Sample records for male sheep nutrient

  1. Effect of Harsh Environmental Conditions on Nutrient Utilization and Blood Parameters of Awassi Sheep and Kilis Goat Fed Different Levels of Concentrate Feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Can; N. Denek; M. ?eker

    2008-01-01

    Can, A., Denek, N. and ?eker, M. 2008. Effect of harsh environmental conditions on nutrient utilization and blood parameters of Awassi sheep and Kilis goat fed different levels of concentrate feed. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 39–43.To determine the season effect (summer vs winter) on nutrient utilization and blood, rumen parameters of Awassi ram lambs and male Kilis goats fed

  2. Effect of Stage of Lactation on Nutrient Composition of Tswana Sheep and Goat's Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Aganga; J. O. Amarteifio; N. Nkile

    2002-01-01

    Seven Tswana goats and seven Tswana sheep suckling single (male or female) kids or lambs were milked to obtain information on the milk composition of Tswana goats and ewes under semi-intensive management. The milk samples collected were from does and ewes 40–166 days post-partum. The aim of this study was to document the chemical composition of Tswana goat and sheep's

  3. Sexual conflict in twins: male co-twins reduce fitness of female Soay sheep

    PubMed Central

    Korsten, Peter; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Pilkington, Jill G.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2009-01-01

    Males and females often have different requirements during early development, leading to sex-specific interactions between developing offspring. In polytocous mammals, competition for limited resources in utero may be asymmetrical between the sexes, and androgens produced by male foetuses could have adverse effects on the development of females, with potentially long-lasting consequences. We show here, in an unmanaged population of Soay sheep, that female lambs with a male co-twin have reduced birth weight relative to those with a female co-twin, while there was no such effect in male twins. In addition, females with a male co-twin had lower lifetime breeding success, which appeared to be mainly driven by differences in first-year survival. These results show that sex-specific sibling interactions can have long-term consequences for survival and reproduction, with potentially important implications for optimal sex allocation. PMID:19493877

  4. Nutrient Utilization of Bean Straw, Alfalfa Hay and Leaves of the Shrub Cercidium macrum by Goats and Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Ramírez; R. A. Ledezma-Torres; R. Martínez

    1999-01-01

    Ramírez, R.G., Ledezma-Torres, R.A. and Martínez, R. 1999. Nutrient utilization of bean straw, alfalfa hay and leaves of the shrub Cercidium macrum by goats and sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 15:137–148.In an in vivo digestion and nitrogen balance trial, using Spanish goats fed bean straw, forage from the shrub palo verde (Cercidium macrum) was evaluated as a protein supplement and

  5. Rumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials in sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the rumen was increased by F + AVO diet. Duodenal flow of total N, total AA, essential AA was unaffected by additives. Both non ammonia N passage and non essential AA flow were lower for F + SAL than F. SalinomycinRumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials

  6. Effect of Method and Level of Urea Supplementation on Nutrient Utilization and Ruminal Fermentation in Sheep Fed a Maize Stover-based Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. G. Zhao; J. An; Q. J. Luo; Z. L. Tan

    2007-01-01

    Zhao, X.G., An, J., Luo, Q.J. and Tan, Z.L. 2007. Effect of method and level of urea supplementation on nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation in sheep fed a maize stover-based diet. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 31: 125–130.Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of method and level of urea supplementation on feed intake, N efficiency, site of digestion and

  7. Toxicologic studies with male sheep grazing on municipal sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, D.E.; Parrish, J.J.; Foote, R.H.; Stouffer, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Growing sheep were grazed for 152 d on grass-legume forage growing on soil that had been amended with municipal sewage sludge from Syracuse, NY, at 224 metric tons per hectare. Cadmium was higher, but not significantly, in tissues of sheep fed the sludge-grown forage as compared to controls. No significant differences between the sludge or control treatments were found in weight of the complete or cauda epididymis or in percent progressive motility of cauda epididymal sperm. The sludge-treatment group had significantly larger testes when expressed as a percentage of body weight, and higher blood uric acid values. There were no observable changes in tissue ultrastructure of liver, kidney, muscle, or testes as examined by electron microscopy in either of the treatment groups. There were no significant differences for rate of animal weight gain, carcass weight, dressing percentage, or quality or yield grade of the carcases between the treatment groups. 21 references, 5 tables.

  8. Testicular measurements and endocrine profiles (luteinizing hormone and testosterone) in young growing males as a measure of breeding value in sheep 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, John William

    1983-01-01

    be used as a reliable indicator of the breeding value of young growing male sheep for proliFicacy of the Females sired by them. DEDICATION I dedicate this manuscript to my wife, Denise, and my parents Demey and Myrtle Campbell. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  9. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

  10. Effect of Different Intact Proteins on Nutrient Utilization and Growth Response of Crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) Male Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sil; N. N. Pathak; D. N. Kamra

    1994-01-01

    Sil, B., Pathak, N. N. and Kamra, D. N. 1994. Effect of different intact proteins on nutrient utilization and growth response of crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) male calves J. Appl. Anim. Res. 5: 153–159.Three sources of intact protein viz., 10% solvent extracted groundnut cake, 12% solvent extracted mustard oil cake and 9% fish meal were used in the

  11. Decreased nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in chronically hypoglycemic late-gestation fetal sheep is due to an intrinsic islet defect.

    PubMed

    Rozance, Paul J; Limesand, Sean W; Hay, William W

    2006-08-01

    We measured in vivo and in vitro nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in late gestation fetal sheep to determine whether an intrinsic islet defect is responsible for decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in response to chronic hypoglycemia. Control fetuses responded to both leucine and lysine infusions with increased arterial plasma insulin concentrations (average increase: 0.13 +/- 0.05 ng/ml leucine; 0.99 +/- 0.26 ng/ml lysine). In vivo lysine-stimulated insulin secretion was decreased by chronic (0.37 +/- 0.18 ng/ml) and acute (0.27 +/- 0.19 ng/ml) hypoglycemia. Leucine did not stimulate insulin secretion following acute hypoglycemia but was preserved with chronic hypoglycemia (0.12 +/- 0.09 ng/ml). Isolated pancreatic islets from chronically hypoglycemic fetuses had normal insulin and DNA content but decreased fractional insulin release when stimulated with glucose, leucine, arginine, or lysine. Isolated islets from control fetuses responded to all nutrients. Therefore, chronic late gestation hypoglycemia causes defective in vitro nutrient-regulated insulin secretion that is at least partly responsible for diminished in vivo GSIS. Chronic hypoglycemia is a feature of human intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and might lead to an islet defect that is responsible for the decreased insulin secretion patterns seen in human IUGR fetuses and low-birth-weight human infants. PMID:16569758

  12. Somatic Cell Banking — An Alternative Technology for the Conservation of Endangered Sheep Breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gupta; S. C. Gupta; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. Sharma; K. Gupta; R. Taneja

    Skin samples from ear pinna of 10 male and 10 female sheep were collected and cultured in DMEM+Ham’s F12 nutrient medium. Cell viability was 95 to 100% in different cultures. Mean cell proliferation rates were 0.94-0.67 and 1.15-0.56 for males and females in different passages, respectively. Cell proliferation rates were highest in first passage and then showed an age-related decline.

  13. Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on maternal endocrine status and placental characteristics.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of dietary selenium and nutrient restriction (level and timing) on serum hormone and metabolite levels and placental characteristics in mid- to late-pregnancy ewes. Pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto...

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Raadsma, Herman W; Thomson, Peter C; Zenger, Kyall R; Cavanagh, Colin; Lam, Mary K; Jonas, Elisabeth; Jones, Marilyn; Attard, Gina; Palmer, David; Nicholas, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific map. This map was employed in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses on body-weight and growth-rate traits between birth and 98 weeks of age. A custom maximum likelihood program was developed to map QTL in half-sib families for non-inbred strains (QTL-MLE) and is freely available on request. The new analysis package offers the advantage of enabling QTL × fixed effect interactions to be included in the model. Fifty-four putative QTL were identified on nine chromosomes. Significant QTL with sex-specific effects (i.e. QTL × sex interaction) in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 SD were found on ovine chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, 23, 24 and 26. PMID:19389264

  15. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

    2014-07-15

    The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

  16. Effect of tree leaves with or without urea as a feed supplement on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghulam Habib; Muzamilla Raza; Mohammad Saleem

    2008-01-01

    Two nitrogen balance experiments in a 4×4 Latin square design were conducted to compare leaves of Grewia oppositifolia and Ziziphus mauritiana containing condensed tannins (CT) 0.08g and 34.7g per kg DM, respectively as supplement on feed intake, nutrients digestibility and nitrogen (N) retention in adult wethers and to examine the benefits of adding urea to Z. mauritiana leaves containing higher

  17. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  18. Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

  19. Prevention of Adriamycin-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male BALB/c mice by a nutrient mixture

    PubMed Central

    ROOMI, M. WAHEED; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; ROOMI, NUSRATH WAHEED; RATH, MATTHIAS; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA

    2014-01-01

    Adriamycin (ADR), an antineoplastic antibiotic used in cancer therapy, is associated with toxicity to vital organs with long-term use. A nutrient mixture (NM) has previously been shown to exhibit a broad spectrum of therapeutic properties. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the NM is useful for preventing ADR-induced hepatic and nephric toxicity. Six-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and C were fed a regular diet for three weeks and groups B and D were fed a diet supplemented with 1% NM. After three weeks, the mice in groups C and D received 20 mg/kg body weight ADR intraperitoneally, while those in groups A and B received saline alone. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h, blood samples were collected and serum was obtained for clinical chemistry. Organs were also excised and weighed. Administration of ADR to group C (control diet) resulted in a marked increase in hepatic alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase levels and renal blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid serum markers. However, in group D (NM 1% diet), the serum markers were comparable with the levels of group A and B. Therefore, the results indicate that NM has the potential to protect against ADR-induced hepatic and nephric damage. PMID:24669274

  20. Incorporating sheep into dryland grain production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Hatfield; H. B. Goosey; T. M. Spezzano; S. L. Blodgett; A. W. Lenssen; R. W. Kott; C. B. Marlow

    2007-01-01

    Changes in soil bulk density and soil nutrient profiles are a major concern of dryland grain producers considering grazing sheep on cereal stubble fields. Our objective was to compare burned, grazed, tilled, trampled and clipped wheat stubble fields on changes in soil bulk density and soil nutrient profiles. Treatments were evaluated in a series of three experiments using a randomized

  1. Supplementation of isonitrogenous oil seed cakes in cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica)–tef straw ( Eragrostis tef) based feeding of Tigray Highland sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amare Degu; Solomon Melaku; Gebreyohannes Berhane

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at Maichew Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training College, Ethiopia. Twenty four male yearling Tigray Highland sheep with mean body weight (BW) of 21±2.6kg (mean±S.D.) were used to investigate the effect of different protein sources on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, BW change and carcass parameters in a study comprising of 90 days feeding trial, followed by

  2. Agronomy Facts 60 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    to produce a crop. More recently, nutrient management also has begun to address ways to minimize the negative 14 Sow and 8 14 Sheep 23 Horse 12 Poultry Layer 37 Pullet 43 20 Nutrient Management Plan Crop Manure not apply the nutrient of greatest environmental concern in excess of the crop needs. Best management

  3. Black Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Darwin

    1880-01-01

    THE following extract of a letter from Mr. Sanderson of Chislehurst, who permits me to publish it, seems worth placing on record. It relates to the former frequent appearance of spotted or black sheep in the Australian flocks, as long as animals thus coloured were of use to man, although they were never, as far as Mr. Sanderson knows, separately

  4. Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Male and Female Mithun Calves on Green Forage-based Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Pal; A. S. Singh; Kezhavituo Vupru; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of growth rate and feed intake and its utilization in male and female Mithun calves was carried out in\\u000a hilly tracts of Nagaland. The animals of both sexes were fed fresh jungle grasses ad libitum and 2.0 kg of rice bran fortified with 1% mineral mixture and 1% salt daily. Growth rates of 369.50 and 305.67 g\\/day

  5. Wether ewe know me or not: the discrimination of individual humans by sheep 1 Spelling of all words in the title is intentional. A wether refers to a male sheep castrated before maturity and a ewe is a female sheep. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hank Davis; Christina Norris; Allison Taylor

    1998-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that animals of various species can discriminate between individual humans. In the present study, 15 experimentally naive sheep were rewarded for making a nosepress response in the presence of one handler (S+) and non-reinforced for this behavior in the presence of a second person (S?). All animals responded significantly more to the S+ handler (P<0.001) during

  6. Karakul Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Lush, Jay L. (Jay Laurence); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Dickson, R. E.

    1930-01-01

    . A., Assistant Chemrst JESSIE WHITACRP Ph D Chief RALPH L. SCHWARTZ, B. S., Assistant Chemist ~$EE $~~~$3~~.~~U2~42 HORTICULTURE: SOIL SURVEY: HAMILTON P. TRAUB, .Ph. D., Chief --- **W T CARTER B S Chie , Hortrculturist E .H.TEMPLIears were 6 to 8 inches from the side of the head. Others had ears about the length of those of a Shropshire . sheep, measuring about 3 to 5 inches from the tips of the ears to the side...

  7. Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports the Hypothesis of Male-Biased

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    of cell divisions involved in sperm compared to egg production. In mammals, this hypoth- esis (referred implies that there may be some correlation with reproductive life span. How- ever, this is difficult hemophilia in humans were generated predomi- nantly in the male germ line (Haldane 1947). Since then it has

  8. EVALUATION OF THE RESPIRATORY ELIMINATION KINETICS OF SELENIUM AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION IN SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the respiratory excretion and elimination kinetics of organic and inorganic selenium after oral administration in sheep 38, 8-12 week-old crossbred sheep (19 males and 19 females)were randomly allocated to one of 10 treatment groups with 4 sheep/group except group 5 which contained 2 she...

  9. Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

  10. Nutrients Differentially Regulate Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In Vitro in Cultured Stomach Ghrelinoma (MGN3-1) Cells and In Vivo in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Haneesha; Ramesh, Naresh; Mortazavi, Sima; Le, Anthony; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Unniappan, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is secreted, meal-responsive anorexigenic peptide encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 [NUCB2]. Circulating nesfatin-1 increases post-prandially, but the dietary components that modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 remain unknown. We hypothesized that carbohydrate, fat and protein differentially regulate tissue specific expression of nesfatin-1. NUCB2, prohormone convertases and nesfatin-1 were detected in mouse stomach ghrelinoma [MGN3-1] cells. NUCB2 mRNA and protein were also detected in mouse liver, and small and large intestines. MGN3-1 cells were treated with glucose, fatty acids or amino acids. Male C57BL/6 mice were chronically fed high fat, high carbohydrate and high protein diets for 17 weeks. Quantitative PCR and nesfatin-1 assays were used to determine nesfatin-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Glucose stimulated NUCB2 mRNA expression in MGN3-1 cells. L-Tryptophan also increased NUCB2 mRNA expression and ghrelin mRNA expression, and nesfatin-1 secretion. Oleic acid inhibited NUCB2 mRNA expression, while ghrelin mRNA expression and secretion was enhanced. NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the liver of mice fed a high protein diet compared to mice fed other diets. Chronic intake of high fat diet caused a significant reduction in NUCB2 mRNA in the stomach, while high protein and high fat diet caused similar suppression of NUCB2 mRNA in the large intestine. No differences in serum nesfatin-1 levels were found in mice at 7 a.m, at the commencement of the light phase. High carbohydrate diet fed mice showed significantly elevated nesfatin-1 levels at 1 p.m. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in mice fed high fat, protein or carbohydrate compared to the controls at 7 p.m, just prior to the dark phase. Mice that received a bolus of high fat had significantly elevated nesfatin-1/NUCB2 at all time points tested post-gavage, compared to control mice and mice fed other diets. Our results for the first time indicate that nesfatin-1 is modulated by nutrients. PMID:25506938

  11. Food aversion conditioned in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Provenza, F D; Lynch, J J; Nolan, J V

    1994-03-01

    We discovered that a food aversion could be conditioned in anesthetized sheep. Sheep were allowed to eat a familiar food (alfalfa-grain pellets) for 30 min, and 90 min later they were given either an intraruminal (IR) injection of water (C), an IR injection of LiCl (L), anesthesia followed by an IR injection of water (A), or anesthesia followed by an IR injection of LiCl (A+L). Induction of anesthesia was by an intravenous injection of pentobarbitone sodium, and maintenance of deep anesthesia was by halothane. Sheep were maintained in deep anesthesia for 2 h to ensure that the effects of LiCl on the acquisition of a food aversion, which occur within about 1 h, were completed before they awakened. When tested 5 days later, sheep that received LiCl (treatments L and A+L) consumed less alfalfa-grain pellets than sheep that did not receive LiCl (treatments C and A) (241 g vs. 306 g; p = 0.057). Intake of sheep that were anesthetized (treatments A and A+L) did not differ from that of sheep that were not anesthetized (treatments C and L) (295 g vs. 252 g; p = 0.183). Nor was there an interaction between LiCl and anesthesia (p = 0.423). Thus, we conclude that changes in preferences for foods caused by postingestive feedback occur automatically every time food is ingested (i.e., they are noncognitive), and the kind and amount of feedback is a function of the match between the food's chemical characteristics and its ability to meet the animal's current demands for nutrients. PMID:8190757

  12. Effect of Vitamin E supplementation on the enzymatic activity of selected markers in Aohan fine-wool sheep testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leyan Yan; Dubing Yue; Hailing Luo; Xiaoxia Jin; Xu Xu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Vitamin E supplementation on the testicular ‘marker’ enzyme activity and Vitamin E content in Aohan fine-wool sheep. Thirty male Aohan fine-wool sheep (5 months of age) with similar body weight were selected from the Aohan fine-wool sheep-breeding farm of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The sheep were randomly

  13. Nutrient Depletion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.

  14. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-10-01

    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P < 0.001) DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake and digestibility. The final BW and daily BW gains were higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented compared to the control treatment. The study also revealed supplementation improved feed conversion efficiency and profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P < 0.001) nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study. PMID:20490664

  15. Foraging behaviour and sexual segregation in bighorn sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHREEN E. RUCKSTUHL

    1998-01-01

    Like many sexually dimorphic ungulates, bighorn sheep,Ovis canadensis, form sexually segregated groups. Nursery groups include females, lambs and subadult males, while adult males form bachelor groups. Previous hypotheses to account for sexual segregation in ungulates have suggested sexual differences in energy requirements, predation risk and social preferences. I tested the hypothesis that differing nutritional demands, due to sexual dimorphism in

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME PARAMPHISTOMES INFECTING SHEEP IN MAIDUGURI, NIGERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Biu; A. Oluwafunmilayo

    The prevalence of paramphislome infection in sheep slaughtered at Maiduguri abattoir, Nigeria was studied. Of the 100 slaughtered sheep examined, 28.0% were infected, with an overall worm burden of 203. Of 39 males, 23.1% were infested with a worn burden of 63, while of the 61 females examined, 31.1% were infested with a worm burden of 140. Also of the

  17. Regulation of sheep ?-TTP by dietary vitamin E and preparation of monoclonal antibody for sheep ?-TTP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Luo, Hai-Ling; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Yan-Fei; Jiao, Li-Juan

    2014-04-25

    ?-Tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) is a cytosolic protein that plays an important role in regulating concentrations of plasma ?-tocopherol (the most bio-active form of vitamin E). Despite the central roles that ?-TTP plays in maintaining vitamin E adequacy, we have only recently proved the existence of the ?-TTP gene in sheep and, for the first time, cloned its full-length cDNA. However, the study of sheep ?-TTP is still in its infancy. In the present study, thirty-five local male lambs of Tan sheep with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into five groups and fed with diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 2000IU·sheep(-1)·d(-1) vitamin E for 120 days. At the end of the experiment, the plasma and liver vitamin E contents were analyzed first and then ?-TTP mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western-blot analysis, respectively. In addition, as no sheep ?-TTP antibody was available, a specific monoclonal antibody (McAb) against the ovine ?-TTP protein was prepared. The effect of vitamin E supplementation was confirmed by the significant changes in the concentrations of vitamin E in the plasma and liver. As shown by qRT-PCR and Western-blot analysis, dietary vitamin E does not affect sheep ?-TTP gene expression, except for high levels of vitamin E supplementation, which significantly increased expression at the protein level. Importantly, the specific sheep anti-?-TTP McAb we generated could provide optimal recognition in ELISA, Western-blot and immunohistochemistry assays, which will be a powerful tool in future studies of the biological functions of sheep ?-TTP. PMID:24583170

  18. VEGETATIVE MANAGEMENT USING CONTROLLED SHEEP GRAZING - THE MONTANA SHEEP INSTITUTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. M Surber; R. W. Kott; J. D. Moore; B. L. Roeder; G. Hewitt; J. Smith; K. Williams

    2006-01-01

    Sheep may provide the most economical and environmentally sound alternative to chemical control of the encroachment of noxious weeds. The Montana Sheep Institute's objective is to develop, implement and evaluate controlled sheep grazing strategies for managing large infestations of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). Suitable sites located throughout Montana were identified, after which a sheep grazing

  19. Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo

    1995-01-01

    A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

  20. Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Tswana goats and sheep breeds in Botswana: continuous traits.

    PubMed

    Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B

    2004-11-01

    The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenous breeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation from two sources on growth, nutrient utilization and immune response in male crossbred cattle ( Bos indicus× Bos taurus) bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Mandal; R. S. Dass; D. P. Isore; A. K. Garg; G. C. Ram

    2007-01-01

    To investigate effects of Zn supplementation on performance, mineral balance and immune response, 15 male crossbred cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) bulls of about 14±0.4 months of age and weighing 226.0±9.1kg were divided in to three groups of five. Bulls in the control group were fed wheat straw and a concentrate mixture (basal diet with 32.5mgZn\\/kg dry matter (DM)), and in

  2. Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep

    E-print Network

    Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1931-01-01

    A & f~l COLLEGE, 'PYAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, I COLLEGE STATION. BRAZO )IRECTC IS COUNT' ETIN NO. 433 C.. . .-, )R Y, TEXAS AUGUST, 1931 Bitterweed Poisoning in Sheep. - *-. " AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... cooperation with U. S. Department nf Agriculture. Bitterweed, Actinea odorata (DC.) Kuntze, has been shown to be poisonous to sheep. This plant grows from Kansas south to Mexico and from central Texas west to California. In Texas it occurs in greatest...

  3. Farm Sheep Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Jones, J. M.; Gray, James A.

    1956-01-01

    without supplemental feed. 5. Sheep production requires adequate, but not elaborate, facilities and equipment. 6. Sheep can aid in weed control. Problems 1. Lack of interest in sheep production can keep a person from being successful. * Respectively... above the mesh. This type of fence will confine all farm animals. Many different types of feed troughs and racks can be used for supplemental feeding of sheep, but a trough that is suitable for both grain and hay is the most practical. A large ewe...

