novel male-biased expression in paralogs of the aphid slimfast nutrient amino acid transporter expansion  

PubMed Central

Background A major goal of molecular evolutionary biology is to understand the fate and consequences of duplicated genes. In this context, aphids are intriguing because the newly sequenced pea aphid genome harbors an extraordinary number of lineage-specific gene duplications relative to other insect genomes. Though many of their duplicated genes may be involved in their complex life cycle, duplications in nutrient amino acid transporters appear to be associated rather with their essential amino acid poor diet and the intracellular symbiosis aphids rely on to compensate for dietary deficits. Past work has shown that some duplicated amino acid transporters are highly expressed in the specialized cells housing the symbionts, including a paralog of an aphid-specific expansion homologous to the Drosophila gene slimfast. Previous data provide evidence that these bacteriocyte-expressed transporters mediate amino acid exchange between aphids and their symbionts. Results We report that some nutrient amino acid transporters show male-biased expression. Male-biased expression characterizes three paralogs in the aphid-specific slimfast expansion, and the male-biased expression is conserved across two aphid species for at least two paralogs. One of the male-biased paralogs has additionally experienced an accelerated rate of non-synonymous substitutions. Conclusions This is the first study to document male-biased slimfast expression. Our data suggest that the male-biased aphid slimfast paralogs diverged from their ancestral function to fill a functional role in males. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that members of the slimfast expansion are maintained in the aphid genome not only for the previously hypothesized role in mediating amino acid exchange between the symbiotic partners, but also for sex-specific roles. PMID:21917168

2011-01-01

17

Effects of inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion on the response to novel objects in young male and female sheep.  

PubMed

This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific). To determine the effects of agonist treatment on the reproductive axis blood samples were collected for measurement of testosterone in the males and progesterone in the females. In addition the volume of the scrotum was determined. The present study aimed to determine whether there are sexually differentiated behavioural responses to a novel object at different stages of brain development (8, 28 and 48 weeks of age) and whether these responses are altered by GnRHa treatment. Approach behaviour towards and interactions with the novel object were monitored as was the number of vocalisations per unit time during the test period. GnRHa treatment suppressed testosterone concentrations and testicular growth in the males and progesterone release in the females. Sheep vocalised significantly more prior to weaning (8 weeks of age) than post weaning (28 and 48 weeks of age) suggesting stress on separation from their dams. Our current study shows that males are more likely to leave their conspecifics to approach a novel object than females. As this behaviour was not altered by suppression of the reproductive axis we suggest that, although sex differences are more obviously expressed in the phenotype after puberty, these may be developed during adolescence but not primarily altered during puberty by sex hormones. PMID:24485485

Robinson, Jane E; Evans, Neil P; Dumbell, Rebecca; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ropstad, Erik; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2014-02-01

18

Genetic analysis of male and female fertility after artificial insemination in sheep: comparison of single-trait and joint models.  

PubMed

The outcome of an insemination depends on male and female fertility. Nevertheless, few studies have incorporated genetic evaluation of these 2 traits jointly. The aim of this work was to compare genetic parameter estimates of male and female fertility defined as success or failure to artificial insemination (AI), using 8 different models. The first 2 models were simple repeatability models studying fertility of one sex and ignoring any information of the other. Models 3 and 4 took into account the information of the other sex by the inclusion of its random permanent environmental effect, whereas models 5 and 6 included fixed effects of the other sex. Models 7 and 8 were joint genetic evaluation models of male and female fertility ignoring or considering genetic correlation. Data were composed of 147,018 AI of the Manech Tête Rousse breed recorded from 2000 to 2004 corresponding to 79,352 ewes and 963 rams. The pedigree file included 120,989 individuals. Variance component estimates from the different models were quite similar; heritabilities varied from 0.050 to 0.053 for female fertility and were near 0.003 for male fertility. Correlations among estimated breeding values in the same sex using different models were higher than 0.99. The genetic correlation between male and female fertility was not significantly different from 0. These results show that for French dairy sheep with extensive use of AI, estimation of breeding values for male and female fertility might be implemented with quite simple models. PMID:17639003

David, I; Bodin, L; Lagriffoul, G; Leymarie, C; Manfredi, E; Robert-Granié, C

2007-08-01

19

Induction of low-nutritious food intake by subsequent nutrient supplementation in sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Acceptance of and preference for a particular food depends not only on its intrinsic (e.g. nutritional) properties but also on expected or recent food experiences. An instance of this type of phenomenon has been called induction effect, which consists of an increased intake of a type of food when it precedes a hedonically preferred food in a sequence familiar to the animal, relative to controls that have access only to the less-preferred food. The purpose of our study was to assess intake induction of a low-nutritious food when followed by different high-nutritious supplements in sheep (Ovis aries). In this experiment, we ran a supplemented phase where animals fed oat hay (a low-nutritious food) in the first part of the daily feeding sessions followed by a supplement with either a high (soya bean meal; group GS) or a low (ground corn; group GC) protein-energy ratio in the second part ate more oat hay than controls that were fed oat hay in both parts of sessions (group GH). In addition, supplemented animals presented a stronger preference for oat hay over alfalfa hay than controls in a subsequent choice. When all animals received no food in the second part of the sessions (Non-supplemented phase), intake of oat hay converged to the control's intake level in all the groups, suggesting that the presence of supplements after access to oat hay was responsible for intake induction. Lastly, we repeated the supplemented phase with a different control group where animals received oat hay in the first part of the sessions and no food in the second part (group NF), thus equalizing groups in terms of the time of access to oat hay in a session. Groups GS and GC still developed higher intake of oat hay than group NF. In both supplemented phases of the experiment, we estimated animals' daily metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) intake. CP intake was higher in group GS than in groups GC, GH and NF, but there was no difference between group GC and the controls. In turn, groups did not differ in ME intake in the First supplemented phase, and only group GS presented higher ME intake than the rest of the groups in the Second supplemented phase. Therefore, a nutritional account of the present induction effect seems insufficient. We propose that a learned association between oat hay and the post-ingestive feedback from the subsequent high-nutritious supplements underlay sheep's intake induction and increased preference for oat hay. PMID:23217234

Freidin, E; Catanese, F; Cuello, M I; Distel, R A

2012-08-01

20

Effect of Mediterranean saltbush (Atriplex halimus) ensilaging with two developed enzyme cocktails on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2?L of ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) /1000?kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300?g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2(®) and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1(®) and ZAD2(®) (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P?nutrients intake (P?nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P?Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P?sheep. PMID:25228428

Alsersy, Haidy; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Borhami, Borhami E; Olivares, Jaime; Gado, Hany M; Mariezcurrena, Maria D; Yacuot, Mohamed H; Kholif, Ahmed E; El-Adawy, Mounir; Hernandez, Saul R

2015-01-01

21

Nutrient utilization by sheep and performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed crab waste-straw silage.  

PubMed

Crab waste preserved with .2% NaOCl was mixed with wheat straw, liquid molasses, and water (32:32:16:20, wet basis) and ensiled for a minimum of 8 wk with microbial inoculant. A reduction in pH and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and a higher concentration of lactic acid (4.9%, DM basis) were achieved. The trimethylamine (TMA) concentration in the silage was 11.2 mg N/100 g. In a digestion trial, 18 crossbred wethers (43 kg) were fed three diets: 1) basal, 2) a 50:50 mixture, DM basis, of basal and crab waste-straw silage, and 3) 100% crab waste-straw silage. Apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, energy, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose decreased linearly (P < .01) with increased levels of crab waste-straw silage. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P < .05) with level of crab waste-straw silage. Apparent absorption was higher (P < .01) and retention was positive (P < .05) for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, and Fe for sheep fed the highest level of crab waste-straw silage. In a 108-d trial, 30 yearling steers were fed diets in which crab waste-straw silage was included in the diet at 0, 15, and 26%, DM basis. Average daily gain tended to be highest (linear effect, P < .15) and carcass weights were highest (linear effect, P < .05) for steers fed 26% crab waste-straw silage. Average carcass quality grade was low Choice, and yield grade averaged 2.3, with no significant differences among treatments. Consumption of crab waste-straw silage did not adversely affect the taste of the meat. Results indicate that feeding crab waste-straw silage did not adversely affect nutrient utilization or performance of ruminants. PMID:9535324

Ayangbile, O A; Fontenot, J P; Graham, P P; Kirk, D J; Allen, V G

1998-03-01

22

Testicular measurements and endocrine profiles (luteinizing hormone and testosterone) in young growing males as a measure of breeding value in sheep  

E-print Network

TESTICULAR MEASUREMENTS AND ENDOCRINE PROFILES (LUTEINIZING HORMONE AND TESTOSTERONE) IN YOUNG GROWING MALES AS A MEASURE OF BREEDING VALUE IN SHEEP A Thesis by JOHN WILLIAM CAMPBELL Approved as to style and content by: James W. Bassett... Chairman of Committee) J. M. Shelton (Member) La y D. Cl aborn (Member) waar y C. Smi th (Head of Department) August 1983 ABSTRACT Testicular Measurements and Endocrine Profiles (Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone) in Youno Growinq Males as a...

Campbell, John William

1983-01-01

23

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

2013-01-01

24

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

25

Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on maternal endocrine status and placental characteristics.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to determine the effects of dietary selenium and nutrient restriction (level and timing) on serum hormone and metabolite levels and placental characteristics in mid- to late-pregnancy ewes. Pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto...

26

Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

2014-07-15

27

Net transfer of nutrients to the duodenum and disappearance of n-alkanes in the reticulo-rumen and the hindgut of sheep fed grass/legume combinations.  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of increasing the proportion of Wimmera ryegrass hay in a lucerne hay-based diet on net transfer of nutrients to the intestine, and on the disappearance of n-alkanes in the reticulo-rumen and the hindgut of sheep. Following a latin square design, four adult ewes were fed 1:0, 0·33:0·67, 0·67:0·33 and 0:1 proportions of legume and grass. Increasing the proportion of ryegrass in the diet linearly decreased the intake of DM (P= 0·017), organic matter (P= 0·021) and N (P= 0·001). However, neutral-detergent fibre intake was not affected (P= 0·148), nor was its digestibility coefficient (P>0·10). Diet had no effect on duodenal flows of nutrients (P>0·10), although the proportion of N intake (NI) recovered at the duodenum as non-NH? N (NAN) increased linearly with Lolium rigidum in the diet (P= 0·002). Full recovery of NI as NAN was achieved at NH? concentrations in the rumen below 110 g/l. Microbial N contribution to NAN varied in a quadratic manner (P< 0·05) with the proportion of grass in the diet, although efficiency of microbial synthesis was not affected (P>0·10). Duodenal recovery of consumed n-alkanes was not affected by diet and was complete for those present in higher concentrations in the forages. Isolated rumen bacteria contained significant amounts of n-alkanes, contributing to the duodenal flow of these hydrocarbons in variable proportions depending on the diet consumed. PMID:23663555

Keli, Abdelhafid; Olmos, Genaro; de Vega, Antonio; Guada, José A

2013-05-28

28

A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. METHODS: Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52

Jeong-Soon You; Ji-Yeon Park; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

29

Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?sheep with PH were higher (P?

Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

2014-01-01

30

Nutrient Intake and Use of Beverages and the Risk of Kidney Stones among Male Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha- Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention

Tero Hirvonen; Pirjo Pietinen; Mikko Virtanen; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo

31

Nutrient intake and body composition in relation to making weight in young male Taekwondo players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the current study was to investigate the nutritional intake and body composition of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes during a two-week period of weight management as they prepare to make weight classification for an international competition. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Seven male, 17-28 years old, international TKD athletes were recruited from a known World Taekwondo Federation TKD Club in

Sarah Fleming; Vassiliki Costarelli

2007-01-01

32

Programming of adult cardiovascular function after early maternal undernutrition in sheep.  

PubMed

The prenatal nutritional environment influences the subsequent risk of hypertension in adulthood. Animal studies have used, generally, the rat as a model species to illustrate the association between maternal nutrient intake and blood pressure in the resulting adult offspring. No study to date has shown programming of adult cardiovascular function in the sheep through maternal dietary intervention. We therefore fed pregnant sheep to either 100% recommended intake from day 0 of gestation to term [ approximately 147 days gestational age (dGA); controls n = 8] or to 50% recommended intake from day 0 to 95 dGA and thereafter to 100% intake (NR; n = 9). Sheep lambed naturally, offspring were weaned at 16 wk, and the male offspring were reared on pasture until 3 yr of age. At this time, cardiovascular catheters were inserted under halothane anesthesia and sheep were allowed 2-4 days recovery. Basal cardiovascular status and pressor responses to infusion of norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and captopril were then assessed alongside basal plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, and leptin. NR sheep were of similar birth weight to controls but at 3 yr of age had higher blood pressure before, but not after, feeding. Peripheral sensitivity to vasoconstrictor infusion was similar between dietary groups, although a reflex bradycardia was not apparent in NR sheep during norepinephrine infusion. Circulating leptin correlated well with fat mass and increased more after vasoconstrictor infusion in NR sheep. In conclusion, early NR has been shown to program aspects of cardiovascular control and adipocyte function in adult sheep. PMID:14975924

Gopalakrishnan, G S; Gardner, D S; Rhind, S M; Rae, M T; Kyle, C E; Brooks, A N; Walker, R M; Ramsay, M M; Keisler, D H; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

2004-07-01

33

Immunization of male rabbits with sheep luteal receptor to LH results in production of antibodies exhibiting hormone-agonistic and -antagonistic activities.  

PubMed

Antibodies to LH/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LH/CG-R; molecular weight 67 000), isolated in a homogenous state (established by SDS-PAGE and ligand blotting) from sheep luteal membrane using human CG (hCG)-Sepharose affinity chromatography, were raised in three adult male rabbits (R-I, R-II and R-III). Each of the rabbits received 20-30 micrograms of the purified receptor in Freund's complete adjuvant at a time. Primary immunization was followed by booster injection at intervals. Production of receptor antibodies was monitored by (1) determining the dilution of the serum (IgG fraction) that could specifically bind 50% of 125I-LH/CG-R added and (2) analysing sera for any change in testosterone levels. Following primary immunization and the first booster, all three rabbits exhibited a 2.5- to 6.0-fold increase in serum testosterone over basal levels and this effect was spread over a period of time (approximately 40 days) coinciding with the rise and fall of receptor antibodies. The maximal antibody titre (ED50) produced at this time ranged from 1:350 to 1:100 to below detectable limits for R-I, R-II and R-III respectively. Subsequent immunizations followed by the second booster resulted in a substantial increase in antibody titre (ED50 of 1:5000) in R-I, but this was not accompanied by any change in serum testosterone over preimmune levels, suggesting that with the progress of immunization the character of the antibody produced had also changed. Two pools of antisera from R-I collected 10 days following the booster (at day 70 (bleed I) and day 290 (bleed II)) were used in further experiments. IgG isolated from bleed I but not from bleed II antiserum showed a dose-dependent stimulation of testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, thus confirming the in vivo hormone-mimicking activity of antibodies generated during the early immunization phase. The IgG fractions from both bleeds were, however, capable of inhibiting (1) 125I-hCG binding to crude sheep luteal membrane (EC50 of 1:70 and 1:350 for bleed I and II antisera respectively) and (2) ovine LH-stimulated testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro, indicating the presence of antagonistic antibodies irrespective of the period of time during which the rabbits were immunized. The fact that bleed I-stimulated testosterone production could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of IgG from bleed II to the mouse Leydig cell in vitro assay system showed that the agonistic activity is intrinsic to the bleed I antibody. The receptor antibody (bleed II) was also capable of blocking LH action in vivo, as rabbits passively (for 24 h with LH/CG-R antiserum) as well as actively (for 430 days) immunized against LH/CG-R failed to respond to a bolus injection of LH (50 micrograms). At no time, however, was the serum testosterone reduced below the basal level. This study clearly shows that, unlike with LH antibody, attempts to achieve an LH deficiency effect in vivo by resorting to immunization with holo LH receptor is difficult, as receptor antibodies exhibit both hormone-mimicking (agonistic) as well as hormone-blocking (antagonistic) activities. PMID:8882162

Jeyakumar, M; Moudgal, N R

1996-09-01

34

Karakul Sheep.  

E-print Network

Pathologist P. B. DUNKLE, B. S., Superintendent No. 16 Iowa Park Wichita Countv: No. 7, Spur, Dickens-,County: E. JI WILSON, 6 S., superinten?ent R. E. DICKSON, B. S., Superintendent No. 17, - , Agronomist - . Superintendent No. 8 Lubbock Lubbock.... RI. JONES and R. E. DICKSON* Karakul sheep are of interest to American agriculture primarily be- cause the skins of the young lambs are valuable to the fur trade. They are native to central Asia, more especially the region in and around Bokhara...

Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Dickson, R. E.

1930-01-01

35

EVALUATION OF THE RESPIRATORY ELIMINATION KINETICS OF SELENIUM AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION IN SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate the respiratory excretion and elimination kinetics of organic and inorganic selenium after oral administration in sheep 38, 8-12 week-old crossbred sheep (19 males and 19 females)were randomly allocated to one of 10 treatment groups with 4 sheep/group except group 5 which contained 2 she...

36

Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.  

PubMed

In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 2?×?2?×?2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. PMID:25542197

Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

2015-01-01

37

Predictive potential of microsatellite markers on heterosis of fecundity in crossbred sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small Tail Han (STH) sheep is a famous Chinese local breed and has perfect prolificacy performance, but it is inferior to\\u000a imported mutton sheep breeds on meat production. In this study, six imported male sheep populations (White Suffolk, Black\\u000a Suffolk, Texel, Dorper, South African Mutton Merino and East Friesian) were crossbred with STH female sheep respectively.\\u000a The heterosis values of

R. Di; M. X. Chu; Y. L. Li; L. Zhang; L. Fang; T. Feng; G. L. Cao; H. Q. Chen; X. W. Li

38

Nutrients Differentially Regulate Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In Vitro in Cultured Stomach Ghrelinoma (MGN3-1) Cells and In Vivo in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Nesfatin-1 is secreted, meal-responsive anorexigenic peptide encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 [NUCB2]. Circulating nesfatin-1 increases post-prandially, but the dietary components that modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 remain unknown. We hypothesized that carbohydrate, fat and protein differentially regulate tissue specific expression of nesfatin-1. NUCB2, prohormone convertases and nesfatin-1 were detected in mouse stomach ghrelinoma [MGN3-1] cells. NUCB2 mRNA and protein were also detected in mouse liver, and small and large intestines. MGN3-1 cells were treated with glucose, fatty acids or amino acids. Male C57BL/6 mice were chronically fed high fat, high carbohydrate and high protein diets for 17 weeks. Quantitative PCR and nesfatin-1 assays were used to determine nesfatin-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Glucose stimulated NUCB2 mRNA expression in MGN3-1 cells. L-Tryptophan also increased NUCB2 mRNA expression and ghrelin mRNA expression, and nesfatin-1 secretion. Oleic acid inhibited NUCB2 mRNA expression, while ghrelin mRNA expression and secretion was enhanced. NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the liver of mice fed a high protein diet compared to mice fed other diets. Chronic intake of high fat diet caused a significant reduction in NUCB2 mRNA in the stomach, while high protein and high fat diet caused similar suppression of NUCB2 mRNA in the large intestine. No differences in serum nesfatin-1 levels were found in mice at 7 a.m, at the commencement of the light phase. High carbohydrate diet fed mice showed significantly elevated nesfatin-1 levels at 1 p.m. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in mice fed high fat, protein or carbohydrate compared to the controls at 7 p.m, just prior to the dark phase. Mice that received a bolus of high fat had significantly elevated nesfatin-1/NUCB2 at all time points tested post-gavage, compared to control mice and mice fed other diets. Our results for the first time indicate that nesfatin-1 is modulated by nutrients. PMID:25506938

Mohan, Haneesha; Ramesh, Naresh; Mortazavi, Sima; Le, Anthony; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Unniappan, Suraj

2014-01-01

39

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

40

The vitamin and mineral status of sheep in West Asia CL White T Treacher F Bahhady  

E-print Network

The vitamin and mineral status of sheep in West Asia CL White T Treacher F Bahhady 'CSIRO Division, there are no published data on the macro-mineral and micro-nutrient status of sheep in this region. The aim of the work was to provide quantitative information on the mineral (macro and micro) and vitamin (A, E and B,2) status

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Nutrient Depletion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.

42

Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (p<0.1) in the groups with T. chebula and A. sativum, whereas, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and cellulose digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in all the three experimental groups compared with control. The nitrogen balance and plane of nutrition were not affected by inclusion of any of the feed additives. Methane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. PMID:20666858

Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

2011-04-01

43

Foraging behaviour and sexual segregation in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many sexually dimorphic ungulates, bighorn sheep,Ovis canadensis, form sexually segregated groups. Nursery groups include females, lambs and subadult males, while adult males form bachelor groups. Previous hypotheses to account for sexual segregation in ungulates have suggested sexual differences in energy requirements, predation risk and social preferences. I tested the hypothesis that differing nutritional demands, due to sexual dimorphism in

KATHREEN E. RUCKSTUHL

1998-01-01

44

Regulation of sheep ?-TTP by dietary vitamin E and preparation of monoclonal antibody for sheep ?-TTP.  

PubMed

?-Tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma ?-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that ?-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the ?-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep ?-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then ?-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep ?-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine ?-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep ?-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-?-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep ?-TTP. PMID:24583170

Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan

2014-04-25

45

VEGETATIVE MANAGEMENT USING CONTROLLED SHEEP GRAZING - THE MONTANA SHEEP INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep may provide the most economical and environmentally sound alternative to chemical control of the encroachment of noxious weeds. The Montana Sheep Institute's objective is to develop, implement and evaluate controlled sheep grazing strategies for managing large infestations of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). Suitable sites located throughout Montana were identified, after which a sheep grazing

L. M. M Surber; R. W. Kott; J. D. Moore; B. L. Roeder; G. Hewitt; J. Smith; K. Williams

2006-01-01

46

Cows and Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solvers of this problem apply number sense and logical reasoning to determine the numbers of cows and sheep in each of five fields by using clues about how many cows and sheep can be seen by each animal. The problem includes questions for getting started, suggestions for implementation and differentiation, a printable student page, and sample solutions.

2014-01-01

47

Effect of elemental nano-selenium on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and purine derivatives in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of elemental nano-selenium (NS) on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and urinary purine derivatives in sheep. Eight male ruminally cannulated sheep (42.5±3.2kg of body weight, BW) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experiment in four 20 day periods. Depending on treatment designation, sheep were fed the basal diet supplemented

Liguang Shi; Wenjuan Xun; Wenbin Yue; Chunxiang Zhang; Youshe Ren; Qiang Liu; Qian Wang; Lei Shi

2011-01-01

48

Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

2013-01-01

49

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

50

Experimental forward mandibular displacement in sheep.  