  4. Laparoscopic artificial insemination in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gourley, D D; Riese, R L

    1990-11-01

    The goal of any AI program is to create improved offspring, and the achievement of this objective will depend on the breeding value of the ram and ewe selected. Laparoscopic AI is being utilized in the sheep industry to extend the use of superior rams, and it offers the producer the opportunity to maximize the reproductive potential of superior sheep. Rapid genetic trait infusion of known superior stud rams into the flock is the primary economic benefit of laparoscopic AI. The success of laparoscopic AI depends on events and factors that interrelate in a complex way. Once the selection and preparation of the ewe have been accomplished, one of the more important steps in the program is the successful synchronization of the ewe to deliver the necessary ova to the site of fertilization at a specific time. One of the best methods of synchronization for laparoscopic AI is the use of a progesterone product for a controlled time period and the administration of PMSG upon its removal. Detecting the onset of estrus is critical, and the addition of sterile (e.g., vasectomized) males is helpful, even essential, to accurately determine when each ewe begins her estrus. The ram effect has been shown to stimulate ovulation and estrus. Ewes must be inseminated within a narrow window of time after the synchronization product is removed. Ewes should be inseminated in the order in which they begin to exhibit signs of behavioral estrus, but age, stage of lactation, duration of behavioral estrus, and breed must be taken into account when this order is established. Fresh-extended semen works well throughout this preferred time frame established for laparoscopic AI, but frozen semen gives best results when used near the end. Advancement in manufacturing technology today removes equipment as a variable factor. It is important, therefore, that the inseminator develop a level of expertise in laparoscopy to ensure maximum fertilization rates. If available, fresh-extended semen is preferred over frozen semen, using at least the minimal number of spermatozoa necessary for fertilization. Evaluation of the post-thaw frozen or fresh semen is necessary to determine motility, morphology, and concentration, all of which help determine the volume of the insemination dose. The minimum necessary for laparoscopic AI in fine-wooled breeds is 20 X 10(6) normal motile spermatozoa; however, the more seasonal and less fertile American sheep need approximately 40 to 50 X 10(6) normal motile sperm to achieve acceptable fertility rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2147121

  5. Welfare implications of sheep ear tags.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Johnston, A M

    1999-05-29

    The damaging effects of ear tags used to identify sheep were studied by examining the ears of sheep after slaughter in three different abattoirs and the ears of sheep on a farm. In total, 1040 ears with tags were examined. There were six types of ear tag: metal 'Ketchum' style loop tags; two-piece rigid plastic tags; 'Allflex' style flexible plastic tags with a male and female part; golf tee-shaped plastic ear tags; one-piece rigid plastic loop tags; and one-piece flexible plastic tags with a flap. The metal loop tags and plastic loop tags caused the most lesions, and the majority of the severe lesions. Ear tags placed near to the tip of the ear appeared to cause more damage. Some of the Ketchum style metal tags and two-piece rigid plastic tags appeared to be relatively new, as if recently fitted. These tags were more often associated with ear lesions, particularly moderate or severe lesions. The Allflex style flexible plastic tags caused the fewest problems, and the golf tee-shaped plastic tags also caused significantly fewer problems than the other tags. PMID:10390799

  6. Postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in sheep is influenced by age and sex, but not by prenatal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Green, Lucy R; Aitken, Raymond P

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between impaired fetal nutrient supply and postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function was examined in ovine models of prenatal growth restriction (GR) caused by small placental size (SP) or by maternal undernutrition (UN). Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol responses following corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plus arginine vasopressin (AVP) challenge were examined at 9, 18 and 24 months in growth-restricted (GR-SP) and normal birthweight (control) females (Experiment 1), and at 6 months in growth-restricted (GR-SP, GR-UN) and normal weight males and females (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, GR-SP offspring were born early, were 40% lighter at birth and had higher fractional weight gains to weaning than control offspring. Baseline ACTH and cortisol were independent of GR and cortisol decreased with age. GR did not affect the HPA response to CRH+AVP challenge at any stage, but ACTH increased with age. In Experiment 2, birthweight was greater in control offspring than in GR-UN offspring, which had a higher birthweight again compared with GR-SP offspring. Only the latter group was born early and exhibited rapid catch-up growth to weaning. Neither nutritional route to GR altered HPA function at 6 months. Males grew faster than females and HPA responses after stimulation were lower in males. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that postnatal HPA function in sheep is influenced by age and sex, but not by GR. PMID:21211460

  7. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  8. Sheep Brain Dissection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts; )

    2004-04-30

    A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

  9. Original Contribution BREED, AGE AND GENDER-RELATED PARTICULARITIES OF COMPLEMENT ACTIVITY IN BULGARIAN LOCAL SHEEP BREEDS IN SPRING SEASON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Semerdjiev; L. Sotirov; T. Maslev; A. Bochukov; M. Iliev; G. Gerchev; I. Yankov; T. Hristova

    2009-01-01

    The studies were performed in the spring of 2008 on 66 sheep, 54 rams and 42 female and 42 male lambs. Investigations were carried out on 6 sheep, 6 rams at the age of 2-4 years, 6 female and 6 male lambs at the age of 3-5 months from the following breeds: Karakachan, Tsigay, Replyan, Panagyurishte, Copper-red Shoumen, Karnobat, Pleven

  10. Comparative productivity and grazing behaviour of Huacaya alpacas and Peppin Merino sheep grazed on annual pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A McGregor

    2002-01-01

    Adult Huacaya alpaca (mixed sex, mean±S.D., age 5.2±2.7 years, live weight 72.0±9.5kg) were grazed with Peppin Merino sheep (castrated male, age 3±0.1 years, live weight 54.0±3.9kg) for 2 years on improved annual pasture at commercial grazing pressures (10–17 dry sheep equivalents\\/ha) near Melbourne, Australia. Alpacas and sheep gained weight during the first year and then lost weight (proportional loss: alpacas

  11. The vitamin and mineral status of sheep in West Asia CL White T Treacher F Bahhady

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The vitamin and mineral status of sheep in West Asia CL White T Treacher F Bahhady 'CSIRO Division was to provide quantitative information on the mineral (macro and micro) and vitamin (A, E and B,2) status-nutrients were common and suggest that strategic use of appropriately formulated mineral supplements may

  12. The linkage map of sheep Chromosome 6 compared with orthologous regions in other species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Lord; J. M. Lumsden; K. G. Dodds; H. M. Henry; A. M. Crawford; H. A. Ansari; P. D. Pearce; D. W. Maher; R. T. Stone; S. M. Kappes; C. W. Beattie; G. W. Montgomery

    1996-01-01

    The genetic linkage map of sheep Chromosome (Chr) 6 has been extended to include 35 loci with the addition of 11 RFLP and\\u000a 12 microsatellite loci. The sex-averaged linkage map now spans 154 cM from phosphodiesterase cyclic GMP beta polypeptide (PDE6B) to OarCP125, an anonymous sheep microsatellite. The male and female map lengths, at 180 cM and 132 cM respectively,

  13. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

  14. Nutrient Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

  15. 2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm 33068 Teegarden Road Lisbon, OH 44432 SATURDAY, JULY 16, 2011 9 A.M. - 3:30 P.M. All programs will be repeated twice during the day: · Rebuilding the Ohio Sheep EQUIP funding. · Lamb carcass evaluation. Sponsors Ohio Sheep Improvement Association Ohio Sheep

  16. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Hrabok; A. Oksanen; M. Nieminen; A. Rydzik; A. Uggla; P. J. Waller

    2006-01-01

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin

  17. Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F

    2009-02-01

    Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

  18. Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

  19. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n?3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n?6) into n?3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=?925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n?3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n?6/n?3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  20. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    POISONING IN SHEEP A trouble occurring among sheep on numerous ranches in the Edwards plateau region of Texas characterized clinically by generalized icterus, hemoglobinuria and hematuria, inappetence, and extreme weakness, was found to be chronic copper... liver; enlarged, very dark brown to black kidneys; a swollen, "blackberry jam" spleen; generalized icterus; poorly- collapsed, doughy lungs, and a pale flaccid heart. As a matter of fact the condition is really a cumulative poisoning since...

  1. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01

    LIBRARY, - A & M COLLEGE, CAiQFUS. E-109-8M-L180 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION: BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 499 DECEMBER, 1934 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE CHRONIC COPPER POISONING... of copper sulphate caused chronic copper poisoning among flocks of range sheep on several West Texas ranches during the past year. The salt licks were placed before the sheep as a means of preventing or controlling stomach worm infestation despite a...

  2. A vero cell derived combined vaccine against sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants for sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Chaudhary; K. D. Pandey; R. P. Singh; P. C. Verma; P. K. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    The combined sheep pox and Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine was prepared in lyophilized form containing recommended doses of both vaccine viruses. Safety and immunogenicity of this combined vaccine was evaluated in sheep. Sheep immunized subcutaneously with 1ml of live attenuated vaccine consisting of 103TCID50 each of sheep pox virus (SPV) Romanian Fanar (RF) strain and Peste des Petits

  3. Seasonal changes in one seed juniper intake by sheep and goats in relation to dietary protein and plant secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal variation in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) can influence voluntary intake levels of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) of sheep and goats. Supplemental nutrients could mitigate the deterrent effects of juniper PSM. We determined the concentration of mono-and sesqui- t...

  4. Sheep and goat grazing as a tool to manage encroachment of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Engelm. Sarg.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of using prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper re-invasion could be improved by providing adequate nutrients to help animals detoxify plant terpenes. We analyzed the terpenoid chemistry of one-seed juniper leaves and conducted feeding trials with 12 Ramboull...

  5. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  6. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S A; Kumar, N S; St Hilaire, R J; Nutting, D F; Mansbach, C M

    2000-03-01

    Some key advances occurred last year in understanding mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption. A novel "prechylomicron transport vesicle" was identified; its movement to the Golgi is the rate-limiting step for triacylglycerol absorption. A scavenger receptor (type BI) in the brush border membrane appears to facilitate cholesterol uptake. Several studies define mechanisms for gastrointestinal peptide hormone stimulation of glucose uptake. An oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, is transcriptionally upregulated by certain dietary amino acids and dipeptides. Surprisingly, both insulin and fasting double the maximum velocity for dipeptide uptake (via PepT1), but they act by different mechanisms. Three transporters, SMVT (sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter for biotin and pantothenate), SVCT (for vitamin C), and CaT1 (for Ca uptake from the lumen) have been cloned and are active when expressed in various cells. Additional studies provide insights on Ca absorption and vitamin D action in aging, estrogen deficiency, and adaptation to a low Ca diet. Nramp2, also called DMT1 (divalent metal ion transporter), seems to be a major regulator of transferrin-independent, nonheme iron uptake. Finally, the protein HFE associates with the transferrin receptor and is part of an iron-sensing mechanism that regulates iron absorption. It is defective in hereditary hemochromatosis. HFE and Nramp2 (DMT1) genes are reciprocally regulated. PMID:17024033

  7. Photoperiodic and melatonin treatments for the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep and goats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    breeding season by allowing males to reach their maximum testis volume and sperm production earlier than production when applied soon after kidding. So, total control of reproduction in sheep and goats the inductive effect of SD at the end of winter and to prevent refractoriness to photoperiodic stimulation

  8. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  9. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  10. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  11. First Report of Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Tibetan Sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Tan, Qi-Dong; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-07-01

    Query (Q) fever is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii. Animals, including dogs, cats, cattle, and sheep, can be infected by C. burnetii. However, little information is available about C. burnetii infection in Tibetan sheep in China. Antibodies against C. burnetii in Tibetan sheep serums, which were collected from Maqu County, Tianzhu County and Nyingchi Prefecture, China, between 2011 and 2013, were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 14.39% (304/2112, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.90-15.89) of the examined Tibetan sheep were positive for C. burnetii infection. The C. burnetii seroprevalence in male and female Tibetan sheep was 12.94% (95% CI 10.26-15.61) and 14.98% (95% CI 13.18-16.78), respectively. The seroprevalence varied from 13.19% (95% CI 10.08-16.30) to 14.96% (95% CI 12.31-17.62) in Tibetan sheep in different areas. In addition, the seroprevalence ranged from 13.16% (95% CI 9.83-16.50) to 15.10% (95% CI 13.15-17.04) in different age groups. The results of the present survey indicate that C. burnetii infection is highly prevalent in Tibetan sheep in China. This is the first report of C. burnetii infection in Tibetan sheep in China, extending the host range for C. burnetii. Further studies are warranted to understand better the epidemiological situation of C. burnetii transmission in these areas and elsewhere. PMID:26186513

  12. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  13. Regional control of sheep scab in UK flocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Sargison; David Taylor; Kath Dun

    2006-01-01

    BEFORE the deregulation of sheep scab control measures (Sheep Scab [National Dip] Order 1990) in July 1992, the combination of summer and autumn plunge dipping of all sheep for one minute in propetamphos, diazinon or flumethrin solutions, the licensing of markets, and the statutory restriction of movement of sheep out of infected areas maintained the annual incidence of sheep scab

  14. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  15. The marketing of Texas sheep

    E-print Network

    Wootan, Charley V

    1951-01-01

    ~ the dietanoe to aaxket~ the 4eaaayortatioa araD- ahle ~ the plobable ehTibkagey oFfpJLUJI+y aad death leeaeeg aad the ~ au ~~. X ~~, h ~h ax~a ~~eofth? aarketiag ~ 19 garhotisg Sheep Throogh Losel Chauu6s ProbIAQJ tho easiest vs(f for tho ~ - esd ospoe...

  16. Towards whole sheep ovary cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Baudot; B. Courbiere; V. Odagescu; B. Salle; C. Mazoyer; J. Massardier; J. Lornage

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue aims to assist young women who require treatments that may lead to sterility or infertility. Cryopreservation procedures should therefore be as simple and efficient as possible. This study investigates rapid cooling outcomes for whole sheep ovaries. Ovaries were perfused with VS4 via the ovarian artery, and cooled by quenching in liquid nitrogen in less than a

  17. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this...

  18. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113...and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this...

  19. Spontaneous acute poisoning by Crotalaria retusa in sheep and biological control of this plant with sheep.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Dantas, A F M; Medeiros, R M T

    2011-11-01

    After the diagnosis of acute Crotalaria retusa poisoning, 21 healthy sheep from the affected flock were returned to the paddock and continued to consume the sprouting plants. Two years after returning these sheep to the paddock, very few plants were still alive, and after 3 years, no C. retusa plants were observed. The sheep had neither clinical signs nor biochemical alterations and delivered healthy lambs. It is concluded that resistant sheep can be used for the biological control of C. retusa. PMID:21930140

  20. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  1. Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.

    PubMed

    Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M

    1980-08-15

    The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis. PMID:6108949

  2. Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Castro, Márcio Botelho de

    2014-06-01

    Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n?=?12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P?sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures. The saponin (protodioscin) concentrations in the pastures varied from 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg DM in B. decumbens, from 2.8 to 9.1 g/kg DM in B. brizantha, and from 1 to 1.5 g/kg DM in A. gayanus. No saponins were found in P. maximum. It is concluded that sheep from flocks reared in pastures of B. decumbens and B. brizantha were resistant to steroidal saponin poisoning and showed similar weight gains to those of sheep grazing in other tropical pastures. PMID:24557590

  3. Forage-based feeding of hair sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Wildeus

    Interest in hair sheep production in the U.S. has been increasing with a decline on return for wool, an increased acceptance of smaller carcasses in non-traditional markets, and a shift towards forage-based production (Notter, 2000). Hair sheep are generally smaller in size and have lower growth rates than more traditional wool sheep, but are reputed to be more tolerant to

  4. Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1937-01-01

    green bitterweed for healthy sheep, both during a normal year and during a drouth year, demonstrate the toxicity of the weed for sheep on fattening, maintenance, and less-than-maintenance rations. The poisoning is shown to be cumulative in type... that such animals were susceptible to bitterweed poisoning and that their state of nutrition had no appreciable effect on their susceptibility or resistance to the poisoning. Similar tests conducted on sheep receiving a less-than- maintenance ration and known...

  5. Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

    1988-05-01

    Controlled trials were used to assess the efficacy of various anthelmintics against immature and adult paramphistomes in 75 experimentally or naturally infected sheep. Albendazole (20 mg/kg), praziquantel (10 mg/kg), nitroxynil (10 mg/kg) triclabendazole (10 and 100 mg/kg), profenophos (25 mg/kg) and netobimin (15 mg/kg) had little or no activity against adult or immature fluke. Niclosamide at 100 mg/kg had high efficacy (99%) against intestinal fluke but none against adult fluke. A 2- tertiary-butyl benzthiazole compound (CGA 72630) at 25 mg/kg and resorantel at 65 mg/kg had very high efficacy against both adult and immature fluke in the rumen and small intestine respectively. The efficacy of other anthelmintics which have been used against paramphistomes in sheep is reviewed. PMID:3401161

  6. QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

    2012-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep. PMID:21847139

  7. NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

  8. Male mating history and female fecundity in the Lepidoptera: do male virgins make better partners?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis M. Torres-Vila; Michael D. Jennions

    2005-01-01

    In insects, large ejaculate and associated materials, including spermatophores, appear to have evolved via sexual selection acting on males to either delay female remating or to increase the rate of egg-laying. It is also possible, however, that females use nutrients transferred during mating to increase their lifetime fecundity. If so, male ejaculate size may also have evolved under natural selection

  9. LOW-QUALITY ROUGHAGES IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE PELLETED DIETS FOR SHEEP:DIGESTION AND METABOLISM OF NITROGEN AND ENERGY AS AFFECTED BY DIETARY FIBER CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Kinser; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger; N. R. Merchen

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate effects of, and interactions between, level and source of fiber in the diet on ruminal environment, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-fistulated sheep (trial 1 ; 4  4 Latin square design) and on ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (trial 2; randomized

  10. Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883

  11. Condoms - male

    MedlinePLUS

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive-condom; Contraception-condom; Barrier method-condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  12. Male hypogonadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea M. Isidori; Elisa Giannetta; Andrea Lenzi

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads\\u000a throughout all phases of life. Male hypogonadism is defined an inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiency in\\u000a gametogenesis and\\/or secretion of gonadal hormones. In most cases, male hypogonadism is diagnosed through detailed history,\\u000a physical examination and a few basic hormonal evaluations. In selected cases, however,

  13. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  14. Acute intoxication by Crotalaria retusa in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. T. Nobre; A. F. M. Dantas; F. Riet-Correa; J. M. Barbosa Filho; I. M. Tabosa; J. S. Vasconcelos

    2005-01-01

    Acute intoxication by seeding Crotalaria retusa occurred during the dry season, in a flock of 80 sheep, in the semi-arid region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Anorexia, severe depression, mild jaundice, incoordination and recumbence were observed in 16 sheep that died within 12h. At necropsy the liver had a nutmeg appearance. Seeds of C. retusa were found in

  15. MUCUNA BEAN (Mucuna spp.) SUPPLEMENTATION OF GROWING SHEEP FED WITH A BASAL DIET OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

  16. Effects of protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 days of age on their subsequent growth, blood constituents, and carcass compositions.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W

    2014-06-01

    The effects of protein source and amino acid (AA) and AME levels in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age on subsequent growth and blood and carcass traits were investigated in the current study. Fourteen Ross × Ross 708 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to each of 80 floor pens arranged in a randomized complete block design. Each diet contained 1 of 2 dietary protein sources (high inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles or high inclusion of meat and bone meal), 1 of 2 AA densities (moderate or 10% higher), and 1 of 2 AME densities (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg). Experimental diets were fed from 8 to 21 d of age, and common diets from 1 to 7 and 21 to 55 d of age. The higher AME density in high inclusion of meat and bone meal diets increased serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels on d 20. The dietary inclusion of high inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles or lower levels of AA increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on d 20. Feeding the high-AA-density diet decreased feed intake without affecting BW gain, which resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). A high-AME-density diet lowered feed intake but increased BW gain, which resulted in a lower FCR from 8 to 21 d of age. Feed intake, BW gain, FCR from 21 to 54 d of age, and carcass weight on 42 and 55 d of age were not affected by treatments from 8 to 21 d of age. However, early dietary manipulation from 8 to 21 d of age affected fat and meat yield at 42 and 55 d of age. Moreover, a high-AME diet decreased feed cost per carcass weight gain from 8 to 55 d of age. In conclusion, high AA or AME densities during the grower phase, from d 8 to 21 of age, may improve growth during the grower feeding phase, but may also affect meat yield during the latter grow-out phases. Furthermore, high-AME diets from 8 to 21 d of age may save on feed costs for meat production. PMID:24879696

  17. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of S esbania sesban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibebu Manaye; Adugna Tolera; Tessema Zewdu

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole Napier grass (control) and four Napier grass-Sesbania mixtures consisting of 100, 200, 300, and 400 g\\/kg of

  18. Estimating nutrient surplus and nutrient use efficiency from farm characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. A. Langeveld; G. B. Overbosch

    1995-01-01

    Research on nutrient losses from agricultural systems should try to relate these losses to farm characteristics. This was done for private farms in two districts in Poland. Using data from a farm survey, nutrient surpluses and Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of outgoing and incoming nutrients) were calculated for nitrogen and phosphorus. Both nutrient surplus and NUE

  19. Photoperiod Influences the Central Effects of Ghrelin on Food Intake, GH and LH Secretion in Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne L. Harrison; David W. Miller; Patricia A. Findlay; Clare L. Adam

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating peptide, primarily secreted by the gut, that has reported actions within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to stimulate food intake, inhibit GnRH\\/LH secretion and stimulate GH secretion in monogastric species. Here, we examine responses to centrally administered ghrelin in a seasonal ruminant. Estradiol-implanted castrated male sheep with indwelling intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae were kept with unrestricted food for 16

  20. Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Green, Lucy R.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm2, P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm2, P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

  1. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  2. NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN CROP PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Fageria

    2001-01-01

    Balanced supply of of essential nutrients is one of the most important factors in increasing crop yields. The objective of this review is to discuss interactions among major and minor nutrients in crop plants. In crop plants, the nutrient interactions are generaly measured in terms of growth response and change in concentration of nutrients. Upon addition of two nutrients, a

  3. Pigment types in sheep, goats, and llamas.

    PubMed

    Sponenberg, D P; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Eng, L A

    1988-01-01

    Pigment types in various colors of fiber from sheep, goats, and llamas were assayed by a method using high performance liquid chromatography. In these three species the black/gray group is due to eumelanin, which is fully intense in all three species. Red phenotypes are due to pheomelanin and fade considerably with age in fiber from sheep and goats, but not in llamas. This phenomenon has implications on the genetic mechanisms used in generating white fiber. Brown phenotypes in sheep are due to eumelanin, in goats these phenotypes are equivocal, and they were not observed in llamas. PMID:3237610

  4. Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor. PMID:25040769

  5. Computer modeling of sheep reproduction: II. Accelerated reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Dzakuma, J M; Harris, D L

    1989-09-01

    A computer simulation program was written in SLAM (Simulation Language for Alternative Modeling) to simulate certain biological aspects involved in alternative systems of reproduction in sheep. Four fundamental lambing schemes, once a year, three times in 2 yr, twice a year and continuous schemes, along with modifications of these schemes, are simulated. Parameters of greatest effect in this simulation were the average spread of the estrous season (SA), the measure of asymmetry (SD) and the maximum proportion of ewes exhibiting estrus (MX). It was demonstrated that the greater the SA values (longer estrous seasons and shorter anestrous seasons), the more advantageous it was to breed frequently. The SD and MX parameters influenced to a lesser degree the lambing results obtained from these simulations. The relative merits of certain breeds and locations for out-of-season breeding were studied and evaluated for annual and seasonal fertility. PMID:2599971

  6. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  7. Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma) in Sheep and Goats. 

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, H.; Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1932-01-01

    CONTAGIOUS ECTHYMA) IN.-: SHEEP AND GOATS A AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President STATION STAFF? Administration : Veterinary Science : A. B. Conner. M. S., ulrec~or *M. Francis. D. V. M..... Dairy Husbandry -- - *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of April 1, 1932. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma) in sheep and goats is an infectious disease and occurs especially in young animals...

  8. Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

    Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

  9. Selecting Sheep for Wool and Mutton Production. 

    E-print Network

    Gray, James A.

    1965-01-01

    , proper stock- FLOCK OF SHEEP BY : ing rates, supplemental feeding and syste- matic treatment. I I. Balance livestock numbers with land, facil- I ities, available feed and labor. 7. Practice proper preparation of wool for market. 2. Follo... Results I Seleetiu A group of 75 ranchmen with sheep producing wool of similar quality were Lsed to deter. the value of selection. Twenty-eight of these ranchmen practiced selection while 47 did not. Tb practicing selection received 7...

  10. The effect of male sodium diet and mating history on female reproduction in the puddling squinting bush brown Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freerk Molleman; Bas J. Zwaan; Paul M. Brakefield

    2004-01-01

    The males of butterflies transfer a spermatophore to the female during mating that can contain nutrients enhancing the reproductive potential of their partners. The nutrients transferred by males can be derived from both larval and adult feeding. These nutrients may be depleted by multiple matings. An apparent difference in adult feeding behaviour between the sexes is puddling on mud, dung

  11. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions

    E-print Network

    Bequette, Brian J.

    The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions intermediates were analyzed by GC-MS followed by 13 C-mass isotopomer distribution analysis. Glucose metabolism

  12. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep.

    PubMed

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  13. Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

  14. Ontogeny of steroidogenesis in the fetal sheep gonad.

    PubMed

    Quirke, L D; Juengel, J L; Tisdall, D J; Lun, S; Heath, D A; McNatty, K P

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 1) the time of onset and cellular localization of gene expression for steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5),Delta(4) isomerase (3beta-HSD), and the cytochrome P450 enzymes for cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)), 17alpha-hydroxylase (P450(17alphaOH)), and aromatase (P450(arom)) during gonadal development; and 2) the amount of progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol present in the fetal sheep gonad. Fetuses were collected on Days 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 35, 40, 55, and 75 of gestation, and gene expression was determined by in situ hybridization. The steroid content of gonads collected on Days 30, 35, 55, and 75 of gestation was determined by RIA. Developing gonads collected from both male and female fetuses were steroidogenically active around the time of morphological sexual differentiation. In the female, the steroidogenic cells were initially located at the boundary of the cortex and medulla but become increasingly restricted to the mesonephric-derived cell streams. In the male, once tubules were identifiable, steroidogenesis was restricted to the interstitial regions. Interestingly, expression of both SF-1 and 3beta-HSD was observed prior to morphological sexual differentiation. In addition, expression of both of these genes was more widespread than the other genes in both males and females. PMID:11420243

  15. An attempt to vaccinate sheep against Fasciola hepatica using a juvenile fluke antigen sheep antibody complex.

    PubMed

    Sandeman, R M; Howell, M J; Campbell, N J

    1980-09-01

    Sheep were injected intramuscularly with a mixture of Freund's complete adjuvant and a precipitated fluke antigen-antibody complex isolated from in vitro cultures of excysted metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica in serum from infected sheep. Control groups of sheep were given Freund's complete adjuvant or were untreated. All sheep were then challenged with 200 metacercariae of F hepatica. Assays of antibody and liver enzymes in serum collected during the experiment indicated that although vaccination with the complex resulted in a pronounced antibody response to its antigenic component(s), there was no apparent effect on the migratory activity of the juvenile flukes in these animals. Failure to confer protection on vaccinated sheep was confirmed at autopsy when no significant difference was found between the worm burden of these animals and the controls. PMID:6110229

  16. Food Groups and Nutrients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Perry

    2007-11-08

    State core objective: 3rd grade Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

  17. Program Areas Nutrient Management

    E-print Network

    Program Areas Nutrient Management Animal Waste Management Irrigation Water Management Drinking on streamside vegetation and stormwater management (www.caes.uga.edu/extension/water Water and Rural Urban Interface Education Water Policy and Economics Watershed Education

  18. Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. nematode / parasite / sheep / Syria / epidemiology Résumé ― Infestations des Ovins Awassi adultes par les nématodes parasites : distribution parmi

  19. 75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is affirming...establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...consistent with the Food, Conservation,...

  20. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in...

  1. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in...

  2. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Lovari, S; Fattorini, N; Boesi, R; Bocci, A

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso-genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats. PMID:26105047

  3. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  4. SITE AND EXENT OF DIGESTION, DUODENAL FLOW, AND INTESTINAL DISAPPEARANCE OF TOTAL AND ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS IN SHEEP FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...

  5. Effect of different levels of cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain in tef ( Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tikabo Gebremariam; Solomon Melaku; Alemu Yami

    2006-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, diet apparent digestibility and live weight gain in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep. A randomized complete block design was used to assign 24 male Highland sheep with initial live weight of 17.0±3.9kg (mean±S.D.) in six replications to one of

  6. Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

  7. Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep R Cordesse M Inesta, JL Gaubert ENSA of llamas to ingest and digest forages. We measured these capacities on 4 forages in comparison with sheep. The digestibility was measured by total col- lection of feces on the last 10 days of each period. Sheep had

  8. Acquired resistance of merino sheep against Fasciola gigantica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Roberts; S. Widjayanti; E. Estuningsih

    1996-01-01

    Merino sheep acquired resistance against Fasciola gigantica, which is contrary to previous observations of infections with F. hepatica in that breed. The acquired resistance was manifest against young adult parasites. St. Croix sheep had previously been shown\\u000a to have more resistance than European sheep against F. hepatica after primary infection; however, in F. gigantica infections in the present study there

  9. Responses of Fasciola hepatica infected sheep to various infection levels

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Short note Responses of Fasciola hepatica infected sheep to various infection levels Alain CHAUVINa 12 September 2000) Abstract ­ The response to Fasciola hepatica was studied in sheep infected with 5. The immune response was similar in sheep infected with various numbers of flukes. Fasciola hepatica

  10. Genome edited sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

  11. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

  12. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  13. Feed intake, sperm output and seminal characteristics of Ethiopian highland sheep supplemented with different levels of leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala) leaf hay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Negussie Dana; Azage Tegegne; Teshome Shenkoru

    2000-01-01

    The effect of feeding increasing levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf hay on the potential fertility and feed intake of male highland sheep maintained on roughage diet was studied. In treatment 1 (NS), animals received only chickpea haulm. Treatments 2 (L100), 3 (L200) and 4 (L300) consisted of 100, 200 and 300g per head per day of sun dried leucaena leaf

  14. Age-related Horn Growth, Mating Tactics, and Vulnerability to Harvest: Why Horn Curl Limits may Select for Small Horns in Bighorn Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; Québec Sherbrooke; DAVID COLTMAN; JOHN T. HOGG; JON JORGENSON

    Male bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) complete about 80% of horn growth by age 5, yet horn size appears to play little or no role in their mating success until they are 6-8 yr old. Only the most dominant rams, typically 8 yr and older, can tend estrous ewes. Subordinate rams use alternative mating tactics whose success appears independent of their

  15. Genetic analyses and quantitative trait loci detection, using a partial genome scan, for intramuscular fatty acid composition in Scottish Blackface sheep1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Karamichou; R. I. Richardson; G. R. Nute; K. P. Gibson; S. C. Bishop

    2010-01-01

    Genetic parameters for LM fatty acid composition were estimated in Scottish Blackface sheep, previously divergently selected for carcass lean content (LEAN and FAT lines). Furthermore, QTL were identified for the same fatty acids. Fatty acid pheno- typic measurements were made on 350 male lambs, at approximately 8 mo of age, and 300 of these lambs were genotyped across candidate regions

  16. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bøtner, Anette; Ponsart, Claire; Zientara, Stéphan; Lohse, Louise; Pozzi, Nathalie; Viarouge, Cyril; Sarradin, Pierre; Leroux-Barc, Céline; Riou, Mickael; Laloy, Eve; Breithaupt, Angele; Beer, Martin

    2013-10-25

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited. In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures. Various experimental set-ups were used. Sampling included blood collection at different time points during the experimental period and selected organ material at autopsy. Data from this study showed, that the RNAemic period in sheep was as short as reported for cattle; viral genome was detectable for about 3-5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed diarrhoea for several days, but fever was not recorded in any of the animals. Antibodies were first detectable 10-14 days post inoculation. Viral RNA was detectable in spleen and lymph nodes up to day 44 post inoculation. In conclusion, as described for cattle, SBV-infection in adult sheep predominantly results in subclinical infection, transient RNAemia and a specific antibody response. Maintenance of viral RNA in the lymphoreticular system is observed for an extended period. PMID:23972950

  17. Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.

  18. Reproductive Efficiency of Fine-Wool Sheep

    E-print Network

    Shelton, Maurice; Morrow, John T.; Butler, O. D.

    1966-01-01

    been collected at College Station, McGregor and Sonora. Most data on improved breeds of sheep show some drop in semen quality during the summer, but the degree of this effect ----- SONOILA - COLLEGE STA'SION SEASON OF YEAR Figure 4. Influence... satisfactory for out-of-season Fig~~re 10. Selecting for more open-fncecl sheep i.i onr means of selecti~~g for increased fertility. 12 laml~ production. This is not a direct effect of face cover- In!, but is probably the result of genes from nonfine...

  19. Male-induced estrus synchronization in the female Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus sungorus)

    E-print Network

    Carr, Leslie

    , in that intact male mice are capable of advancing the onset of puberty in juvenile female mice, whereas castrated described in goats [3,21], sheep [12], prairie voles [1,4,16,27], the short-tailed opossum [8], and humans

  20. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  1. Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2005-09-01

    Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

  2. Study on the optimal level of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica) supplementation to sheep and its contribution as source of water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firew Tegegne; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters

    2007-01-01

    A 90-day experiment using a randomised complete block design with eight sheep per treatment was conducted to determine the optimum cactus pear supplementation level and its contribution as source of water. Cactus pear replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pasture hay (C0, C20, C40, C60 and C80, respectively), on dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM, nutrients and water

  3. Effects of Psoroptes ovis infection and its control with an ivermectin controlled-release capsule on growing sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Rehbein; D Barth; M Visser; R Winter; L. G Cramer; W. K Langholff

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule (IVM-CRC) on the productivity of growing sheep infested with Psoroptes ovis 24 male and 24 female Merino landrace lambs, 5–6 months old and weighing 21.2–35.0kg, were used. Sixteen replicates of three animals were formed based on sex and Day 0 body weight. Within each replicate animals were randomly

  4. Chemical Composition and Meat Quality Attributes of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and chemically analysed. Meat quality attributes were measured based on Muscle longissimus thoracis et lumborum excised from right sides of carcasses. Goat carcasses had significant higher (p = 0.0302) moisture content (70.65% vs 66.96%) and lower (p = 0.0027) ether extract (2.49% vs 5.82%) than sheep but there was no significant species differences in protein and ash content. Sheep had lower (p = 0.0157) ultimate pH (5.74 vs 5.88) and higher (p = 0.0307) temperature (3.77°C vs 3.15°C) than goat carcasses. Sheep meat had lower (p = 0.0021) shear force values (29.83 N vs 34.07 N) than goat. Within species, at day 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 44.63% and 34.18% for sheep and goat. Pooled data showed that at d 9 of ageing, meat tenderness improved (p = 0.0001) by 39.25% (from 39.54 N to 24.02 N) compared to tenderness of meat which was not aged at day one of slaughter. The present study demonstrated the differences in chemical composition and quality attributes of meat existing between sheep and goats originated from East Africa. PMID:25049790

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois

    PubMed Central

    Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations. PMID:24690757

  6. Differential Gene Expression in Ovaries of Qira Black Sheep and Hetian Sheep Using RNA-Seq Technique

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  7. Urban nUtrient Urban nUtrient

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Urban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook #12;#12;Urban nUtrient ManageMent Handbook Content Coordinators of the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. May 2011 #12;#12;Urban Nutrient Management Handbook I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 Chapter 3. Managing Urban Soils What Is an Urban Soil

  8. Nutrient Profile of Hypothermics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Braverman; B. Ivovich

    Three abnormal, young female hypotherms with mental retardation had basal temperatures of 88 degrees. Endocrinological evaluations were all negative. An evaluation of nutritional factors was undertaken. No significant changes were found in serum zinc, copper, iron and histamine. Twenty-three nutrients measured in hair showed significant elevations in strontium and sulfur. Analysis of plasma amino acids showed decreases in leucine, isoleucine,

  9. Ocean nutrient enhancer \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Masuda; Masayuki Yonezawa; Masao Morikawa

    2004-01-01

    The ocean nutrient enhancer (ONE) is composed of a spar type floating structure from which is suspended a 175 m long compliant steel riser. The ONE was installed at the center of Sagami-Bay in May 2003 for the purpose of discharging density controlled water, which is adjusted by mixing the up-welled deep ocean water (DOW) and surface water, into the

  10. Nutrition: What are Nutrients?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

  11. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  12. Nutrient Criteria Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

  13. Flumethrin: a non-stripping pyrethroid dip for the control of sheep scab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AC Kirkwood; PG Bates

    1987-01-01

    Flumethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, used in the laboratory as a sheep dip (Bayticol) at a concentration of 55 ppm, eradicated sheep scab from 30 infested sheep and provided protection against infestation for at least seven weeks. Similar results with at least five weeks protection were obtained on monitor sheep dipped under field conditions with flocks of 525 and 870 sheep.

  14. AGRICULTURAL -NUTRIENT PATiIWAYS

    E-print Network

    Slough Watershed. Minimum November Levels. 18 Figure 4 Nitrate for the Clayburn Creek - Matsqui Slough Watershed. Autumn Levels. 19 Figure 5 Nutrient Pathways. 20 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Nutrients Excreted

  15. CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting

    E-print Network

    or "themes": · Animal Waste Management · Drinking Water and Human Health · Environmental Restoration · Nutrient and Pesticide Management · Pollution Prevention · Watershed Management · Water Quantity and PolicyWelcome CSREES Nutrient Management Working Meeting May 4 and 5, 2004 Atlanta, GA #12;University

  16. Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Kalinowski, Steven T

    Inbreeding depression in captive bighorn sheep INTRODUCTION Inbreeding depression has been found been designed so that the reduction of fitness resulting from inbreeding depression can be avoided, no inbreeding depression has been detected (Kalinowski, Hedrick & Miller, 1999). It is not clear how often low

  17. Original article Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Debre Birhan, Ethiopia 2 Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands 3 Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Animal Sciences GroupOriginal article Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed

  18. Eight Pedagogical Preambles on Dolly the Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Jardine

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the assumptions underlying a commonplace school activity based on the mandated science curriculum: exploring the difference between natural and human made structures. Following a student's desire to use Dolly the Sheep as his example, a great array of contemporary and classical connections are explored.

  19. Salivary prions in sheep and deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a prion disease transmitted naturally within affected host populations of sheep and goats. Although milk and placenta have been identified as sources of contagion for scrapie prions, these sources seem insufficient to explain either indirect or interspecies scrapie transmission. Here we s...

  20. [Space required for sheep during transport].

    PubMed

    Buchenauer, D

    1997-04-01

    Space required for different body, positions was investigated for sheep of different weight and genetic background in undisturbed housing conditions. Body temperature, as stress indicator, was measured at different intervals during transport. The loading situation caused a distinct increase; a slight increase was measured after unloading. During transport, the values did not reach those taken before loading. Concerning the space required for resting, the present results indicate that sheep (weighing between 32 and 35 kg) being transported with a space allowance of 0.16, 0.26, 0.27, 0.42 and 0.45 m2/animal showed an appreciable amount of resting behaviour only at lower densities, i.e. with space allowance of more than 0.40 m2. The recommended space allowance by the EU of 0.21 to 0.23 m2 for sheep of this weight group has to be considered as too low to permit effective resting behaviour. The problem of supplying sheep with water and feed during transport has not yet been solved. The question is not only how much space the animals need for feeding but also a matter of the technical equipment for supplying feed and water so that all animals are able to reach it. PMID:9190317

  1. LYNX DEPREDATION ON DOMESTIC SHEEP IN NORWAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN ODDEN

    We studied depredation rates on free-ranging domestic sheep (Ovis arie s) by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lyn x) i n 2 areas in Norway to test whether selected individuals or a demographic group within a lynx population kill a di s - proportionate share of livestock. During 6 grazing seasons from 199 4 to 199 9 , we monitored 3 4

  2. Myiasis in sheep in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Snoep, J J; Sol, J; Sampimon, O C; Roeters, N; Elbers, A R W; Scholten, H W; Borgsteede, F H M

    2002-07-01

    In 1999, among 164 randomly selected Dutch sheep farmers, a questionnaire was carried out to estimate the prevalence of myiasis in sheep and to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of myiasis. The total number of sheep and/or lambs on the reference date 1 August 1999 was 12,200: 5243 ewes, 225 rams, 3393 ewe- and 3339 ram lambs. On 86 (52.4%) of the farms 349 (2.9%) of all sheep and/or lambs contracted myiasis, of which two died. Myiasis was seen significantly more frequently on farms with over 25 ewes compared to smaller farms. Cases of myiasis were detected from April to September, with a peak (47.1%) in August. Occurrence of myiasis was most frequently associated with hot and humid weather and was mainly observed (69.1%) in the area around the tail.Ewes and ewe lambs had significantly more myiasis when compared with rams and ram lambs. There was no relationship with tail docking, with breed, with the time of shearing, with the kind of soil (clay, sand, etc.), with the environment (bush, trees, water, etc.), with the type of treatment (pour on, dipping, spraying), the used insecticides (synthetic pyrethroïds, diazinon, cyromazin, etc.), the number of preventive treatments, the time of treatment or the number of observations on the herd (once a day, once a week, etc.). PMID:12079741

  3. All we like sheep: Cloning as an

    E-print Network

    Godfrey, Michael W.

    for classes / functions ICSM-07: Myths in Sw Eng 8 Cloning is bad? · Whoops! · How did that happen? · Have weAll we like sheep: Cloning as an engineering tool Michael W. Godfrey University of Waterloo ICSM-07: Myths in Sw Eng 2 Quotes on source code cloning "Q: You want to stop developers cutting and pasting code

  4. Salivary prions in sheep and deer.

    PubMed

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Richt, Jürgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-01-01

    Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ~17 L/day of saliva, and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of -0.5 to 1.7 log ID?? U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of -1.1 to -0.4 log ID?? U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID?? units for sheep and 7.0 log ID?? units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID?? units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission. PMID:22453179

  5. Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Fisher, A D

    2007-03-01

    Mulesing is traditionally performed on approximately 80% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia. Mulesing produces a stress response that persists for 24 to 48 hours. Behavioural changes indicative of pain and discomfort resolve within 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Reductions in weight gain may persist for 14 days. The acute stress response to mulesing has been shown to be similar to that produced by shearing, castration and mild flystrike, but mulesing has a longer duration of response (24 to 48 hours) than shearing (1 hour) or knife castration (8 to 24 hours), whereas flystrike response persists for the duration of infection. Theoretically, if mulesing were not used, with Merino sheep of existing genetics, increased chemical use and flock inspections could keep flystrike rates to approximately equivalent to present levels in some production systems. Increased handling events for chemical preventative application would represent a mild stressor for sheep, but cumulatively not more than that of mulesing. If producers were able and prepared to sufficiently increase resources into alternative anti-flystrike methods, then the welfare of Merino sheep would probably be equivalent or better to that of today. If constraints such as property size or finances dictate a sub-optimal level of flystrike prevention and treatment, then animal welfare will unquestionably be worse. The result of that equation would depend on individual flock managers, the physical characteristics of their production system, the profitability of their business, and seasonal variations in flystrike risk. It is likely that there would be some occasions when flystrike would increase. This highlights the need for alternative strategies, such as genetic selection, to reduce the susceptibility of Australian Merino sheep to flystrike. PMID:17359305

  6. Agronomy Facts 40 Nutrient Management

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    operations were required to develop and implement approved nutrient management plans. Also, many other animal requirements on high- density animal operations. This fact sheet summarizes the nutrient management provisionsAgronomy Facts 40 Nutrient Management Legislation in Pennsylvania: A Summary of the 2006

  7. Nutrient profiling: the new environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the ...

  8. Urban nutrient balance for Bangkok

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Færge; Jakob Magid

    2001-01-01

    To explore the options for recycling of nutrients from mega-cities to agricultural land, a nutrient balance model was developed. The balancing was done for Bangkok Province and considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To estimate the food supply, the most decisive nutrient flow, an online database (faostat) was employed; its country level data are disaggregated to the urban level. A

  9. Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on nutrient availability to the fetus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of maternal Se intake and plane of nutrition during mid and/or late gestation on AA concentrations and metabolite levels in the dam and fetus, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array: Se level [initiated at breed...

  10. Ruminal degradation of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal using In sacco procedure in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jafari Khorshidi, K; Abedi Chemazkoti, S; Kioumarsi, H; Shariman Yahya, Z

    2013-09-01

    This research was conducted in order to investigate rumen degradability of some factors includes; Dray Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) in three different plant protein supplements includes; soybean, canola and cottonseed meal. The experiment was carried out using in three castrated and fistulated male Zel sheep. Each feedstuff was weighed into duplicate nylon bags and incubated in each of the three rumen fistulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Results revealed that effective degradability of DM of soybean, canola and cottonseed meal were 55.8, 73.8 and 48.5%, respectively. Effective degradabilities of the CP in feedstuffs were 55.8, 62 and 48.3% for the respective feedstuffs. Effective degradabilities of the OM were 55.7, 56.4 and 47.4%, respectively. Results also showed that effective degradabilities of the ADF were 55, 56.4 and 37.6, respectively. According to the results the researchers concluded that canola and soybean were more degradable in the rumen of the sheep while cottonseed meal were less degradable and, hence resulted in higher rumen undegradable protein. PMID:24498847

  11. Cache Valley virus infection in Texas sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Chung, S I; Livingston, C W; Jones, C W; Collisson, E W

    1991-08-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV), an arbovirus indigenous to the United States, has been implicated as an important teratogenic agent in sheep. The prevalence and distribution of Texas sheep with CVV-specific antibody were investigated. In 1981, 19.1% of 366 sheep located in 22 counties of Texas had antibodies specific for CVV. Of 50 flocks examined in the major sheep-producing counties in Texas, 34 had sheep with antibodies that reacted with CVV, including all sheep tested in 6 flocks that were seropositive. Sera obtained from sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo between 1986 and 1989 were also examined for CVV-specific antibody because this flock was the subject of the episode of CVV-associated congenital malformations during the 1986 and 1987 lambing season. Approximately 8.6% of 104 sheep in 1986, 63.4% of 164 in 1987, 11.3% of 44 in 1988, and 71.9% of 89 in 1989 from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo tested were seropositive. The data indicate that CVV infections in sheep were widespread in Texas in 1981 and that the virus is enzootic in sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in San Angelo, where the episode of congenital malformations had initially been reported in 1987. PMID:1917638

  12. Skin transcriptome profiles associated with coat color in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous molecular genetic studies of physiology and pigmentation of sheep skin have focused primarily on a limited number of genes and proteins. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat color regulation, Illumina sequencing technology was used to catalog global gene expression profiles in skin of sheep with white versus black coat color. Results There were 90,006 and 74,533 unigenes assembled from the reads obtained from white and black sheep skin, respectively. Genes encoding for the ribosomal proteins and keratin associated proteins were most highly expressed. A total of 2,235 known genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, with 479 genes up-regulated and 1,756 genes down-regulated. A total of 845 novel genes were differentially expressed in black versus white sheep skin, consisting of 107 genes which were up-regulated (including 2 highly expressed genes exclusively expressed in black sheep skin) and 738 genes that were down-regulated. There was also a total of 49 known coat color genes expressed in sheep skin, from which 13 genes showed higher expression in black sheep skin. Many of these up-regulated genes, such as DCT, MATP, TYR and TYRP1, are members of the components of melanosomes and their precursor ontology category. Conclusion The white and black sheep skin transcriptome profiles obtained provide a valuable resource for future research to understand the network of gene expression controlling skin physiology and melanogenesis in sheep. PMID:23758853

  13. 78 FR 24380 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Program; Agricultural Marketing Service; U.S...National Sheep Industry Improvement Center...Title XI of the Food, Conservation...sheep and goat industries by strengthening...the production and marketing of sheep,...