PubMed

In order to investigate growth modifications of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during dentofacial orthopaedic treatment, specific functional appliances have been used experimentally to prompt the mandible into a protrusive position in various animal models. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a functional appliance specially designed for sheep and to evaluate the sheep as a model for dentofacial orthopaedic research. Eight, 4-month-old, castrated male Merino sheep were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, with four in each group. Cast functional appliances were fabricated for the animals in the experimental group. The treatment period was 15 weeks. Dental casts, endosseous implant markers and cephalograms were used to analyse the displacement of the mandible. Undemineralised sagittal sections of TMJ were used to evaluate the tissue responses induced by the appliances. The weight of the animals was measured monthly to monitor their growth. The growth of the metacarpus was also measured. During the experimental period, the animals maintained their weight within the normal range and grew normally. The appliance displaced the mandible to a downward and forward position. The adaptive responses in the TMJ induced by the appliances included changed anteroposterior shape of the condylar process, anteriorly thickened condylar cartilage, and a thickened compact bone layer along the anterior surface of the posterior wall of the glenoid fossa. The sheep coped well with the experimental procedures and the appliance used was demonstrably effective in inducing adaptive responses in the TMJ. Consequently, it is believed that the sheep is an appropriate animal model to study growth modifications in the TMJ region. PMID:11743935

Ma, Bingkui; Sampson, Wayne; Fazzalari, Nicola; Wilson, David; Wiebkin, Ole

2002-01-01

51

Growth of sheep fed tannin-rich Albizia gummifera with or without polyethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Twenty-four intact male Bonga lambs were studied in a 100-day experiment to evaluate the effect of feeding tannin rich leaves of Albizia gummifera (AG) on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and carcass composition. The dietary treatments consisted of hay alone (T1, control), AG at 30 % of control diet + T1 (T2), and T2 + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) (T3, 40 mg PEG, 1 kg AG/head on a dry mass (DM) basis. The lambs were individually fed at 50 g DM/kg live weight. In the last 10 days of the experiment, all animals from each treatment were harnessed with feces collection bags. At the end of the experiment, lambs were slaughtered after overnight fasting for measurements of carcass characteristics. Crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannin contents of AG were 300, 586, and 108 g/kg DM, respectively. Lambs fed AG with PEG had higher (P?nutrient intake and digestibility, carcass weight, and growth performance of lambs supplemented with PEG emphasizes the negative effect of tannins on livestock performance. Leaves of AG enhance digestibility and performance in tropical hay-fed sheep, and the addition of PEG further improves this effect, likely due to the binding of tannins. PMID:24832590

Yisehak, Kechero; Biruk, Kebede; Abegaze, Beyene; Janssens, Geert P J

2014-10-01

52

Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.  

PubMed

Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

2014-01-01

53

Clinical, culture, serology, and histopathology outcomes of bighorn sheep experimentally infected with Brucella ovis.  

PubMed

Disease caused by Brucella ovis has not been previously reported in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis canadensis). Antibodies to B. ovis, however, are occasionally detected in free-ranging BHS, and this has been a concern for managers involved in translocation programs. To investigate the pathogenesis of B. ovis infection in this species, 20 BHS (10 male, 10 female) were inoculated intraconjunctivally (IC) with 5.4 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) B. ovis. Six BHS (three male, three female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline IC and served as in-contact control animals, and eight BHS (one male, seven female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) IC and served as noncontact controls. In addition, 14 domestic sheep (Ovis aries, nine male, five female) were inoculated IC with 5.4 × 10(8) cfu B. ovis (positive controls), and five domestic sheep (three male, two female) received 1 mL PBS IC (contact controls). All domestic sheep were housed separately from BHS. Bighorn sheep experimentally infected with B. ovis became antibody and culture positive and developed clinical signs of B. ovis infection including abortion and epididymal and testicular swelling. Lesions in BHS were consistent with, and in some cases more severe, than those observed in domestic sheep. Antibodies against B. ovis were detected within 4 wk postinoculation and remained positive until the end of the study. These findings have important implications for BHS management. PMID:24502717

McCollum, Matt; Rhyan, Jack; Coburn, Sarah; Ewalt, Darla; Lahr, Carrie; Nol, Pauline; Keefe, Thomas; Kimberling, Cleon; Salman, Mo

2013-10-01

54

Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

55

Many eyes or many ewes: vigilance tactics in female bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis vary according to reproductive status  

E-print Network

Many eyes or many ewes: vigilance tactics in female bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis vary according patterns in bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis ewes. We also test whether the observed vigilance patterns according to group size in elk Cervus elaphus. In mixed groups of elk, adult males are only vigilant during

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

56

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows in sheep consuming pea seeds of pea protein were evalu- ated by in situ and in vivo measurements of rumen and intestine digestion the apparent digestion of OM in the rumen but increased it in the small intestine. Total tract OM digestibility

Boyer, Edmond

57

SFRSF: Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.

58

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

59

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

60

Electric Sheep 2.6  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The title of this rather compelling application is derived from the thought-provoking novel by Philip K. Dick, "Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?". Essentially, what this open source screen saver does is allow a vast number of computers to communicate with each other to create abstract animations known as "sheep". Visitors can also vote for their favorite "sheep" as well, thereby allowing other fellow users the ability to learn about their own preferences for abstract art. This version of Electric Sheep is compatible with most operating systems.

61

Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )

2004-04-30

62

Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 < b < 2.0. Land management practice appear to have increased the rate of large fires (shallower slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

2011-12-01

63

Brucellosis in Captive Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Caused by Brucella abortus Biovar 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine (four female, five male) cap- tive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fe- tus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of

Terry J. Kreeger; Walter E. Cook; William H. Edwards; Todd Cornish

64

Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.  

PubMed

Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep. PMID:15362833

Kreeger, Terry J; Cook, Walter E; Edwards, William H; Cornish, Todd

2004-04-01

65

A relationship between hepatic metabolism of reduced lantadene A and its toxicity in rats and sheep.  

PubMed

The metabolism of the cholestatic triterpene acid reduced lantadene A has been studied in susceptible and resistant rats and in sheep which are susceptible to intoxication. Sheep and susceptible female rats produced a similar major metabolite and rats produced a second metabolite which was a glucuronide. These metabolites were also observed in extracts of bile canalicular membranes prepared from intoxicated rats. Resistant male and female rats produced a similar major metabolite which was different to those synthesized by susceptible animals. It is concluded that in rats and sheep there is a correlation between the type of metabolites produced in the liver and the susceptibility to intoxication by reduced lantadene A. PMID:2866921

Pass, M A; Goosem, M W; Pollitt, S

1985-01-01

66

Comparative productivity and grazing behaviour of Huacaya alpacas and Peppin Merino sheep grazed on annual pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Huacaya alpaca (mixed sex, mean±S.D., age 5.2±2.7 years, live weight 72.0±9.5kg) were grazed with Peppin Merino sheep (castrated male, age 3±0.1 years, live weight 54.0±3.9kg) for 2 years on improved annual pasture at commercial grazing pressures (10–17 dry sheep equivalents\\/ha) near Melbourne, Australia. Alpacas and sheep gained weight during the first year and then lost weight (proportional loss: alpacas

B. A McGregor

2002-01-01

67

Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Experimental Oleander ( Nerium oleander ) Toxicosis in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried Nerium oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg\\/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep.\\u000a Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the\\u000a heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria\\u000a and

M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; A. Abbasian; M. Zarehpour

2004-01-01

68

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PHAGOCYTES FROM ELK, DEER, BIGHORN SHEEP, AND DOMESTIC SHEEP TO PASTEURELLA HAEMOL YTICA CYTOTOXINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture super- natants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from

Ronald M. Silfiow; William J. Foreyt

69

Dolly the Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.

2003-01-01

70

Consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes de dietas com silagens de grãos úmidos de milho ou sorgo, em ovinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intake, the digestibility of nutrients, and the total digestible nutrients (TDN) content in sheep diets based on corn and sorghum grains high moisture silages with or without microbial inoculant, were evaluated. The used roughage was Brachiaria hay (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu). Twelve animals were distribuited to treatments: (1) hay+high moisture corn grain silage, (2) hay+high moisture sorghum grain silage;

C. C. B. F. Ítavo; M. G. Morais; L. C. V. Ítavo; A. R. D. L. Souza; F. C. A. Davy; F. A. Biberg; W. B. Alves; M. V. Santos

2009-01-01

71

Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n?3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n?6) into n?3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=?925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n?3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n?6/n?3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

2013-01-01

72

Epidemiology of nematode parasites of sheep around Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

An investigation was made into the epidemiology of nematode infections of sheep in two districts of Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. We used two approaches--long-term monitoring of identified sheep for nematode infection and abattoir or market survey for analysis. In the first monitoring regime, we used 80 lambs [40 sheep (20 per sex) from each district (Dedo and Yebu)] averaging 4-5 months of age. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and body weight changes were monitored over a period of 1 year. Additionally, faecal samples were collected (on a weekly basis) from sheep brought to abattoir/market for 1 year to monitor faecal egg counts. The nematode parasite burden, as judged by FEC and PCV, was generally low indicating that the climatic conditions are not conducive to the development and survival of nematode eggs and the free-living stages; hence, little transmission occurred. In the experimental flocks, the highest FEC and lower PCV were recorded during the long rainy season (June to September) with peak in August and September. Faecal samples collected from abattoir/market also followed the same trend. Results from experimental sheep indicated that location had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on FEC, PCV and average daily body weight gain. The FEC and PCV for sheep in Yebu (mid-altitude) district were 126 +/- 3.33 and 30.6 +/- 0.26, whereas the values for Dedo (highland) were 93 +/- 4.35 and 32.0 +/- 0.21, respectively. The results indicate that the highland areas are comparatively less favourable to the survival and development of nematodes. Female lambs had lower FEC and higher PCV compared to male lambs (P < 0.05). The overall nematode parasite challenge in the area, however, is low. We, therefore, recommend rotational grazing management combined with monitoring parasite load and selective treatment to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination. PMID:19882224

Haile, Aynalem; Gashaw, Abebaw; Tolemariam, Taye; Tibbo, Markos

2010-06-01

73

Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1934-01-01

74

A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits

S. S. Chaudhary; K. D. Pandey; R. P. Singh; P. C. Verma; P. K. Gupta

2009-01-01

75

Forestomach motility in the chronically vagotomized sheep.  

PubMed

1. The motility of the reticulo-rumen and omasum in conscious sheep was studied by electromyography from chronically implanted nichrome wire electrodes. The sheep were subjected to vagotomy and were maintained totally by intragastric infusion of liquid nutrients before and after vagotomy. Before vagotomy the motility of the forestomach was essentially similar to that seen in roughage-fed sheep.2. Bilateral thoracic vagotomy transiently abolished all electrical activity of the reticulo-rumen and omasum, but within 1 day some activity returned. Frequent periods of rhythmic local small group discharges were seen over the reticulo-rumen, while the omasum showed prolonged (1-5 min) bursts of mainly slow wave activity.3. Within 1-2 weeks of vagotomy strong contractions of the reticulo-rumen were visible by radiography. Electromyographically, they comprised a rhythmic series of some two to five large group discharges recurring approximately once a minute. Each series of activity was separated from the next by a short period of quiescence. The discharges occurred almost simultaneously over the whole reticulo-rumen and so contrasted with the progressive forward or backward spread of activity seen in the intact animal. The bursts of activity in the omasum, lasting 0.5-2 min, were not co-ordinated with the activity of the reticulo-rumen as they are in the intact animal.4. The activity in the reticulo-rumen and omasum was not affected by bilateral section of the splanchnic nerves and removal of the coeliaco-mesenteric ganglia. Reticulo-rumen but not omasal activity was abolished by atropine (0.1 mg/kg) or hexamethonium (2 mg/kg), while both were stimulated by pentagastrin (3 mug/kg).5. Following vagotomy reticulo-rumen motility was no longer influenced by feeding, or by tactile stimulation of the buccal cavity or oesophagus. Severe distension of the abomasum caused a slight acceleration of the motility rhythm compared to the inhibition seen before vagotomy.6. It is concluded that the reticulo-rumen motility observed after vagotomy is an intrinsic cholinergic motility which is dependent upon the activity of the myenteric plexus. The motility of the omasum after vagotomy is similar to that seen in the intact animal and differs from that of the rumen in that it appears not to depend wholly upon cholinergic control. PMID:7131320

Gregory, P C

1982-07-01

76

Sheep and goat grazing as a tool to manage encroachment of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Engelm. Sarg.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of using prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper re-invasion could be improved by providing adequate nutrients to help animals detoxify plant terpenes. We analyzed the terpenoid chemistry of one-seed juniper leaves and conducted feeding trials with 12 Ramboull...

77

Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep  

PubMed Central

Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg-1) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg-1. In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

2014-01-01

78

Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.  

PubMed

Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

2014-01-01

79

Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

Sabol, Joe

80

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats Kate Hepworth, Animal Sciences Student; Mike Neary, Extension Sheep Specialist; Terry Hutchens, Extension Associate for Goat Production, University of Kentucky associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause

81

Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.  

PubMed

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested. PMID:7760482

Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

1994-10-01

82

Level of nutrition affects leptin concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mature male sheep, the level of nutrition acutely influences the secretion of reproductive hormones. The mechanism involved is not fully understood but findings in humans and laboratory rodents would suggest a major role for leptin that is secreted from adipose tissue and then travels via the circulation to the central nervous system. Before we can begin to test this

D Blache; R L Tellam; L M Chagas; M A Blackberry; P E Vercoe; G B Martin

2000-01-01

83

Counseling Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

Scher, Murray, Ed.

1981-01-01

84

Ivermectin in Senegalese Peulh Sheep: Influence of Sex on Plasma Disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin following a single subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg\\/kg was investigated\\u000a in male and female Senegalese Peulh sheep. Ten clinically healthy animals (5 males and 5 females) weighing 38–45 kg were used\\u000a in this trial. Blood samples were collected by jugular puncture at different times between 0.5 h and 30 days post treatment.\\u000a After plasma

T. Bengone Ndong; Y. Kane; E. H. M. Diouf; M. Alvinerie

2007-01-01

85

A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.  

PubMed

Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

2014-04-01

86

Impaired ability to modulate glomerular filtration rate in aged female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fetal uninephrectomy (uni?x) results in hypertension at a later age in female than male sheep. We hypothesized that dysregulation of tubular sodium handling contributes to the reduced ability to regulate extracellular fluid (ECF) homeostasis in older females born with a congenital nephron deficit. Following renal excretory balance studies, the response to inhibition of the Na+K+2Cl? cotransporter with furosemide (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 1 mg/kg per hour, i.v) or vehicle treatment was examined in conscious 5?year?old female uni?x (n = 7) and sham (n = 7) sheep. Balance studies in meal?fed sheep demonstrated that while average 24 h sodium excretion over 6 days was not different between the groups, the daily variation in sodium excretion was significantly greater in uni?x compared to sham sheep (31 ± 4% vs. 12 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal cortical cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) gene expression were lower in uni?x sheep (both, P < 0.01). The increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow observed in sham sheep in response to furosemide were significantly attenuated in uni?x sheep (both PGROUP×TREAT < 0.05). However, fractional sodium excretion increased by a greater extent in the uni?x (4.4 ± 1.0%) as compared to the sham sheep (2.0 ± 0.4%; PGROUP×TIME < 0.05) in response to furosemide. In conclusion, fetal uni?x was associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in aged females. The impaired ability to modulate PRA and GFR in the adults with a congenital nephron deficit may reduce the capacity of the kidney to respond to gains or losses in ECF to maintain a stable internal environment. PMID:24744887

Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Singh, Reetu R.; Hilliard, Lucinda M.; Moritz, Karen M.; Denton, Kate M.

2014-01-01

87

Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

Sam, Chris Lam

2005-01-01

88

Male contraception  

PubMed Central

Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception. PMID:23226635

Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

2012-01-01

89

NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

90

Female desert bighorn sheep in the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Desert bighorn sheep use a lot of energy to regulate their internal temperature in the desert. During the summer the sheep eat plants and drink water every few days. In the winter, desert plants contain enough water for sheep survival.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

91

75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United States; (2...capital and resources within the sheep or goat industries; (3) Provide assistance to meet the needs of the sheep or goat industry for infrastructure...

2010-12-07

92

CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting  

E-print Network

planning process ­ Nutrient management training ­ P-Indexes and tools developed ­ Educational materials #12Welcome CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting May 4 and 5, 2004 Atlanta, GA #12;University Objectives · Information Sharing Among States ­ Nutrient management regulations ­ Nutrient management

93

Spontaneous acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa in sheep and biological control of this plant with sheep.  

PubMed

After the diagnosis of acute Crotalaria retusa poisoning, 21 healthy sheep from the affected flock were returned to the paddock and continued to consume the sprouting plants. Two years after returning these sheep to the paddock, very few plants were still alive, and after 3 years, no C. retusa plants were observed. The sheep had neither clinical signs nor biochemical alterations and delivered healthy lambs. It is concluded that resistant sheep can be used for the biological control of C. retusa. PMID:21930140

Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T

2011-11-01

94

Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations  

PubMed Central

The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

2014-01-01

95

Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.  

PubMed

The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

2014-01-01

96

Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present\\u000a study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of\\u000a West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April–September, 2009. The

Devesh K. Yadav; Subhash Taraphder; Ajit K. Sahoo; K. C. Dhara

2010-01-01

97

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability  

E-print Network

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient species to nutrient availability. · We experimentally fertirrigated a set of male and female Juniperus-offs for male and female plants (Obeso, 2002). For instance, female trees of the dioecious tree Juniperus

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

98

Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

2013-01-01

99

Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

2010-01-01

100

Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.  

PubMed

Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n?=?12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P?sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures. The saponin (protodioscin) concentrations in the pastures varied from 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg DM in B. decumbens, from 2.8 to 9.1 g/kg DM in B. brizantha, and from 1 to 1.5 g/kg DM in A. gayanus. No saponins were found in P. maximum. It is concluded that sheep from flocks reared in pastures of B. decumbens and B. brizantha were resistant to steroidal saponin poisoning and showed similar weight gains to those of sheep grazing in other tropical pastures. PMID:24557590

Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Castro, Márcio Botelho de

2014-06-01

101

The Economics of Sheep Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter aims to provide an introduction to some of the economic issues surrounding the welfare of farmed sheep. Typically,\\u000a ethical issues, or welfare indicators measured by natural scientists (physiological, physical and behavioural), gain precedence\\u000a in discussion, and economic aspects are considered to be side issues. Moreover, economics is assumed, by some, to be a means\\u000a of justifying profit generation

C. E. Milne; A. W. Stott; J. M. Santarossa

102

Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition  

E-print Network

VII.5 Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition Christine W. Miller It is certain that amongst almost-male competition in the big and small 4. Weapon evolution 5. Additional forms of male-male competition 6. Male-male competition in plants 7. Total sexual selection 8. Sexual selection and ecological context Males commonly

Miller, Christine Whitney

103

Condoms - male  

MedlinePLUS

... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive-condom; Contraception-condom; Barrier method-condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

104

Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa ( Moringa stenopetala ) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8?±?0.12 kg).\\u000a Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay?+?150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay?+?300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay?+?450 g

Feleke Gebregiorgis; Tegene Negesse; Ajebu Nurfeta

105

Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883

Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

2015-01-01

106

Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

107

Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

108

Sheep Behaviour, Needs, Housing and Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sheep (Ovis aries) are an attractive animal for scientific procedures; for medical, veterinary and fundamental biological research. They are docile, rarely show aggression, have a (relatively) short flight distance and are gregarious. In the UK, of 3 million animal scientific procedures in 2006, over 36,000 involved sheep. Small as a proportion perhaps, but exceeded only by the number involving

109

Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were avail- able from the US National Sheep Improvement Pro- gram and included direct and maternal effects on 120- d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC),

R. C. Borg; D. R. Notter; L. A. Kuehn; R. W. Kott

2010-01-01

110

Use of probiotics to reduce faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic, foodborne pathogens of humans. Ruminants, including sheep, are the primary reservoirs of STEC and there is a need to develop intervention strategies to reduce the entry of STEC into the food chain. The initiation of the majority of bacterial, enteric infections involves colonisation of the gut mucosal surface by the pathogen. However, probiotic bacteria can serve to decrease the severity of infection via a number of mechanisms including competition for receptors and nutrients, and/or the synthesis of organic acids and bacteriocins that create an environment unfavourable for pathogen development. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the administration of a probiotic mixture to sheep experimentally infected with a non-O157 STEC strain, carrying stx1, stx2 and eae genes, was able to decrease faecal shedding of the pathogen. The probiotic mixture contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The numbers of non-O157 STEC in faecal samples collected from sheep receiving daily doses of the probiotic mixture were significantly lower at the 3rd, 5th and 6th week post-inoculation when compared to the levels recorded in untreated animals. It was concluded that administration of the probiotic mixture reduced faecal shedding of non-O157 STEC in sheep, and holds potential as a pre-harvest intervention method to reduce transmission to humans. PMID:25380795

Rigobelo, E E C; Karapetkov, N; Maestá, S A; Avila, F A; McIntosh, D

2015-03-01

111

MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna spp.) SUPPLEMENTATION OF GROWING SHEEP FED WITH A BASAL DIET OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos

2003-01-01

112

What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?  

E-print Network

1 What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats? Parasites commonly found in sheep and goats parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms parasites, the most common of which are coccidia (Eimeria or Isospora). How do sheep and goats get infested

Tullos, Desiree

113

Toxoplasma gondii binds sheep prolactin.  

PubMed

Taking into account the literature reports on the involvement of prolactin (PRL) in the regulation of immunity against Toxoplasma gondii, we decided to check whether this parasite has the ability to bind the lactotrophic hormone. We examined T. gondii binding of sheep fluoresceine- and biotine-labeled prolactin isolated from pituitary (shPRL). In this work we announced for the first time that shPRL was bound to live tachyzoites of RH (type I) and ME49 (type II) strains. Furthermore, by use of competitive inhibition analysis, we confirmed that this binding was specific for both tested T. gondii strains. PMID:23499881

Dzitko, K; Dziadek, B; Gatkowska, J; D?ugo?ska, H

2013-06-01

114

NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN CROP PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balanced supply of of essential nutrients is one of the most important factors in increasing crop yields. The objective of this review is to discuss interactions among major and minor nutrients in crop plants. In crop plants, the nutrient interactions are generaly measured in terms of growth response and change in concentration of nutrients. Upon addition of two nutrients, a

V. D. Fageria

2001-01-01

115

Mechanism of nutrient sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term nutrient sensing has emerged to describe the molecular mechanisms by which nutrients and their metabolites interact with various cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling proteins, and nuclear receptors, and modulate the activity of a complex network of signaling pathways that regulat...

116

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section...Products § 133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's...

2010-04-01

117

Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of S esbania sesban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole Napier grass (control) and four Napier grass-Sesbania mixtures consisting of 100, 200, 300, and 400 g\\/kg of

Tibebu Manaye; Adugna Tolera; Tessema Zewdu

2009-01-01

118

Utilization of browse supplements with varying tannin levels by Ethiopian Menz sheep: 2. Nitrogen metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different condensed tannins concentrations on protein metabolism from browse supplements was investigated in\\u000a a 90-day trial using sixty-six male Ethiopian Menz sheep. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or\\u000a supplemented with 190 g dried leaves of six Sesbania sesban accessions with increasing levels of condensed tannin (S1, S2,\\u000a S3, S4, S5 and S6),

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem

1997-01-01

119

Male contraception.  

PubMed

With the powerful tools of molecular investigation, the last decade has witnessed the most remarkable scientific advance in our history, yet no new leads for male contraception have been forthcoming. All the likely methods of male contraception discussed above were derived from relatively 'old' physiological principles or serendipitous observations. The increasing gap between fundamental research (in the control of mammalian spermatogenesis) and the lack of clinical application are a testament to the low public funding priority afforded to male reproduction and the unwillingness of the pharmaceutical industry to invest in male reproductive research and development. Yet amidst such an unfavourable setting and with very limited support, it is heartening to note that the prospects of introducing a new systemic method for male contraception into the market by the end of this millenium has been greatly enhanced. Thus the results of recent studies have confirmed the contraceptive efficacy of sex steroid-induced oligozoospermia and unexpectedly revealed an ethnically distinct pattern of susceptibility to the hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis. Thus, Asian men are more responsive than are caucasian, and long-acting testosterone esters now being tested in that most densely populated part of the world may well hasten the large-scale application of this method. This is probably the most effective way to correct the misconceptions that men are unwilling or disinterested in sharing in family planning options with their partners. Together with the increased acceptance of novel non-surgical and reversible methods of vas deferens occlusion and the availability of improved non-latex condoms, the currently unfulfilled contraceptive needs of millions of men can be increasingly met in future years. The consequent increase in overall contraceptive prevalence could well make the telling difference between demographic catastrophe and maintaining good quality existence. Politicians, scientists and industrialists need to wake up to their responsibilities and the opportunities offered by this untapped resource and market potential. PMID:8736719

Wu, F C

1996-04-01

120

Acute intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in sheep.  

PubMed

Acute intoxication by seeding Crotalaria retusa occurred during the dry season, in a flock of 80 sheep, in the semi-arid region of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Anorexia, severe depression, mild jaundice, incoordination and recumbence were observed in 16 sheep that died within 12 h. At necropsy the liver had a nutmeg appearance. Seeds of C. retusa were found in large amounts in the rumen of the dead animals. Histologic lesions of the liver were characterized by centrilobular necrosis. Seeds of C. retusa were given to six sheep at doses of 2.5 (two sheep), 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw (one sheep for each dose). Sheep ingesting 5-40 g/kg bw were killed when moribund, 38-120 h after the start of the administration. Clinical signs and gross and histologic lesions were similar to those observed in field outbreak. The seeds used in the experiment contained 1.4% of monocrotaline. It is concluded that hungry sheep can be affected spontaneously by acute monocrotaline intoxication when they ingest large amounts of C. retusa seeds in a short period of time. PMID:15683873

Nobre, V M T; Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Barbosa Filho, J M; Tabosa, I M; Vasconcelos, J S

2005-03-01

121

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

122

Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

2013-01-01

123

Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm2, P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm2, P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Green, Lucy R.

2013-01-01

124

Nutrient composition of whitetop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Whitetop or heart-podded hoary cress (Cur&riir &u&z(L.)Desv.) is an Eurasian native of the Cruciferae actively invading range- lands throughout,western North America. The plant is reported to be unpalatable to livestock and contain potentially toxic glucosin- olates. Practical experience indicates sheep consume,whitetop dur- ing its early growth,stages and cattle ingest large quantities of seedheads. Chemical analysis of whole plants from

J. Range; Michael L. Mcinnis; Larry L. Larson; Richard F. Miller

125

Factors affecting prices of lamb and sheep  

E-print Network

&king Points . . VI. The Effects of Change in Prices Upon sheep Population on Farms ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 84 VIX. The Economic lelations Between Price and D%, 2)nd and ' Upp+ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 VXII ~ Ma)or Paotors . .ffeoting... grown only 1n the very rough areas Xn the "'eet 4ry farm1ng end cattle were in strong competition with the sheep industxy, Thus the nrsebsr of sheep in the United ' tates as a rhols tended to deox'sass during ths last quarter of ths century. After...

Coston, Ocie

1937-01-01

126

Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor. PMID:25040769

Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

2014-07-01

127

Nutrients in an Estuary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model estuaries, artificially enriching both fresh and salt water samples with different amounts of nutrients and observing the growth of algae over several weeks. Learners relate their results to the phenomenon of algae blooms in estuaries. Learners then analyze data for different sites at the Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve (GTMNERR) in Florida to discover the relationships between nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen. Finally, learners study how nutrients cycle through an estuary and suggest recommendations for reducing nutrient inputs to estuary waters.

TERC

2012-06-26

128

Pathology of GM2 gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep.  

PubMed

The G(M2) gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for the enzyme hexosaminidase or the G(M2) activator protein. Four Jacob sheep from the same farm were examined over a 3-year period for a progressive neurologic disease. Two lambs were 6-month-old intact males and 2 were 8-month-old females. Clinical findings included ataxia in all 4 limbs, proprioceptive deficits, and cortical blindness. At necropsy, the nervous system appeared grossly normal. Histologically, most neurons within the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia were enlarged, and the cytoplasm was distended by foamy to granular material that stained positively with Luxol fast blue and Sudan black B stains. Other neuropathologic findings included widespread astrocytosis, microgliosis, and scattered spheroids. Electron microscopy revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the cytoplasm of neurons. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of G(M2) gangliosidosis. This form of G(M2) gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep is very similar to human Tay-Sachs disease and is potentially a useful animal model. PMID:21123862

Porter, B F; Lewis, B C; Edwards, J F; Alroy, J; Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Bretzlaff, K N; Kolodny, E H

2011-07-01

129

GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.  

PubMed

GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

2014-01-01

130

Food Groups and Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Miss Perry

2007-11-08

131

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth � the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

132

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

·Partial reclamation since 1988, no new operation 6 #12;7 #12;Titan Sheep Mountain Project: ·Mine·Mine ·Underground and Open Pit Mining ·Current Mine Permit (381C) ·Updating POO, Reclamation Plan & Bond ·Uranium Recovery to pit or used in reclamation ·Sheep Mountain Underground ·To extent possible all wastes reclaimed

133

Zinc deficiency in Sudanese desert sheep.  

PubMed

Reduced appetite, skin lesions and deaths occurred in sheep feeding on Rhodes grass (Chloris gayama) at a farm near Khartoum North. The concentration of zinc in the grass and in the serum and liver of affected animals was low. These findings, the skin lesions and the favourable response to the injection of zinc (to be reported) suggest that the clinical condition was due to a deficiency of zinc in the diet of the sheep. PMID:6643758

Mahmoud, O M; El Samani, F; Bakheit, A O; Hassan, M A

1983-10-01

134

Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

135

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

136

Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.  

PubMed

Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex ?-subunit with human Hex ?-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

2010-12-01

137

Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep.  

PubMed

Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer

2015-04-01

138

Maternal obesity induces fibrosis in fetal myocardium of sheep  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity (MO) has harmful effects on both fetal development and subsequent offspring health. The impact of MO on fetal myocardium development has received little attention. Fibrogenesis is regulated by the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/p38 signaling pathway. Using the well-established model of MO in pregnant sheep, we evaluated the effect of MO on TGF-?/p38 and collagen accumulation in fetal myocardium. Nonpregnant ewes were assigned to a control diet [Con, fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient recommendations] or obesogenic diet (OB, fed 150% of NRC recommendations) from 60 days before conception. Fetal ventricular muscle was sampled at 75 and 135 days of gestation (dG). At 75 dG, the expression of precursor TGF-? was 39.9 ± 9.9% higher (P < 0.05) in OB than Con fetal myocardium, consistent with the higher content of phosphorylated Smad3 in OB myocardium. The phosphorylation of p38 tended to be higher in OB myocardium (P = 0.08). In addition, enhanced Smad complexes were bound to Smad-binding elements in 75 dG OB fetal myocardium measured by DNA mobility shift assay (130.2 ± 26.0% higher, P < 0.05). Similar elevation of TGF-? signaling was observed in OB fetal myocardium at 135 dG. Total collagen concentration in OB was greater than Con fetal myocardium (2.42 ± 0.16 vs. 1.87 ± 0.04%, P < 0.05). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 were higher in the Con group compared with OB sheep (43.86 ± 16.01 and 37.23 ± 7.97% respectively, P < 0.05). In summary, MO results in greater fetal heart connective tissue accumulation associated with an upregulated TGF-?/p38 signaling pathway at late gestation; such changes would be expected to negatively impact offspring heart function. PMID:20876759

Huang, Yan; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Jun X.; Zhu, Mei J.; McCormick, Richard J.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

2010-01-01

139

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sheep Strains Isolated from Cyprus Sheep and Goats.  

PubMed

Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. PMID:23683358

Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

2015-04-01

140

The effect of Panicum coloratum on sheep and rabbits  

E-print Network

sitivity of s'heep in the western United States. Two plants that cause a similar type of disease syndrome in animals are Agave lechiguilla and Nolina 23, 35 texana (sacahuista). ' In sheep, these plants pro- duce hepatogenous photosensitivity...

Muchiri, Daniel James

1977-01-01

141

Sheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula's test piece mountain bike ride. It is  

E-print Network

to a highpoint at Blue Point. It then follows the connecting ridge to Sheep Mountain (7650 ft), descending from Blue Point before climbing again to Sheep Mountain. From the top of Sheep, it's almost entirelySheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula

Bardsley, John

142

Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

143

SITE AND EXENT OF DIGESTION, DUODENAL FLOW, AND INTESTINAL DISAPPEARANCE OF TOTAL AND ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS IN SHEEP FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...

144

Intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients in the Taiwanese elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine dietary intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients for the Taiwanese elderly in order to relate nutrient intakes to food choices and to provide suggestions for dietary improvement. The data were derived from the 24-hour recalls from 1,911 subjects (955 males and 956 females) aged 65 and above, who

Shin-Jiuan Wu; Ya-Hui Chang; Ien-Lan Wei; Mei-Ding Kao; Yi-Chin Lin; Wen-Harn Pan

145

Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

2014-01-01

146

Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

2014-01-01

147

Genome edited sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2015-02-01

148

Effect of different levels of cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain in tef ( Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, diet apparent digestibility and live weight gain in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep. A randomized complete block design was used to assign 24 male Highland sheep with initial live weight of 17.0±3.9kg (mean±S.D.) in six replications to one of

Tikabo Gebremariam; Solomon Melaku; Alemu Yami

2006-01-01

149

Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)

2009-05-21

150

Male Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... your son's reproductive health. Continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ... has been removed. Back Continue What the Male Reproductive System Does The male sex organs work together to ...

151

Do I turn left or right? Effects of sex, age, experience and exit route on maze test performance in sheep.  

PubMed

Brain development and function are susceptible to perturbation by environmental factors. Sheep are increasingly being used as a neurodevelopmental model due to timing similarities with humans, but effects of age, experience and sex on cognition are not well characterised in this species. We therefore studied memory and reversal learning in sheep using a modified Y-maze at two ages: naive 18 weeks old (18N: 23 male, 17 female), experienced 40 week old sheep that had previously been tested at 18 weeks (40E: 22 male, 17 female), and naive 40 weeks old (40N: 4 male, 10 female). Younger naive animals (18N) required more trials and time to solve the first reversal task (task R1) than 40E (P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively). Experience also improved outcomes, with 40N sheep requiring more time to solve tasks L (P=0.034) and R1 (P=0.002) than 40E. Increasing age (40N cf. 18N) decreased bleat frequency in tasks R1, M2 and R2 (each P<0.05). In 40N females, outcomes also differed by exit method in task R1, with those that exited via an indirect route taking less time to pass tasks R1 (P=0.009) and R2 (P=0.015) than those that used a direct route. Age plus experience improved learning outcomes, demonstrating knowledge retention for 22 weeks in this species, whilst age alone affected mostly behavioral responses. These results provide comparison data, and can be utilised to improve experimental design, for studies of neurodevelopment in the sheep. PMID:25449405

Hunter, Damien S; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

2015-02-01

152

Diet selection by sheep and goats in the Noorsveld  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet selection of Angora and Boer goats, and Dorper and Merino sheep was studied in the Noorsveld to ascertain differences in their food preferences. This information will facilitate the identification of possible goat and sheep combinations to improve the utilization of this veld type. Dorper and Merino sheep and Angora goats selected very similar diets while the diet selected

P. C. V. du Toit; C. D. Blom

1995-01-01

153

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2010-01-01

154

2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School Features Doug Rathke  

E-print Network

2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School Features Doug Rathke The 2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School will be on April 18 and 19, 2014, at the Tennessee Livestock Center on the Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) campus in Murfreesboro. The school is sponsored by the Tennessee Sheep Producers Association, Tennessee

Tennessee, University of

155

Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan  

E-print Network

Short note Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan Centre for Food and Animal Research) Summary ― Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be anal- yzed for copper or vitamin E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep  

E-print Network

Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep R Cordesse M Inesta, JL Gaubert ENSA of llamas to ingest and digest forages. We measured these capacities on 4 forages in comparison with sheep. The digestibility was measured by total col- lection of feces on the last 10 days of each period. Sheep had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2014-01-01

158

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2013-01-01

159

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2010-01-01

160

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2012-01-01

161

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 ...Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be...

2011-01-01

162

Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2–5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin, moxidectin or albendazole. Resistance was found in the sheep treated with doramectin (15% efficacy) and

Fred H. M. Borgsteede; Daan D. Dercksen; René Huijbers

2007-01-01

163

A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep.  

PubMed

The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 10(3)TCID(50) each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits ruminants virus (PPRV-Sungri/96 strain) were monitored for clinical and serological responses for a period of four weeks post immunization (pi) and two week post challenge (pc). Specific antibodies directed to sheep pox virus could be demonstrated by indirect ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT). Competitive ELISA and SNT were used for demonstration of antibodies to PPR virus. All the immunized animals resisted challenge with virulent SPV or PPRV on day 30pi, while control animals developed characteristic signs of disease. Specific virus could be detected in the unvaccinated control animals after challenge but not from any of the immunized sheep. Combined vaccine was found to be safe and potent as evident from sero conversion as well as challenge studies in sheep. This indicates that component vaccines did not interfere each other and can be used in target population for economic vaccination strategies. PMID:19428860

Chaudhary, S S; Pandey, K D; Singh, R P; Verma, P C; Gupta, P K

2009-04-28

164

Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross × Ross 308 Broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross × Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

165

Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2005-09-01

166

Collecting Water Nutrient Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

167

Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

168

SPARROW REGIONAL NUTRIENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...

169

Program Areas Nutrient Management  

E-print Network

Program Areas Nutrient Management Animal Waste Management Irrigation Water Management Drinking University Resources The Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project is led by Water Quality water quality themes such as the web-based Drinking Water and Human Health FAQ Database, which provides

170

Fundamentals of Soil Nutrient  

E-print Network

­ soluble! · Cycles readily through organic matter #12;Sulfur Inputs compared to Tree UptakeSulfur InputsFundamentals of Soil Nutrient Dynamics Steven Perakis #12;N2 P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Mo, Fe, ...... #12;Nutritional Issues at NitrogenNutritional Issues at Nitrogen--Rich SitesRich Sites · Phosphorus · Sulfur

171

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

172

Nutrient element interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The management of overall tree physiological processes for optimization of either orchard yield or profitability is an annual challenge facing orchard managers. Optimization of chemical nutrient element concentrations within this context is often far more challenging than first appears. Tree or or...

173

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Program  

E-print Network

provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility concepts, the nutrient cycles and behavior of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, soil sampling and analysis, crop nutrient recommendations

Guiltinan, Mark

174

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

175

The Effects of Replacing Rhodes Grass ( Chloris gayana ) Hay with Ghaf ( Prosopis cineraria ) Pods on the Performance of Omani Native Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial using various levels of dry pods of ghaf (Prosopis cineraria) was carried out with 28 Omani native male sheep. Individual feed intake and body weight were determined for 50 days to allow assessment of the effects of the feeds on growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcase measurements. The ripened ghaf pods contained 91% dry matter (DM),

O. Mahgoub; I. T. Kadim; D. S. Al-Ajmi; N. M. Al-Saqry; A. S. Al-Abri; A. R. Richie; K. Annamalai; N. E. Forsberg

2004-01-01

176

Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150 g), Leucaena (200 or 400 g) or Sesbania (200 or 400 g). The animals

R. J. Kaitho; A. Tegegne; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J Van Bruchem; J. M. Arts

1998-01-01

177

Effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements to teff straw given to Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using 102 male Ethiopian highland sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented with graded levels (15, 30, 45, 60% of ration dry matter intake)

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. Van Bruchem

1998-01-01

178

Acute AT1-receptor blockade reverses the hemodynamic and baroreflex impairment in adult sheep exposed to antenatal betamethasone  

PubMed Central

To accelerate lung development and protect neonates from other early developmental problems, synthetic steroids are administered maternally in the third trimester, exposing fetuses that are candidates for premature delivery to them. However, steroid exposure at this point of gestation may lead to elevated blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)] during adolescence. We hypothesize that fetal exposure to steroids activates the renin-angiotensin system, inducing an elevation in blood pressure and attenuation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) that is angiotensin II dependent in early adulthood. To test this hypothesis, fetal sheep were exposed to betamethasone (Beta) or vehicle (control) administered to ewes at day 80 of gestation and delivered at full term. At 1.8 yr of age, male offspring were instrumented for conscious recording of MAP, heart rate, and measurement of BRS [as low-frequency-?, high-frequency-?, sequence (seq) UP, seq DOWN, and seq TOTAL]. Beta-exposed sheep (n = 6) had higher MAP than control sheep (n = 5) (93 ± 2 vs. 84 ± 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Acute blockade of angiotensin type 1 receptors with candesartan (0.3 mg/kg iv) normalized MAP in Beta-exposed sheep (85 ± 4 mmHg), with no effect in control sheep (82 ± 3 mmHg). Before angiotensin type 1 blockade, BRS maximum gain was significantly lower in Beta-exposed vs. control sheep (11 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 3 ms/mmHg, P < 0.0.01). However, 45 min after candesartan injection, BRS was increased in Beta-exposed (21 ± 5 ms/mmHg) and control (35 ± 4 ms/mmHg) sheep. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) revealed lower HRV (SD of beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences in R-R interval duration) and higher BPV (SD of MAP, systolic arterial pressure in low-frequency range) in Beta-exposed sheep. Candesartan partially restored HRV in Beta-exposed sheep and fully corrected BPV. Thus, in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids causes long-lasting programming of the cardiovascular system via renin-angiotensin system-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20543085

Rose, James C.; Figueroa, Jorge P.; Chappell, Mark C.; Diz, Debra I.; Averill, David B.

2010-01-01

179

Acute AT(1)-receptor blockade reverses the hemodynamic and baroreflex impairment in adult sheep exposed to antenatal betamethasone.  

PubMed

To accelerate lung development and protect neonates from other early developmental problems, synthetic steroids are administered maternally in the third trimester, exposing fetuses that are candidates for premature delivery to them. However, steroid exposure at this point of gestation may lead to elevated blood pressure [mean arterial pressure (MAP)] during adolescence. We hypothesize that fetal exposure to steroids activates the renin-angiotensin system, inducing an elevation in blood pressure and attenuation of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) that is angiotensin II dependent in early adulthood. To test this hypothesis, fetal sheep were exposed to betamethasone (Beta) or vehicle (control) administered to ewes at day 80 of gestation and delivered at full term. At 1.8 yr of age, male offspring were instrumented for conscious recording of MAP, heart rate, and measurement of BRS [as low-frequency-alpha, high-frequency-alpha, sequence (seq) UP, seq DOWN, and seq TOTAL]. Beta-exposed sheep (n = 6) had higher MAP than control sheep (n = 5) (93 + or - 2 vs. 84 + or - 2 mmHg, P < 0.01). Acute blockade of angiotensin type 1 receptors with candesartan (0.3 mg/kg iv) normalized MAP in Beta-exposed sheep (85 + or - 4 mmHg), with no effect in control sheep (82 + or - 3 mmHg). Before angiotensin type 1 blockade, BRS maximum gain was significantly lower in Beta-exposed vs. control sheep (11 + or - 3 vs. 26 + or - 3 ms/mmHg, P < 0.0.01). However, 45 min after candesartan injection, BRS was increased in Beta-exposed (21 + or - 5 ms/mmHg) and control (35 + or - 4 ms/mmHg) sheep. Heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) revealed lower HRV (SD of beat-to-beat interval and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences in R-R interval duration) and higher BPV (SD of MAP, systolic arterial pressure in low-frequency range) in Beta-exposed sheep. Candesartan partially restored HRV in Beta-exposed sheep and fully corrected BPV. Thus, in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids causes long-lasting programming of the cardiovascular system via renin-angiotensin system-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20543085

Shaltout, Hossam A; Rose, James C; Figueroa, Jorge P; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I; Averill, David B

2010-08-01

180

Nutrient profiling: the new environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the ...

181

Immune responses associated with resistance to haemonchosis in sheep.  

PubMed

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h(2), 0.22-0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

2013-01-01

182

INFLUENCE OF WHOLE-PLANT BARLEY RECONSTITUTED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE ON DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN FLUID AND PLASMA METABOLISM OF SHEEP 1 ,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Whole-plant barley was reconstituted and treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at the rate of 0, 2, 3 or 4% of dry matter. Rumen-fistulated sheep were used to investigate the effects of treatment on nutrient diges- tibility and concentration of rumen fluid and plasma metabolites. Treatments increased diges- tibility of dry matter, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and

B. G. Ololade; D. N. Mowat

2010-01-01

183

Impact on Western Australia’s sheep supply chain of the termination of live sheep exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Australia (WA) supplies around three-quarters of Australia’s exports of live sheep. The number of sheep exported live from WA has ranged from 4.5 million to 2.4 million with the trend in numbers exported being downwards. The future of this export trade appears to be increasingly vulnerable and uncertain, primarily because of the influence of animal welfare lobbyists. This paper

Tanmoy Nath; Ross S. Kingwell; Peter Cunningham; Nazrul Islam; Vilaphonh Xayavong; Kimbal Curtis; David Feldman; Lucy Anderton; Truphena Mahindua

2012-01-01

184

Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on nutrient availability to the fetus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effects of maternal Se intake and plane of nutrition during mid and/or late gestation on AA concentrations and metabolite levels in the dam and fetus, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array: Se level [initiated at breed...

185

Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.  

PubMed

Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

2014-01-01

186

The effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism in mammary tissue of sheep.  