  14. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    -Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 5 Nutrition Department, and 6 DepartmentThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA; 7 Food Science and Nutrition Department, California

  15. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interaction Dietary Salen,3 Franc¸ois Laporte,4 Chiara Tonelli,5 and Michel de Lorgeril3 * 3 Laboratoire Coeur et Nutrition with constant intakes of plant and marine (n-3) PUFA for 8 wk (Expt. 1). Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC

  16. Generation and characterization of reprogrammed sheep induced pluripotent stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Deepashree Balehosur; Belinda Murray; Jennifer M. Kelly; Huseyin Sumer; Paul J. Verma

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from domestic species have numerous potential applications in agricultural and biomedical sciences; however, despite intensive efforts, derivation of ESCs from sheep remains elusive. The objective was to derive sheep induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), as an alternative pluripotent cell type to ESCs, from sheep fibroblasts by ectopic expression of heterologous transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and

  17. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Schneider; R. C. Boston; D. D. Leaver

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of ³²P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results

  18. Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies 

    E-print Network

    Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort

    2012-11-30

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic ...

  19. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  20. Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

  1. Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hooshmand-Rad; N. J. Hawa

    1973-01-01

    Clinical, pathological and epizootiological studies were carried out in an experimental flock of 39 sheep that was exposed to natural infection ofTheileria hirci in an enzootic area. A morbidity rate of 100 per cent and a mortality rate of 89.74 per cent were observed in this flock which had been transferred from another enzootic region. NoTheileria hirci infection was observed,

  2. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  3. Males in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomer, Jerry E.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the male sex role upon male behavior in psychotherapy, showing research results for both therapist and client behavior. The research suggested that male clients tended not to disclose as freely, and that male therapists were perceived as less expressive than females. (LPG)

  4. Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel in sheep.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; Moll, L; Kappert, C; Vellema, P

    2015-04-30

    In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H. contortus larvae. On this farm, after a perceived reduction in efficacy of ivermectin and doramectin, the sheep farmer started using monepantel in July 2012, and since then, monepantel was used as the sole anthelmintic. Breeding sheep were treated twice each year in 2013 and 2014, and lambs two times in 2012, four times in 2013, and three times in 2014, before monepantel resistance was suspected, and confirmed three weeks later. Although the frequency of monepantel treatments on this farm was relatively high with treatments on thirteen separate occasions in two years time, possibly establishing favorable conditions for a competitive advantage for resistant H. contortus, it is remarkable that resistance to monepantel was established in such a very short period. This study confirms, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of H. contortus resistance to monepantel occurring in the field. PMID:25770852

  5. Phyzyme XP phytase improves growth performance and nutrient utilization in wheat-based diets fed to weaned pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sands; R. M. Kay

    2007-01-01

    The effect of phytase (Phyzyme XP) on performance and nutrient utilization in piglets fed wheat-based diets was evaluated using 24 male pigs averaging 7 kg. Four experimental diets containing either 0 (positive control, adequate nutrients), 0 (negative control (NC), reduced nutrients), 500 or 1000 U\\/kg of phytase were used for each of two dietary phases (day 0 to 14 and day 14

  6. A degree-day model of sheep grazing influence on alfalfa weevil and crop characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goosey, Hayes B

    2012-02-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis spp.) grazing is emerging as an integrated pest management tactic for alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), management and a degree-day model is needed as a decision and support tool. In response to this need, grazing exclosures with unique degree-days and stocking rates were established at weekly intervals in a central Montana alfalfa field during 2008 and 2009. Analyses indicate that increased stocking rates and grazing degree-days were associated with decreased crop levels of weevil larvae. Larval data collected from grazing treatments were regressed against on-site and near-site temperatures that produced the same accuracy. The near-site model was chosen to encourage producer acceptance. The regression slope differed from zero, had an r2 of 0.83, and a root mean square error of 0.2. Crop data were collected to achieve optimal weevil management with forage quality and yield. Differences were recorded in crude protein, acid and neutral detergent fibers, total digestible nutrients, and mean stage by weight. Stem heights differed with higher stocking rates and degree-days recording the shortest alfalfa canopy height at harvest. The degree-day model was validated at four sites during 2010 with a mean square prediction error of 0.74. The recommendation from this research is to stock alfalfa fields in the spring before 63 DD with rates between 251 and 583 sheep days per hectare (d/ha). Sheep should be allowed to graze to a minimum of 106 and maximum of 150 DD before removal. This model gives field entomologists a new method for implementing grazing in an integrated pest management program. PMID:22420261

  7. Y chromosomal haplotype characteristics of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutao; Xu, Lei; Yan, Wei; Li, Shaobin; Wang, Jiqing; Liu, Xiu; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yuzhu

    2015-07-10

    Investigations on the variation present at the male-specific Y chromosome region provide strong information to understand the origin and evolution of domestic sheep. One SNP OY1 (g.88A>G) in the upstream region of SRY gene, and the microsatellite SRYM18 locus within ovine Y chromosome were analyzed in one hundred and forty five samples collected from eleven breeds in China. SNP OY1 was analyzed using PCR-SSCP method and sequencing. Two different PCR-SSCP patterns represented two specific sequences with sequence analysis revealing SNP-OY1 (g.88A>G) were observed, while SNP A-OY1 showed the most common frequency (82.8%). Sequencing of the SRYM18 region revealed one novel size fragment (A2) with different repetitive units. Seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9 and H12) and two novel haplotypes (Ha and Hb) were established using combined genotype analysis. H6 showed the highest frequency (43.4%) across all breeds, and H8 showed the second frequency (24.1%). Ha was only found in one breed (Tan), while Hb was present in three breeds (Gansu alpine, White Suffolk and Duolang). Our findings reveal one novel allele in SRYM18 region and two novel male haplotypes of domestic sheep in China. PMID:25865303

  8. Effect of Replacing Wheat Straw with Almond Hull and Shell in Diets on Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Parameters of Goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Can; N. Denek; M. ?eker

    2007-01-01

    Can, A., Denek, N. and ?eker, M. 2007. Effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hull and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 181–183.To determine the effect of replacing wheat straw with almond hulls and shell in diets on nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of goat, eight male Kilis goats

  9. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  10. Waterlogging and Plant Nutrient Uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Theo M. Elzenga; Hans Veen

    \\u000a Waterlogging affects several parameters that determine nutrient uptake from the soil by the roots. We checked systematically,\\u000a for all the relevant parameters in the nutrient uptake model by Silberbush and Barber (Plant Soil 74:93–100, 1983), how waterlogging\\u000a changes the magnitude of the parameter, changes that can be both positive and negative for nutrient uptake. If negative effects\\u000a can be expected

  11. Soil Microbiology and Nutrient Cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Hopkins; Jennifer A. J. Dungait

    \\u000a Soil organisms play a central role in the recycling of nutrients in soils, making them available to plants, transforming some\\u000a nutrient elements to gaseous forms which can be lost from soil, and other transformations which predispose nutrients to loss.\\u000a In this chapter we will illustrate these processes in the context of sustainable crop production. To do so requires some consideration

  12. Estimating maize nutrient uptake requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Setiyono; D. T. Walters; K. G. Cassman; C. Witt; A. Dobermann

    2010-01-01

    Generic, robust models are needed for estimating crop nutrient uptake requirements. We quantified and modeled grain yield–nutrient uptake relations in maize grown without significant biotic and abiotic stresses. Grain yield and plant nutrient accumulation in above-ground plant dry matter (DM) of commercial maize hybrids were measured at physiological maturity in on-station and on-farm experiments in Nebraska (USA), Indonesia, and Vietnam

  13. COMPARATIVE ESTROGENICITY OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYL ESTRADIOL AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN AN IN VIVO, MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), VITELLOGENIN BIOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...

  14. In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals. PMID:24016145

  15. Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

  16. An outbreak of bluetongue in sheep in the Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Eisa; OM Osman; AE Karrar; AH Abdel Rahim

    1980-01-01

    An outbreak of bluetongue and the first isolation of the virus in the Sudan are reported. The disease occurred in sheep stressed by walking for five days when biting arthropods were prevalent. Estimates of the morbidity and mortality rates ranged from about 30 per cent and 2 per cent respectively in adult sheep to around 80 per cent and 100

  17. Embryo transfer and related technologies in sheep reproduction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Embryo transfer and related technologies in sheep reproduction Pasqualino Loia Grazyna Ptakb 13 October 1998) Abstract - This paper reviews the status of embryo transfer and the major technologies applied to preimplantation of embryos in sheep. Embryo production from superovulated ewes

  18. Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending to frequent oscillation of the digesta. It was concluded that accurate quantitative electromagnetic

  19. Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.) poisoning causes serious economic loss to livestock producers that graze cattle on foothill and mountain ranges in western North America. In general, all Delphinium spp. are five times less toxic to sheep than to cattle. Because sheep are less suscepti...

  20. Animating Dolly: Real-time Herding and Rendering of Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ljiljana Skrba; Simon Dobbyn; Rachel McDonnell; Carol O'Sullivan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing work on a system to animate and render large flocks of furry or woolly animals. An outside agent, the sheepdog, tries to control another group of agents (a flock of sheep) that observe two rules of flocking: cohesion and separation. We also describe our efforts to create realistic animations for the dog and sheep, using insights

  1. Staphylococcal alpha toxin: a study with chronically instrumented awake sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, S; Lefferts, P L; Snapper, J R

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo responses to staphylococcal alpha toxin are reported for 15 chronically instrumented awake yearling sheep. The data obtained from a total of 30 experiments are grouped into four categories of response: no response, noted in seven experiments done on 5 sheep; pressor response, obtained seven times in 4 sheep; fluid and solute exchange, noted on six occasions in 3 sheep; and acute heart failure and death, which occurred in 10 of the 15 sheep. "No response" denoted no change in any of the measured outcome variables. The group of sheep labeled as showing "pressor response" responded to alpha toxin infusion with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, unaccompanied by changes either in lung lymph flow or in lung mechanics. "Changes in lung fluid and solute exchange" involve increases in lung lymph flow. The harbinger of the last category, acute left heart failure leading to death, was a marked elevation in left atrial pressure. The threshold response dose in sheep is approximately 21 micrograms/kg. A very steep dose-response curve is observed, with only a narrow window of doses, 15 to 25 micrograms/kg, between the group showing no response and the group showing death from acute heart failure. The data obtained in these studies indicate that the lethal effects of alpha toxin in sheep include acute heart failure, which may be due to direct toxicity to heart muscle and/or the coronary vasculature endothelium. PMID:1500155

  2. Comparative Aspects of Glucose Tolerance in Camels, Sheep, and Ponies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barakat Elmahdi; Hans-Peter Sallmann; Herbert Fuhrmann; Wolfgang von Engelhardt; Martin Kaske

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain informations about factors responsible for the higher level of plasma glucose in camels as compared to sheep and ponies. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out with four camels, four ponies, and four sheep by infusing 1 mmol glucose per kg body weight intravenously within 3 min. Concentrations of glucose, insulin,

  3. Cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (Ovis aries)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Cryptosporidium xiaoi, is described from sheep. Oocysts of C. xiaoi, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium bovis-like genotype and as the ovine genotype from sheep in Australia and the United States are recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ...

  4. Evaluation of Factors Potentially Influencing a Desert Bighorn Sheep Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TED McKINNEY; THORRY W. SMITH; JAMES C. deVOS

    2006-01-01

    We studied a desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) population in the Mazatzal Mountains (primary study area) in central Arizona and population indices on reference areas between 1989 and 2003. We evaluated disease exposure and nutritional status of desert bighorn sheep, vegetation parameters, predator diets, and mountain lion (Puma concolor) harvest and abundance (1999-2003) and mountain lion predation (1995-2003) as factors

  5. Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Baldi; S. D. Albon; D. A. Elston

    2001-01-01

    Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for

  6. Calcification characteristics of porcine stentless valves in juvenile sheep1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Herijgers; Shigeyuki Ozakia; Eric Verbeken; Alfons Van Lommelb; Rozalia Racz; Miroslaw Zietkiewicz; Bartlomiej Perek; Willem Flamenga

    Objective: To compare calcification characteristics of two porcine stentless valves (Toronto SPV and Freestyle) with different designs, fixation and antimineralization techniques using a juvenile sheep model of valve implantation inside the circulation. Methods: The stentless valves (n = 2 ? 6) were implanted in juvenile sheep in the pulmonary artery as an interposition, while the circulation was maintained with a

  7. Original article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    group did not receive any supplement of Se and/or vitamin E. The two groups were managed under the sameOriginal article Response to barium selenate supplementation in sheep kept at pasture supplements in the prevention of dis- orders related to Se deficiency in sheep maintained at pasture

  8. Effect of abomasal prebiotic supplementation on sheep faecal microbiota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li; J. Mills; LH Jacobson; M. Manley-Harris; GJ le Roux; RG Bell

    2010-01-01

    The effect of abomasal fructo-oligosaccharides supplementation on sheep faecal microbiota was investigated in a balanced, two Latin square, cross-over design experiment. Ten fistulated sheep were managed in five consecutive periods, with each of five treatments (an ‘acidified saline’ control or one of four prebiotic candidates chosen to represent different types of oligosaccharides: Arabinogalactan, Fibruline, Raftilose, or Yacon) administered to two

  9. Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Pandya; K. M. Ghodke

    2007-01-01

    The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully

  10. Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...

  11. Nutrient partitioning of Merino sheep divergently selected for genetic difference in resistance to Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Doyle, E K; Kahn, L P; McClure, S J

    2014-09-15

    This research was designed to determine if divergent genetic selection for resistance to Haemonchus contortus had produced correlated changes in the metabolism of amino-nitrogen in the absence or presence of H. contortus infection. Partitioning of amino acid-nitrogen between tissues was determined in 42 Merino weaner wethers from the CSIRO Haemonchus selection flock, increased resistance to Haemonchus (IRH), decreased resistance to Haemonchus (DRH) and random bred control (C) selection lines. Weaner wethers were fed a restricted diet (9.8 MJ ME/kgDM, 86 gMP/kg DM) calculated to allow a gain of 125 g/d bodyweight throughout the experimental period and were either worm-free or trickle infected with H. contortus. At 8 weeks post-infection animals were injected with (15)N-labelled duckweed directly into the abomasums. Animals were euthanased at either 6 or 24h after the injection to collect tissue samples for calculation of percentage recovery of (15)N in tissue and to determine abomasal worm counts. Worm egg count and worm counts at week 8 of infection were lower in animals from the IRH line. IRH animals had a lower N digestibility, increased oxidation of amino acids and lower N balance but whole-body protein flux was unaffected. Amino acid metabolism, as assessed from (15)N uptake and excretion in response to H. contortus infection, differed between IRH and DRH animals. In IRH animals a greater recovery of (15)N in the thymus and abomasal smooth muscle indicated greater partitioning of amino acids towards the immune response. In DRH animals an increased recovery of (15)N in the spleen, in response to infection, may be a possible adaptation. It appears that divergent selection for worm egg count has not been associated with symmetrical changes in amino acid metabolism, but rather the partitioning of amino acid resources reflects each selection line's independent response to infection. PMID:25027755

  12. Evaluation of Brassicas in grazing systems for sheep: II. Blood composition and nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Cox-Ganser, J M; Jung, G A; Pushkin, R T; Reid, R L

    1994-07-01

    Blood composition of lambs grazing Brassicas and stockpiled grass or grass-clover pastures in the fall of 4 yr was monitored to assess possible effects of plant metabolites (e.g., glucosinolates, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide) on health and performance. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in lambs grazing Brassicas decreased upon initiation of grazing, with a subsequent recovery, and concentrations were increased by oral dosing with I or I+CuO. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) increased gradually with time and did not differ between lambs on Brassicas and on pasture at most time periods. In Exp. 3 and 4, T4 levels were lower in lambs grazing Tyfon chinese cabbage hybrid (Brassica rapa L. x B. pekinensis [Lour.] Rupr.) than in lambs on Forage Star hybrid turnip (B. rapa L.). Heinz body formation increased rapidly in lambs on Brassicas, with small decreases in packed cell volume (PCV); dosing with I+CuO reduced Heinz bodies in lambs on Tyfon and turnip pastures. In Exp. 2, I+CuO treatment increased liver Cu concentrations but had no effect on serum Cu. Serum cholesterol and urea N concentrations declined rapidly in lambs on Brassicas, with little change in lambs on stockpiled pastures. Decreases in serum triglycerides, and an increase in glucose concentration, were noted in Exp. 3 and 4 in lambs grazing Tyfon and Forage Star turnip. Although a number of differences related to plant composition were noted in blood of lambs grazing Brassica forages relative to stockpiled pastures, the changes did not seem sufficiently severe to affect animal performance. PMID:7928763

  13. Effect of feeding urea treated maize stover on growth and nutrient utilization by sheep and goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chandrasekharaiah; M. R. Reddy; G. V. N. Reddy

    1996-01-01

    The average daily gains (ADG) recorded were not different among the three rations. However, Ration 1 containing concentrate supplement had better feed efficiency compared with other rations, though the cost of feed kg?1 gain was more on this ration. Further, subabul leaf meal (Leucaena l.) was superior to sunhemp hay meal (Crotalaria j.) in supporting the growth in lambs and

  14. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  15. Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Technical Service Providers

    E-print Network

    Nutrient Management TrainingNutrient Management Training for Technical Service Providersfor Management Planning Technical Guidance.Management Planning Technical Guidance. Manure and Wastewater Handling Nutrient ManagementNutrient Management ­­ Record KeepingRecord Keeping ­­ Feed ManagementFeed Management

  16. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

  17. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  18. Preferential utilization of intracellular nutrients supports microalgal growth under nutrient starvation: multi-nutrient mechanistic model and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Kumar, Vikram; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Das, Debasish

    2014-12-01

    Microalgae are able to grow even under exhaustion of some key nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Here, we report a multi-nutrient mechanistic model to predict heterotrophic growth of Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG over two sequential phases of fermentation: nutrient sufficient condition to nutrient starved condition. The model assumes that the growth of the microorganism takes place via sequential utilization of extracellular nutrients (ECN) under nutrient replete condition followed by intracellular stored nutrients under exhaustion of limiting nutrients. Further, intracellular nutrient was assumed to be in three different forms: structural form of nutrient (SFN), readily utilizable nutrient (RUN) and non-readily utilizable nutrient (Non-RUN). After the exhaustion of ECN, microorganism switches to RUN followed by Non-RUN to continue its growth, which was experimentally validated by extracting intracellular nitrate and phosphate compounds. The model also incorporates variability in yield coefficients for nitrate and phosphate utilizations. PMID:25305655

  19. Resistance of four sheep breeds to natural and subsequent artificial Haemonchus contortus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Mugambi; R. K. Bain; S. W. Wanyangu; M. A. Ihiga; J. L. Duncan; M. Murray; M. J. Stear

    1997-01-01

    The response of Red Maasai sheep to natural and artificial Haemonchus contortus infections was compared with sheep of Blackheaded Somali, Dorper and Romney Marsh breeds. Significant breed differences in egg count, packed cell volume (PCV), and mortality rates showed that the Red Maasai sheep were more resistant to natural H. contortus infection than sheep from the other three breeds. Of

  20. The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nari; J. Salles; A. Gil; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

    1996-01-01

    This survey was conducted on 252 farms randomly distributed over all the sheep raising areas in Uruguay. The study involved farms with more than 600 sheep, which represented 80% of the total sheep population of the country. Three anthelmintic groups were assessed, namely, benzimidazoles, levamisole and avermectins. Overall, the results showed 80% of sheep flocks had benzimidazole resistance, 71% had

  1. Resistance of Indonesian thin tail sheep against Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Roberts; E. Estuningsih; S. Widjayanti; E. Wiedosari; S. Partoutomo; T. W. Spithill

    1997-01-01

    High resistance of Indonesian thin tail (ITT) sheep against Fasciola gigantica has been confirmed. Naive ITT sheep had only 17% of the number of mature parasites collected from control St. Croix sheep. In contrast, the level of resistance of ITT sheep against F. hepatica was the same as that of the low resistance Merino breed after both primary and secondary

  2. Experimental Tribulus terrestris Poisoning in Sheep: Clinical, Laboratory and Pathological Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; M. Pedram; A. Abavisani

    2003-01-01

    Eleven native sheep, 1–2 years old, of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, 6 sheep being allocated to the experimental group and 5 serving as controls. The sheep in the experimental group were fed 80% Tribulus terrestris and 20% alfalfa hay and wheat straw, while the control sheep were given a mixture of 40% alfalfa hay and 60%

  3. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  4. Poisoning by Amorimia (Mascagnia) sepium in sheep in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schons, Sandro V; de Mello, Taciane L; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cause of sudden deaths in sheep in the Anari Valley of the state of Rondônia, in northern Brazil. In one outbreak, sheep were placed in an area where the owner had cut Amorimia (Mascagnia) sepium and let it dry for two days. Fourteen out of 35 sheep died with few outward clinical signs observed over a period of about 10 h after the ingestion of the dry plant. Dry A. sepium was administered experimentally to 9 sheep. Five died after the ingestion of single doses of 3-6.6 g/kg body weight (bw). Two sheep died after the ingestion of total doses of 6.4-31 g/kg bw over the course of 4 and 5 days, respectively, and one died after being treated with 33 daily doses of 0.56 g/kg bw. Six sheep died during exercise, and three died without exercise. Clinical signs were anorexia, muscular tremors, dyspnea, jugular engorgement, tachycardia, apathy, opisthotonos, foam in the nose, and recumbency. One sheep, which ingested a single dose of 1 g/kg bw, was not affected. The main macroscopic lesion was pulmonary edema. Histologic examination of the heart revealed degeneration and necrosis of cardiomyocytes, as well as multifocal inflammatory infiltrate of mononuclear cells. Fibrosis, neovascularization and infiltration by mononuclear inflammatory cells were observed in the sheep that ingested the plant for 33 days. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration was observed in the epithelial cells of renal tubules of four sheep. It is concluded that A. sepium is responsible for sudden deaths in sheep. PMID:21333667

  5. Investigation of border disease and bovine virus diarrhoea in sheep from 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms in eastern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Schenk, B; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus (BDV) on 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms and whether seroconversion to BDV infection occurred in cattle of these farms. Seroprevalence of BDV and bovine viral disease virus (BVDV) infection in sheep was also investigated. Quantitative RT-PCR for pestivirus detection and an ELISA to detect pestivirus antibodies were used in 2'384 and 2'291 ovine blood samples, respectively. Another 27 seropositive sheep from ten flocks underwent serum neutralization testing to differentiate between BDV and BVDV antibodies. A BDV titre that was at least four times higher than the BVDV titre was interpreted as the result of BDV infection. Titres against BVDV were interpreted in an analogous fashion. All examined sheep were pestivirus-negative, 310 sheep were seropositive, 119 had an indeterminate titre and 1'862 were seronegative. The flock seroprevalence ranged from 0.0 to 73.9 %. Three of the 27 flocks that underwent serum neutralization testing were interpreted as BDV-infected because of 6 sheep with higher BDV titres, and 6 flocks were interpreted as BVDV-infected because of 14 sheep with higher BVDV titres. PMID:23644292

  6. Comparison of the resistance to sympatric and allopatric isolates of Haemonchus contortus of Black Belly sheep in Guadeloupe (FWI) and of INRA 401 sheep in France.

    PubMed

    Aumont, G; Gruner, L; Hostache, G

    2003-10-01

    The resistance of a tropical breed of sheep towards the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus (Hc) was compared to that of a European breed after artificial infection with the parasite following a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design: two isolates (Hc Gua from Guadeloupe versus Hc Fra from France), two breeds each reared in their native habitats (Black Belly (BB) in Guadeloupe, FWI, INRA 401 reared in France), and two groups of lambs with differing infection status (one naive, i.e. infected for the first time during the experiment, and one primed, i.e. which had previously received doses of 5000 L3 on Days -35 and -32 before the infection during this experiment). Both groups were composed of 10 male lambs, which were 20 weeks of age when they were given a dose of 10,000 L3 of the relevant isolate on Day 0. Resistance was assessed by regular fecal egg counts (FECs) and blood samples, and worm counts were processed on Day 35 p.i. The FEC was lower in the BB than in INRA 401 lambs, lower in the primed than naive groups, and lower in Hc Fra than in Hc Gua. The eosinophil count remained unchanged in the naive INRA 401 groups, but increased in all the other groups. The hematocrit fell after infection, but the live weight was not affected by the infection. Worm burdens were 1868 and 5237 in the naive BB and INRA 401 groups, respectively, and 596 and 4835 in the primed BB and INRA 401 groups. The daily production of eggs per Hc Gua female worm was 1.5-fold that of Hc Fra. The number of worms had no effect on worm length or Hc in utero egg count in the BB sheep, but a positive and significant correlation between these two traits was seen in the INRA 401 lambs. These findings are indicative of innate resistance, and confirmed the high acquired resistance of the BB sheep to both sympatric and allopatric isolates of Hc. The regulation of worm population and fecundity differed in the BB and INRA 401 sheep. PMID:14519318

  7. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  8. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ?1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ?1 day of parturition (range?=?80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range?=?60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  9. Effect of Antibiotic, Prebiotic and Enzyme Mixture Supplementation on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Figen K?rkpmar; Zümrüt Açikgöz

    2004-01-01

    Kirkpmar, F. and Açikgöz, Z. 2004. Effect of antibiotic, prebiotic and enzyme mixture supplementation on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 13–16.To study the effect of supplementation of antibiotic, prebiotic and an enzyme mixture on growth and nutrient utilization, 48 day-old chicks were divided into 4 groups (6 males, 6 females) and fed on a

  10. The relationship between psychological stress and nutrient intake in free-living independent older Americans

    E-print Network

    Walker, Juliann Marie

    1992-01-01

    and nutrient intake for independent and dependent gender groups. . . . . . . 31 Mean values (+ standard error of the mean) for anthropometric indexes of males and females categorized as independent or dependent 32 Pearson correlation coefficients between... worry and anthropometric indexes, weight gain/loss and amount lost/gain for independent and dependent gender groups. 33 Multiple regression analysis of nutrient intake as a function of amount of worry for independent and dependent gender groups. 34...

  11. The relationship between psychological stress and nutrient intake in free-living independent older Americans 

    E-print Network

    Walker, Juliann Marie

    1992-01-01

    and nutrient intake for independent and dependent gender groups. . . . . . . 31 Mean values (+ standard error of the mean) for anthropometric indexes of males and females categorized as independent or dependent 32 Pearson correlation coefficients between... worry and anthropometric indexes, weight gain/loss and amount lost/gain for independent and dependent gender groups. 33 Multiple regression analysis of nutrient intake as a function of amount of worry for independent and dependent gender groups. 34...

  12. Differential pathways to adult metabolic dysfunction following poor nutrition at two critical developmental periods in sheep.

    PubMed

    Poore, Kirsten R; Hollis, Lisa J; Murray, Robert J S; Warlow, Anna; Brewin, Andrew; Fulford, Laurence; Cleal, Jane K; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C) or 50% nutritional requirements (U) from 1-31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks) to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC) or were undernourished (CU, UU) to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1-31 days gestation) or 50% nutritional requirements (104-127 days gestation). Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression) and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during development induces changes in mechanisms of lipid and glucose metabolism which differ between tissues and sexes dependent on the period of nutritional restriction. Such changes may increase later life obesity and dyslipidaemia risk. PMID:24603546

  13. Differential Pathways to Adult Metabolic Dysfunction following Poor Nutrition at Two Critical Developmental Periods in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Kirsten R.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Murray, Robert J. S.; Warlow, Anna; Brewin, Andrew; Fulford, Laurence; Cleal, Jane K.; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Burdge, Graham C.; Hanson, Mark A.; Green, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest early nutrition has long-term effects on susceptibility to obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Small and large animal models confirm the influence of different windows of sensitivity, from fetal to early postnatal life, on offspring phenotype. We showed previously that undernutrition in sheep either during the first month of gestation or immediately after weaning induces differential, sex-specific changes in adult metabolic and cardiovascular systems. The current study aims to determine metabolic and molecular changes that underlie differences in lipid and glucose metabolism induced by undernutrition during specific developmental periods in male and female sheep. Ewes received 100% (C) or 50% nutritional requirements (U) from 1–31 days gestation, and 100% thereafter. From weaning (12 weeks) to 25 weeks, offspring were then fed either ad libitum (CC, UC) or were undernourished (CU, UU) to reduce body weight to 85% of their individual target. From 25 weeks, all offspring were fed ad libitum. A cohort of late gestation fetuses were studied after receiving either 40% nutritional requirements (1–31 days gestation) or 50% nutritional requirements (104–127 days gestation). Post-weaning undernutrition increased in vivo insulin sensitivity, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression in muscle, and lowered hepatic methylation at the delta-like homolog 1/maternally expressed gene 3 imprinted cluster in adult females, but not males. Early gestational undernutrition induced lower hepatic expression of gluconeogenic factors in fetuses and reduced in vivo adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in adulthood. In males, undernutrition in early gestation increased adipose tissue lipid handling mechanisms (lipoprotein lipase, glucocorticoid receptor expression) and hepatic methylation within the imprinted control region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor in adulthood. Therefore, undernutrition during development induces changes in mechanisms of lipid and glucose metabolism which differ between tissues and sexes dependent on the period of nutritional restriction. Such changes may increase later life obesity and dyslipidaemia risk. PMID:24603546

  14. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

  15. Formate metabolism in fetal and neonatal sheep.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Behan, Nathalie A; Harnett, Brian; MacMillan, Luke; Pongnopparat, Theerawat; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2015-05-15

    By virtue of its role in nucleotide synthesis, as well as the provision of methyl groups for vital methylation reactions, one-carbon metabolism plays a crucial role in growth and development. Formate, a critical albeit neglected component of one-carbon metabolism, occurs extracellularly and may provide insights into cellular events. We examined formate metabolism in chronically cannulated fetal sheep (gestation days 119-121, equivalent to mid-third trimester in humans) and in their mothers as well as in normal full-term lambs. Plasma formate levels were much higher in fetal lamb plasma and in amniotic fluid (191 ± 62 and 296 ± 154 ?M, respectively) than in maternal plasma (33 ± 13 ?M). Measurements of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine showed that these high formate levels could not be due to vitamin deficiencies. Elevated formate levels were also found in newborn lambs and persisted to about 8 wk of age. Formate was also found in sheep milk. Potential precursors of one-carbon groups were also measured in fetal and maternal plasma and in amniotic fluid. There were very high concentrations of serine in the fetus (?1.6 mM in plasma and 3.5 mM in the amniotic fluid) compared with maternal plasma (0.19 mM), suggesting increased production of formate; however, we cannot rule out decreased formate utilization. Dimethylglycine, a choline metabolite, was also 30 times higher in the fetus than in the mother. PMID:25805190

  16. Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Baldi, R; Albon, S; Elston, D

    2001-12-01

    Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for forage plants. Our aim in this work was to estimate guanaco abundance and account for its variation across nine different sites, two seasons and two years. We conducted over 100 ground surveys of both guanacos and sheep and estimated the availability of the preferred plant species both animal species might select in their diet. We found that (1) sheep densities were up to 23 times higher than guanaco densities in sympatric conditions, (2) at a protected site without sheep, guanaco density was one order of magnitude higher than at the rest of the sites, (3) across nine different sites, sheep densities alone accounted for around 60% of the variation in guanaco abundance, (4) guanaco densities were negatively related to both total plant cover and availability of the preferred plant species in their diet, which were both positively associated with sheep density, and (5) within-site changes in guanaco densities between seasons and years were negatively related to changes in sheep densities. Our results are consistent with predictions on interspecific competition for food resources, although we cannot rule out possible effects of other human-related activities influencing guanaco abundance. We conclude that sheep compete with guanacos for forage in arid Patagonia. PMID:24577696

  17. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  18. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment. PMID:23054805

  19. IMMUNOTOXIC EFFECTS OF 2-BROMOPROPANE IN MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS: A 28DAY EXPOSURE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Cheon Jeong; Eung-Seok Lee; Whigun Chae; Woo Suk Koh; Boo-Hyon Kang; Sang Seop Han

    2002-01-01

    Immunotoxic effects of 2-bromopropane were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were treated orally daily with 2-bromopropane at 100, 330, or 1000 mg\\/kg for 28 consecutive days. Four days before necropsy, the rats were immunized intravenously with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). The body and thymus weights were significantly reduced by treatment with 2-bromopropane at the highest dose. In

  20. Acquired resistance of merino sheep against Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Widjayanti, S; Estuningsih, E

    1996-01-01

    Merino sheep acquired resistance against Fasciola gigantica, which is contrary to previous observations of infections with F. hepatica in that breed. The acquired resistance was manifest against young adult parasites. St. Croix sheep had previously been shown to have more resistance than European sheep against F. hepatica after primary infection; however, in F. gigantica infections in the present study there was no difference between the resistance levels of the breeds. Antigenic analysis of the host:parasite relationships could lead to identification of protective antigens suitable for use as vaccines. PMID:8897512

  1. A study of clean wool production in performance tested sheep 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Gwynn Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    of Variance - Clean Wool Production Per Unit Body Weight 95 25. Analysis of Variance - Staple Length (Sheep). 96 26. Analysis of Variance - Fibre Diazneter (Sheep) 96 27. Analysis of Variance ? Percentage Yield of Clean Wool (Sheep) . 28 Analysis... Sl Surface Area w Weight of Wool per Unit Area of Skin S R N Body Weight Fold Score Density (Number of Fibres) V Fibre Volume L A Fibre Length Fibre Cross Section Area W =S. R. N. A. L. A similar approach was xnade by Spencer, Hardy...

  2. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-01

    After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6-0.9-0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations. PMID:25934219

  3. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  4. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

  5. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah K Wootton; Michael J Metzger; Kelly L Hudkins; Charles E Alpers; Denis York; James C DeMartini; A Dusty Miller

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice

  6. Genomic selection in the French Lacaune dairy sheep breed.

    PubMed

    Duchemin, S I; Colombani, C; Legarra, A; Baloche, G; Larroque, H; Astruc, J-M; Barillet, F; Robert-Granié, C; Manfredi, E

    2012-05-01

    Genomic selection aims to increase accuracy and to decrease generation intervals, thus increasing genetic gains in animal breeding. Using real data of the French Lacaune dairy sheep breed, the purpose of this study was to compare the observed accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values using different models (infinitesimal only, markers only, and joint estimation of infinitesimal and marker effects) and methods [BLUP, Bayes C?, partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS]. The training data set included results of progeny tests of 1,886 rams born from 1998 to 2006, whereas the validation set had results of 681 rams born in 2007 and 2008. The 3 lactation traits studied (milk yield, fat content, and somatic cell scores) had heritabilities varying from 0.14 to 0.41. The inclusion of molecular information, as compared with traditional schemes, increased accuracies of estimated breeding values of young males at birth from 18 up to 25%, according to the trait. Accuracies of genomic methods varied from 0.4 to 0.6, according to the traits, with minor differences among genomic approaches. In Bayes C?, the joint estimation of marker and infinitesimal effects had a slightly favorable effect on the accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values, and were especially beneficial for somatic cell counts, the less heritable trait. Inclusion of infinitesimal effects also improved slopes of predictive regression equations. Methods that select markers implicitly (Bayes C? and sparse PLS) were advantageous for some models and traits, and are of interest for further quantitative trait loci studies. PMID:22541502

  7. Quantification of the effects of castration on carcass and meat quality of sheep by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2014-12-01

    After an extensive literature search, meta-analytic techniques (fixed effect, random effects and hierarchical Bayesian models) were applied to numerically describe sizes and precision of effects caused by castration of intact rams on several performance, carcass and meat quality response variables. According to random effects models, rams presented greater (P<0.05) average daily gain, loin muscle area (leaner carcasses) and instrumental meat tenderness (more tough), with lower feed conversion ratios, dressing percentages and backfat thickness (less carcass fat) compared to castrates. These results could be applied in further strategies on the use of castration in male sheep. PMID:24880975

  8. Population density influences male–male competition in guppies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mullica Jirotkul

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male–male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male–male competition and mate

  9. Plant hormones and nutrient signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Rubio; Regla Bustos; María Luisa Irigoyen; Ximena Cardona-López; Mónica Rojas-Triana; Javier Paz-Ares

    2009-01-01

    Plants count on a wide variety of metabolic, physiological, and developmental responses to adapt their growth to variations\\u000a in mineral nutrient availability. To react to such variations plants have evolved complex sensing and signaling mechanisms\\u000a that allow them to monitor the external and internal concentration of each of these nutrients, both in absolute terms and\\u000a also relatively to the status

  10. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Marschner

    1994-01-01

    The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

  11. Influence of maternal pre-pregnancy body composition and diet during early-mid pregnancy on cardiovascular function and nephron number in juvenile sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, G. S.; Gardner, D.S.; Dandrea, J.; Langley-Evans, S.C.; Pearce, S.; Kurlak, L. O.; Walker, R. M.; Seetho, I.W.; Keisler, D. H.; Ramsay, M.M.; Stephenson, T.; Symonds, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The prenatal diet can program an individual’s cardiovascular system towards later higher resting blood pressure (BP) and kidney dysfunction but the extent to which these programmed responses are directly determined by the timing of maternal nutritional manipulation is unknown. In this study we examined whether maternal nutrient restriction targeted over the period of maximal placental growth i.e. 28-80 d gestation resulted in altered BP or kidney development in the juvenile offspring. This was undertaken in 6-month-old sheep born to mothers fed control (100-150% recommended metabolisable energy (ME) intake for that stage of gestation) or nutrient-restricted (NR; 50%; n 6) diets between 28-80 d gestation. Controls were additionally grouped according to normal (C; ?3, n 7) or low body condition score (LBCS; ?2, n 6) thereby enabling us to examine the effect of maternal body composition on later cardiovascular function. From day 80 to term (?147 d) all sheep were fed to 100% ME. Offspring were weaned at 12 weeks and pasture-reared until 6 months of age when cardiovascular function was determined. Both LBCS and NR sheep tended to have lower resting systolic (C, 85 (SEM 2); LBCS, 77 (SEM 3); NR, 77 (SEM 3) mmHg) and diastolic BP relative to controls. Total nephron count was markedly lower in both LBCS and NR relative to controls (LBCS, 59 (SEM 6); NR, 56 (SEM 12) %). Our data suggest maternal body composition around conception is as important as the level of nutrient intake during early pregnancy in programming later cardiovascular health. PMID:16351771

  12. Nutrient-sensing mechanisms across evolution.

    PubMed

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Wolfson, Rachel L; Sabatini, David M

    2015-03-26

    For organisms to coordinate their growth and development with nutrient availability, they must be able to sense nutrient levels in their environment. Here, we review select nutrient-sensing mechanisms in a few diverse organisms. We discuss how these mechanisms reflect the nutrient requirements of specific species and how they have adapted to the emergence of multicellularity in eukaryotes. PMID:25815986

  13. Experimental Photosensitization and Toxicity in Sheep Produced by Tetradymia glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors affecting the phototoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata were investigated. Photosensitization, which occurs regularly in the field situation, was unpredictable and difficult to produce experimentally. In attempting to understand this unpredictability we concluded that the plant does not lose its toxicity after field collection either through volatility of the toxin, plant enzymatic degradation of the toxin or dehydration. The chlorophyll source, from which the suspected phototoxic agent phylloerythrin is derived, did not appear to be important. The single case of photosensitization produced gave no clues as to why it occurred. Some predisposing factors important to the production of tetradymia related photosensitization in sheep are unknown. In disagreement with previous reports the hepatotoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata was extremely variable. Also plants in comparable stages of growth, but from different locations, varied in their toxicity to sheep. Young budding plants are most toxic, however, toxicity of the plant remains through maturity. PMID:4279759

  14. Reducing stress in sheep by feeding the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum

    E-print Network

    Archer, Gregory Scott

    2005-11-01

    to the controls. Post transport, sheep supplemented at the 1 or 2% rates were less dehydrated as indicated by plasma chemistry profiles andelectrolyte concentrations. In a subsequent trial, the major components of the ANOD (fucoidan, salt, and betaine) were fed...

  15. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  16. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  17. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  18. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  19. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Goats intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand; (2...importation from any region other than Australia, Canada, or New Zealand, provided...Sheep intended for importation from Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  20. Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

    2003-02-20

    The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

  1. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    PubMed

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. PMID:24127821

  2. Management Tips for Internal Parasite Control in Sheep and Goats 

    E-print Network

    Craddock, Frank; Machen, Richard V.; Craig, Tom

    2003-02-20

    The primary control strategy for internal parasites in sheep and goats has been the use of anthelmintics. Because overuse has caused the development of resistant strains, new strategies must be used. This publication lists available anthelmintics...

  3. Implementation of genomic selection in UK beef and sheep breeding 

    E-print Network

    Todd, Darren Lindsay

    2013-11-29

    Genomic selection (GS) has been adopted by the dairy cattle breeding industry and the opportunity exists to implement this technology in UK beef and sheep breeding. However, these sectors do not appear so readily predisposed to GS implementation...

  4. 9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  5. 9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  6. 9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  7. 9 CFR 98.21 - Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. 98...Embryos from sheep in regions other than Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Except for embryos from sheep in Australia, Canada, or New Zealand,...

  8. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  9. Experimental intoxication of sheep and cattle with Wedelia glauca.

    PubMed

    Collazo, L; Riet-Correa, F

    1996-06-01

    Wedelia glauca was administered experimentally to 11 sheep and 4 cattle. The minimum toxic dose for both species was of 4 to 5 g of fresh plant/kg bw. Clinical signs were depression, muscle fasciculations, increased respiratory and cardiac frequencies, opisthotonous, sternal or lateral recumbency and terminal paddling movements. Time of onset of signs ranged from 12 to 40 h after dosing. Serum AST, LDH and GGT were increased. Three cattle and 5 sheep died after clinical manifestation periods of 2 to 18 h, and 2 sheep survived after being affected for 14 and 46 h. Macroscopic and histologic lesions were similar in cattle and sheep; the liver was swollen and dark reddish, and the wall of the gall bladder was edematous. The cavities had yellowish fluid. Petechiae and echymoses were seen on serous membranes. Microscopically the liver had periacinar hemorrhagic necrosis. Two sheep dosed with 1 g/kg bw daily for 20 d and 1 dosed with 1 g/kg bw for 10 d were not affected. Six sheep were transferred from an area free of W glauca to an area where this plant was present. These animals ate small amounts of the plant and lost weight rapidly, but clinical intoxication did not occur. Two sheep were fed with lucerne hay containing 9% W glauca. They ingested 2.5 g/kg of the dry plant (corresponding to 10 g/kg bw of fresh plant) in 24 h, but did not show intoxication. Because the intoxication occurred in sheep and cattle administered 4 to 10 g/kg bw of the plant in a period of 1 to 2 h, the intoxication may only occur when animals ingest a single toxic dose in a short time. PMID:8727220

  10. Immunization of Sheep and Goats Against Soremouth (Contagious Ecthyma). 

    E-print Network

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1935-01-01

    of Azriculture. tin coaieration with . Texas - _Extension ... Service. . ,, shc by ! of OC( unc hec the 10s nPP lea 1 a sl Mo --- vat exc 1 +ma C II x the sor sev Contagious ecthyma (soremouth) is an infectious disease of ?ep and goats..., 1935 IMMUNIZATION OF SHEEP AND GOATS AGAINST SOREMOUTH (Contagious Ecthyma) Contagious ecthyma is an infectious disease of sheep and goats caused by a filterable virus and characterized by the formation of papules, vesicles, pustules, and scabs...

  11. A behavioural study of scrapie-affected sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M Healy; A. J Hanlon; E Weavers; J. D Collins; M. L Doherty

    2002-01-01

    The behaviour of 12 sheep, suspected of having scrapie, and 12 clinically normal animals was observed over a 6-day period. Confirmation of the true disease status of the animals was made at post-mortem using both histopathological and immunocytochemical methods. Scrapie and control sheep were each divided into three groups of four animals and housed in separate solid-walled pens in the

  12. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ?C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  13. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40?C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  14. Production of transgenic blastocyst of sheep by somatic cell cloning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaorong An; Kemian Gou; Yongfu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Five samples from primary cultures of five sheep ovarian granulosa cells were transfected by pEGFP-N1 DNA. Five transgenic\\u000a positive cell lines, each from one of the five samples above, were used as donor nuclei for somatic nucleus transfer. A total\\u000a of 352in vitro matured and enucleated sheep oocytes were fused electrically with transgenic granulosa cells and 329 reconstructed embryos\\u000a were

  15. Density-dependent mother-yearling association in bighorn sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAURO LUCHERINI; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; JON T. JORGENSON

    Post-weaning mother-daughter associations are typical of many ungulates, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density, strong mother-yearling associations were found involving mostly ewes whose lamb-of-the-year died at or soon after birth. At low population density, there were no mother-yearling associations regardless of maternal reproductive status. Non-lactating ewes and most ewes caring

  16. Structural analysis of the Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    E-print Network

    Hennier, Jeffrey Hugh

    1984-01-01

    , evidenced by nearly uniform bedding thickness, fold geometry, and slickensides along bedding surfaces. Precambrian basement rocks at the base of the sedimentary sequence are assumed to deform by alternative mechanisms due to the brittle nature of massive... Stereonet plot of slickensides measured in bedding planes of the Gypsum Springs Format1on on the steep flank of Sheep Mounta1n anticline. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 18 Examples of bedding plane slip and related m1nor thrusting at Sheep...