PubMed

Glucose utilisation for lactose synthesis in the mammary gland involves expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. In this study, the effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes [glucose transporter 1: GLUT1, glucose transporter 3: GLUT3, Sodium glucose contransporter 1: SGLT1, two isoforms of ?- (1,4) galactosyltransferase: ?- (1,4) GAT1, ?- (1,4) GAT3 and ?-lactalbumin: LALBA] related to glucose metabolism in sheep mammary tissue (MT) was examined. Twenty-four lactating dairy sheep were divided into three homogenous sub-groups and fed the same ration in quantities which met 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed a significant reduction on mRNA of GLUT1 and LALBA gene in the MT of underfed sheep, compared with the respective controls and overfed and a significant reduction on mRNA level of SGLT1 and ?- (1,4) GAT1 in the MT of underfed sheep, compared with the overfed ones. A significant increase in the GLUT3 mRNA accumulation in the MT of both under- and over- fed sheep was found. Additionally, a trend of reduction on ?- (1,4) GAT3 mRNA level in the MT of the underfed sheep, compared with the overfed, was observed. A close positive relationship was obtained between the mRNA transcripts accumulation of GLUT1, SGLT1, ?- (1,4) GAT1 and LALBA gene with the milk lactose content and milk lactose yield respectively. In conclusion, feeding level and consequently nutrient availability, may affect glucose uptake and utilisation in sheep MT by altering the GLUT1, GLUT3, SGLT1, ?- (1,4) GAT1 and LALBA gene expression involved in their metabolic pathways. PMID:25704663

Tsiplakou, Eleni; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Kouri, Evangelia-Diamanto; Sotirakoglou, Kyriaki; Zervas, George

2015-05-01

187

Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions  

PubMed Central

Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow’s milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5.6% of goat and 3.9% sheep milk samples, with 33.3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

2014-01-01

188

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 ... search program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, ...

189

Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

190

Phylogeny of Local Sheep Breeds in East Asia, Focusing on the Bayanbulak Sheep in China and the Sipsu Sheep in Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic positions of the Bayanbulak sheep in China and the Sipsu sheep in Bhutan in the northern Asian sheep group\\u000a were determined on the basis of allele frequency data for five informative and polymorphic loci of blood protein and nonproteins,\\u000a such as transferrin (TF), arylesterase (ES), hemoglobin-? (HB-?), X-protein (XP), and potassium transport (KE), using different electrophoretic and ion-densitometric

Kenji Tsunoda; Hong Chang; Guobin Chang; Wei Sun; Tashi Dorji; Gyem Tshering; Yoshio Yamamoto; Takao Namikawa

2010-01-01

191

Effect of docking and energy of diet on carcass fat characteristics in fat-tailed Badghisian sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of docking on carcass fat characteristics were studied in fat-tailed sheep. Male lambs were randomly divided into two groups. One group docked 3–4h after birth, using rubber rings and the tails of other left intact (control). After weaning, 20 lambs from each group were divided into two subgroups, one subgroup was fed with a normal-energy diet (2.45Mcal\\/kg ME) and

A. Moharrery

2007-01-01

192

Effects of Psoroptes ovis infection and its control with an ivermectin controlled-release capsule on growing sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule (IVM-CRC) on the productivity of growing sheep infested with Psoroptes ovis 24 male and 24 female Merino landrace lambs, 5–6 months old and weighing 21.2–35.0kg, were used. Sixteen replicates of three animals were formed based on sex and Day 0 body weight. Within each replicate animals were randomly

S Rehbein; D Barth; M Visser; R Winter; L. G Cramer; W. K Langholff

2000-01-01

193

Utilization of browse supplements with varying tannin levels by Ethiopian Menz sheep: 1. Intake, digestibility and live weight changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tannins in browse supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using sixty-six\\u000a male Ethiopian Menz sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented\\u000a with 190 g dried leaves of six Sesbania sesban accessions with increasing levels of condensed tannin (S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem

1997-01-01

194

Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.

195

Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique  

PubMed Central

The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

2015-01-01

196

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

-Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 5 Nutrition Department, and 6 DepartmentThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA; 7 Food Science and Nutrition Department, California

Hammock, Bruce D.

197

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

of governmental and industrial organizations, including the Department for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High for Dairy Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire

Bequette, Brian J.

198

Editor, Sheep Production Handbook, Chapter entitled ‘Reproduction’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproductive efficiency, or percentage of lamb crop raised and marketed, is the major factor affecting profitability of a sheep flock. Frequently, an increased reproductive rate will be the most efficient way to increase income rather than an increase in numbers of ewes. Consequently, increasing th...

199

Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6–8months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was

Paola A. Torres; Bai Jin Zeng; Brian F. Porter; Joseph Alroy; Fred Horak; Joan Horak; Edwin H. Kolodny

2010-01-01

200

Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION Inbreeding depression has been found been designed so that the reduction of fitness resulting from inbreeding depression can be avoided, no inbreeding depression has been detected (Kalinowski, Hedrick & Miller, 1999). It is not clear how often low

Kalinowski, Steven T

201

Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans  

E-print Network

Towards automatic interpretation of sheep ultrasound scans C.A. Glasbey Scottish Agricultural and within individuals. Hence, this study investigated the automatic interpretation of ultrasound scans from of the speed of transmission of ultrasound across the body, and the fat content of the tissue through which

Stone, J. V.

202

Pasture management for sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

203

Salivary prions in sheep and deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a prion disease transmitted naturally within affected host populations of sheep and goats. Although milk and placenta have been identified as sources of contagion for scrapie prions, these sources seem insufficient to explain either indirect or interspecies scrapie transmission. Here we s...

204

Parenteral supply of vitamin A to sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 20 sheep was used to study the effect of intramuscular injections of four different doses of vitamin A. One group received the vehicle only (control group), while the others were injected i.m. with vitamin A. Group 2: 1.5 × 106 IU, Group 3: 3 × 106 IU and Group 4: 5 × 106 IU. There was an

M. Hidiroglou; T. R. Batra

1996-01-01

205

Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

1997-08-01

206

Reproductive characteristics of Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of season on, and to estimate heritabilities of, and genetic correlations among, semen and spermatozoa characteristics and the relationship of these characteristics with measures of testicular or scrotal size in 6-, 9- and 12-month old ram lambs of Menz and Horro sheep breeds indigenous to Ethiopian highlands. A total of 278 ram

J. E. O. Rege; F. Toe; E. Mukasa-Mugerwa; S. Tembely; D. Anindo; R. L. Baker; A. Lahlou-Kassi

2000-01-01

207

Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition  

E-print Network

1 Mating Behavior II: Male-Male Competition Intrasexual Selection Recall that the other "part Serves as a distraction; while superior male attempts to mate with mimic, it courts and mates with female Known in salamanders, lizards, fish, isopods, bedbugs In ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) a rare female mimic

Brown, Christopher A.

208

Salivary prions in sheep and deer  

PubMed Central

Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of ?0.5 to 1.7 log ID50 U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of ?1.1 to ?0.4 log ID50 U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID50 units for sheep and 7.0 log ID50 units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID50 units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J

2012-01-01

209

Ruminal degradation of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal using In sacco procedure in sheep.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in order to investigate rumen degradability of some factors includes; Dray Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) in three different plant protein supplements includes; soybean, canola and cottonseed meal. The experiment was carried out using in three castrated and fistulated male Zel sheep. Each feedstuff was weighed into duplicate nylon bags and incubated in each of the three rumen fistulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Results revealed that effective degradability of DM of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal were 55.8, 73.8 and 48.5%, respectively. Effective degradabilities of the CP in feedstuffs were 55.8, 62 and 48.3% for the respective feedstuffs. Effective degradabilities of the OM were 55.7, 56.4 and 47.4%, respectively. Results also showed that effective degradabilities of the ADF were 55, 56.4 and 37.6, respectively. According to the results the researchers concluded that canola and soybean were more degradable in the rumen of the sheep while cottonseed meal were less degradable and, hence resulted in higher rumen undegradable protein. PMID:24498847

Jafari Khorshidi, K; Abedi Chemazkoti, S; Kioumarsi, H; Shariman Yahya, Z

2013-09-01

210

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

211

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2011-01-01

212

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2012-01-01

213

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

214

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2014-01-01

215

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2010-01-01

216

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

217

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

218

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

219

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

220

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

221

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

222

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

223

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed....

2013-01-01

224

Prediction of utilizable true protein of mixed rations for sheep using an in vitro incubation technique.  

PubMed

The objective of the present experiment was to study the relationship between in vitro utilizable true protein (uTP) and in vivo-uTP of sheep rations by regression analysis. A further aim was to analyse if in vivo-uTP of mixed rations could be predicted by regression analysis between in vitro-uTP and in vivo-uTP, using N-retention of sheep as important evaluation criteria of protein value. Three adult male sheep (body weight [BW] 46 + 1.3 kg) fitted with rumen cannulas and simple T-type duodenal cannulas were fed with twelve typical rations with graded levels of crude protein and true protein in four experiments according a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period included an adaptation (7 days), a N balance trial (4 days) and a collection of duodenal digesta (3 days). During collection of duodenal digesta, polyethylene glycol and chromium oxide were used as dual markers for the measurement of duodenal digesta flow and calculation of the in vivo-uTP of duodenal digesta. The in vitro-uTP of the rations was determined using the in vitro incubation technique of Zhao and Lebzien (2000). It was found that both in vitro-uTP intake and in vivo-uTP intake were significantly correlated with N-retention (p < 0.001) and that there was a significant linear relationship between the content of in vitro-uTP and in vivo-uTP in rations (p < 0.001). Therefore, it was concluded that the used in vitro incubation technique is suitable for the determination of in vitro-uTP of mixed rations for sheep, and that the amount of in vivo-uTP can be predicted by regression between in vitro-uTP and in vivo-uTP. PMID:17451109

Li, Yuan-Xiao; Zhao, Guang-Yong

2007-04-01

225

Resource use efficiency in urban and peri-urban sheep, goat and cattle enterprises.  

PubMed

Urban livestock husbandry receives growing attention given the increasing urban demand for livestock products. At the same time, little is known about the resource use efficiency in urban livestock enterprises and eventual negative externalities. In livestock production, feeds are an important resource whose nutrients are transformed into products (meat and milk) to generate financial return to the producer. The lack of knowledge on nutrient supply through feed might lead to oversupply with severe environmental impacts. In Niamey, a typical West African city and capital of the Republic of Niger, urban livestock production is constrained by feed scarcity, especially during the dry season. Here, the issue of resource use efficiency was studied in 13 representative and differently managed sheep/goat and cattle enterprises characterized by high and low feed inputs, respectively, during a period of 28 months. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) inflows into each farm through livestock feeds and outflows through manure were determined using a semi-structured questionnaire; interviews were accompanied by regular weighing of feed supplied and dung produced. Live weight gain (LWG) and efficiency of conversion of total feed dry matter offered (kg TDMO/kg LWG) were computed along with nutrient balances (NBs) per metabolic body mass (kg0.75). NBs (per kg0.75/day) in the high-input (HI) sheep/goat enterprises were +1762.4 mg N, +127.2 mg P and +1363.5 mg K and were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those in low-input (LI) units (+69.1 mg N, -98.3 mg P and +16.5 mg K). In HI cattle enterprises, daily balances averaged +454.1 mg N, +40.1 mg P and +341.8 mg K compared to +34.4 mg N, -9.0 mg P and +68.3 mg K (P > 0.05) in LI cattle systems. All systems were characterized by poor conversion efficiencies of offered feed, which ranged from 13.5 to 46.1 kg TDMO/kg LWG in cattle and from 15.7 to 43.4 kg TDMO/kg LWG in sheep/goats. LWG in HI sheep/goats was 53 g/day in the rainy season, 86 g/day in the hot dry season and 104 g/day in the cool dry season, while HI cattle lost 79 g/day in the hot dry season and gained 121 g/day and 92 g/day in the cool dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The data indicate that there is nutrient wasting and scope for improvement of feeding strategies in Niamey's livestock enterprises, which might also decrease nutrient losses to the urban environment. PMID:22445127

Diogo, R V C; Buerkert, A; Schlecht, E

2010-10-01

226

AGRICULTURAL -NUTRIENT PATiIWAYS  

E-print Network

.1.5 Micronutrients 2.1.6 Salinity 2.1.7 Pathogens SOIL 2.2.1 Organic Matter 2.2.2 Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio 2 Issues AIR 3.0 NUTRIENT PATHWAYS IN AGRICULTURE 3.1 ORGANIC MATTER 3.2 NITROGEN 3.3 PHOSPHORUS 3 these nutrients flow. 2.0 IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT The management of agricultural wastes

227

Molecular evidence for fat-tailed sheep domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sheep is one of the most successful and widely spread domestic animals. Archaeological evidence traces the first domestic\\u000a sheep back to the Near East region around 9,000 years ago. It is also known that soon after, the domesticated sheep started\\u000a to flow out of the centre of origin and spread all over the ancient world following the expansion of agriculture.

Joana Rocha; Shanyuan Chen; Albano Beja-Pereira

2011-01-01

228

Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways  

PubMed Central

PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

2015-01-01

229

Oxidative stress during pregnancy in the sheep.  

PubMed

During physiological pregnancy, all tissues and, mostly, placenta and foetus require high amounts of oxygen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated both by mother and foetus, are implicated in foetal growth because they promote replication, differentiation and maturation of cells and organs. Nevertheless, ROS excess, if not properly counterbalanced, may lead to an alteration in cell constituents, with harmful effects both on mother and foetus.ROS exert a biphasic effect because adequate ROS concentration is essential for embryo development, implant, foetal defence against uterine infections, steroidogenesis, pregnancy maintainance and partum. On the other hand, an uncontrolled ROS generation, beyond physiological antioxidant defences, may lead to embryo resorption, placental degeneration with subsequent alteration in maternal-foetal exchanges, delay in foetal growth, pregnancy interruption, stillbirths. This review investigates the mechanisms underlying ROS generation and effects, throughout physiological and pathological pregnancy in sheep, with a look to antioxidants and their importance in such a critical phase of the reproductive cycle of the sheep. PMID:23346938

Mutinati, M; Piccinno, M; Roncetti, M; Campanile, D; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, Rl

2013-06-01

230

Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. PMID:23178047

Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

2013-06-01

231

Graduating Black Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

Bell, Edward Earl

2010-01-01

232

Males in Psychotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the effects of the male sex role upon male behavior in psychotherapy, showing research results for both therapist and client behavior. The research suggested that male clients tended not to disclose as freely, and that male therapists were perceived as less expressive than females. (LPG)

Toomer, Jerry E.

1978-01-01

233

Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies   

E-print Network

Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic ...

Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

2012-11-30

234

The distribution of actin in sheep ovaries.  

PubMed

The distribution of actin in sheep ovaries has been examined using immunofluorescent techniques. The germinal epithelium, which contained abundant microfibrils, fluoresced strongly while the underlying stroma was only weakly positive. During early follicular growth a band of fluorescence was associated with the base of those granulosa cells abutting onto the basal lamina. This transitional polarity of actin distribution was correlated with cell shape changes in the basal granulosa. PMID:4056698

Cran, D G; Musk, L

1985-09-01

235

Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

1997-01-01

236

Pythiosis of the digestive tract in sheep.  

PubMed

Cutaneous and rhinofacial infections by Pythium insidiosum have previously been reported in sheep in Brazil. In the current study, a new form of pythiosis involving the alimentary tract of 2 nursing lambs from 2 different farms in the semiarid region of Brazil is described. The first lamb showed food regurgitation, lethargy, and anorexia, and died 5 days after the presentation of clinical signs. The second lamb had no history of gastrointestinal disease before death. Necropsy findings were similar in both lambs. The mucosa of the esophagus, reticulum, rumen, omasum, and abomasum showed ulcerated areas covered by yellowish caseous granular exudate. The lesions were transmural and extended to the serosal surfaces, and adhesions were observed between the serosa of the forestomachs and abomasum to the liver and diaphragm. Histologic lesions consisted of pyogranulomatous necrotizing transmural esophagitis, rumenitis, reticulitis, omasitis, and abomasitis with vascular thrombosis and intralesional hyphae. Pythium insidiosum was confirmed as the etiology by immunohistochemistry and culture. The presence of sheep in the vicinity of water ponds during the hot, dry season when forage is not available in the pastures seems to be the main predisposing factor for the occurrence of pythiosis in sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. PMID:23051827

Pessoa, Clarice R M; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Pimentel, Luciano A; Garino, Felício; Dantas, Antônio F M; Kommers, Glaucia D; Tabosa, Ivon M; Reis-Júnior, Janildo L

2012-11-01

237

Rumen Anaerobic Fungi of Cattle and Sheep  

PubMed Central

Plant fragments obtained from natural rumen digesta of fistulated cattle and sheep were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Various plant materials suspended in the rumen for different times were examined likewise. By 2 h large numbers of phycomycetous fungal zoospores were found attached to fibrous plant fragments, particularly vascular tissues. The subsequent development of these fungi resulted in production of thalli with extensive rhizoids and with sporangia up to 175 ?m long. Scanning electron microscope examination of plant fragments randomly selected from natural rumen contents of both cattle and sheep demonstrated widespread colonization by large populations of these anaerobic fungi. Furthermore, all plant fragments suspended in nylon bags in the rumen were also extensively colonized. These findings demonstrate that plant fragments in the rumen are the sites of colonization and development by the anaerobic phycomycetous fungi. In addition, the results suggest that these fungi may form a significant part of the rumen microbiota in cattle and sheep fed on fibrous diets and suggest that they may be important in fiber digestion. Images PMID:16345408

Bauchop, T.

1979-01-01

238

Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel in sheep.  

PubMed

In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix(®), Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852

Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P

2015-04-30

239

Early dexamethasone treatment induces placental apoptosis in sheep.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

Braun, Thorsten; Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P; Challis, John R G

2015-01-01

240

Devaluation of low-quality food during early experience by sheep.  

PubMed

A ruminant's early experience with low-quality food (LQF) is expected to increase its acceptance and preference in adulthood. Contrarily, we found that experienced sheep (ES) exposed to mature oat hay early in life ate less of this LQF than inexperienced sheep (IS). A possibility is that ES might have devaluated the LQF through continuous comparisons against high-quality food (HQF) supplements (sunflower meal and ground corn) that were simultaneously available during early experience. In this study, we tested the devaluation hypothesis with a successive negative contrast (SNC) procedure. In a consummatory SNC procedure, 'shift' subjects are unexpectedly changed from HQF to LQF, and their consumption is then compared against the consumption of 'unshift' subjects that receive LQF all throughout the SNC procedure. The magnitude of the difference in consumption between preshift and postshift is regarded as a measure of the degree to which both foods (HQF and LQF) are perceived to differ hedonically. When sheep from our previous study were 300 days old, both ES and IS were randomly assigned to either shift (ES-S and IS-S) or unshift conditions (ES-U and IS-U; n = 6 in each group). Groups ES-S and IS-S were fed HQF (alfalfa hay) during the preshift phase, and then suddenly changed to LQF (oat hay) in the postshift phase. Groups ES-U and IS-U (controls) were fed only LQF throughout the SNC procedure. Subjects in ES-S showed a significantly lower intake of LQF than those in ES-U in the first postshift session (i.e. they showed an SNC effect), which was not observed in IS. These results agree with ES subjects having devalued LQF during early experience. We discuss the possibility that high levels of nutrient supplementation can result in devaluation of LQF (i.e. decrease in preference and acceptance), whereas restricted levels of supplementation may promote a positive experience with LQF. PMID:22440033

Catanese, F; Freidin, E; Cuello, M I; Distel, R A

2011-05-01

241

Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Technical Service Providers  

E-print Network

to Water Quality", and "Nutrient & Pest Management ModulesQuality", and "Nutrient & Pest Management ModulesNutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Management Planning Technical Guidance.Management Planning Technical Guidance. Manure and Wastewater Handling

242

Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.  

PubMed

Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:18390693

Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

2008-07-01

243

Nutrient partitioning of Merino sheep divergently selected for genetic difference in resistance to Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

This research was designed to determine if divergent genetic selection for resistance to Haemonchus contortus had produced correlated changes in the metabolism of amino-nitrogen in the absence or presence of H. contortus infection. Partitioning of amino acid-nitrogen between tissues was determined in 42 Merino weaner wethers from the CSIRO Haemonchus selection flock, increased resistance to Haemonchus (IRH), decreased resistance to Haemonchus (DRH) and random bred control (C) selection lines. Weaner wethers were fed a restricted diet (9.8 MJ ME/kgDM, 86 gMP/kg DM) calculated to allow a gain of 125 g/d bodyweight throughout the experimental period and were either worm-free or trickle infected with H. contortus. At 8 weeks post-infection animals were injected with (15)N-labelled duckweed directly into the abomasums. Animals were euthanased at either 6 or 24h after the injection to collect tissue samples for calculation of percentage recovery of (15)N in tissue and to determine abomasal worm counts. Worm egg count and worm counts at week 8 of infection were lower in animals from the IRH line. IRH animals had a lower N digestibility, increased oxidation of amino acids and lower N balance but whole-body protein flux was unaffected. Amino acid metabolism, as assessed from (15)N uptake and excretion in response to H. contortus infection, differed between IRH and DRH animals. In IRH animals a greater recovery of (15)N in the thymus and abomasal smooth muscle indicated greater partitioning of amino acids towards the immune response. In DRH animals an increased recovery of (15)N in the spleen, in response to infection, may be a possible adaptation. It appears that divergent selection for worm egg count has not been associated with symmetrical changes in amino acid metabolism, but rather the partitioning of amino acid resources reflects each selection line's independent response to infection. PMID:25027755

Doyle, E K; Kahn, L P; McClure, S J

2014-09-15

244

Preferential utilization of intracellular nutrients supports microalgal growth under nutrient starvation: multi-nutrient mechanistic model and experimental validation.  

PubMed

Microalgae are able to grow even under exhaustion of some key nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Here, we report a multi-nutrient mechanistic model to predict heterotrophic growth of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG over two sequential phases of fermentation: nutrient sufficient condition to nutrient starved condition. The model assumes that the growth of the microorganism takes place via sequential utilization of extracellular nutrients (ECN) under nutrient replete condition followed by intracellular stored nutrients under exhaustion of limiting nutrients. Further, intracellular nutrient was assumed to be in three different forms: structural form of nutrient (SFN), readily utilizable nutrient (RUN) and non-readily utilizable nutrient (Non-RUN). After the exhaustion of ECN, microorganism switches to RUN followed by Non-RUN to continue its growth, which was experimentally validated by extracting intracellular nitrate and phosphate compounds. The model also incorporates variability in yield coefficients for nitrate and phosphate utilizations. PMID:25305655

Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Das, Debasish

2014-12-01

245

Nutrient availability in rangeland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...

246

Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

Shah, Kanti L.

1973-01-01

247

Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

1991-01-01

248

Nutrient biofortification of food crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant-based foods offer an array of nutrients that are essential for human nutrition and promote good health. However, the major staple crops of the world are often deficient in some of these nutrients. Traditional agricultural approaches can marginally enhance the nutritional value of some foods, b...

249

Effect of partially substituting concentrate feed mixture by either fresh or waste oil in sheep diets.  