  17. Propylene-Glycol-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Pearl; Susan A. Rice

    1989-01-01

    Propylene glycol is commonly used as a vehicle for drug administration. In experiments involving the measurement of pulmonary hemodynamics, pentobarbital anesthesia routinely resulted in pulmonary hypertension in sheep. Since pentobarbital is formulated with 40% propylene glycol, we studied the pulmonary hemodynamic effects of propylene glycol in halothane-anesthetized sheep. Intravenous 40% propylene glycol (0.12 ml\\/kg over 3 min) rapidly increased pulmonary

  18. Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in sheep and goats of middle agro-climatic zone of Jammu province.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, J K; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R; Gupta, S K; Singh, Ajitpal

    2013-04-01

    A total of 1920 faecal samples of sheep (960) and goats (960) of stationary flocks of the middle agro-climatic zone of Jammu province were examined, out of which 67.24 % animals were positive for helminthic infections. The different nematodes observed were strongyles (50.1 %), trichurids (12.1 %) and Strongyloides spp. (4.2 %). Trematode ova recorded were of amphistomes (8.3 %), Fasciola spp. (8.2 %) and Dicrocoelium spp. (5.4 %). No significant difference was observed between the infection level in sheep (68.54 %) and goats (65.94 %) which could be attributed to mixed grazing and sharing of pastures/sheds. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher infection was observed in monsoon as compared to winter. Strongyles were predominant during all the seasons, but significantly (p < 0.05) higher infection was observed in monsoon as compared to winter. Coproculture studies revealed that Haemonchus contortus (61.18 %) predominated during all the seasons, followed by Trichostrongylus spp. (13.67 %), Ostertagia spp. (12.17 %), Strongyloides spp. (4.14 %), Oesophagostomum spp. (3.84 %) and Bunostomum spp. (3.83 %). Eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) were the highest (sheep 1883.33 ± 117.6 and goats 1800 ± 110.21) during monsoon and the lowest during winter (sheep 640 ± 41.29 and goats 556.67 ± 33.01). Two peaks of EPG (the first in May and the second in August) were recorded during the 1 year study period. Infection was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in young (73.22 %) as compared to adults (61.25 %). Females showed a higher infection (73.33 %) as compared to males (61.14 %). The effect of prevailing agro-climatic conditions on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths has been discussed. PMID:24431535

  19. Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Nutrient limitations on peat decomposition and nutrient loading in Atlantic White Cedar swamps examined the effects of nutrient increases on peat decomposition. I analyzed peat and porewater nutrients of surface water nutrients. The initial C:N and C:P ratios of the peat were higher than the molar ratios

  20. Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1

    E-print Network

    Baglama, James

    Nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling S. R.-J. Jang1 and J. Baglama2 1. Department with general uptake functions in which nutrient recycling is either instantaneous or de- layed is considered in both the instantaneous and the delayed nutrient recycling models. However, the delayed nutrient

  1. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPAR? (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P?sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. PMID:24267720

  2. Neutrophil extracellular traps in sheep mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Salvatore; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Rocca, Stefano; Cacciotto, Carla; Alberti, Alberto; Marogna, Gavino; Uzzau, Sergio; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins that are released extracellularly by neutrophils and other immune cells as a means for trapping and killing invading pathogens. Here, we describe NET formation in milk and in mammary alveoli of mastitic sheep, and provide a dataset of proteins found in association to these structures. Nucleic acid staining, immunomicroscopy and fluorescent in-situ hybridization of mastitic mammary tissue from sheep infected with Streptococcus uberis demonstrated the presence of extranuclear DNA colocalizing with antimicrobial proteins, histones, and bacteria. Then, proteomic analysis by LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometry provided detailed information on protein abundance changes occurring in milk upon infection. As a result, 1095 unique proteins were identified, of which 287 being significantly more abundant in mastitic milk. Upon protein ontology classification, the most represented localization classes for upregulated proteins were the cytoplasmic granule, the nucleus, and the mitochondrion, while function classes were mostly related to immune defence and inflammation pathways. All known NET markers were massively increased, including histones, granule proteases, and antimicrobial proteins. Of note was the detection of protein arginine deiminases (PAD3 and PAD4). These enzymes are responsible for citrullination, the post-translational modification that is known to trigger NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and extracellular release of NETs. As a further observation, citrullinated residues were detected by tandem mass spectrometry in histones of samples from mastitic animals. In conclusion, this work provides novel microscopic and proteomic information on NETs formed in vivo in the mammary gland, and reports the most complete database of proteins increased in milk upon bacterial mastitis. PMID:26088507

  3. Periacinar liver fibrosis caused by Tephrosia cinerea in sheep.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, F; Carvalho, K S; Riet-Correa, G; Barros, S S; Simões, S V D; Soares, M P; Medeiros, R M T

    2013-08-01

    Tephrosia cinerea has been associated with ascites and liver fibrosis in sheep in Brazil. The dried plant was fed ad libitum to three sheep for 55-80 days. Three additional sheep were used as controls. All the treated sheep presented with hypoalbuminemia and increased ?-glutamyltransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. Anorexia, apathy, rough coat, ascites, and emaciation were observed after 45-60 days of feeding with T. cinerea. At necropsy 55-80 days after feeding of the plant commenced, the treated sheep had ascites, hydrothorax and hydropericardium, and their livers were firm and whitish, with a nodular surface. Histologically, the main hepatic lesions were periacinar fibrosis associated with hemorrhages and necrosis. On electron microscopy, a severe swelling of sinusoidal endothelial cells, frequently obstructing the lumen of the sinusoid was observed. The space of Disse was compressed by the swollen endothelial cells and microvilli usually present on the surface of hepatocytes adjacent to the space of Disse were not apparent. Dense bundles of collagen fibers were present in the spaces of Disse and within the sinusoids between profiles of swollen endothelial cells. It is concluded that T. cinerea causes periacinar fibrosis, similar to poisoning by Galenia africana in sheep and goats and veno-occlusive disease in different species. PMID:23587159

  4. Ubiquitination in plant nutrient utilization

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is well-established as a major modifier of signaling in eukaryotes. However, the extent to which plants rely on Ub for regulating nutrient uptake is still in its infancy. The main characteristic of ubiquitination is the conjugation of Ub onto lysine residues of acceptor proteins. In most cases the targeted protein is rapidly degraded by the 26S proteasome, the major proteolysis machinery in eukaryotic cells. The Ub-proteasome system is responsible for removing most abnormal peptides and short-lived cellular regulators, which, in turn, control many processes. This allows cells to respond rapidly to intracellular signals and changing environmental conditions. This perspective will discuss how plants utilize Ub conjugation for sensing environmental nutrient levels. We will highlight recent advances in understanding how Ub aids nutrient homeostasis by affecting the trafficking of membrane bound transporters. Given the overrepresentation of genes encoding Ub-metabolizing enzymes in plants, intracellular signaling events regulated by Ub that lead to transcriptional responses due to nutrient starvation is an under explored area ripe for new discoveries. We provide new insight into how Ub based biochemical tools can be exploited to reveal new molecular components that affect nutrient signaling. The mechanistic nature of Ub signaling indicates that dominant form of any new molecular components can be readily generated and are likely shed new light on how plants cope with nutrient limiting conditions. Finally as part of future challenges in this research area we introduce the newly discovered roles of Ub-like proteins in nutrient homeostasis. PMID:24282407

  5. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  6. Bromocriptine for Subfertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Ladipo, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Bromocriptine (Parlodel) was prescribed for the treatment of 15 oligospermic and five azoospermic males. Six of the oligospermic males had improvement of their sperm density and four achieved a successful pregnancy. No improvement was observed in the azoospermic patients. PMID:7392074

  7. Male butterflies bounce back

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2007-07-12

    About five years ago, on the islands of Samoa, most of the male Hypolimnas bolina butterflies, also known as the Eggfly or Blue Moon butterfly, disappeared. Now, scientists report that the males have made a comeback and are almost as common as females.

  8. Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Nobel, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake for leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. was reduced when the plants were grown at low concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, or K/sup +/. The water vapor conductance was relatively constant for all nutrient levels, indicating little effect on stomatal response. Although leaves under nutrient stress tended to be lower in chlorophyll and thinner, the ratio of mesophyll surface area to leaf area did not change appreciably. Thus, the reduction in CO/sub 2/ uptake rate at low nutrient levels was due to a decrease in the CO/sub 2/ conductance expressed per unit mesophyll cell wall area (g/sub CO/sup cell//sub 2/). The use of g/sub CO//sup cell//sub 2/ and nutrient levels expressed per unit of mesophyll cell wall provides a new means of assessing nutrient effects on CO/sub 2/ uptake of leaves. 14 figures, 1 table.

  9. The Impact of Environmental Heterogeneity on Genetic Architecture in a Wild Population of Soay Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Pilkington, Jill G.; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Kruuk, Loeske E. B.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates that environmental conditions experienced by individuals can shape their development and affect the stability of genetic associations. The implication of this observation is that the environmental response may influence the evolution of traits in the wild. Here, we examined how the genetic architecture of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits changed as a function of environmental conditions in an unmanaged population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on the island of Hirta, St. Kilda, northwest Scotland. We examined the stability of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental (residual) covariance in males during the first year of life between horn length, body weight, and parasite load in environments of different quality. We then examined the same covariance structures across environments within and between the adult sexes. We found significant genotype-by-environment interactions for lamb male body weight and parasite load, leading to a change in the genetic correlation among environments. Horn length was genetically correlated with body weight in males but not females and the genetic correlation among traits within and between the sexes was dependent upon the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood. Genetic correlations were smaller in more favorable environmental conditions, suggesting that in good environments, loci are expressed that have sex-specific effects. The reduction in genetic correlation between the sexes may allow independent evolutionary trajectories for each sex. This study demonstrates that the genetic architecture of traits is not stable under temporally varying environments and highlights the fact that evolutionary processes may depend largely upon ecological conditions. PMID:19204380

  10. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN STREAMS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...

  11. Parenteral administration of L-arginine enhances fetal survival and growth in sheep carrying multiple fetuses.

    PubMed

    Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    The frequency of multiple fetuses has increased in human pregnancies due to assisted reproductive technologies. This translates into a greater proportion of premature and low-birth weight infants in the United States and worldwide. In addition, improvements in sheep breeding have resulted in new breeds with increased litter size but reduced fetal survival and birth weight. Currently, there are no treatments for preventing fetal growth restriction in humans or sheep (an established model for studying human fetal physiology) carrying multiple fetuses. In this work, Booroola Rambouillet ewes (FecB+/-) with 2-4 fetuses were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 100 and 121 of gestation, ewes received an i.v. bolus injection of either saline solution or 345 ?mol arginine-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily. The arginine treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the percentage of lambs born dead by 23% while increasing (P = 0.05) the percentage of lambs born alive by 59%. The i.v. administration of arginine enhanced (P < 0.05) the birth weights of quadruplets by 23% without affecting maternal body weight. The improved pregnancy outcome was associated with an increase in maternal plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine, cysteine, and proline, as well as a decrease in circulating levels of ammonia and ?-hydroxybutyrate. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of arginine to prolific ewes ameliorated fetal mortality and growth retardation. Our findings provide support for experiments to assess the clinical use of arginine to enhance fetal growth and survival in women gestating multiple fetuses. PMID:21430253

  12. BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

  13. Effect of Chlortetracycline on Nutrient Utilization by Dairy Calves[1] and [2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Bush; R. S. Allen; N. L. Jacobson

    1959-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixteen male dairy calves were used to study the effect of chlortetracycline, fed at a level of 80 mg. per calf daily, on growth and nutrient utilization. The average weight gain during the 16-wk. experiment was 164 lb. for the antibiotic-fed calves and 145 lb. for the controls. Conventional digestion trials conducted during the fifth, eighth, and llth weeks

  14. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley...related to the potential renewal of domestic sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing...

  15. Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens selected The effect of the sex-linked allele dw on immunoresponsiveness of chickens to sheep erythrocyte antigen (SRBC

  16. Characterization of the cellulolytic bacteria communities along the gastrointestinal tract of Chinese Mongolian sheep by using PCR-DGGE and real-time PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Zeng, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Ni, Xueqin; Tang, Yurui; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Hesong; Yin, Zhongqiong; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-07-01

    A balanced gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the health and growth of animals. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants, cellulolytic bacteria aid in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Rumen contents and feces in ruminants are often used to assess gastrointestinal microbial communities; however, these sites do not guarantee to represent the diversity of microbes found in the entire GIT. In this study, we investigated the microbiota along the GIT of five Chinese Mongolian sheep using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR analysis. Results indicated that microbiota were more abundant in the stomach and large intestine than in the small intestine. DGGE and real-time PCR revealed the predominance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the GIT. Meanwhile, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Clostridium cluster IV showed significant difference in their abundance along the GIT (P < 0.05). Fibrobacter succinogenes was the most dominant species, followed by Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens. The ileum harbored a larger number of cellulolytic bacteria, particularly-Clostridium cluster IV, than reported previously. In addition, comparisons between microbiota in the rumen and rectum indicated similar number of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, F. succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Clostridium cluster IV, and Clostridium cluster XIVa, whereas the number of R. albus and R. flavefaciens was higher in the rumen. This study investigated the composition and quantification of GIT microbial community in Chinese Mongolian sheep, and revealed for the first time the cellulolytic bacterial community in these sheep. PMID:25931374

  17. Trends in male contraception.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2003-01-01

    Methods that are available for male contraception, namely coitus interruptus, condoms, and vasectomy, have been used since the 19th century. With the exceptions of a few improvements of these methods, no major progress has been made with respect to introducing new male contraceptives since then. It is extremely urgent to develop new, safe, effective, and reversible male contraceptive methods. Among all male contraceptive methods that are being investigated, the hormonal approach is the closest to clinical application. Hormonal contraception provides pregnancy protection by means of spermatogenic suppression. Androgen-progestin regimens currently represent the best available hormonal combination for induction of a profound suppression of spermatogenesis. Further development of new steroids is mandatory for increasing the choices of available contraceptive formulations and to optimize long-term safety of these regimens. PMID:14666325

  18. [Obesity and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Herá?ek, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility. PMID:23116351

  19. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  20. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a ...

  1. Thyroid and male reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

  2. Cultivating male allies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Lori Hooks; Penny Anthon Green

    1993-01-01

    Females make large investments in their children and compete among themselves to establish and maintain privileged relationships\\u000a with male allies who demonstrate both an ability and a willingness to provide fitness-enhancing advantages. Various “strategies”\\u000a and their more numerous, associated “tactics” are utilized in the competition. Alleged strategies include using sexuality,\\u000a producing offspring, assisting the male in his own intrasexual contests,

  3. Nutrient dynamics within amazonian forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elvira Cuevas; Ernesto Medina

    1988-01-01

    Relationships between fine root growth, rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release were analysed in a mixed forest on Tierra Firme, a Tall Amazon Caatinga and a Low Bana on podsolized sands near San Carlos de Rio Negro. Fine root growth in the upper soil layers (root mat+10 cm upper soil) was considerably higher in the Tierra Firme forest (1117

  4. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  5. with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    with Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plans Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding of discrimination write to USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D and employer. April 2009 PA-2015 H elping People H elp t h e Lan d Managing Manure and Litter on Animal Feeding

  6. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Revised June 2006

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    or dried rather than sent moist at room temperature. · Beware of low prices. Laboratory procedures cost for drinking water analysis can be obtained by contact- ing the Oregon Health Division, Drinking Water SystemsNUTRIENT MANAGEMENT EM 8677 Revised June 2006 Laboratories Serving Oregon Soil, Water, Plant Tissue

  7. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Revised May 2008

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    or dried rather than sent moist at room temperature. · Beware of low prices. Laboratory procedures cost for drinking water analysis, contact the Oregon Health Division, Drinking Water Systems, P.O. Box 14450NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT EM 8677 Revised May 2008 Laboratories Serving Oregon Soil, Water, Plant Tissue

  8. Hunting Nutrients and Trapping Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertility is enhanced directly by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) efficiently absorbing the maximum amount of nutrients available and indirectly by formation of stabilized soil aggregates. Glomalin is sticky, not easily soluble substance, on AMF hyphae and provides a protective coating to b...

  9. Nutrients for the aging eye

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

  10. The callipyge mutation and other genes that affect muscle hypertrophy in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noelle E Cockett; Maria A Smit; Christopher A Bidwell; Karin Segers; Tracy L Hadfield; Gary D Snowder; Michel Georges; Carole Charlier

    2005-01-01

    Genetic strategies to improve the profitability of sheep operations have generally focused on traits for reproduction. However, natural mutations exist in sheep that affect muscle growth and development, and the exploitation of these mutations in breeding strategies has the potential to significantly improve lamb-meat quality. The best-documented mutation for muscle development in sheep is callipyge (CLPG), which causes a postnatal

  11. The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing SM Kitessa AM Nicol in the response of cattle and sheep to mixed grazing. They identified a number of factors as potential sources of this variation but did not consider grazing system. This experiment reports the growth rate of cattle and sheep

  12. Physiological and behavioural responses of sheep to simulated sea transport motions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The motion of ships can cause discomfort and stress in humans, but little is known about the impact on sheep welfare, despite many sheep travelling long distances by ship during live export. We tested whether exposing sheep to roll (side to side movement), heave (up and down movement) and pitch (fro...

  13. Sheep May Not Be an Important Zoonotic Reservoir for Cryptosporidium and Giardia Parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Una M. Ryan; Caroline Bath; Ian Robertson; Carolyn Read; Aileen Elliot; Linda Mcinnes; Rebecca Traub; Brown Besier

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in sheep and the genotypes that they harbor, although potentially sheep may contribute significantly to contamination of watersheds. In the present study, conducted in Western Australia, a total of 1,647 sheep fecal samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. using microscopy, and a subset (n

  14. Kinetic model of whole-body vanadium metabolism: studies in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Patterson; S. L. II Hansard; C. B. Ammerman; P. R. Henry; L. A. Zech; W. R. Fisher

    1986-01-01

    A compartmental model for vanadium metabolism in sheep has been proposed. The model is consistent with data obtained from sheep fed a control diet (2.6 ppm vanadium) containing 0 or 200 ppm supplemental vanadium. Sheep were administered UYV dioxovanadium either orally or intravenously. Blood feces, and urine radioactivity were monitored for 6 days postdosing. Several new insights regarding vanadium metabolism

  15. Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E of the new feed (stinging nettle) than sheep. Refusal compositions showed similar trends to Experiments 1 sheep. The consistent trend for goat feed refusals to contain less acid detergent fibre and more

  16. Comparison of Prion Allele Frequency found in Suffolk and Targhee Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a class of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to compare genotypic and allelic frequencies among USSES Targhee and Suffolk sheep. A total of 122 sheep were genotyped for codon 171 with allele specific primers in 2 separate...

  17. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environ...

  18. Density-dependent foraging behaviour of sheep on alpine pastures: effects of scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kausrud; A. Mysterud; Y. Rekdal; O. Holand; G. Austrheim

    2006-01-01

    Foraging patterns of large herbivores may give important clues as to why their life history varies depending on population density. In this landscape-scale experi- ment, domestic sheep Ovis aries were kept at high (80 sheep km? 2) and low (25 sheep km? 2) population densities during summer in high mountain pastures in Hol, Norway. We predicted an increasing use of

  19. Identification of herd-specific bovine viral diarrhoea virus isolates from infected cattle and sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Paton; U. Carlsson; J. P. Lowings; J. J. Sands; S. Vil?ek; S. Alenius

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen pestiviruses isolated from ruminants on four different farms in Sweden were compared antigenically and genetically. On two farms, viruses were isolated from both cattle and sheep, a third farm contained only sheep and a fourth only cattle. Seven viruses were isolated from six different cattle and six viruses were isolated from five different sheep. Epitope conservation between the viruses

  20. RELEASE OF BRADYKININ-LIKE SUBSTANCE (BKLS) IN SHEEP BY VENOM OF CROTALUS ATROX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Margolis; Sally Bruce; B Starzecki; GJ Horner; DFJ Halmagyi

    1965-01-01

    The venom of Crotalus atrox liberates a substance resembling bradykinin (BKLS) from sheep and human plasma. Up to 2.5 ?g, bradykinin-equivalents per ml, of sheep plasma could be recovered in vitro. Antivenin inhibits this reaction. The effect of injected venom in sheep was assessed by estimating the residual BKLS precursor, converting it into BKLS with excess of venom or trypsin.

  1. Associations between the prion protein genotype and performance traits of meat breeds of sheep.

    PubMed

    de Vries, F; Borchers, N; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Reinecke, S; Lüpping, W; Distl, O

    2004-07-31

    The prion protein (PrP) genotypes of four German meat breeds of sheep were examined in relation to their scores for muscle mass, conformation, wool quality, daily liveweight gain and ultrasonic measurements of the depth of back muscle and back fat. The dataset included 912 genotyped German texel sheep among 10,383 recorded sheep, 474 genotyped Suffolk sheep among 4079 recorded sheep, 271 genotyped German white-headed mutton sheep among 3393 recorded sheep, and 99 genotyped German black-headed mutton sheep among 1642 recorded sheep. The model included the fixed effects of PrP genotype, herd, year and season, test day, sex, rearing method, the regression coefficient of average age, and the random additive genetic effect of the animal. In all four breeds there were no statistically significant associations between these performance traits and the occurrence of ARR alleles and the ARR/ARR genotype except for the depth of back muscle and the daily liveweight gain of German black-headed mutton sheep; however, in this breed, the interpretation could be affected by the small number of animals involved. All the genotyped sheep had significantly better performance traits than the non-genotyped sheep. PMID:15338706

  2. Recombinant virus vaccine for bluetongue disease in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, P; Urakawa, T; Van Dijk, A A; Erasmus, B J

    1990-01-01

    Bluetongue virus proteins derived from baculovirus expression vectors have been administered in different combinations to sheep, a vertebrate host susceptible to bluetongue virus, and the neutralizing antibody responses were measured. Vaccinated sheep were subsequently challenged, and the indices of clinical reaction were calculated. The results indicated that the outer capsid protein VP2 alone in doses of greater than 50 micrograms per sheep elicited protection. A dose of ca. 50 micrograms of VP2 protected some but not all sheep. However, when used in combination with ca. 20 micrograms of the other outer capsid protein, VP5, 50-micrograms quantities of VP2 not only protected all the vaccinated sheep but also elicited a higher neutralizing-antibody response. The addition of viral core proteins VP1, VP3, VP6, and VP7, the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2, and NS3, and the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5 did not enhance this neutralizing-antibody response. Images PMID:2157868

  3. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of kurdistan province, Western iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 ?g/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 ?g/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver. PMID:25943488

  4. Potential environmental consequences of administration of anthelmintics to sheep.

    PubMed

    Beynon, S A

    2012-09-30

    Anthelmintics, veterinary medicines for the control of endoparasites, enter into the environment largely through faeces of the treated animals. Sheep dung is a patchily distributed, ephemeral resource, with a functionally important decomposer community. The nature of this community and the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics in sheep mean that the ecotoxic impacts of these drugs in sheep dung may differ markedly from those in cattle dung, where most research has been focussed. The period of maximum residue excretion is generally more transient in sheep than cattle dung, but low-level excretion may continue for longer, giving the potential for extended sub-lethal effects. Here, the environmental impacts of sheep anthelmintics, as well as alternative endoparasite control methods are reviewed. Impacts are discussed in terms of the potential for residues to enter into the environment, the toxicity and the impact on ecosystem functioning at an appropriate scale. Future research priorities are also discussed; these include the need for studies of the functional contributions of dung-colonising species, as well as the development of higher-tier ecotoxicological methods bridging the gap between laboratory and field experiments. Large-scale and long-term studies, including the development of appropriate models, are necessary to allow the consequences of anthelmintic administration to be assessed, particularly within the remit of sustainable animal production. PMID:22538093

  5. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  6. Urothelial lined colocystoplasty in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P A; Lorenz, C; Stefanek, W; Byard, R W

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen lambs underwent colocystoplasty using a segment of demucosalised sigmoid colon, and were compared to 14 control animals. Nine animals had a procedure which included the addition of the muscle patch to an autoaugmented bladder, and 10 had a clam cystoplasty with the denuded colon. Six months after the procedure, the average compliance value for the autoaugmentation colocystoplasty bladders was 5.7 +/- 1.7 ml/cm H2O, compared to 6.9 +/- 2.2 ml/cm H2O for the clam-demucosalised colocystoplasty group, and 11.0 +/- 4.8 ml/cm H2O for the control group. Whereas at 12 months the compliance values were 9.2 +/- 3.5, 10.7 +/- 5.1 and 9.1 +/- 3.7 ml/cm H2O for each of the groups, respectively. The sheep colonic muscle tolerated the demucosalisation procedure poorly, reflected in an inflamed, haemorrhagic colonic segment in the animals sacrificed within 1 month; this may have been the reason for the poor results, and explain why the autoaugmentation did not improve the outcome. Colonic mucosal regrowth occurred in 5, and was related to the demucosalisation technique. PMID:7805710

  7. Anthelmintic activity of paraherquamide in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shoop, W L; Egerton, J R; Eary, C H; Suhayda, D

    1990-06-01

    Paraherquamide, an oxindole alkaloid metabolite of Penicillium paraherquei, was tested against the common gastrointestinal nematode species of sheep at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, per os. It was highly efficacious (greater than or equal to 98% reduction) as a single oral treatment dosages greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/kg against adult Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia curticei, and the L4 stage of Cooperia spp. Noteworthy is the fact the isolate of H. contortus used was ivermectin-resistant and the isolate of T. colubriformis used was ivermectin- and benzimidazole-resistant. This suggests a different mode of action for paraherquamide relative to ivermectin and the benzimidazoles. The adult stage of Oesophagostomum columbianum was the dosage-limiting parasite with 79% efficacy recorded at the highest treatment level (2.0 mg/kg). Extrapolation from the O. columbianum response curve suggests a dosage in excess of 4.0 mg/kg would be required to attain 95% efficacy. PMID:2352063

  8. Functional development of the sheep diaphragmatic ligament.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, R I; Berger, P J

    1996-01-01

    1. The diaphragmatic ligament, which lines the thoracic surface of the diaphragm, plays a major role in setting the passive compliance of the diaphragm in the adult. Since many elastic tissues are more compliant at younger ages, our aim was to determine whether this diaphragmatic ligament plays an important role during development of the diaphragm. 2. We examined the passive biaxial length-tension properties of the isolated mid-costal diaphragm from fetal, newborn and adult sheep; initially with the diaphragm intact and then with the diaphragmatic ligament removed to reveal its functional significance. 3. We found that unlike other elastic tissues the diaphragmatic ligament is stiffer in early development than in the adult. The diaphragmatic ligament supports about 75% of the passive tension in the diaphragm in the 121 day fetus (term at 147 days) declining to about 50% from 3 weeks of age. The fetal diaphragm muscle fibres are exposed to 1-7 kPa of stress over the last 26 days of gestation. 4. We suggest that the diaphragmatic ligament provides a structural framework on which the muscle fibres of the diaphragm grow in fetal life, and that the ligament's elasticity is regulated to maintain a low and constant stress on the diaphragm muscle fibres during development. PMID:8735001

  9. Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, K J; Morris, B

    1978-01-01

    A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

  10. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  11. Male–Male Dimensions of Male–Female Battering: A New Look at Domestic Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry L. Jennings; Christopher M. Murphy

    2000-01-01

    The field of domestic violence has concentrated its theories, research, and treatment methods on the male–female dimensions of the problem. However, male–male issues also play a crucial role. The authors explain how traditional male socialization and rigid sex role stereotyping can have emotional and behavioral consequences that are displaced onto male–female relationships. In particular, \\

  12. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  13. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Schröder; P. van Asperen; G. J. M. van Dongen; F. G. Wijnands

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs through deposition, seeds and biological fixation) and outputs in crop products, and amounted to 117 kg nitrogen

  14. Nutrient Content of Single – Muscle Pork Cuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...

  15. Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

    1997-01-01

    The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

  16. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  17. NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

  18. Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling

    E-print Network

    Baglama, James

    Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling Sophia Jang1's by Riley et al. [24] for modeling the profiles of marine plankton. Since then numerious nutrient-plankton, 29, 30, 34, 35]. The intensive investigation of nutrient-plankton interactions is motivated in large

  19. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Hecht; Heiner Kuhl; Stefan A Haas; Sebastian Bauer; Albert J Poustka; Jasmin Lienau; Hanna Schell; Asita C Stiege; Volkhard Seitz; Richard Reinhardt; Georg N Duda; Stefan Mundlos; Peter N Robinson

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sheep is an important model animal for testing novel fracture treatments and other medical applications. Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes. RESULTS: In this work we have

  1. Genetics of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    Early in embryogenesis, cells that are destined to become germ cells take on a different destiny from other cells in the embryo. The germ cells are not programmed to perform "vital" functions but to perpetuate the species through the transfer of genetic materials to the next generation. To fulfill their destiny, male germ cells undergo meiosis and extensive morphogenesis that transforms the round-shaped cells into freely motile sperm propelled by a beating flagellum to seek out their missing half. Apparently, extra genes and additional regulatory mechanisms are required to achieve all these unique features, and an estimated 11 % of genes are involved in fertility in Drosophila (Hackstein et al., Trends Genet 16(12):565-572, 2000). If comparative numbers of male fertility genes are needed in mammals, extra risks of male fertility problems are associated with disruptive mutations in those genes. Among human male infertility cases, approximately 22 % were classified as "idiopathic," a term used to describe diseases of unknown causes, with idiopathic oligozoospermia being the most common semen abnormality (11.2 %) (Comhaire et al., Int J Androl (Suppl 7):1-53, 1987). "Idiopathic" is a widely used adjective that is used to reflect our lack of understanding of the genetics of male fertility. Fortunately, after more than two decades of phenotypic studies using knockout mice and identifying genes disrupted in spontaneous mutant mice, we have unveiled new and unexpected aspects of crucial gene functions for fertility. Other efforts to categorize genes involved in male fertility in mammals have suggested a total of 1,188 genes (Hermo et al., Microsc Res Tech 73(4):241-494, 2010). Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to bypass many fertilization obstacles to achieve fertilization with only a few extracted sperm, the widespread use of ICSI without proper knowledge for genetic testing and counseling could still potentially propagate pleiotropic gene mutations associated with male infertility and other genetic diseases (Alukal and Lamb, Urol Clin North Am 35(2):277-288, 2008). In this chapter, we give a brief account of major events during the development of male germ cells and focus on the functions of several crucial genes that have been studied in mutant mouse models and are potential causes of human male infertility. PMID:24782004

  2. Male–male competition and female choice in brown trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIK PETERSSON; TORBJÖRN JÄRVI; HAKAN OLSÉN; IAN MAYER; MIKAEL HEDENSKOG

    1999-01-01

    In some salmonid species, the females have been assumed to choose their mates on the size of the male’s adipose fin. This hypothesis was tested in a stream water aquarium, in which 19 brown trout,Salmo trutta, females were allowed to choose between two males of the same body size but with different adipose fin sizes. The two males were separated

  3. Subchronic toxicity of croton oil (Croton tiglium L.) to sheep

    E-print Network

    Harvey, Roger Bruce

    1983-01-01

    of croton oil treatments in sheep Treatment Animal Sex" Body weight chan e (k ) 1 Untreated control 725 585 640 619 635 632 F F F M M M -1. 14t -2. 27 1. 59 -4. 99 4. 09 -1. 82 2 Fasted control 3 . 011 ml/kg 4 . 019 ml/kg 5... Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. M. Bailey, Jr. Croton oil (Croton ~ti lium L. ) was administered daily via stomach tube to 12 clinically healthy Rambouillet crossbred sheep (2 ewes, 2 wethers per group for 3 groups), 1 to 4 years of age for 60...

  4. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori in raw sheep milk samples.

    PubMed

    Turutoglu, H; Mudul, S

    2002-08-01

    It is known that Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in humans. However the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. In this study, the presence of H. pylori was investigated in sheep milk that is commonly consumed as human food. For this purpose, a total of 440 raw sheep milk samples collected from the Burdur region of Turkey were examined by specific cultural procedures, however, H. pylori was not isolated in any sample. PMID:12241034

  5. Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

  6. Neuroaxonal degeneration in sheep grazing Sorghum pastures.

    PubMed

    Bradley, G A; Metcalf, H C; Reggiardo, C; Noon, T H; Bicknell, E J; Lozano-Alarcon, F; Reed, R E; Riggs, M W

    1995-04-01

    During the fall of 1992, 250 (10%) of 2,500 Rambouilet cross feeder lambs grazing Sorghum bicolor developed neurologic signs including weakness, ataxia, head shaking, knuckling of the fetlocks, inability to rise, and opisthotonos. One hundred fifteen (46%) of the affected lambs died. Twenty of the surviving lambs exhibited residual neurologic signs of ataxia when stressed. At the same time, 275 (25%) of 1,100 ewes grazing a nearby sudex pasture (S. sudanese x S. bicolor) gave birth to lambs that were weak and unable to rise. Newborn lambs exhibited extensor rigidity and opisthotonos when assisted to a standing position. The dystocias that occurred were due to lambs with contracted limbs (arthrogryposis). All affected lambs died or were euthanized. Histologic examination of the brains of 3 feeder lambs and 9 newborn lambs revealed similar microscopic lesions. The predominant change was the presence of focal axonal enlargements (spheroids) in the proximal segments of axons, which were restricted to the nuclei of the medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain. In addition, the spinal cord contained spheroids in the ventral horn gray matter of the 6 newborns examined. Ultrastructurally, the spheroids were composed of aggregates of neurofilaments, mitochondria, vesicular bodies, and dense bodies bounded by a thin myelin sheath. There was mild gliosis in the more severely affected animals of both groups. There was minimal Wallerian degeneration in the white matter adjacent to affected nuclei in the brain and the ventromedial and dorsolateral funiculi of the spinal cord. This is the first detailed report of Sorghum toxicity in sheep. PMID:7619906

  7. Male infertility microsurgical training

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Akanksha; Li, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility. Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills. Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence, and reduces stress and operating time, benefiting both the patient and the surgeon. This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models. The role of emerging techniques, such as robotic-assisted microsurgery, is also discussed. PMID:23160265

  8. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    E-print Network

    Maxim O. Lavrentovich; John H. Koschwanez; David R. Nelson

    2013-06-13

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness $\\ell$ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter $\

  9. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  10. Nutrient control of Drosophila longevity.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Marc; Post, Stephanie; Yu, Kweon

    2014-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends the lifespan of many animals, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with flies shows that longevity is controlled by the ratio of consumed protein relative to carbohydrates. Given that reduced insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling increase Drosophila lifespan, these pathways are candidate mediators of DR. However, this idea has ambiguous experimental support. The Nutritional Geometric Framework (NGF), which dissects the impact of nutrient protein relative to carbohydrates, may provide an approach to resolving the roles for these pathways in DR. Nutrient sensing of protein and carbohydrate may occur in the fat body through signals to hypothalamic-like neurons in the fly brain and, thus, control secretion of insulin-like peptides that regulate longevity. PMID:24685228

  11. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  12. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  13. Should females prefer dominant males?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Qvarnström; Elisabet Forsgren

    1998-01-01

    It is generally believed that success in male–male competition genuinely reflects high quality and that female preference for dominant males should therefore be widespread. However, recent studies suggest that male dominance is not always attractive and that it does not necessarily predict superior parental quality, better genes or other forms of benefit to females. In fact, the costs of choosing

  14. Gross and histopathological observations of long-term catheterized vessels in experimental sheep.

    PubMed

    Barraza, M L; Strickland, J R; Zepeda, H; Taylor, J B; Krehbiel, C R; Bell, G S; Klotz, J L

    2006-06-01

    Chronic indwelling central vessel catheters provide vascular access for compartmental infusion or sampling. However, complications with catheter patency during the postoperative and/or experimental period often arise. In order to identify physiological occurrences common with such complications, 10 multicatheterized sheep (61.8 +/- 7.8 kg BW), obtained from a previous nutrient flux study were used for gross and histopathological investigation. Catheters had been surgically placed in a hepatic portal vein (PVC), a hepatic vein (HVC), a distal mesenteric vein (MVC) and a mesenteric artery (MAC). In the previous study, catheters (PVC, HVC and MAC) were used to collect blood samples or infuse (MVC) p-aminohippurate. Catheters were maintained for a total of 58 days prior to necropsy. Histopathological findings indicated that catheter failures were associated with the following tissue responses: (i) thromboses with frequent focal vasculitis; (ii) euplastic tissues associated with extensive fibrosis; (iii) granulomas; (iv) neo-vascularization of the media; (v) calcification processes; and (vi) micro-abscesses. Additional studies are needed that address and incorporate improvement of catheter design and placement to minimize irritation of endothelium, improvement of catheter treatments and therapeutic regimes, and development and use of alternative anti-coagulants. A greater understanding of the mechanisms leading to failure will help researchers improve catheter performance and patency. PMID:16737512

  15. Longitudinal Study of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Shedding in Sheep Feces: Persistence of Specific Clones in Sheep Flocks?

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sergio; Martínez, Remigio; García, Alfredo; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E.; Blanco, Miguel; Dahbi, Ghizlane; López, Cecilia; Mora, Azucena; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan M.

    2009-01-01

    To provide information on the persistence and maintenance of colonization with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in sheep, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of STEC isolates (n = 145) belonging to serogroups O5, O91, and O146 from 39 healthy animals was performed in a 12-month longitudinal study carried out with four sheep flocks. At the flock level as well as the individual-animal level, the same clones were obtained on sampling occasions separated by as much as 11 months. PMID:19168649

  16. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  17. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  18. Male face lift

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce F. Connell; Santa Ana

    2002-01-01

    The author describes how to use the deep layer support technique for male face lift to achieve natural-looking results and virtually undetectable scars. He discusses incisions and neck contouring in detail and provides pointers on eliminating crow's-feet. (Aesthetic Surg J 2002;22:385-396.)

  19. The Competent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, John O.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    1978-01-01

    The article attempts to piece together a conceptualization of the competent male using a model that centers upon achievement and affiliation. Using transactional analysis, it expounds upon sex role communication between men and women, then discusses specific personality traits of men, and what they imply for the future. (LPG)

  20. Factors influencing changes in articular cartilage following hemiarthroplasty in sheep

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    head size and position. Nineteen sheep received unilateral hip arthroplasties and were euthanized one regarding the long-term performance of hip hemiarthroplasty. Complications related to hemi- arthroplasty and longevity of hip hemi- arthroplasty. We focused on the acetabular side of the hip joint as maintaining

  1. Kinetics and disposition of orally dosed sodium chlorate in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in sheep to determine excretory characteristics of sodium chlorate after a single oral dose. In Exp. 1 lambs (n = 16; age = 8.1 ± 1.7 d; BW = 8.2 ± 1.1 kg; mean ± SD) were dosed orally with 0, 30, 60, or 90 mg/kg BW of sodium chlorate. Twenty-four h after exposure chlorate...

  2. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the U.S., is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine g...

  3. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. Neurological disorders in sheep during signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A S; Noordin, M M; Rajion, M A

    1989-04-01

    Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in sheep 4 weeks after grazing on Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). These neurological disorders included the stamping of forelegs, star-gazing, incoordination, head-pressing against the fence and circling movements. Histologically, numerous vacuolations of various sizes were observed in the white matter of the brain giving rise to a spongy appearance. PMID:2929118

  5. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

  6. CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des LE MOUTON CARENCÉ EN COBALT-VITAMINE B12. ― Des lésions cardiovasculaires ont été observées à l'autopsie chez 5 des 6 moutons soumis à une carence expérimentale en cobalt-vitamine B12 pendant 34

  7. Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

    E-print Network

    Service, West Lafayette, IN 47907 A sound management program to keep animals healthy is basicCommon Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student, University of Kentucky Purdue extension AS-595-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension

  8. Comparison of Genetic Diversity Between US and Kazak Sheep Breeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To secure US genetic diversity it is beneficial to compare US and non-US breeds. Such information may also be used to identify areas of sampling for diverse genetic resources. Kazakhstan (KZ) provides an interesting comparison due to its history of sheep production and proximity to the Silk Route, w...

  9. What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms are at risk of being infested by these parasites. · The eggs and larvae of stomach worms are com- monly found of the parasites. The irritation and pain causes the animal to cough. Stomach worms Stomach worms are voracious

  10. Antiprotozoal effects of surfactant detergents in the rumen of sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Burggraaf; R. A. Leng

    1980-01-01

    An in vivo method to estimate the antiprotozoal effects of detergents and other compounds is described. Dose rates of 10 g of active ingredient per sheep were injected directly into the rumen through a permanent cannula. Antiprotozoal effects were determined by visual counting of protozoa and plotting the reduction in concentrations, after treatment, with time. Anionic surfactants (Alkanates) were shown

  11. Tools and Technology Techniques for Capturing Bighorn Sheep

    E-print Network

    Tools and Technology Techniques for Capturing Bighorn Sheep Lambs JOSHUA B. SMITH, Department of VITs was 78% with pre- partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs by years of depressed lamb recruitment, which limits population recovery (Woodard et al. 1974, Spraker et

  12. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-04-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.

  13. Preferences of sheep for different types of pen flooring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Færevik; Inger Lise Andersen; Knut Egil Bøe

    2005-01-01

    In countries where the climate makes it practical with indoor housing during cold periods of the year and access to straw is limited, e.g. Iceland and Norway, housing of sheep on slats or expanded metal floors is common practice. However, European regulations for organic farming require that all animals should have access to a lying area with solid floor. The

  14. Selenium deficiency, the drug metabolising enzymes and mycotoxicoses in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Sissons; J. H. Watkinson; M. J. Byford

    1982-01-01

    An examination was made of the relationship in Romney sheep between selenium deficiency and (i) the state of the liver drug metabolising enzyme system, (ii) subclinical liver damage, (iii) susceptibility to facial eczema, and (iv) susceptibility to ryegrasss staggers. The microsomal electron transport detoxifying enzymes based on cytochrome P–450 were unaffected by Se deficiency, suggesting that these enzymes are uninduced

  15. Interface between bone and nacre implants in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Atlan; O. Delattre; S. Berland; A. LeFaou; G. Nabias; D. Cot; E. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the interface between bone and chronic implants of nacre in sheep. There was no foreign body reaction over the period of 10 months and the implants were not broken down. Light microscopy indicated activity within an osteoprogenitor cellular layer lining the implant, resulting in a complete sequence of new bone formation. Nacre appeared to bind directly to

  16. Effects on the fecundity of sheep of immunisation against androstenedione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LA Stubbings; BA Maund

    1988-01-01

    Fecundin, which actively immunises sheep against androstenedione, has now been commercially available to British farmers for three seasons. By its use an average increase of 20 to 25 per cent in the number of lambs reared can be expected, although the results on individual farms have been variable. During 1984-85 and 1985-86 ADAS carried out trials involving over 2000 ewes

  17. Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    they release, which determines their ability to digest the connective tissue between the horn and flesh such as that in dry lots can cause irritation to the soft tissue, and create ideal conditions for footrot when tissue. #12;Purdue Extension · Knowledge to Go 2 Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

  18. COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

  19. COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB in the injection site. Copper per os dosing is efficient for treating deficient animals (Lamand et al., 1969 consuming. Therefore we tried to per- fect a copper and zinc deficiency treatment allowing the injection

  20. Isolation and culture of sheep bronchial artery endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Sanders; S. J. Harrison; W. S. Lee; D. B. Pearse; E. M. Wagner

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for the isolation of endothelial cells from sheep bronchial artery by treatment with collagenase. Cells obtained from the perfusate of the collagenase-treated vessel are cultured. Identified by their cobblestone morphology, endothelial cell colonies of approximately 50 cells are selected by a cloning cylinder and subcultured using trypsin. Endothelial cells are characterized by the formation of vessel-like tubes

  1. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  2. Trilogy Pericardial Valve: Hemodynamic Performance and Calcification in Adolescent Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem Flameng; Bart Meuris; Crystal Cunanan; Erik Verbeken; Paul Herijgers; Marie-Christine Herregods

    2010-01-01

    Background. We assessed the hemodynamic perfor- mance and calcification potential of a new design o f bovine pericardial valve, the Trilogy valve (Arbor Surgi - cal Technologies Inc, Irvine, CA). We compared this new valve with the Perimount valve (Edwards Lifesciences , Irvine, CA) in a randomized prospective study in adoles - cent sheep . Methods. Nine Trilogy valves (size

  3. Kit-like immunopositive cells in sheep mesenteric lymphatic vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. McCloskey; M. A. Hollywood; K. D. Thornbury; S. M. Ward; N. G. McHale

    2002-01-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have suggested that there is a subpopulation of cells in lymphatic vessels which act as pacemakers controlling the characteristic spontaneous contractile activity in this tissue. In this study, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques were used on sheep mesenteric lymphatic vessels to investigate the morphology of the cells comprising the lymphatic wall. The smooth muscle cells were not

  4. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan José; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; García, Laura; Fernández, Antonio; Loste, Araceli

    2005-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte trans-ketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

  5. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures. PMID:15759830

  6. Influence of Diet on the Behaviour Pattern of Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Morag

    1967-01-01

    BALACH1 noted that under normal management adult sheep and cattle sleep little if at all. He suggested that this behaviour pattern may be related to the need for maintaining the thorax in an upright position for proper functioning of the reticulo-rumen, and to the requirement of time and consciousness for rumination. He defined sleep as a marked relaxation of consciousness

  7. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  8. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

  9. BROWN BEAR PREDATION ON DOMESTIC SHEEP REGISTERED WITH MORTALITY TRANSMITTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IVAR MYSTERUD; JERRY T. WARREN

    During 1989, 291 lambs in 3 herds of domestic sheep were tagged with silent mortality transmitters prior to release onto open, coniferous forest range in southeast Norway. Twenty-six lamb carcasses were recovered. Lamb mortality was attributed to disease (19%), accidents (22%), and predation (59%). In addition to the dead lambs, the carcasses of 21 ewes were also recovered. Of these,

  10. Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernardo Chessa; Filipe Pereira; Frederick Arnaud; Antonio Amorim; Félix Goyache; Ingrid Mainland; Rowland R. Kao; Josephine M. Pemberton; Dario Beraldi; Michael J. Stear; Alberto Alberti; Marco Pittau; Leopoldo Iannuzzi; Mohammad H. Banabazi; Rudovick R. Kazwala; Ya-ping Zhang; Juan J. Arranz; Bahy A. Ali; Zhiliang Wang; Metehan Uzun; Michel M. Dione; Ingrid Olsaker; Lars-Erik Holm; Urmas Saarma; Sohail Ahmad; Nurbiy Marzanov; Emma Eythorsdottir; Martin J. Holland; Paolo Ajmone-Marsan; Michael W. Bruford; Juha Kantanen; Thomas E. Spencer; Massimo Palmarini

    2009-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their ``retrotype'' and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as ``primitive'' on the basis

  11. DIMINISHING RUMEN BUTYROGENESIS IN BULLS AND SHEEP FED SUGAR BEETS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DIMINISHING RUMEN BUTYROGENESIS IN BULLS AND SHEEP FED SUGAR BEETS H. LEONTOWICZ, W. BAREJ, G. Nowoursynowska 166 and Institute of Animal Physio%gy and Nutrition PAS S Jab%nna / Warsaw, Poland Sugar beets and lac- tate. Barej et a/. (1978) succesfully used a ration consisting of sugar beet silage (54 % D

  12. TRUNCATED GAMMA-GLUTAMYL CARBOXYLASE IN RAMBOUILLET SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A flock of Rambouillet sheep was examined because of lamb mortality due to ineffective hemostasis at parturition. Decreased activities of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, severely reduced hepatic gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity and adequate vitamin K 2,3 epoxide reductase activity was det...