PubMed

Seven digestibility trials were carried out on sheep to study the effect of replacing concentrate feed mixture (CFM) with varying amounts of fresh (raw) sunflower oil or heated oil from bean cake (Taamiah) frying, in almost isocalorific and isonitrogenous diets. Boiling altered the physical and chemical properties of oil but not significantly except for the peroxide value (P < or = 0.05). Substitution with fresh oil significantly increased the digestibility of nutrients, whereas the boiled lead to conflicting results where all the digestibilities tended to decrease. The feeding value was also affected by the addition of oil. The blood analyses of the animals reflected biochemical changes indicating some dysfunction of the internal organs, in particular the liver showed signs of hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. It was concluded that the loss of CFM energy could be partly substituted by fresh oil or by a small amount of waste oil. PMID:8215892

Abdelhamid, A M; Gabr, A A; el-Shinnawy, M M

1993-01-01

250

COMPARATIVE ESTROGENICITY OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYL ESTRADIOL AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN AN IN VIVO, MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), VITELLOGENIN BIOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...

251

Genome Analysis Integrating Membrane Transport with Male Gametophyte  

E-print Network

.S.); Laboratory of Pollen Biology, Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic on the proper development of the male gametophyte, successful pollen germination, tube growth, and delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule. Previous studies have shown that nutrients like boron, and ion gradients

Sze, Heven

252

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. nematode / parasite / sheep / Syria / epidemiology Résumé ― Infestations des Ovins Awassi adultes par les nématodes parasites : distribution parmi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...

254

Linkage disequilibrium compared between five populations of domestic sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The success of genome-wide scans depends on the strength and magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) present within the populations under investigation. High density SNP arrays are currently in development for the sheep genome, however little is known about the behaviour of LD in this livestock species. This study examined the behaviour of LD within five sheep populations using two

Jennifer RS Meadows; Eva KF Chan; James W Kijas

2008-01-01

255

Original article Intake and digestion in sheep given fresh  

E-print Network

Original article Intake and digestion in sheep given fresh or air-dried Acacia cyanophylla Lindl of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl foliage (acacia) on digestion in sheep was studied in November-dried acacia foliage ad libitum. Diets were offered dailyy in two equal meals (08.00 and 16.00 h

Boyer, Edmond

256

Cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (Ovis aries)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species, Cryptosporidium xiaoi, is described from sheep. Oocysts of C. xiaoi, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium bovis-like genotype and as the ovine genotype from sheep in Australia and the United States are recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ...

257

Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia.  

PubMed

Ammonia can accumulate in highly stocked sheep accommodation, for example during live export shipments, and could affect sheep health and welfare. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to test the effects of 4 NH(3) concentrations, 4 (control), 12, 21, and 34 mg/m(3), on the physiology and behavior of wether sheep. Sheep were held for 12 d under a micro-climate and stocking density similar to shipboard conditions recorded on voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the northern hemispheric summer. Ammonia increased macrophage activity in transtracheal aspirations, indicating active pulmonary inflammation; however, it had no effect (P > 0.05) on hematological variables. Feed intake decreased (P = 0.002) in proportion to ammonia concentration, and BW gain decreased (P < 0.001) at the 2 greatest concentrations. Exposure to ammonia increased (P = 0.03) the frequency of sneezing, and at the greatest ammonia concentration, sheep were less active, with less locomotion, pawing, and panting. Twenty-eight days after exposure to NH(3), the pulmonary macrophage activity and BW of the sheep returned to that of sheep exposed to only 4 mg/m(3). It was concluded that NH(3) induced a temporary inflammatory response of the respiratory system and reduced BW gain, which together indicated a transitory adverse effect on the welfare of sheep. PMID:22147480

Phillips, C J C; Pines, M K; Latter, M; Muller, T; Petherick, J C; Norman, S T; Gaughan, J B

2012-05-01

258

Original article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep  

E-print Network

group did not receive any supplement of Se and/or vitamin E. The two groups were managed under the sameOriginal article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep kept at pasture supplements in the prevention of dis- orders related to Se deficiency in sheep maintained at pasture

Boyer, Edmond

259

MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE IN SHEEP VERSUS CATTLE  

E-print Network

colon. The aim of this study was to compare the colonic motility in sheep and cows and in cal- ves the rectum. In the two cows four additional groups of elec- trodes were implanted at 15 cm intervals on the 3MOTOR FUNCTIONS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE IN SHEEP VERSUS CATTLE J. FIORAMONTI Marie-Françoise HUBERT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Evaluation of Factors Potentially Influencing a Desert Bighorn Sheep Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) population in the Mazatzal Mountains (primary study area) in central Arizona and population indices on reference areas between 1989 and 2003. We evaluated disease exposure and nutritional status of desert bighorn sheep, vegetation parameters, predator diets, and mountain lion (Puma concolor) harvest and abundance (1999-2003) and mountain lion predation (1995-2003) as factors

TED McKINNEY; THORRY W. SMITH; JAMES C. deVOS

2006-01-01

261

MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

262

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending to frequent oscillation of the digesta. It was concluded that accurate quantitative electromagnetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds  

E-print Network

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds Ryan J. Monello, Dennis L pneumonia outbreaks caused by Pasteurella spp. that result in a partial or complete dieoff. Although several the relationship between pneumonia-induced dieoffs in bighorn sheep and en- vironmental and biological factors

264

Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted  

SciTech Connect

The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. (Univ. of Adelaide Medical School (Australia))

1989-08-01

265

EVIDENCE OF A THIAMINE DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP FED MAIZE SILAGE  

E-print Network

EVIDENCE OF A THIAMINE DEFICIENCY IN SHEEP FED MAIZE SILAGE M.CANDAU J. MASSENGO Laboratoire de de maïs entraîne une diminu'!on importante des teneurs en vitamine B1 du cerveau, des reins, du coeur diets of sheep is often accompanied by the appearance of serious nervous disorders (Van Quackebeke, 1971

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE  

E-print Network

CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE National Institute for Research of vitamin D, has been used successfully in dairy cows to prevent post-parturient hypocalcaemia and reduce and duration of its effect on the various processes of Ca and P metabolism has now been studied in the sheep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully

A. J. Pandya; K. M. Ghodke

2007-01-01

268

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student Hutchens, Extension Goat Specialist, Univ. of Kentucky Dr. Patty Scharko, Extension Veterinarian to production of both sheep and goats. Producers must observe animals closely to keep individual animals

269

Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep  

PubMed Central

Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. PMID:23083136

2012-01-01

270

Comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered intravenously to sheep and goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic behavior of sodium amoxicillin was studied after intravenous administration to six sheep and five goats to determine if there are species differences in disposition. The plasma drug concentrations vs. time following intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg were best described by the biexponential equations Cp = 42.9e-0.077.t + 3.68e-0.0134.t for goats, and Cp = 53.5e-0.06.t + 1.69e-0.015.t for sheep. The terminal disposition half-lives for sheep and goats were 46.3 and 66.9 min respectively and were not significantly different. Amoxicillin clearance for sheep and goats were 10.1 and 11.4 ml/min.kg respectively. There were no significant differences between any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured in sheep and goats. PMID:1573707

Craigmill, A L; Pass, M A; Wetzlich, S

1992-03-01

271

Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.  

PubMed

The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

2014-01-01

272

Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

2014-11-01

273

Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2-5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin, moxidectin or albendazole. Resistance was found in the sheep treated with doramectin (15% efficacy) and albendazole (87% efficacy). Levamisole and moxidectin were 100 and 99% effective, respectively. Larval identification of the faecal cultures of the doramectin-treated sheep revealed 100% Haemonchus contortus larvae. After albendazole treatment, 77% of the cultured larvae were H. contortus and 23% Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus. Because there is a lot of trade in sheep on the farm, it is probable that the resistant worms were introduced with livestock from other farms than being selected on the farm. PMID:17113232

Borgsteede, Fred H M; Dercksen, Daan D; Huijbers, René

2007-03-15

274

Gene expression in sheep skin and wool (hair).  

PubMed

We sequenced 2939 ESTs from fetal and adult sheep skin. Stages of gestation were picked to coincide with the major events in skin appendage (wool follicle) formation. Clustering analysis generated a nonredundant set of ESTs 2435 strong (83% nonredundant). Approximately 24% of these gave no hit to NCBI build 29 of the human genome, while 35% were tentatively classified by putative function based on BLASTX hits with a p(N) of <10(-4). In addition to bioinformatics analysis of our ESTs and gene mapping, we have generated a large EST spatial expression data set using in situ hybridization. One thousand one hundred forty-two ESTs have been used for in situ localization; about 31% are from adult sheep skin, 39% from late gestation fetal sheep skin, and 30% from midgestation fetal sheep skin. These probes have been used in over 3000 hybridization experiments. In this report, we summarize the results of in situs on adult sheep skin. PMID:14667813

Adelson, D L; Cam, G R; DeSilva, U; Franklin, I R

2004-01-01

275

An apparent phosphate selenium interaction in weaner sheep.  

PubMed

The severity of selenium dependent nutritional myopathy in weaner sheep was markedly increased by the ruminal infusion of soluble phosphate (6.0 g d-1). Liver selenium concentration was also significantly lower in the sheep infused with sodium phosphate than in sheep fed the same diet and infused with sodium chloride. There were no significant differences in the selenium concentrations of other tissues examined (kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, blood). Blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH.Px) activity in the sheep affected with nutritional myopathy was considerably higher than values generally accepted to indicate a selenium deficiency. The results indicated that there was an interaction in the animal between selenium and phosphate leading to lower liver selenium concentrations. Results obtained from sheep intraruminally dosed with 75[Se]selenate suggested that an interaction between selenium and phosphate could also occur in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:2980797

Hudman, J F; Costa, N D; Robinson, W F

1988-06-01

276

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

E-print Network

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

277

Male pattern baldness (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

278

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

. This training provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility concepts, the nutrient cycles recommendations, and how to manage nutrients for crop production and environmental protection. Understanding how

Guiltinan, Mark

279

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

provisional certification. This training provides a foundational understanding of basic soil fertility sampling and analysis, crop nutrient recommendations, and how to manage nutrients for crop production

Guiltinan, Mark

280

Seasonal dynamics and variation among sheep in densities of the sheep biting louse, Bovicola ovis.  

PubMed

Cyclic patterns and variations among sheep in numbers of Bovicola ovis are described in Polypay and Columbia ewes that were initially infested with equal numbers of lice and penned indoors continuously for 2 years. Bovicola ovis populations were censused at 3-4-week intervals at 69 body sites on each animal. In the second year of the study, the ewes were reinfested and half were mated. Louse populations were monitored on the resulting lambs from birth until 25 weeks of age. Strong seasonal cycles in louse numbers were observed on the ewes, with peaks in spring and troughs in summer. These cycles occurred in the absence of shearing, direct solar radiation or rainfall. Populations began to decline when daily mean and maximum temperatures were 11.5 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively, well below temperatures thought to cause warm season decline. Louse densities on Polypay ewes were approximately 10 times higher than on Columbias at most inspections. There were also large differences among sheep within breeds and sheep counts were highly correlated among dates, both within and between years. One third of the ewes failed to become infested despite having lice applied on five separate occasions and being penned together with other infested sheep. Pregnancy and lactation did not significantly affect louse numbers on the ewes. There was a significant negative correlation between louse counts and weight gains in the lambs, and lamb counts were significantly correlated with those of their dams up until, but not after, weaning. It is suggested that sheep may exert regulatory influences on lice which contribute to cycles in B. ovis populations. PMID:9512991

James, P J; Moon, R D; Brown, D R

1998-02-01

281

Investigation of border disease and bovine virus diarrhoea in sheep from 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms in eastern Switzerland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus (BDV) on 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms and whether seroconversion to BDV infection occurred in cattle of these farms. Seroprevalence of BDV and bovine viral disease virus (BVDV) infection in sheep was also investigated. Quantitative RT-PCR for pestivirus detection and an ELISA to detect pestivirus antibodies were used in 2'384 and 2'291 ovine blood samples, respectively. Another 27 seropositive sheep from ten flocks underwent serum neutralization testing to differentiate between BDV and BVDV antibodies. A BDV titre that was at least four times higher than the BVDV titre was interpreted as the result of BDV infection. Titres against BVDV were interpreted in an analogous fashion. All examined sheep were pestivirus-negative, 310 sheep were seropositive, 119 had an indeterminate titre and 1'862 were seronegative. The flock seroprevalence ranged from 0.0 to 73.9 %. Three of the 27 flocks that underwent serum neutralization testing were interpreted as BDV-infected because of 6 sheep with higher BDV titres, and 6 flocks were interpreted as BVDV-infected because of 14 sheep with higher BVDV titres. PMID:23644292

Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Schenk, B; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

2013-05-01

282

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

283

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF HAIR SHEEP BREEDS OF THE AMERICAS: FIRST RESULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are two major types of sheep in the Americas, wooled and hair sheep. Such phenotypic differences bring into question an African or European origin for these types of sheep. It has been commonly thought that hair breeds of sheep imported into the new world came from Africa via the Canary Island...

284

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat  

E-print Network

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat H Hayes E Petit Institut National de 1990) cattle / goat / sheep / RBG-bands / chromosomes Based on natural taxonomic criteria, the 3 main or cattle) and Caprinae (Capra hircus: goat, Ovis aries: domestic sheep). Cattle, goat and sheep karyotypes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

Exaggerated natriuresis in ACTH hypertension in sheep.  

PubMed

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) administration to sheep (100 IU/day) produces a sustained increase in arterial pressure within 24 h. The effect of ACTH on excretion of an intravenous saline load was tested in 8 adult cross-bred Merino ewes. A significant diuretic response to saline loading was found after 24 h but no increased natriuresis. On days 3 and 6, diuretic and natriuretic responses were both significantly increased. Steroid-induced sodium retention may have abolished the natriuretic effect on day 1. PMID:216942

Whitworth, J A; Coghlan, J P; Denton, D A; Fan, J S; McDougall, J G; Scoggins, B A

1978-01-01

286

A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran  

PubMed Central

In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%). Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (P < 0.05). Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin) stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant. PMID:22623910

Raoofi, Afshin; Rahmani Shahraki, Alireza; Namjoo, Abdolrasool; Momtaz, Hasan

2012-01-01

287

Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics(1)[W  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Male fertility depends on the proper development of the male gametophyte, successful pollen germination, tube growth, and delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule. Previous studies have shown that nutrients like boron, and ion gradients or currents of Ca(2+), H(+), and K(+) are critical for pollen ...

288

SOUTHERN REGION NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PUBLICATIONS  

E-print Network

Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas BY FIRST AUTHOR, C.) Nitrogen Fertilization: General Information (South Carolina) (Harris, G.) Nutrient Management, and Forages (South Carolina) Renovation Practices to Improve Rainfall Effectiveness on Rangeland and Pastures

289

Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

2011-08-01

290

Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

H. Marschner

1994-01-01

291

Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

292

Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling  

PubMed Central

The ability of cells to respond to changes in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis and viability. One of the key cellular responses to nutrient withdrawal is the upregulation of autophagy. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mammalian autophagy induction in response to depletion of key nutrients. Intracellular amino acids, ATP, and oxygen levels are intimately tied to the cellular balance of anabolic and catabolic processes. Signaling from key nutrient-sensitive kinases mTORC1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential for the nutrient sensing of the autophagy pathway. Recent advances have shown that the nutrient status of the cell is largely passed on to the autophagic machinery through the coordinated regulation of the ULK and VPS34 kinase complexes. Identification of extensive crosstalk and feedback loops converging on the regulation of ULK and VPS34 can be attributed to the importance of these kinases in autophagy induction and maintaining cellular homeostasis. PMID:24343578

Russell, Ryan C; Yuan, Hai-Xin; Guan, Kun-Liang

2014-01-01

293

A Sheep Model for Cancellous Bone Healing  

PubMed Central

Appropriate well-characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14?mm) of fixed depth (25?mm) were compared in both skeletally immature (18-month-old) and aged sheep (5-year-old). In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at 4?weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using ?CT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction [bone volume (BV)/TV] significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11?mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research. PMID:25593961

Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew Henry; Yu, Yan; Christou, Chris; Walsh, William Robert

2014-01-01

294

Diagnosis and treatment of coenurosis in sheep.  

PubMed

Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a tapeworm, which infests the small intestine of carnivores. In 80-90% of cases, the cyst is located in one cerebral hemisphere, whilst in 5-10% of cases, it is localised in the cerebellum; rarely it involves two sites in the brain of the affected animal. Listeriosis, louping-ill, sarcocystosis and polioencephalomalacia and brain abscessation should be considered when formulating a diagnosis of acute coenurosis. In all cases, it is essential to carefully examine the animal and not simply rely on results of ancillary tests (mainly of cerebrospinal fluid examination), as disorders other than coenurosis can be responsible for changes in the results of these tests. Treatment is based on surgical removal of the coenurus cyst after general anaesthesia of the animal; the approach has a very good success rate, especially after accurate localisation of the lesion. Despite that, many farmers may choose to slaughter those sheep fit for marketing for economic reasons and euthanise those in poor condition. PMID:22503036

Scott, P R

2012-09-30

295

Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.  

PubMed

A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

2015-04-01

296

Phytoplankton nutrient competition under dynamic light regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physiological processes in phytoplankton, including nutrient uptake, vary on a number of temporal scales. Experiments show that the daily cycle in irradiance affects nutrient uptake rates. We used a Droop-based model of resource competition to investigate how diel variability in nutrient uptake influences phytoplankton competition and community structure. The analytical approximation we derive shows that if nutrient uptake is

Elena Litchman; Christopher A. Klausmeier; Peter Bossard

2004-01-01

297

Assessment of Bioplex Interbody Fusion Device in a Sheep Lumbar Fusion Model  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioPlex bioresorbable interbody device in a sheep lumbar fusion model and compare it to the concorde®, a standard carbon fiber interbody cage. Background Lumbar interbody fusion devices are made from a variety of materials, including titanium alloys, carbon-fiber, and PEEK. The BioPlex Continuous Phase Composite (CPC) is a unique bioresorbable material comprised of Pro Osteon 500R and 70:30 Poly (L/D, L-lactic acid). The BioPlex device is radiolucent, resorbable and due to its bulk nanoporosity of 8%, has a more consistent degradation profile as compared to a polymer alone. Methods A total of twenty five male Suffolk sheep were used in this study; nineteen of which were implanted with a bioPlex or concorde device at the L3-L4 and L5-L6 levels using a modified transforaminal/lateral approach. A discectomy was performed and each implant (filled with autologous bone) was placed within the disc space. The sheep were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24 months postimplantation. Fusion was assessed via motion, radiographic and histological data. Results The BioPlex and Concorde implanted levels had significantly less motion (p<0.05) than the normal controls in flexion/extension and lateral bending at 6, 12, and 24 months. No significant difference in motion was detected between the bioPlex and concorde implants. CT fusion scores correlated with the motion analysis in all the three cases. Conclusion In comparison to the concorde device, the bioPlex implant appears to have equivalent radiographic and biomechanical fusion success. PMID:24027458

Fredericks, Douglas C.; Gandhi, Anup A.; Grosland, Nicole M.; Smucker, Joseph D.

2013-01-01

298

Dietary vitamin E affects ?-TTP mRNA levels in different tissues of the Tan sheep.  

PubMed

The ?-tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) is a ~32kDa cytosolic protein that plays an important role in the efficient circulation of plasma ?-tocopherol in the body, a factor with great relevance in reproduction. The ?-TTP gene has been studied in a number of tissues; however, its expression and function in some ovine tissues remain unclear. A previous study from our laboratory has demonstrated ?-TTP expression in sheep liver. In the present study we determined whether ?-TTP is expressed in non-liver tissues and investigated the effects of dietary vitamin E on the ?-TTP mRNA levels. Thirty-five male Tan sheep with similar body weight were randomly allocated into five groups and supplemented 0, 20, 100, 200 and 2000IUsheep(-1)day(-1) vitamin E, for four months, respectively. At the end of the study, the animals were slaughtered and tissue samples from the heart, spleen, lung, kidney, longissimus dorsi muscle and gluteus muscle were immediately collected. We found that the ?-TTP gene is expressed in sheep tissues other than the liver. Moreover, dietary vitamin E levels had influenced the expression levels of ?-TTP gene in these tissues in a tissue-specific way. The technique of immunohistochemistry was used to detect ?-TTP in tissues of the heart, spleen, lung, and kidney and we found that ?-TTP was mainly located in the cytoplasm while no ?-TTP immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of longissimus dorsi and gluteus muscle samples. Importantly, our findings lay the foundation for additional experiments focusing on the absorption and metabolism of vitamin E in tissues other than the liver. PMID:24630963

Zuo, Zhao-yun; Luo, Hai-ling; Liu, Kun; Jia, Hui-na; Zhang, Yu-wei; Jiao, Li-juan; Chang, Yan-fei

2014-05-10

299

Nutrient Management in TexasNutrient Management in Texas Sam FeagleySam Feagley  

E-print Network

Practice1. Describe the Nutrient Management Practice Standard process in TexasStandard process in Texas ProcessStandard Process ·· 1. National Nutrient Management Policy1. National Nutrient Management PolicyNutrient Management in TexasNutrient Management in Texas Sam FeagleySam Feagley Texas Cooperative

300

Minimizing nutrient leaching and improving nutrient use efficiency of Liriodendron tulipifera and Larix leptolepis  

E-print Network

Minimizing nutrient leaching and improving nutrient use efficiency of Liriodendron tulipifera. Growth performance, nutrient uptake, and nutrient loss in leaching were mea- sured. Height, root collar. Generally, nutrient losses in leached solutions were higher in constant and three-stage than the exponential

Yanai, Ruth D.

301

Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps  

E-print Network

Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios

Vallino, Joseph J.

302

Allocation of nuptial gifts in tree crickets changes with both male and female diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male tree crickets, Oecanthus nigricornis, offer a nuptial gift to females during mating in the form of a secretion from a dorsal metanotal gland. I examined the effects\\u000a of male and female nutrient limitation on allocation of the gift. Males were fed 14C radiolabeled amino acids, placed onto high- or low-quality diets and then mated with females also maintained on

William D. Brown

2011-01-01

303

Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-05-01

304

Cells infected with Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus are detected in the bone marrow of asymptomatic sheep  

PubMed Central

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer caused by Jaggsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). It is difficult to identify animals infected with JSRV but are clinically healthy. The virus does not induce a specific antibody response and, although proviral DNA sequences of JSRV can be found in mononuclear blood cells, the detection is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of JSRV in the bone marrow of infected sheep and develop a more consistent screening method. Immunohistochemical examination of bone marrow samples from 8 asymptomatic JSRV-infected sheep revealed the presence of positively labelled cells. However, JSRV could not be detected by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in bone marrow aspirates periodically collected from these animals. Results suggest that JSRV-infected cells may be present in the bone marrow of symptomless animals, but the number is below the detectable level for PCR. Therefore, this technique does not seem to be helpful for preclinical diagnosis of OPA. PMID:24982557

Borobia, Marta; Ortín, Aurora; Ferrer, Luis M.; Ramos, Juán J.; Lacasta, Delia; De las Heras, Marcelo

2014-01-01

305

Enhanced control of sheep ticks in upland sheep flocks: repercussions for red grouse co-hosts.  

PubMed

Sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases cause major economic losses in both upland sheep farming and moorland shoots of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Sheep were treated with acaricide four times between March and October and double-vaccinated against louping ill virus (LIV), instead of the conventional regime of two acaricide treatments and no vaccinations, on two moors in northern England. Enhanced treatment started at Westerdale Moor in 1995 and at Danby Moor in 2000; the latter had previously represented a spatial control site. From 1992 to 2003, grouse chick condition, tick burdens, reproductive success, shooting bags and LIV seroprevalence were measured. A total of 1297 grouse chicks from 398 broods were examined for ticks. Enhanced acaricide treatment reduced tick burdens by 90%, and LIV seroprevalence decreased in relation to the number of years since treatment began. Breeding success and post-breeding densities of grouse in the current sample area remained unrelated to acaricide treatment, tick burdens or LIV seroprevalence, but 25% and 60% more grouse were shot on Westerdale and Danby, respectively, after treatment enhancement than before. By improving shooting bags, tick management schemes help to maintain the economic viability of grouse moors, which, in turn, provide upland landscape and wildlife benefits. PMID:22112150

Newborn, D; Baines, D

2012-03-01

306

[Border disease in a flock of sheep].  

PubMed

This report describes border disease in a flock of sheep in Switzerland. In April 2001, three ewes in a flock of 41 sheep gave birth to lambs that had generalized tremors and excessively hairy fleece. One of these, a three-week-old female lamb, was referred to our clinic for further diagnostic work-up. The lamb was very nervous, bleated constantly and had generalized muscle tremors, which were more pronounced in the head region. Hind end ataxia was observed, and the lamb was slow to correct its posture when the hind limbs were abducted, adducted or crossed. Blood samples were collected every six weeks to determine antibody titres to pestivirus and for virus isolation via cell culture. A skin biopsy sample was also collected and examined immunohistochemically for pestivirus antigen. Antibody titres in the first tests were suspicious and those of the second were negative. Pestivirus was identified in cell culture, and the skin biopsy sample was positive for pestivirus antigen. Blood samples were collected from all of the ewes and lambs and the buck for virus isolation via cell culture and determination of pestivirus antibody titres. Thirty-one animals were seropositive, six had borderline antibody titres and four were seronegative. Pestivirus was isolated from eight animals, which included the lamb described in this report. Of the virus-positive animals, three were seronegative, three others had borderline titres and two were seropositive. Six of the eight viruses isolated from cell culture were further characterized genetically via retrotranscription and polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the causative agent was border disease virus. This is the first time that border disease virus has been isolated in Switzerland. The lamb referred to our clinic was observed for three months; it was then euthanatised and a postmortem examination was performed. Immunohistochemical examination of numerous organs revealed pestivirus antigen. The source of infection was though to be infected sheep from another flock, which shared a pasture. All antigen-positive animals were slaughtered. PMID:12224448

Braun, U; Hilbe, M; Ehrensperger, F; Salis, F; Alther, P; Strasser, M; Stalder, H P; Peterhans, E

2002-08-01

307

Male germ cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Transplantation of male germ line stem cells from a donor animal to the testes of an infertile recipient was first described in 1994. Donor germ cells colonize the recipient's testis and produce donor-derived sperm, such that the recipient male can distribute the genetic material of the germ cell donor. Germ cell transplantation represents a functional reconstitution assay for male germ line stem cells and as such has vastly increased our ability to study the biology of stem cells in the testis and define phenotypes of infertility. First developed in rodents, the technique has now been used in a number of animal species, including domestic mammals, chicken and fish. There are three major applications for this technology in animals: first, to study fundamental aspects of male germ line stem cell biology and male fertility; second, to preserve the reproductive potential of genetically valuable individuals by male germ cell transplantation within or between species; third, to produce transgenic sperm by genetic manipulation of isolated germ line stem cells and subsequent transplantation. Transgenesis through the male germ line has tremendous potential in species in which embryonic stem cells are not available and somatic cell nuclear transfer has limited success. Therefore, transplantation of male germ cells is a uniquely valuable approach for the study, preservation and manipulation of male fertility in animals. PMID:18638137

Dobrinski, I

2008-07-01

308

Quantification of the effects of castration on carcass and meat quality of sheep by meta-analysis.  

PubMed

After an extensive literature search, meta-analytic techniques (fixed effect, random effects and hierarchical Bayesian models) were applied to numerically describe sizes and precision of effects caused by castration of intact rams on several performance, carcass and meat quality response variables. According to random effects models, rams presented greater (P<0.05) average daily gain, loin muscle area (leaner carcasses) and instrumental meat tenderness (more tough), with lower feed conversion ratios, dressing percentages and backfat thickness (less carcass fat) compared to castrates. These results could be applied in further strategies on the use of castration in male sheep. PMID:24880975

Sales, James

2014-12-01

309

The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams  

PubMed Central

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine

2011-01-01

310

Paranasal sinus masses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).  

PubMed

This article describes 10 cases of paranasal sinus masses in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Among 21 bighorns that were examined from 11 herds in Colorado, 10 individuals (48%) from 4 herds (36%) had masses arising from the paranasal sinuses. Affected animals included 9 of 17 females (53%) and 1 of 4 males (25%), ranging in age from approximately 2 years to greater than 10 years. Defining gross features of these masses included unilateral or bilateral diffuse thickening of the respiratory lining of the maxillary and/or frontal sinuses, with abundant seromucinous exudate in the affected sinus cavities. Defining histologic features of these masses included chronic inflammation and proliferation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells of the mucosa and submucosa. Epithelial changes included hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium, hyperplasia of submucosal glands and ducts, and neoplasia (adenocarcinoma). Mesenchymal changes included submucosal myxedema, submucosal fibroplasia/fibrosis, bone destruction, and neoplasia (myxomatous fibroma). Specific immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and enzootic nasal tumor virus were performed with negative results. PMID:20926735

Fox, K A; Wootton, S K; Quackenbush, S L; Wolfe, L L; Levan, I K; Miller, M W; Spraker, T R

2011-05-01

311

Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the sheep bot fly Oestrus ovis in northern Iraq.  

PubMed

Myiasis is the feeding of fly larvae on vertebrates. The sheep bot fly larva of Oestrus ovis is a mammalian parasite of the skin, nose, ears, and eyes. When the larvae infest and feed on the structures of the eye, the condition is termed ophthalmomyiasis. Most often this infestation is limited to the external structures of the eye and is referred to as ophthalmomyiasis externa. The features of this condition are severe local inflammation, positive foreign body sensation, erythema, and lacrimation. Vision may or may not be reduced, depending on involvement of the cornea. A 20-year-old white male soldier sought treatment for an inflamed eye and an irritated cornea OS. His eyelids were swollen with marked periorbital edema and conjunctival erythema OS. On slitlamp examination, small whitish organisms were viewed on the conjunctiva OS. The organisms were removed, preserved, and sent to Nova Southeastern University where they were identified as O. ovis first-stage larvae. The patient was treated with antibiotic ointment, and the inflammation resolved within 1 week. O. ovis has a worldwide distribution, and although sheep are the preferred host, humans may also serve as an intermediate host in the organism's life cycle. This case represents one of several reports of ophthalmomyiasis in the Middle East caused by O. ovis. U.S. troops stationed in Iraq and surrounding areas are vulnerable to eye infestation by fly larvae, and health care providers need to include this condition in their differential diagnosis of anterior segment inflammatory disorders. PMID:15300116

Gregory, Andrew R; Schatz, Scott; Laubach, Harold

2004-08-01

312

Influence of maternal pre-pregnancy body composition and diet during early-mid pregnancy on cardiovascular function and nephron number in juvenile sheep  

PubMed Central

The prenatal diet can program an individual’s cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure (BP) and kidney dysfunction but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In this study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth i.e. 28-80 d gestation resulted in altered BP or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100-150% recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50%; n 6) diets between 28-80 d gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (C; ?3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; ?2, n 6) thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (?147 d) all sheep were fed to 100% ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (C, 85 (SEM 2); LBCS, 77 (SEM 3); NR, 77 (SEM 3) mmHg) and diastolic BP relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SEM 6); NR, 56 (SEM 12) %). Our data suggest maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health. PMID:16351771

Gopalakrishnan, G. S.; Gardner, D.S.; Dandrea, J.; Langley-Evans, S.C.; Pearce, S.; Kurlak, L. O.; Walker, R. M.; Seetho, I.W.; Keisler, D. H.; Ramsay, M.M.; Stephenson, T.; Symonds, M.E.

2009-01-01

313

Respiratory heat loss in the sheep: a comprehensive model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented for the respiratory heat loss in sheep, considering both the sensible heat lost by convection (CR) and the latent heat eliminated by evaporation (ER). A practical method is described for the estimation of the tidal volume as a function of the respiratory rate. Equations for CR and ER are developed and the relative importance of both heat transfer mechanisms is discussed. At air temperatures up to 30 °C sheep have the least respiratory heat loss at air vapour pressures above 1.6 kPa. At an ambient temperature of 40 °C respiratory loss of sensible heat can be nil; for higher temperatures the transfer by convection is negative and thus heat is gained. Convection is a mechanism of minor importance for the respiratory heat transfer in sheep at environmental temperatures above 30 °C. These observations show the importance of respiratory latent heat loss for thermoregulation of sheep in hot climates.

Gomes da Silva, Roberto; LaScala, Newton; Lima Filho, Alvaro Edison; Catharin, Marcelo Carlos

2002-06-01

314

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2012-01-01

315

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2013-01-01

316

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2010-01-01

317

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2014-01-01

318

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2011-01-01

319

Determination of pharmacokinetics of cocaine in sheep by liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Cocaine was administered as 1-, 2-, and 4-mg/kg intravenous bolus doses to each of six sheep. Plasma samples were collected as a function of time and assayed for cocaine using reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC. The assay involved double extraction with ether and UV detection at 229 nm. Using 2 mL of plasma, levels of 1 ng/mL of cocaine can be measured. The concentration versus time data obtained for the plasma samples were analyzed by a "noncompartmental" method. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cocaine in sheep had mean values of 4.0 L/kg, 3.5 L/kg, and 0.29 L X min-1 X kg-1 for Vd, Vdss, and CL respectively. The clearance of cocaine in sheep was much higher than cardiac output. Pulmonary first-pass effect has been suggested as the possible explanation for the large clearance of cocaine in sheep. PMID:3585721

Khan, M; Gupta, P K; Cristie, R; Nangia, A; Winter, H; Lam, F C; Perrier, D G; Hung, C T

1987-01-01

320

Placental growth hormone in sheep : purification, properties and variations  

E-print Network

Placental growth hormone in sheep : purification, properties and variations J. MARTAL Laboratoire of a placental growth-promoting hormone, Ovine Chorionic Somatomammotropin (OCS), and its main physicochemical, serum concentrations of hypophyseal fetal growth hormone have been measured by radioimmunoassay (Bassett

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Vascular tracers alter hemodynamics and airway pressure in anesthetized sheep  

SciTech Connect

The technique of vascular labeling was developed to mark sites of increased microvascular permeability. We used the vascular labeling technique in anesthetized sheep and found that hemodynamics and airway pressure were adversely affected by intraarterial infusions of two vascular tracers. Monastral blue (nine sheep) immediately caused systemic arterial hypotension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and bronchoconstriction. All three physiological responses were partially blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) but not by an H1-antihistamine (chlorpheniramine). Colloidal gold (nine sheep) caused immediate, but less dramatic, pulmonary arterial hypertension which was not attenuated by the blocking agents. We conclude that these two vascular tracers caused detrimental physiological side effects in sheep at the usual doses used to label injured microvessels in other species.

Albertine, K.H.; Staub, N.C.

1986-11-01

322

Cougar predation on bighorn sheep in southwestern Alberta during winter  

E-print Network

. Jalkotzy, and Marco Festa-Bianchet Abstract: Predation by cougars (Puma concolor) upon bighorn sheep (OvisC : Nous avons mesurC la prCdation exercCe par les Cougars (Puma concolor) sur les Mouflons d

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

323

Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

2003-02-20

324

Rickets associated with vitamin D deficiency in young sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of rickets in sheep under a year old (hoggs) appeared clinically as stiffness and rotation of the carpal joints. Histological studies confirmed the diagnosis and biochemical analyses of blood demonstrated a primary vitamin D deficiency.

MA Bonniwell; BS Smith; JA Spence; H Wright; DA Ferguson

1988-01-01

325

Experimental Photosensitization and Toxicity in Sheep Produced by Tetradymia glabrata  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the phototoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata were investigated. Photosensitization, which occurs regularly in the field situation, was unpredictable and difficult to produce experimentally. In attempting to understand this unpredictability we concluded that the plant does not lose its toxicity after field collection either through volatility of the toxin, plant enzymatic degradation of the toxin or dehydration. The chlorophyll source, from which the suspected phototoxic agent phylloerythrin is derived, did not appear to be important. The single case of photosensitization produced gave no clues as to why it occurred. Some predisposing factors important to the production of tetradymia related photosensitization in sheep are unknown. In disagreement with previous reports the hepatotoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata was extremely variable. Also plants in comparable stages of growth, but from different locations, varied in their toxicity to sheep. Young budding plants are most toxic, however, toxicity of the plant remains through maturity. PMID:4279759

Johnson, A. E.

1974-01-01

326

REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...

327

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules,  

E-print Network

South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules, Regulations, andComprehensive Nutrient Management Software · Developed by USDA-NRCS and University of South Carolina · Uses Clemson

328

Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep  

PubMed Central

In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40?C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

2015-01-01

329

Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.  

PubMed

In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ?C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

2015-01-01

330

Antioxidant Vitamin and Mineral Levels in Sheep with Fluorosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to determine the levels and changes of vitamins A, C, and E, fluoride, and calcium in 30\\u000a Morkaraman sheep with fluorosis, comparing them to unexposed healthy controls. The sheep exposed to fluoride showed significant\\u000a differences in urinary fluoride and the blood levels of beta-carotene and vitamins A and C (p?

S. Yasar; F. Yur

2008-01-01

331

Treatment of small lungworm infestation in sheep by using moxidectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of moxidectin (MXD) in the treatment of small lungworm infestation (Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris, Neostrongylus linearis and Protostronglylus rufescens) in sheep, was evaluated. Twenty-one sheep naturally infested with small lungworms, were divided into three groups (n=7) and treated as follows: group A with moxidectin 1% injectable solution at a dose rate of 0.2mgkg?1 bodyweight, group B with moxidectin

E Papadopoulos; S Sotiraki; C Himonas; G. C Fthenakis

2004-01-01

332

Establishment and biological characteristics of Ujumqin sheep fibroblast line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue (USEM) fibroblast line, frozen in 147 cryovials with 4 × 106 cell each, was successfully established from 33 Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissues using explant culture and cryopreservation\\u000a techniques. The cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts. The growth curve was typical S-shape and the cell\\u000a population passed through a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a

Ri Su Na; Qian Jun Zhao; Da Peng Jin; Xiao Hua Su; Xian Wei Chen; Wei Jun Guan; Yue Hui Ma

2010-01-01

333

Winter foraging plants of domestic sheep in Hulunbeir grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter food constitution and favorite level of domestic sheep were studied with the microhistological analysis technique of\\u000a feces in Hulunbeir Grassland. some problems were inquired into, such as the quality state of local herbage resource, improvement\\u000a of pasture, rational use of herbage, etc. The results showed that the staple food of domestic sheep in winter was Gramineae,\\u000a which made up

Jin Kun; Chen Yan; Lin Haijun; Jin Xiaoming; Chen Yuping; Zheng Yumci

1998-01-01

334

Density-dependent mother-yearling association in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-weaning mother-daughter associations are typical of many ungulates, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density, strong mother-yearling associations were found involving mostly ewes whose lamb-of-the-year died at or soon after birth. At low population density, there were no mother-yearling associations regardless of maternal reproductive status. Non-lactating ewes and most ewes caring

MAURO LUCHERINI; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; JON T. JORGENSON

335

9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2012-01-01

336

9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2013-01-01

337

9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2014-01-01

338

9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

2011-01-01

339

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2014-01-01

340

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2010-01-01

341

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2013-01-01

342

76 FR 43649 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions and...for the interstate movement of sheep and goats and an indemnity program to control the...INFORMATION: Title: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions...

2011-07-21

343

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals...slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for immediate...

2012-01-01

344

Quick guide Male pregnancy  

E-print Network

Magazine R791 Quick guide Male pregnancy Adam G. Jones1 and John C. Avise2 Don't try this at home! Male pregnancy is an alien concept to us mammals. Yet this phenomenon is the universal reproductive `pregnancy'? During a mammalian pregnancy, the placenta allows mom to nourish her progeny in the womb

Avise, John

345

Male rat sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult male rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it

Anders Ågmo

1997-01-01

346

Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep  

PubMed Central

Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPAR? (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P?sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. PMID:24267720

2013-01-01

347

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

348

Seasonal variation of fibre follicle activity and wool growth in fat-tailed Sanjabi sheep in west Iran.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to investigate the seasonal pattern of hair follicle activity, wool growth and fibre diameter (FD) in Sanjabi sheep in west Iran, Kermanshah (34° 18' N and 47° 3' E, elevation 1420 m). Ten male and 10 female Sanjabi sheep with an initial live weight of 32.1?±?1.3 and 32.7?±?1.5 (means?±?SD), respectively, were used in a 365-day study. A diet was offered with an estimated concentration of 2.18 Mcal metabolizable energy and 130.0 g/kg DM crude protein. Body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded weekly. The percentages of active primary and secondary wool follicles (PAP and PAS), follicle density and the ratio of secondary to primary follicles (S/P) were determined from skin biopsies, taken from the right mid-side of the sheep at monthly intervals. Raw and clean fibre growth rates and FD were measured from left mid-side patches (10?×?10 cm) harvested at the end of every month. There was a gradual increase in live weight throughout the experiment, while ADG and DMI changed in concert with day length. The greatest values for PAP and PAS were observed in summer, whereas lowest were obtained in winter (p?sheep. PMID:25616983

Salehian, Zahra; Naderi, Noshin; Souri, Manochehr; Mirmahmoudi, Rouhollah; Hozhabri, Fardin

2015-03-01

349

Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

350

21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED...defined in § 133.3, of sheep origin, used alone or in combination...animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

2011-04-01

351

Mating in bighorn sheep: frequent male reproduction via a high-risk “unconventional” tactic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and

John T. Hogg; Stephen H. Forbes

1997-01-01

352

BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

1988-01-01

353

Male Pronuclear Formation using Dog Sperm Derived from Ectopic Testicular Xenografts, Testis, and Epididymis  

PubMed Central

Background Testis tissue xenografting and the resultant sperm in a xenograft may provide a unique approach to rescue the genetic material of males that die prematurely and is a model for the study of human spermatogenesis and can represent an alternative approach for fertility preservation in cancer patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the xenogenic dog sperm in formation of male pronucleus following injection into the sheep oocytes. Methods The in vitro matured slaughterhouse derived sheep oocytes were subjected to Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) with epididymal, testicular, and xenogenic dog sperm. The ICSI was performed after scoring of the sperm midpiece using an IX71-Olympus inverted microscope with Nomarsky optics. Within 1 hr after injection, the injected oocytes in activated group were exposed to 5 µM ionomycin for 5 min. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and ANOVA using SigmaStat, version 3.5, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The formation of female pronucleus after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was higher than epididymal and testicular sperm in non-activated oocytes. The corresponding rate in activated oocytes was higher or comparable with testicular and epididymal sperm. The rate of male pronucleus formation after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was comparable with injection of two other sperm sources. Oocyte activation had an inductive role in female and male pronuclear formation. Conclusion Dog xenogenic sperm was capable to induce oocyte activation and proportion of male pronucleous formation was comparable to the testicular and epididymal sperm. PMID:25215177

Shirazi, Abolfazl; Khadivi, Asma; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser

2014-01-01

354

Predictors of male microchimerism.  

PubMed

The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

2012-01-01

355

Regulating nutrient allocation in plants  

DOEpatents

The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

2014-12-09

356

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans  

E-print Network

with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding the best use of manure or poultry litter while also protecting water quality. Storing, handling, and using

Mukhtar, Saqib

357

Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50 years ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens

2003-01-01

358

Nutrient Management in Organic Production  

E-print Network

and pesticides are prohibited #12;Characteristics of Organic Production · Genetically altered or engineered testing ·Nutrient deficiency symptoms ·Plant analysis #12;Organic certification ­ General requirements · "Rotation effect" not related to N Soil physical properties Reduced disease and insects Crop residue effects

Balser, Teri C.

359

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

360

ERD Research on Nutrient and Pathogen Dynamics  

EPA Science Inventory

Slide presentation giving an overview on the ERD research on nutrient and pathogen dynamics. Focus is on characterizing the dynamics of pathogen and nutrient stressors in the environment to support water quality objectives....

361

Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

2006-01-01

362

Male Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a ...

363

Phthalates and Male Infertility  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... player. Phthalates and Male Infertility HealthDay February 19, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Environmental Health Infertility Reproductive Hazards ... of Health Page last updated on 12 March 2015

364

Males and Eating Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

365

Male pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

... baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline ... have hair loss along with redness, scaling , or pain. A skin biopsy , blood tests, or other procedures ...

366

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn...

2010-05-14

367

Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52

Scott H. Ensign; Martin W. Doyle

2006-01-01

368

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

369

nutrients and terc.ucdavis.edu 9  

E-print Network

% 15% 4% RTic watersheds NuTRieNTS aNd paRTicLeS The Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitoring Program (LTIMP) measures nutrient inorganic nitrogen Water Year Nitrogen contribution by upper Truckee River Since 1989 NuTRieNTS aNd paRTic

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

370

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions  

E-print Network

) Abstract ­ Recirculating nutrient systems offer a good method to control nutrient leaching from greenhouses of recirculating nutrient systems by the greenhouse industry. This review discusses and compares five broadly different methods of disease control in these systems, namely heat, filtration, chemical, radiation

Boyer, Edmond

371

Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

1997-01-01

372

Nutrient Content of Single – Muscle Pork Cuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...

373

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

374

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

375

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility by Clain Jones, Soil Chemist of Extension materials designed to provide pertinent information on a variety of nutrient management, water" as well as offer the potential for credits for CCAs in Nutrient Management (within the "Plant Nutrition

Lawrence, Rick L.

376

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.03.2014 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient & Odor Management Programs Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative

Guiltinan, Mark

377

Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List  

E-print Network

v.01.2013 Nutrient Management Program Personnel Resource List State Conservation Commission 2301 N Nutrient Management Program Director 717-705-3895 Email: fschneider@pa.gov Oversees the implementation of the Nutrient Management Program in Pennsylvania. Provides technical, administrative and programmatic guidance

Guiltinan, Mark

378

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1  

E-print Network

Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1 and J. Baglama2 1. Department, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881-0816 Abstract. Nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction with general uptake functions in which nutrient recycling is either instantaneous or de- layed is considered

Baglama, James

379

NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries Nutrient Management Module No. 9  

E-print Network

, and Zn occurring most often (Nutrient Management Module 7, Micronutrients: Cycling, Testing9 NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries 4449-9 May 2009 CCA 1.5 NM CEU Nutrient Management Module No. 9 Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency

Lawrence, Rick L.

380

Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.  

PubMed

Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. PMID:25015875

Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

2014-11-01

381

Feed intake, digestibility, weight gain, and slaughter characteristics influenced by genetic percentage of Boer in goats and Dorper in sheep in the central highlands of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to compare the feed intake, digestibility, growth performance, and slaughter characteristics of local genotypes of small ruminants in the central highlands of Ethiopia with Boer goat (B) and Dorper sheep (D) blood levels of 0%, 25%, and 50%. Male goats (27; 6-9 months of age) and sheep (27; 3-5 months) were housed individually in confinement during 90-day experiments. Grass hay (6% crude protein and 64% or 67% neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum together with concentrate (46% noug seed cake, 28% wheat bran, 24% sorghum grain, and 2% salt) supplemented at 2 % of their body weight. Initial body weight was 18.1, 20.8, and 24.9 kg for Local, 25% B, and 50% B, respectively, and 14.8, 20.3, and 17.9 kg for Local, 25% D, and 50% D, respectively. Total dry matter (DM) intake by goats ranked Local < 25% B < 50% B, and hay intake was greatest for 50% B. Intake of hay and total DM by sheep ranked Local < 50% D < 25% D. Average daily gain by goats was greatest for 50% B and by sheep was least for Local. Empty body weight of goats at slaughter and carcass weights ranked Local < 25% B < 50% B. Body and carcass weights of sheep were lowest for Local. In addition to the difference between 25% B and Local goats, these results clearly show potential for greater meat yield with the 50% than 25% level of B. The findings also depict considerable opportunity to increase meat production by crossbreeding with D, although greater benefit was not realized with 50% than 25% D. PMID:24407532

Tilahun, Mekonnen; Kefelegn, Kebede; Abebe, Girma; Goetsch, Arthur Louis

2014-04-01

382

Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

2012-12-01

383

A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males

Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

2012-01-01

384

Male Condition, Female Choice, and Extreme Variation in Repeated Mating in a Scaly Cricket, Ornebius aperta (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Mogoplistinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating in the scaly cricket Ornebius aperta often includes the transfer of many spermatophores to individual females during extended copulatory interactions. We manipulated male condition in staged matings to determine whether this could explain variation in the number of repeated copulations seen across pairs. Males on a high nutrient diet were in good condition, were more likely to mate repeatedly,

Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Andrew C. Mason

2000-01-01

385

Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

386

Functional development of the sheep diaphragmatic ligament.  

PubMed

1. The diaphragmatic ligament, which lines the thoracic surface of the diaphragm, plays a major role in setting the passive compliance of the diaphragm in the adult. Since many elastic tissues are more compliant at younger ages, our aim was to determine whether this diaphragmatic ligament plays an important role during development of the diaphragm. 2. We examined the passive biaxial length-tension properties of the isolated mid-costal diaphragm from fetal, newborn and adult sheep; initially with the diaphragm intact and then with the diaphragmatic ligament removed to reveal its functional significance. 3. We found that unlike other elastic tissues the diaphragmatic ligament is stiffer in early development than in the adult. The diaphragmatic ligament supports about 75% of the passive tension in the diaphragm in the 121 day fetus (term at 147 days) declining to about 50% from 3 weeks of age. The fetal diaphragm muscle fibres are exposed to 1-7 kPa of stress over the last 26 days of gestation. 4. We suggest that the diaphragmatic ligament provides a structural framework on which the muscle fibres of the diaphragm grow in fetal life, and that the ligament's elasticity is regulated to maintain a low and constant stress on the diaphragm muscle fibres during development. PMID:8735001

Griffiths, R I; Berger, P J

1996-05-01

387

Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted with aged nuclear-free homogenate of sheep liver and aged mitochondria in an attempt to measure both the extent of oxidation of propionate and the distribution of label from [2-14C]propionate in the products. With nuclear-free homogenate, propionate was 44% oxidized with the accumulation of succinate, fumarate, malate and some citrate. Recovery of 14C in these intermediates and respiratory carbon dioxide was only 33%, but additional label was detected in endogenous glutamate and aspartate. With washed mitochondria 30% oxidation of metabolized propionate occurred, and proportionately more citrate and malate accumulated. Recovery of 14C in dicarboxylic acids, citrate, ?-oxoglutarate, glutamate, aspartate and respiratory carbon dioxide was 91%. The specific activities of the products and the distribution of label in the carbon atoms of the dicarboxylic acids were consistent with the operation solely of the methylmalonate pathway together with limited oxidation of the succinate formed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle via pyruvate. In a final experiment with mitochondria the label consumed from [2-14C]propionate was entirely recovered in the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamate, aspartate, methylmalonate and respiratory carbon dioxide. PMID:6048786

Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

1967-01-01

388

Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

1981-07-01

389

Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.  

PubMed Central

A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

Fahey, K J; Morris, B

1978-01-01

390

Ultrasound as a monitoring tool for cystic echinococcosis in sheep.  

PubMed

An ultrasound-based survey for cystic echinococcosis (CE) in sheep was carried out in Sardinia in 2012. The study was done on three farms (A, B, C) which had been pre-selected for different CE prevalence levels (A: >80%, B: 50-80%, C: <50%). In total, 129 sheep were examined on the farms using portable ultrasound equipment (A: n=51, B: n=30, C: n=48). Within a period of 20 days after ultrasound examination, all sheep were slaughtered and underwent a parasitological post-mortem examination for cysts in the liver and lungs. With post-mortem as gold standard, ultrasonography gave a test sensitivity of 88.7% and a specificity of 75.9%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 81.8% and 84.6%, respectively. When only sheep with fertile cysts were considered, the sensitivity of the test increased to 100%. We conclude that the ultrasound examination of the liver in sheep - using state-of-the-art technology - is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool, which is cost-effective, highly appropriate for field use and requires only moderate time (no shaving required). The method can also be applied to other livestock species and will be useful tool in epidemiological studies, monitoring schemes and vaccination/control trials. PMID:24704343

Dore, F; Varcasia, A; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Corda, A; Romig, T; Scala, A

2014-06-16

391

Efficacy of clorsulon against Fascioloides magna infection in sheep.  

PubMed

In a study to evaluate the efficacy of clorsulon against Fascioloides magna infection in sheep, 12 ewes were inoculated orally with 100 metacercariae of F magna, and 6 were treated with clorsulon (15 mg/kg of body weight) 8 weeks after inoculation. The sheep were euthanatized 16 weeks after inoculation, flukes were recovered, and the liver and other tissues were subjectively scored for the severity of lesions (0 to 4+). The number of flukes recovered from the clorsulon-treated group (3.8 +/- 1.2 flukes) was significantly (P = 0.025) lower than the number of flukes recovered from the group of untreated controls (10.0 +/- 6.6 flukes). The severity of lesions was significantly (P = 0.004) reduced (45.9%) in the treated group (2.0 +/- 1.1), compared with that in the untreated controls (3.7 +/- 0.5). In the untreated group, 3 sheep died and 1 became moribund 14 to 16 weeks after inoculation. The data suggested that a single treatment with clorsulon at a dosage of 15 mg/kg 8 weeks after inoculation was not effective in preventing F magna infection in sheep, because the survival of only a few F magna is potentially fatal in sheep within 6 months after infection. PMID:3366676

Conboy, G A; Stromberg, B E; Schlotthauer, J C

1988-04-01

392

Mitochondrial diversity and the origin of Iberian sheep  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds. PMID:17212950

Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-José; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermín; Bayón, Yolanda

2007-01-01

393

Acute sheep poisoning from a copper sulfate footbath.  

PubMed

An outbreak of footrot occurred in a flock of Corriedale sheep; 27 animals were treated with antibiotic and footbathed in a 5% copper sulfate solution. Being deprived of water for > 17 h, many sheep drank the footbath solution. After 6 h 16 sheep became ill with acute copper poisoning, 10 animals died within 10 h; 6 were severely ill and were sent to Veterinary Hospital, and 4 had mild signs and recovered without treatment. The sick sheep had anorexia, dullness, grinding teeth, moaning, rumen atony, dehydration, dark blue-green diarrheic feces and congested membranes. They were treated with 3.4 mg tetrathiomolybdate/kg body weight and lactated Ringer's solution iv, oral molybdate, sulfate, kaolin and pectin, and drenched with antacids. Two of the 6 sheep died during hospitalization. The ingestion of copper solution caused an intense gastrointestinal injury that resulted in ulcers, petechial and echymotic hemorrhages in the mucosa, mild hemolysis detected by microscopic hemoglobinuria and a lowered packed cell volume, severe hepatic injury that raised the AST and gammaGT blood values, and moderate kidney lesions with increasing serum blood urea and nitrogen creatinine levels. PMID:15587248

Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Antonelli, Alexandre Coutinho; de Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo

2004-12-01

394

Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.  

PubMed

Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits. PMID:19397522

Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

2009-08-01

395

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 901910 Density-dependent motheryearling association in bighorn sheep  

E-print Network

, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density in red deer, Cervus elaphus (Guinness et al. 1979; Albon et al. 1992), zebu cattle, Bos indicus 1987). Bighorn, Ovis canadensis, and domestic sheep, O. aries, however, do not seem to fit this pattern

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

396

Genetic Structure and Diversity among U.S. sheep breeds: Identification of the major gene pools.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding existing levels of genetic diversity of sheep breeds facilitates in situ and ex situ conservation activities. A comprehensive evaluation of US sheep breeds has not been previously performed therefore we evaluated the genetic diversity among and within 28 US sheep breeds. Both major and...

397

Preference of goats and sheep for browse species under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preference of goats and sheep for browse species in mixed browse and pasture conditions in New Zealand was determined using 6 goats and 6 sheep observed for 2?h periods on 6 occasions between February and December. The goats and sheep were given free access to established nurseries. The 2 nurseries contained 6 types of leguminous shrubs, 3 non?leguminous shrub

R. S. Pande; P. D. Kemp; J. Hodgson

2002-01-01

398

Comparison of Prion Allele Frequency found in Suffolk and Targhee Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a class of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to compare genotypic and allelic frequencies among USSES Targhee and Suffolk sheep. A total of 122 sheep were genotyped for codon 171 with allele specific primers in 2 separate...

399

Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environ...

400

64 FR 66791 - Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions and Indemnity Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...contact between unrelated sheep). There is no evidence...theory for the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy...Suspect animal. A sheep or goat exhibiting any...wool pulling; biting at legs or side; lip smacking...Suspect animal. A sheep or goat exhibiting any...wool pulling; biting at legs or side; lip...

1999-11-30

401

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2010-01-01

402

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection  

E-print Network

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E conducted to test the hypothesis that goats eat more than sheep and that goats are more selective feeders (DM) per kg metabolic live weight (WO.75) day (d) was 75.9 g for sheep, and 83.7 g for goats

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

404

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2014-01-01

405

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2012-01-01

406

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats 8­11 December 2003, Toulouse WORKSHOP ON MAJOR GENES AND QTL IN SHEEP AND GOATS This is the third international meeting dealing domestic species, including sheep and goats, and the identification of genes having an average effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428...Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

2013-01-01

408

Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

409

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....

410

Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

2007-01-01

411

Physiological and behavioural responses of sheep to simulated sea transport motions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The motion of ships can cause discomfort and stress in humans, but little is known about the impact on sheep welfare, despite many sheep travelling long distances by ship during live export. We tested whether exposing sheep to roll (side to side movement), heave (up and down movement) and pitch (fro...

412

Evaluation of sheep grazing as a tool to restore mountain pastures invaded by Euphorbia polygalifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Two experiments were conducted to (i) study whether sheep grazing pastures infested by a spurge (Euphorbia polygalifolia) consume this invasive weed and its consequences on animal performance, and (ii) detect differences between sheep and cattle in ruminal degradation of infested pastures. In the first trial, sheep grazed fenced paddocks highly invaded by spurge at instantaneous stocking rates of

M. J. Mora; J. Busqué; G. Hervás; A. R. Mantecón; B. Fernández; P. Frutos

413

PrP genotypes and experimental scrapie in orally inoculated Suffolk sheep in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and three United States Suffolk sheep were inoculated orally with a scrapie agent prep- aration and monitored for clinical disease and histopathological lesions characteristic of scrapie. A retrospective study of the polymorphisms at codon 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene was performed on these sheep. All 63 sheep that developed scrapie

K. I. O'Rourke; G. R. Holyoak; W. W. Clark; J. R. Mickelson; S. Wang; R. P. Melco; T. E. Besser; W. C. Foote

1997-01-01

414

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

415

Extensive Variation and Sub-Structuring in Lineage A mtDNA in Indian Sheep: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of Sheep in India  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 ± 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 ± 0.005 to 0.01 ± 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route. PMID:24244282

Singh, Sachin; Kumar Jr, Satish; Kolte, Atul P.; Kumar, Satish

2013-01-01

416

Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells  

E-print Network

Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness $\\ell$ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter $\

Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Nelson, David R

2013-01-01

417

Nutrient Composition of Spelt Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight samples of spelt wheat from the 1994 crop year were analyzed for macrocomponents (proximates), selected vitamins and minerals, and the first limiting amino acid lysine. They were also immunoassayed for gluten. All spelt samples differed minimally in the content of various nutrients analyzed except lysine; lysine values differed widely and ranged between 1.96 and 3.96 g\\/100 g protein. All

G. S. Ranhotra; J. A. Gelroth; B. K. Glaser; K. J. Lorenz

1996-01-01

418

Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

1996-01-01

419

Plant Nutrient Phytoremediation Using Duckweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over the last 40 years a great deal of research has been published on the use of duckweed to treat wastewater both from point\\u000a sources (feedlots, food processing plants) and from non-point sources. These plants can recover nutrients such as nitrogen\\u000a and phosphorus from contaminated waters in those agricultural practices. They can also remove or accumulate metals, radionuclides,\\u000a and other

Louis Landesman; Clifford Fedler; Runbin Duan

420

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

PubMed Central

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

2013-01-01

421

Techniques of Male Circumcision  

PubMed Central

Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

2013-01-01

422

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

423

An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome  

SciTech Connect

We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [and others

1995-06-01

424

Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The sheep is an important model animal for testing novel fracture treatments and other medical applications. Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes. RESULTS: In this work we have

Jochen Hecht; Heiner Kuhl; Stefan A Haas; Sebastian Bauer; Albert J Poustka; Jasmin Lienau; Hanna Schell; Asita C Stiege; Volkhard Seitz; Richard Reinhardt; Georg N Duda; Stefan Mundlos; Peter N Robinson

2006-01-01

425

Alternative male reproductive tactics and the immunocompetence handicap in the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius parvicornis  

PubMed Central

In the Azorean rock-pool blenny (Parablennius parvicornis) reproductively active males display alternative morphotypes, which differ in the expression of secondary sexual characters (SSC). Males expressing SSC, the M+ morphotype, have high androgen levels and compete for crevices that will be visited by females to spawn. M+ males holding nests court females and care for the eggs. Males with low expression of SSC, the M? morphotype, have low levels of androgens and reproduce by stealing fertilizations from the M+ males. Based on the hypothesis that androgens are immunosuppressive, we expected these morphotypes to differ in immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a field study in which we collected repeated blood samples to monitor leukocyte populations (blood smears), and to measure the primary antibody response of males that were experimentally challenged with a foreign non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells). Circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were higher in M+ males than in M? males. Neither granulocyte nor thrombocyte counts did covariate with androgens or male tactic. In contrast, lymphocyte counts and humoral antibody response were negatively correlated with body size, and as expected, both were lower in M+ than in M? males. Interestingly, in M+ males androgen levels decreased after immunization, and this was less in nest-holder males than in M+ males that were floating around in the pools. Within each morphotype we found no relationship between androgens and immunocompetence. The latter result is not supportive for androgen regulated immunosuppression in M+ males. A possible alternative is enhancement of immunity in M? males. These males had relatively high levels of injuries in comparison with M+ males. High immunity might be a consequence of high infection rate because of such injuries. PMID:16627274

Ros, Albert F.H; Bouton, Niels; Santos, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Rui F

2006-01-01

426

Testosterone-induced phenotypic sex reversal in sheep  

E-print Network

TESTOSTERONE-INDUCED PHENOLIC SFZ BEVEPEAL IN SHEEP A Thesis by MAXINE LO~~~ STILES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of PASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1979 Ywjor... Subject: Genetics TESB3STF~NE-IN3'JCED PHENVZYPIC SFZ ~AL IN SHEEP A Thesis IRXINE IDPENE STILES Approved as to style and content by: (Chairs. an of Committee (Head of Depar nt) P". ember ) ((Amber) Hay 1979 ABSTRACT Testosterone...

Stiles, Maxine Lorene

1979-01-01

427

Geologic Mapping and Geologic History: Sheep Mountain, Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Half way through the second semester of our year-long integrated Sed/Strat and Structure course we travel to Sheep Mountain, Wyoming where the students spend 5 days describing and measuring section and the constructing geologic and structural maps. The field data gathered then form the basis for a paper titled: "Geologic History of the Sheep Mountain Region". In addition to simply making geologic maps, stratigraphic sections and structural cross-sections, the students have to put the local geology into the broader contexts of the Big Horn Basin and sequences of western orogenies.

Lawrence L. Malinconico

428

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

429

Chronic frontal sinusitis and osteolysis in desert bighorn sheep.  

PubMed

Chronic frontal sinusitis and osteolysis in a herd of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in Zion National Park, Utah, was attributed to bacterial infection secondary to aberrant nasal bot migration. Analysis of skulls and live adult sheep (equal to 1 year old) showed that 9 to 22 animals were affected. One ram and 1 ewe were treated by trephination and irrigation. Treatment was successful for the ewe, but not for the ram. Radiography, thermography, and blood profiles were used in an attempt to find a way to diagnose sinusitis in its early stages; at this point, only thermography shows promise. PMID:738941

Paul, S R; Bunch, T D

1978-11-01

430

Some hepatotoxic actions of hexachloroethane and its metabolites in sheep  

PubMed Central

1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep. 2. Concentrations of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in blood, bile, faeces, urine and tissues after oral administration of hexachloroethane emulsions to sheep. 3. Increased blood concentrations of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were found to follow oral administration of hexachloroethane or pentachloroethane. 4. The rate of bromsulphthalein transfer from liver cells to bile was found to decrease after oral administration of hexachloroethane. PMID:5809742

Fowler, J. S. L.

1969-01-01

431

The disposition of albendazole in sheep.  

PubMed

Albendazole (ABZ) was administered intraruminally at 4.75 mg/kg to sheep fitted with a permanent bile-duct cannula to determine if its metabolites might contribute to its flukicidal action. ABZ metabolism was consistent with first-pass clearance by the liver, resulting in ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) and ABZ sulphone (ABZ-SO2) being present in plasma at maximum concentrations (mean Cmax +/- SD) of 2.0 +/- 0.2 micrograms/ml and 0.4 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml after 8 +/- 3 h and 24 +/- 5 h, respectively. ABZ-SO, but more particularly ABZ-SO2, appeared to bind to plasma proteins but their clearance rates from plasma were similar. Biliary ABZ metabolites were mainly unconjugated ABZ-SO and 2OH-ABZ-SO (8.0% dose) or conjugated glucuronide and sulphate esters (6.3% dose) mainly of 2OH-ABZ-SO and 2OH-ABZ-SO2. The concentration of the major biliary metabolite, unconjugated ABZ-SO, followed a similar time profile to that of ABZ-SO in plasma except that Cmax was much higher (6.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms/ml). Intraruminal administration of ABZ reduced bile flow rate by 30% which may be attributable to an inhibitory effect of ABZ on microtubule formation in hepatic secretory cells. It is suggested that ABZ is sequestered in the liver. This is unlikely to contribute to its flukicidal action, which is probably attributable to ingestion of ABZ-SO from bile and blood by the fluke. PMID:2614859

Hennessy, D R; Steel, J W; Lacey, E; Eagleson, G K; Prichard, R K

1989-12-01

432

A comparison of dietary atherogenicities, energy balance, and physical activity levels of male and female college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in selected nutrient intakes, dietary atherogenicities, energy balance, and specific physical activity (SPA) as defined between 1.4 and 7.5 Kcal\\/kg\\/hr levels between male and female college students. A total of 122 (50 males and 72 females) completed their three-day dietary records. In addition, 89 (36 males and 53 females) of

Chick F. Tam; Elena Martinez; Sean Tsai; Li C. Chang; Laura Calderon; Rebecca Davis; I-Li Yeh

1996-01-01

433

Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.  

PubMed

Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

1999-01-01

434

Educating African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

Bell, Edward E.

2010-01-01

435

Empowering Young Black Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

Kafele, Baruti K.

2012-01-01

436

Lycopene and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

2014-01-01

437

Targeting the adolescent male  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual

Edward Pitt

1986-01-01

438

The Competent Male.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article attempts to piece together a conceptualization of the competent male using a model that centers upon achievement and affiliation. Using transactional analysis, it expounds upon sex role communication between men and women, then discusses specific personality traits of men, and what they imply for the future. (LPG)

Crites, John O.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

1978-01-01

439

Sexually Aggressive College Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accumulated evidence of this paper suggests that sex aggression is largely the consequence of a particular type of socialization coupled with appropriate situational factors. These males tend to be generally aggressive; they show a strong tendency to deny love feeling for their mothers; their peers tend to stress sexual activity. (Author/BY)

Kanin, Eugene J.

1971-01-01

440

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

441

Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225

Emine, Akal Y?ld?z

2011-01-01

442

Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225

Nesli?ah, Rak?c?o?lu; Emine, Akal Y?ld?z

2011-04-01

443

Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

Michalzik, B.

2012-04-01

444

Response of bighorn sheep to clear-cut logging and prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prescribed burning and timber harvesting have been used to restore and maintain Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (avis canadensis) ranges. Intensive study of a bighorn sheep herd in northeastern Utah indicated a need for range improvements. To evaluate the effectiveness of clear-cut logging and prescribed burning, we documented sheep responses to these treatments. Although bighorn sheep exhibited strong fidelity to pre-treatment areas (P>0.05), they significantly altered use patterns to include logged and burned areas (P<0.001). Treated habitats experienced 148% increases in bighorn sheep activity, whereas use in untreated areas declined by 45%. Bighorn sheep responded more favorably to logged units than to burned areas. We conclude that carefully planned clear-cut logging and range burning may be effective to enhance and expand bighorn sheep populations.

Smith, T.S.; Hardin, P.J.; Flinders, J.T.

1999-01-01

445

Effect of intravenous ketamine and lidocaine on isoflurane requirement in sheep undergoing orthopedic surgery.  

PubMed

Intravenous ketamine and lidocaine infusions may be useful adjuncts to inhalation anesthesia for sheep undergoing orthopedic surgery. In this study, 50 female sheep underwent experimental stifle surgery (29 received a meniscal implant and 21 received sham surgery). To induce anesthesia in the sheep, the authors intravenously injected ketamine and diazepam. They administered isoflurane in oxygen to maintain anesthesia and used mechanical ventilation to maintain normal arterial carbon dioxide pressure. Some sheep received intravenous infusions of ketamine and lidocaine during surgery, whereas others did not. Sheep that received a meniscal implant without ketamine-lidocaine required approximately 23% greater isoflurane concentrations than sheep that were given ketamine-lidocaine. These findings suggest that intravenous infusion of ketamine and lidocaine decreases the requirement for isoflurane during orthopedic surgery on anesthetized sheep. PMID:20164948

Raske, Tara G; Pelkey, Sheila; Wagner, Ann E; Turner, A Simon

2010-03-01

446

Adaptability of growth and nutrient uptake potential of Chlorella sorokiniana with variable nutrient loading.  

PubMed

Chlorella sorokiniana can sustain growth in conditions hostile to other species, and possesses good nutrient removal and lipid accumulation potentials. However, the effects of variable nutrient levels (N and P) in wastewaters on growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake by C. sorokiniana have not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates the ability of this alga to sustain uniform growth and productivity, while regulating the relative nutrient uptake in accordance to their availability in the bulk medium. These results highlight the potential of C. sorokiniana as a suitable candidate for fulfilling the coupled objectives of nutrient removal and biomass production for bio-fuel with wastewaters having great variability in nutrient levels. PMID:25463782

Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

2014-12-01

447

Longitudinal Study of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Shedding in Sheep Feces: Persistence of Specific Clones in Sheep Flocks?  

PubMed Central

To provide information on the persistence and maintenance of colonization with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in sheep, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of STEC isolates (n = 145) belonging to serogroups O5, O91, and O146 from 39 healthy animals was performed in a 12-month longitudinal study carried out with four sheep flocks. At the flock level as well as the individual-animal level, the same clones were obtained on sampling occasions separated by as much as 11 months. PMID:19168649

Sánchez, Sergio; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Mora, Azucena; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan M.

2009-01-01

448

Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.  

PubMed

This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88?±?2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

2013-03-01

449

Assessment of gastrointestinal permeability by lactulose test in sheep after repeated indomethacin treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the small intestine permeability by using lactulose as a sugar probe and blood metabolites in sheep after a challenge with repeated indomethacin injections. According to a changeover design, 7 adult sheep (4 males and 3 females) were subjected to 4 intramuscular injections (every 12 h) of saline [control (CRT); 7 animals] or indomethacin (INDO; 7 animals). Two hours after the last injection, 30 g of lactulose were administered orally to both CTR and INDO. Blood samples were collected daily for the analysis of the metabolic profile and 5 samples were collected at 2-h intervals following lactulose ingestion to monitor changes in blood levels of lactulose as an index of intestinal permeability. The INDO challenge induced clinical symptoms such as lack of appetite, dullness, weakness, depression, and diarrhea with traces of blood in the feces. In INDO group, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin increased (P < 0.01) after INDO challenge whereas a decrease (P < 0.05) of negative acute phase reactants (e.g., cholesterol, albumin, and paraoxonase) was observed. Reactive oxygen metabolites increased (P < 0.01) from 60 to 204 h after the INDO challenge start, with a decrease of vitamin E concentration from 12 (P < 0.01) to 132 h (P < 0.05). Blood lactulose concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in INDO animals and the highest mean values (17.67 µg/mL in INDO vs. 0.17 µg/mL in CRT; P < 0.01) were observed 6 h after oral dosage of lactulose. These changes indicate that the INDO challenge led to severe inflammatory responses with oxidative stress by enhancing small intestinal permeability in sheep that allowed lactulose to enter in blood. The results of this experiment demonstrate that lactulose can be used as a probe to assess gastrointestinal permeability in adult ruminants to test the consequences of stressing conditions on animal welfare. For this purpose, the most suitable time for blood sampling is between 2 and 8 h after the oral dosage of lactulose. PMID:24126268

Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Bani, P

2013-12-01

450

Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67?±?3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130?±?1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues. PMID:23577020

Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C.; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A.; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E.; Khatib, Hasan

2013-01-01

451

Regulation of Nutrient Transport across the Placenta  

PubMed Central

Abnormal fetal growth, both growth restriction and overgrowth, is associated with perinatal complications and an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. PMID:23304511

Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa L.

2012-01-01

452

Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.  

PubMed

It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

2015-03-01

453

Early development, adult mass, and reproductive success in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable empirical and theoretical work on the individual and population consequences of early development, little is known about the correlations between early mass and adult size or lifetime reproductive success of free-ranging mammals. Using a 26-year study of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we examined how mass as a lamb and mass gain as a yearling affected adult mass for

Marco Festa-Bianchet; Jon T. Jorgenson; Denis Realea

2000-01-01

454

Possible homologies between photorefractoriness in sheep and birds  

E-print Network

Possible homologies between photorefractoriness in sheep and birds : the effect of thyroidectomy driven breeding cycles in « long-day » birds and « short-day » mammals, emphasizing the importance and quail, thyroidectomy prevents refractoriness developing and the birds remain in breeding indefinitely

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

BROWN BEAR PREDATION ON DOMESTIC SHEEP REGISTERED WITH MORTALITY TRANSMITTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1989, 291 lambs in 3 herds of domestic sheep were tagged with silent mortality transmitters prior to release onto open, coniferous forest range in southeast Norway. Twenty-six lamb carcasses were recovered. Lamb mortality was attributed to disease (19%), accidents (22%), and predation (59%). In addition to the dead lambs, the carcasses of 21 ewes were also recovered. Of these,

IVAR MYSTERUD; JERRY T. WARREN

456

Phonatory characteristics of excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the phonatory characteristics of pig, sheep, and cow excised larynges and to find out which of these animal species is the best model for human phonation. Excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube on the excised bench that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air in a manner similar to that for excised canine models. Each excised larynx was subjected to a series of pressure-flow experiments with adduction as major control parameter. The subglottal pressure, electroglottograph (EGG), mean flow rate, audio signal, and sound pressure level were recorded during each experiment. EGG signal was used to extract the fundamental frequency. It was found that pressure-frequency relations were nonlinear for these species with large rate of frequency changes for the pig. The average oscillation frequencies for these species were 220±57 Hz for the pig, 102±33 Hz for the sheep, and 73±10 Hz for the cow. The average phonation threshold pressure for the pig was 7.4±2.0 cm H2O, 6.9±2.9 cm H2O for the sheep, and 4.4±2.3 cm H2O for the cow. PMID:18537405

Alipour, Fariborz; Jaiswal, Sanyukta

2008-01-01

457

Phonatory characteristics of excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the phonatory characteristics of pig, sheep, and cow excised larynges and to find out which of these animal species is the best model for human phonation. Excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube on the excised bench that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air in a manner similar to that for excised canine models. Each excised larynx was subjected to a series of pressure-flow experiments with adduction as major control parameter. The subglottal pressure, electroglottograph (EGG), mean flow rate, audio signal, and sound pressure level were recorded during each experiment. EGG signal was used to extract the fundamental frequency. It was found that pressure-frequency relations were nonlinear for these species with large rate of frequency changes for the pig. The average oscillation frequencies for these species were 220+/-57 Hz for the pig, 102+/-33 Hz for the sheep, and 73+/-10 Hz for the cow. The average phonation threshold pressure for the pig was 7.4+/-2.0 cm H(2)O, 6.9+/-2.9 cm H(2)O for the sheep, and 4.4+/-2.3 cm H(2)O for the cow. PMID:18537405

Alipour, Fariborz; Jaiswal, Sanyukta

2008-06-01

458

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-print Network

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB Beaumont, France. Résumé TRAITEMENT DES CARENCES EN CUIVRE ET EN ZINC PAR INJECTION INTRAMUSCU- LAIRE CHEZ d'oxyde de zinc par voie intramusculaire, en suspension dans l'huile d'olive. Dans chaque expérience

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

FEEDING AND GROWTH HORMONE AFTER CEREBROVENTRICULAR CARBACHOL IN SHEEP  

E-print Network

FEEDING AND GROWTH HORMONE AFTER CEREBROVENTRICULAR CARBACHOL IN SHEEP P.M. DRIVER J.M. FORBES and increase plasma growth hormone (GH) levels over similar periods of time (Driver etal., 19791 and unaffected by stress. Carbamycholine chloride (Carba- chol) (Sigma, Poole, England) was dissolved

Boyer, Edmond

460

Mediterranean sheep and goats production: An uncertain future  

Microsoft Academic Search

European sheep and goat production, in the Mediterranean areas represent important economic, environmental and sociological issues. Our article aims at comparing the situation of the main small ruminant systems in South European regions (Spain, France, Italy and Greece), and their possible future evolution.On the average, the income of milk systems tends to be higher than meat systems thanks to a

M. de Rancourt; N. Fois; M. P. Lavín; E. Tchakérian; F. Vallerand

2006-01-01

461

Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

SciTech Connect

Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

2008-05-01

462

First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina  

PubMed Central

We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. PMID:24516458

Travería, G.E.; Zumarraga, M.; Etchechoury, I.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.; Pinedo, M.F. Alvarado; Pavlik, I.; Pribylova, R.; Romero, J.R.

2013-01-01

463

Sheep: The First Large Animal Model in Nuclear Transfer Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto

2013-01-01

464

A PROPOSAL FOR A CONSTANTLY ROTATING CAROUSEL FOR SHEEP MILKING  

E-print Network

operations (ewe entry, feeding, cup removal, teat spraying, ewe exit, cleaning of the machine, milk recording are given. The system incorporates a milking machine capable of remo- ving the total yield without machine stripping. Such a machine is, however, not yet available. The inadequacy of existing sheep milking machines

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Intake of Water Containing Condensed Tannin by Cattle and Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed tannins are found in many trees, shrubs and forbs, and are generally considered problematic phytochemicals for ruminants. However, ingestion of small amounts of condensed tannin by sheep and cattle has been shown to produce a number of valuable outcomes. The primary objectives of the tri...

466

Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed  

PubMed Central

Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

2005-01-01

467

Inside the Beltway again: a sheep of a different feather.  

PubMed

The appearance of a sheep named Dolly, the first clone of an adult mammal, dramatically affected the agenda, pace of work, and visibility of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. The Commission's approach to its task and some of the issues it considered in responding to President Clinton's request for review and recommendations within 90 days are described. PMID:11654989

Capron, Alexander Morgan

1997-06-01

468

Bradykinin metabolism in rat and sheep nasal secretions.  

PubMed

The nasal secretions are the first barrier that nasally administered drugs encounter. Therefore, the characterization of peptide metabolism in the nasal secretions is essential to predict nasal peptide bioavailability. Metabolism of bradykinin was measured in rat and sheep nasal secretions to estimate the extent of degradation of nasally administered peptide compounds. A single-pass, in situ nasal perfusion technique was employed to collect secretions for the investigation of peptide metabolism in rat nasal secretions. The protein content, mucin concentration, and degree of bradykinin metabolism in perfusate aliquots collected over a 2-h period showed that the early perfusate fractions contained most of the active secretory materials. Evidence of continuous mucus secretion and plasma extravasation was found in the nasal perfusate throughout the entire collection period. Sheep nasal secretions were collected with a cotton pledget inserted into the nasal cavity. Bradykinin and its fragments were degraded by carboxypeptidases and endopeptidases present in both rat and sheep nasal secretions. Hydrolysis of Phe5-Ser6 was the major metabolism pathway of bradykinin in the rat nasal perfusate, whereas in sheep nasal secretions, hydrolysis of the Pro7-Phe8 and Phe8-Arg9 bonds also occurred. Evidence of angiotensin converting enzyme, carboxypeptide N, and aminopeptidase activity was identified in the rat nasal perfusate with specific substrates and inhibitors. The activity of these and other enzymes in the nasal secretions may significantly limit the bioavailability of nasally administered peptide drugs prior to their exposure to the nasal mucosal tissues. PMID:7562432

Chung, F Y; Donovan, M D

1995-07-01

469

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of amitraz in ponies and sheep.  

PubMed

Amitraz and its active metabolite BTS27271 were given intravenously to ponies and sheep at equimolar doses of 1 mg/kg and 0.68 mg/kg, respectively, and the plasma concentrations of amitraz and BTS27271 estimated at various times thereafter. Amitraz was hydrolysed to BTS27271 in both species. Amitraz was undetectable in sheep plasma after approximately 5 min but persisted in the plasma of ponies for at least 90 min. The persistence of unmetabolized amitraz in ponies may have implications for the toxicity of amitraz in that species. The primary and secondary disposition half-lives of amitraz in ponies were 2 and 39 min, respectively. BTS27271 was distributed rapidly outside the plasma in both species with a primary disposition half-life of 4.4 min in sheep and 5.9 min in ponies. The secondary disposition half-lives were 51 and 55 min, respectively. The secondary phase of the disposition of BTS27271 was similar whether BTS27271 was given directly or derived by hydrolysis from amitraz. However, significant differences were evident in the primary phase of the disposition of BTS27271. Sheep demonstrated a larger apparent volume of distribution of BTS27271 than ponies and more rapid body clearance. PMID:7674457

Pass, M A; Mogg, T D

1995-06-01

470

Dual Arterial Cannulation for Aortic Surgical Procedures in Adult Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Preclinical site-specific placement of valvular prostheses is highly recommended to fully appreciate hemodynamics. An ovine model is commonly used for preclinical prosthetic mitral valve evaluation; however, the ideal animal model for prosthetic aortic valve evaluation has yet to be determined. Past studies have utilized adult sheep for prosthetic aortic valve replacement; however, an anatomically short length of the ascending

N. Barka; N. Rakow; C. Leet; L. M. Shecterle; J. A. St. Cyr

2010-01-01

471

A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

Holloway, Sue

1992-01-01

472

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

473

SHEEP: The Shared Environment Entertainment Pasture Christian Sandor1  

E-print Network

in a herd or hunt, but also the ability to be influenced separately. · Several tracked laptops are installed with sheep and wolf · There is also one god of that small world. He can add, remove and modify elements of the landscape. The god player wears a HMD. To perform multimodal input to the system, he can use various input

Bruegge, Bernd

474

Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student  

E-print Network

and money each year in an attempt to control it in their flock or herd. If footrot becomes a problem-negative, anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus (also referred to as Bacteroides by cattle, deer, and horses. In general, sheep are affected more severely than goats. The bacteria

475

TESTICULAR MATURATION IN THE SHEEP BOT FLY OESTRUS OVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of testicular maturation in relation to intrapuparial development was studied in the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae). After formation of the puparium during larval-pupal apolysis and the cryptocephalic pupal stage (=24-72 h), spermatogonia had undergone mitotic...

476

The sheep as an animal model for heart valve research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first test used to assess new heart valve prostheses and devices is to implant them in a medium-sized animal. This is a costly piece of research and it is important to select the most appropriate animal. The authors feel that the sheep is an appropriate animal model for heart valve research and describe their experience in this area. It

M. L Ali; S. P Kumar; K Bjornstad; C. M. G Duran

1996-01-01

477

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone inducing lactation and growth J, LN.72.A., 78350 Jo2cy-en-Josas (France) An ovine lactogenic hormone (Ovine Placental Lactogen: OPL localization of its cellular synthesis shown. The patterns of prolactin-like and growth hormone-like activities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

DIMINISHING RUMEN BUTYROGENESIS IN BULLS AND SHEEP FED SUGAR BEETS  

E-print Network

DIMINISHING RUMEN BUTYROGENESIS IN BULLS AND SHEEP FED SUGAR BEETS H. LEONTOWICZ, W. BAREJ, G. Nowoursynowska 166 and Institute of Animal Physio%gy and Nutrition PAS S Jab%nna / Warsaw, Poland Sugar beets and lac- tate. Barej et a/. (1978) succesfully used a ration consisting of sugar beet silage (54 % D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

479

GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF SHEEP  

E-print Network

Metabolism in Rumen Bacteria and Mucosa froc Sheep Fed Soya Protein or Urea. J. Nutr., 100, 161-169. FRIEDEN, produced as a result of the degrada- tion of protein and simple nitrogenous subs- tances in the fodder was obtained after centrifugation of the ruminal mucosa homoge- nate at 105,000 g, fractionation by ammonium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-print Network

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

481

METABOLISM OF BLOOD GLUCOSE IN COLD EXPOSED SHEEP  

E-print Network

METABOLISM OF BLOOD GLUCOSE IN COLD EXPOSED SHEEP T. TSUDA M. FUJITA K. AMBO Department of Animal of blood glucose metabolism and of glucogenic pre- cursors were measured in cold-exposed ewes. Material of Bergman (1963). Results and Discussion 1. Blood glucose metabolism U-14C-glucose was infused i

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SECRETION OF NITROGEN IN SHEEP SALIVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made on the distribution of nitrogen in the mixed and parotid salivary secretion of sheep and on the amount of nitrogen secreted daily in the parotid saliva.The distribution of nitrogen in the mixed saliva followed the same pattern as that in the parotid secretions obtained when the glands were in a quiescent state. The concentration of nitrogen in

M Somers

1961-01-01

483

MONITORING GOAT AND SHEEP MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The milk somatic cell count (MSCC) forms the basis of abnormal milk control programs world wide for goats, cows and sheep. To better understand factors that contribute to elevations in MSCC, the effects of stage of lactation, parity, breed and state/area in the United States (US) on MSCC were exami...

484

Sardinian fermented sheep sausage: Microbial biodiversity resource for quality improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - With the aim of improving the quality and the value of the Sardinian sheep sausage, the microflora involved in fermentation and ripening processes of this traditional foodstuff has been studied and characterized. During the fermentation phase a prominent presence of micrococci and staphylococci has been observed. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were showing a slow growth rate

N. P. Mangia; M. A. Murgia; G. Garau; R. Merella; P. Deiana

485

Yellow Pigments Excreted by Vitamin A-depleted Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of gastrointestinal synthesis of vitamin A precursors which would benefit sheep was investigated. Wethers that had been fed a low carotene ration for 30 months were found to excrete from 1.6 to 3 times their carotene con sumption. Results of spectrographic analysis of the excreted pigment indicated that it was not pure ^-carotene. The pigment was neither beneficial

R. E. TUCKER; G. E. MITCHELL; J. R. ANDC

486

Treatment and control of psoroptic mange (sheep scab) with moxidectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an investigation into alternative methods for the treatment and control of sheep scab, the efficacy of moxidectin, a second generation milbemycin, was evaluated in a series of laboratory and field studies in Ireland. Initial laboratory trials demonstrated that moxidectin, given as a subcutaneous injection at 200 ?g\\/kg bodyweight was effective in the treatment of clinical psoroptic mange. Subsequent work

D. OBrien; L. D. Parker; C. Menton; C. Keaveny; E. McCollum; S. OLaoide

1996-01-01

487

Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to

L. M. B. Oliveira; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. T. C. Costa; I. T. F. Macedo; R. S. Barros; A. C. M. Rodrigues; A. L. F. Camurça-Vasconcelos; S. M. Morais; Y. C. Lima; L. S. Vieira; A. M. C. Navarro

2009-01-01

488

Original article Urinary selenium excretion in selenite-loaded sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Urinary selenium excretion in selenite-loaded sheep and subsequent Se dynamics measurements showed no changes in the urinary flow rate or in the glomerular filtration rate. During at the lower end of this range. Intake of such feeds can result in serious selenium deficiency and health

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

489

Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

Minson, D. J.

1993-02-01

490

HAEMOGLOBIN SWITCHING DURING DEVELOPMENT IN NORMAL AND HYPOPHYSECTOMISED FETAL SHEEP  

E-print Network

HYPOPHYSECTOMISE. ― La synthèse de l'hémoglobine a été étudiée chez le foetus de mouton. Le passage de la A synthesis in the develop- ing fetal lamb. Methods The haemoglobin types of the sheep (Border Leicester x

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

Applied Sheep Behavior Prepared by: Warren Gill, Professor  

E-print Network

with carnivorous (meat- eating) feeding patterns. Carnivores spend a much smaller proportion of their time and ruminating (cud-chewing) and little time in searching for food. Carnivores typically must attack and subdue be logically assumed to provide a basis for much of what makes sheep different from carnivores. Carnivores

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

492

Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the U.S., is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine g...

493

Influence of age on the spermiogramic parameters of native sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate the qualities of ram semen in different age groups (one to four years) were evaluated. The parameters included testes length (cm), testes breadth (cm), scrotal circumference (cm), live weight (kg), semen volume (ml), P H , sperm concentration (x10 9 ), motility (%), percentage of live, dead and normal, abnormal spermatozoa of native sheep.

M. R. Hassan; S. Pervage; M. Ershaduzzaman; M. A. I. Talukder

2009-01-01

494

Spotting of Dall Sheep, Denali National Park, Alaska  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barry Middleton (left) and Ed Pfeifer (right) of the USGS Southwest Geographic Science Team engaged in field observations of Dall sheep in Denali National Park, Alaska, on July 27, 2009. The study employs satellite remote sensing and field observations to investigate the effect of variable and chang...

495

Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Veratrum californicum was discovered to be teratogenic in sheep over 50 years ago. The alkaloids in V. californicum responsible for terata induction are jervine, 11-deoxojervine (cyclopamine), and cycloposine (the glycoside of cyclopamine). Current research objectives are to better describe cyclop...

496

Heat stability and enzymatic modifications of goat and sheep milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat treatments are important processes that affect the quality of milk and especially the physico-chemical and renneting properties. Goat and sheep milk are less stable to heat treatments than cow milk. Although heat-induced reactions are similar between animal species, the changes relative to temperature differences are due to differences in micellar structure, partition of salts between colloidal and aqueous phases,

K. Raynal-Ljutovac; Y. W. Park; F. Gaucheron; S. Bouhallab

2007-01-01

497

Genetic polymorphism of ?-lactoglobulin in sheep raised for milk production  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate ?-lactoglobulin polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism in Polish Mountain, East Friesian, Polish Merino and Austrian Bergschaf sheep raised for milk production, three ?-LGB genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were found in all the groups, AB being the most frequent genotype in all the groups. The frequency of ?-LGB A genes was 0.66 in

Aldona Kawecka; Anna Radko

2011-01-01

498

DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE USING BIOSENSOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

499

Genetic improvement of overall reproductive success in sheep: A review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproduction is an economically important complex composite trait in sheep. Genetic improvement of composite traits can occur by selection for individual components traits, some combination of individual component traits, or by direct selection for the composite trait. This review discusses the re...

500