  13. Nutrient-specific feeding and endocrine effects of jejunal infusions in obese animals.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan J; Moghadam, Alexander A; Moran, Timothy H

    2014-03-15

    Intestinal nutrient infusions result in variable decreases in food intake and body weight based on the nutrient type and the specific intestinal infusion site. We previously found that intrajejunal infusions of a fatty acid and glucose, but not casein hydrolysate, decreases food intake and body weight in lean chow-fed laboratory rats. To test whether obese, high fat-fed animals would show similar decreases in food intake and body weight in response to intrajejunal infusions of the same nutrients, equal kilocalorie loads of these nutrients (11.4 kcal) or vehicle were infused into the jejunum of obese, high fat-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats over 7 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Food intake was continuously monitored, and body weight was measured daily. After the infusion on the final day, rats were killed and plasma was collected. Similar to lean chow-fed rats, intrajejunal infusions of linoleic acid (LA) and glucose (Glu), but not casein hydrolysate (Cas), suppressed food intake with no compensatory increase in food intake after the infusion period. In contrast to lean chow-fed rats, only the LA, and not the Glu or Cas, produced decreases in body weight in the obese high fat-fed rat. There also were no differences in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in any of the nutrient infusion groups compared with saline infusion. These results suggest that there is a differential response to the same nutrients in lean vs. obese animals. PMID:24452547

  14. Date Time Venue Type Speaker Institute Topic 20 July 12 pm Bld 12, L1 Special Dr Lee Smith The University of Edinburgh Androgen control of male reproductive development a 21

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, David

    The University of Edinburgh Androgen control of male reproductive development ­ a 21 st Century perspective 27 Some novel uses of follistatin 2. Mr Yashar Razavi Monash University PhD mid-candidature presentation Exploring the neuroprotective role of erythropoietin in the developing sheep brain 2. Ms Xiangting Chen

  15. Growth and Nutrient Uptake by Soybean Plants in Nutrient Solutions of Graded Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, James E.; Frere, Maurice H.

    1971-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merr. var. Hawkeye), grown in nutrient solutions maintained at graded concentrations showed a large response in both shoot dry weight and total ion uptake. Growth rate was dependent upon nutrient concentration, even when quantity of nutrient was not limiting. Peak periods for absorption of specific ions at certain growth stages were not exhibited. Rates of ion uptake by soybeans were generally proportional to the growth rate during the period of major growth. It is suggested that a dilute nutrient solution could provide sufficient nutrients for adequate root growth prior to major shoot growth, at which time a more concentrated nutrient solution is needed. PMID:16657819

  16. Adaptability of growth and nutrient uptake potential of Chlorella sorokiniana with variable nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2014-12-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana can sustain growth in conditions hostile to other species, and possesses good nutrient removal and lipid accumulation potentials. However, the effects of variable nutrient levels (N and P) in wastewaters on growth, productivity, and nutrient uptake by C. sorokiniana have not been studied in detail. This study demonstrates the ability of this alga to sustain uniform growth and productivity, while regulating the relative nutrient uptake in accordance to their availability in the bulk medium. These results highlight the potential of C. sorokiniana as a suitable candidate for fulfilling the coupled objectives of nutrient removal and biomass production for bio-fuel with wastewaters having great variability in nutrient levels. PMID:25463782

  17. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China) [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China)] [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in sheep with scrapie.

    PubMed

    Miller, J M; Jenny, A L; Taylor, W D; Marsh, R F; Rubenstein, R; Race, R E

    1993-07-01

    Prion protein (PrP), which is involved in the pathogenesis of scrapie, occurs in 2 forms. The form extracted from scrapie brain is protease resistant (PrP-res), whereas PrP from normal brain is protease sensitive (PrP-sen). This study examined whether PrP-res could be detected in brains of sheep with scrapie by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A suitable IHC procedure was developed using brain tissue from hamsters that had been inoculated with the transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. Tissue samples were fixed in PLP (periodate, lysine, paraformaldehyde) that contained paraformaldehyde at a concentration of 0.125%. Before application of the IHC technique, tissue sections were deparaffinized and treated with formic acid to simultaneously enhance PrP-res immunoreactivity and degrade PrP-sen. Primary antibody was obtained from a rabbit immunized to PrP-res extracted from brains of mice with experimentally induced scrapie. Brain from 21 sheep with histopathologically confirmed scrapie were examined by IHC. In all 21 brains, PrP-res was widely distributed throughout the brain stem. Staining was particularly intense in neuronal cell bodies and around blood vessels. The IHC technique successfully detected PrP-res in brain samples that had been frozen or that were severely autolyzed before fixation in PLP. Brains from 11 scrapie-suspect sheep that were not considered histologically positive were also examined by IHC. PrP-res was found in 4 of these brains. Sections of brains from 14 clinically normal sheep did not have detectable PrP-res. Results of this study indicate that IHC detection of PrP-res is equivalent, and perhaps superior, to histopathology for the diagnosis of scrapie in sheep. Furthermore, IHC is applicable to tissues that have autolytic changes or processing artifacts that prevent satisfactory histopathologic evaluation for lesions of scrapie. PMID:8104039

  19. This information sheet is for the care and use of Sheep Potential Injury and Zoonotic Diseases: Sheep are large domestic

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    of infection. Infected ruminants are usually asymptomatic. The rickettsia is shed in the urine, feces, milk and goats, and orf in people. In ruminants, it is evidenced by exudative (oozing) lesions found. The disease in ruminants is contagious to humans and other animals. Infected sheep or goats are the source

  20. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

  1. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  2. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  3. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spi?ic, Silvio; Ra?i? Ivana; Andrijani?, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepani?, Maja; Cvetni?, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus. PMID:26054222

  4. Poisoning of sheep by seeds of Crotalaria retusa: acquired resistance by continuous administration of low doses.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Bruno Leite; Nobre, Verônica M T; Dantas, Antônio F M; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Oliveira Neto, Temístocles S; Molyneux, Russell J; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Seeds of Crotalaria retusa containing 6.84% (dry weight) of monocrotaline (MCT) were administered experimentally to sheep. Three sheep that received 136.8mg MCT/kg bw daily for 70 days had no clinical signs. Five out of six sheep ingesting single doses of 205.2 and 273.6mg MCT/kg bw died with acute (three sheep) or chronic intoxication (two sheep). Acute intoxicated sheep had periacinar liver necrosis and chronic intoxicated sheep liver fibrosis and megalocytosis. Another three sheep had no clinical signs after the ingestion of 20 daily doses of 136.8mg MCT/kg, followed by seven doses of 273.6mg MCT/kg, and one single dose of 342mg MCT/kg. These experiments demonstrated that sheep are susceptible to acute intoxication by MCT being intoxicated by a single oral dose of approximately 205.2mg/kg. In contrast, they develop strong resistance to MCT after the daily ingestion of non lethal doses (136.8mg/kg). It is suggested that chronic poisoning does not occur by the repeated ingestion of non acutely toxic doses, but probably by the ingestion of single toxic doses. It is also suggested that sheep do not become intoxicated with the ingestion of C. retusa in the vegetative non-seeding stage. PMID:19576921

  5. Vitamin D supplementation increases the attractiveness of males' scent for female Iberian rock lizards

    PubMed Central

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary theory proposes that signals used in sexual selection can only be stable if they are honest and condition dependent. However, despite the fact that chemical signals are used by many animals, empirical research has mainly focused on visual and acoustic signals. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for lizards, but in some lizards its precursor (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol=provitamin D) is found in femoral gland secretions, which males use for scent marking and intraspecific communication. By allocating provitamin D to secretions, males might need to divert vitamin D from metabolism. This might be costly and condition dependent. We tested whether diet quality affected chemical signals of male Iberian rock lizards (Lacerta monticola) and its consequences for sexual selection. After experimental supplementation of dietary vitamin D, males increased the proportion of provitamin D in femoral secretions. Further experiments showed that females detected these changes in males' signals by chemosensory cues, and discriminated provitamin D, and changes in its concentration, from similar steroids (i.e. cholesterol) found in secretions. Moreover, females preferred areas scent marked by males with more provitamin D in their secretions. This mechanism would confer honesty to chemical signals of male lizards, and, thus, females may rely on it to select high-quality males. We suggest that the allocation of vitamins and other essential nutrients to either visual (e.g. carotenoids) or chemical ornaments might be the common basis of honest sexual displays in many animals. PMID:17002947

  6. Male genital modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raven Rowanchilde

    1996-01-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

  7. Cytoplasmic male-sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Edwardson

    1956-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inheritance is of theoretical importance--it may be of even greater practical importance, for, when it involves malesterilitylas in many instances it does--it may make hybridization easier. It may also make possible the use of heterosis in plants otherwise difficult to hybridize. The effect of the cytoplasm on the inheritance of male-sterility was speculated on before the rediscovery of Mendel's

  8. Male Condoms and Circumcision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger L. Shapiro; Saidi H. Kapiga

    This chapter has examined condoms and male circumcision as HIV preventive strategies in Africa. Condoms are a highly effective\\u000a method of preventing HIV when used properly, and play a central role in HIV prevention programs in Africa. Although condom\\u000a use remains low in many areas of Africa, condom accessibility and use can be improved dramatically through creative and culturally\\u000a appropriate

  9. Engineered Male Sterility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Kempken

    \\u000a \\u000a The agricultural exploitation of hybrid crop varieties has enabled enormous increases in food productivity through increased\\u000a uniformity and hybrid vigour. Because of hybrid vigour, or heterosis\\u000a , these crops are characterized by an increased resistance to disease and enhanced performance in different environments when\\u000a comparing the heterozygous hybrid progeny (called F1 hybrids) to the homozygous parents. The generation of male

  10. Population structure of pierid butterflies IV. Genetic and physiological investment in offspring by male Colias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L. Boggs; Ward B. Watt

    1981-01-01

    Population structure encompasses all the rules by which a population's gametes come together, including genetic and physiological investment in offspring. We document female use of nutrients donated by males at mating, and complete sperm precedence, in Colias eurytheme Boisduval. The effect of these phenomena on the population structure of this species is discussed.

  11. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  12. Male adaptive stupidity: male mating pattern in hybridogenetic frogs

    E-print Network

    ). Such erroneous matings based on preferences for fertility indicators occur in males of the fishes Poecilia mexicana and P. latipinna. Males of these two species prefer to mate with larger, but gynogenetic, females

  13. Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-09-01

    Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. PMID:24746891

  14. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.

  15. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  16. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

  17. NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

  18. Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  19. The late gestation fetal cardiovascular response to hypoglycaemia is modified by prior peri-implantation undernutrition in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Burrage, Deborah M; Braddick, Lucy; Cleal, Jane K; Costello, Paula; Noakes, David E; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2009-01-01

    Undernourished late gestation fetuses display asymmetric growth restriction, suggestive of a redistribution of nutritional resources. The modification of fetal organ blood supply in response to acute hypoxia is well characterized, but it is not known whether similar responses occur in response to acute reductions in nutrition, or if such late gestation responses can be influenced by early gestation nutrition. In pregnant sheep, total nutrient requirements were restricted during the peri-implantation period (PI40, 40%; PI50, 50% of total, days 1–31) or in late gestation (L, 50% total, days 104–postmortem). Control animals were fed 100% nutrient requirements. Fetal organ blood flows were measured at baseline, and during acute fetal hypoglycaemia induced by maternal insulin infusion at 125 dGA. Baseline heart rate was increased in PI40 fetuses. During hypoglycaemia, an initial rise in fetal heart rate was followed by a slower fall. Fetal femoral artery blood flow decreased, and adrenal blood flow and femoral vascular resistance increased in all fetuses during hypoglycaemia. These changes were accompanied by increased fetal plasma adrenaline and cortisol, and reduced plasma insulin levels. The maximum femoral artery blood flow response to hypoglycaemia occurred earlier in PI50 and PI40 compared with control fetuses. The late gestation fetal cardiovascular response to acute hypoglycaemia was consistent with a redistribution of combined ventricular output away from the periphery and towards central organs. One element of the peripheral vascular response was modified by peri-implantation nutrient restriction, indicating that nutritional challenges early in gestation can have an enduring impact on cardiovascular control. PMID:19103677

  20. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8?±?0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay?+?150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay?+?300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay?+?450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P?Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P??0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P?sheep production system. PMID:21786162

  1. Reduced Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep with TMEM154 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Michael P.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G.; Leymaster, Kreg A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Harhay, Gregory P.; White, Stephen N.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10?9). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5–1,100). In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36–3.43). Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection. PMID:22291605

  2. Regional mapping of loci from human chromosome 2q to sheep chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, H.A.; Pearce, P.D.; Maher, D.W.; Malcolm, A.A.; Wood, N.J.; Phua, S.H.; Broad, T.E. (Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston (New Zealand))

    1994-03-01

    The human chromosome 2q loci, fibronectin 1 (FN1), the [alpha]1 chain of type III collagen (COL3A1), and the [delta] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRND) have been regionally assigned to sheep chromosome 2q by in situ hybridization. COL3A1 is pericentromeric (2q12-q21), while FN1 and CHRND are in the subterminal region at 2q41-q44 and 2q42-qter, respectively. The mapping of FN1 assigns the sheep synthenic group U11, which contains FN1, villin 1 (VIL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and [gamma] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRNG), to sheep chromosome 2q. Inhibin-[alpha] (INHA) is also assigned to sheep chromosome 2q as FN1 and INHA compose sheep linkage group 3. These seven loci are members of a conserved chromosomal segment in human, mouse, and sheep. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. [Genetics and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Stouffs, K; Vandermaelen, D; Tournaye, H; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A; Lissens, W

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting many couples with a child wish. In about half of these couples a male factor is (co-) responsible for the fertility concern. For part of these patients a genetic factor will be the underlying cause of the problems. This paper gives an overview of the studies performed in the Department of Embryology and Genetics of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Centre for Medical Genetics of UZ Brussel in order to gain more insight into the genetic causes of male infertility. The studies, focusing on men with fertility problems, can be subdivided into three groups: studies on deletions on the long arm of the Y chromosome, studies on X-linked genes and studies on autosomal genes. It is obvious that Yq microdeletions should be considered as a cause of male infertility. Only for patients with a complete AZFc deletion, a small number of spermatozoa can be retrieved. However, even for these patients assisted reproductive technologies are necessary. Complete AZF deletions are found in 4.6% of the patients visiting the centres for Reproductive Medicine and Medical Genetics of the UZ Brussel and for whom no other cause of the fertility problems have been detected. Taken into consideration this low prevalence of Yq microdeletions, it is obvious that also other factors, including genetic factors, must be causing fertility problems. Potentially, gr/gr deletions (partial deletions of the AZFc region) might influence the fertility status of the patients. It remains, however, unclear which of the genes located in the deleted regions are important for the progression of spermatogenesis, in case of partial or complete AZF deletions. In our studies we have also investigated mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. In analogy to the Y chromosome, the X chromosome is interesting in view of studying male infertility since men only have a single copy of the sex chromosomes. As a consequence, mutations in genes crucial for spermatogenesis will have an immediate impact on the sperm production. The genes NXF2, USP26 and TAF7L were investigated for the presence of mutations. All observed single nucleotide changes were also present in control samples, questioning their relationship with male infertility. We also studied five autosomal genes: SYCP3, MSH4, DNMT3L, STRA8 and ETV5. Only for the genes STRA8 and ETV5, changes were detected that were absent in a control population existing of men with normozoospermia. Functional analysis of the changes in ETV5 and the localization of the change observed in STRA8 showed that also these alterations were probably not the cause of the fertility problems in these men. It can be concluded that mutations are rarely detected in men with fertility problems. This low frequency of mutations has also been confirmed in several published studies. Therefore, further research is necessary to determine the impact of genetic causes on male infertility. PMID:20088251

  4. Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Valiela; Joseph E. Costa

    1988-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the

  5. Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Drewnowski; Victor Fulgoni

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused

  6. Root morphological plasticity and nutrient acquisition of perennial grass species from habitats of different nutrient availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Fransen; Hans de Kroon; Frank Berendse

    1998-01-01

    We studied the root foraging ability and its consequences for the nutrient acquisition of five grass species that differ ill relative growth rate and that occur in habitats that differ widely in nutrient availability. Foraging responses were quantified, based on the performance of the plants in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil environments of the same overall nutrient availability. Although all species

  7. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  8. Acquired coagulation factor X activity deficiency connected with Hymenoxys odorata DC (Compositae), bitterweed poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Steel, E G; Witzel, D A; Blanks, A

    1976-12-01

    An acquired coagulation factor X activity deficiency was demonstrated in sheep fed Hymenoxys odorata, bitterweed plant. All coagulation tests were normal before the sheep were given the plant material. All tests involving the function of factor X, including a specific factor assay, became abnormal after the sheep were given bitterweed. Other specific factors remained within normal limits. The presence of an inhibitory activity could not be shown. PMID:999065

  9. A study on the susceptibility of fetal sheep to decompression sickness 

    E-print Network

    Simmang, Clifford Liles

    1978-01-01

    growing organism, is highly vascular. Because of the efficiency of the human placenta, it is in good equilibrium with its mother's blood. According to Betts, "it is unlikely that the fetus would develop a bend short of going through a dive that would... were conducted to determine the susceptibility of the fetus to decompression sickness. The sheep was used since the fetal and maternal circulations of the sheep and human placentae are similar in dynamics. Seven sheep within three weeks...

  10. Genetic variations between indigenous fat-tailed sheep populations in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M Mwacharo; C. J Otieno; A. M Okeyo

    2002-01-01

    Sheep are an important source of meat in Kenya. However, there are different sheep types raised in different agro-ecological zones and their genetic status is unknown. This study was designed to establish this. Using samples of blood from 391 fat-tailed sheep from five districts in Kenya, variation\\/similarities in their blood proteins, namely albumin, transferrin, esterase-A, esterase-C and haemoglobin was studied.

  11. Efficacy of an energy block containing Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María F. Sagüés; Luis A. Fusé; Alicia S. Fernández; Lucía E. Iglesias; Fabiana C. Moreno; Carlos A. Saumell

    The efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans incorporated into an energy block was evaluated for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Four naturally parasitised\\u000a sheep with average nematode egg counts of 2,470 eggs per gram grazed by pairs on two similar parasite-free paddocks for 30 days.\\u000a During that period, one pair of sheep (treated animals, T1) received an energy

  12. CCL4 INDUCED GENOTOXICITY AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANTS AFTER IN VIVO ADMINISTRATION TO SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. DIANOVSK

    2001-01-01

    Dianovsk? J., K. ·iviková:CCl4 Induced Genotoxicity and Protective Effect of Antioxidants After in vivo Administration to Sheep. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 467-472. Protective effect against carbon tetrachloride-induced genotoxicity was tested in sheep after antioxidative supplementation. Ten 3-4-year-old sheep were treated by carbon tetrachloride, orally. The total dose of 0.05 ml\\/kg b\\/w. was corresponding to the former recommended antihelminthic usage

  13. Effect of organic zinc supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile in lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Garg; Vishal Mudgal; R. S. Dass

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of organic zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and mineral profile as compared to inorganic source [zinc sulphate (ZnSO4)], 18 Muzaffarnagari male lambs of 11.30±0.45kg mean body weight (4–5 months of age) were divided into three groups of six animals in each in a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a

  14. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Moreau, E; Huang, W; Chauvin, A

    2004-06-01

    Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI) and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP) analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica. PMID:15224576

  15. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:480512

  16. Relationship between an inflammatory mucosal T cell response and susceptibility of sheep to Teladorsagia circumcincta infection 

    E-print Network

    Venturina, Virginia Mauro

    2012-11-30

    Control strategies against the parasitic nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta are problematic under current sheep management systems. Infection with the parasite, particularly in young lambs, results in significant production ...

  17. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  18. Pathology of subacute bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning in sheep.

    PubMed

    Witzel, D A; Jones, L P; Ivie, G W

    1977-01-01

    Subacute bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning was produced in sheep by force feeding them ground plant material (1 gm/kg/day) for 15 days. Five sheep died and two became moribund and were killed at the end of the experiment. The forestomach and abomasum were severely congested and occasionally eroded on the mucosal surface. There was an accumulation of edematous fluids along the rumino-reticular folds and ruminal sulci. Gaseous and fluid distension of the forestomachs, abomasum and cecum was a consistent finding. The gall bladder was greatly distended and occasionally the mucosa was sprinkled with petechiae. The most common finding was severe glomerulonephrosis characterized by proteinaceous casts, swollen and degenerated glomerular tufts and degeneration and necrosis in the inner renal cortex and outer medulla. Mild to moderate toxic hepatosis, characterized by vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes primarily around the central vein, was consistent. PMID:850997

  19. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrPSc staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates. PMID:25673912

  20. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  1. Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. DeAngelis; P. J. Mulholland; A. V. Palumbo; A. D. Steinman; M. A. Huston; J. W. Elwood

    1989-01-01

    The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships.

  2. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION JUDITHJ. WURTMAN,PhD, AMNONBRZEZINSKI and Qognitive Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reprinted from AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS) (Printed in the U.S.A.) -- - ----- #12;Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression Judith J

  3. Agronomy Facts 38-A A Nutrient Management

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    with supplying and managing nutrients to meet crop production requirements. The predictable response of a crop management for crop production and environmental protection means that nutri- ent management considerationsAgronomy Facts 38-A A Nutrient Management Approach for Pennsylvania: Introduction to the Concepts

  4. NUTRIENT-UPTAKE MODEL IN MARSH ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistic models of nutrient dynamics in natural wetlands were developed and applied in a study of Kissimmee River (Florida) flood-plain marshes. The models describe hydrodynamics and transport diffusion in wetland basins and the ecological processes of nutrient uptake, convers...

  5. The Nutrient Profile in Organic Fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin S. Kumar; Le Thanh Luu; Mai Van Ha; Nguyen Quang Dieu

    2005-01-01

    In order to manage nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) through organic fertilization in aquaculture ponds, it is important to understand the nutrient profile of different animal manures at various concentrations and the respective biological response. The rate of nutrient released from animal manure over time is a key factor in deciding the frequency and quantity of manure required to fertilize

  6. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  7. Absorption of nutrients in lactase deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Debongnie; A. D. Newcomer; D. B. McGill; S. F. Phillips

    1979-01-01

    The influence of malabsorption of lactose, as a result of primary lactase deficiency, on the absorption of the nutrients in milk was tested in four healthy controls and four subjects with lactase deficiency. An ileal perfusion technique was used to quantify arrival in the ileum of nutrients and a nonabsorbable marker (polyethylene glycol, PEG 4000) ingested as a test meal

  8. REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES FOR MANURE NUTRIENT LOADED SOILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailin Zhang; Thanh H. Dao; Nicholas T. Basta; Elizabeth A. Dayton; Tommy C. Daniel

    SUMMARY Many soils in the United States contain excessive levels of nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), due to repeated heavy applications of animal manure. Also, soils with a history of long-term poultry litter or swine manure applications have elevated levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and arsenic (As). Runoff and eroded soils carry dissolved and sediment-associated nutrients to wa-

  9. A Nutrient Sensor Mechanism Controls Drosophila Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julien Colombani; Sophie Raisin; Sophie Pantalacci; Thomas Radimerski; Jacques Montagne; Pierre Léopold

    2003-01-01

    Organisms modulate their growth according to nutrient availability. Although individual cells in a multicellular animal may respond directly to nutrient levels, growth of the entire organism needs to be coordinated. Here, we provide evidence that in Drosophila, coordination of organismal growth originates from the fat body, an insect organ that retains endocrine and storage functions of the vertebrate liver. In

  10. NUTRIENTS IN WATERSHEDS; DEVELOPING ENHANCED MODELING TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment is one of the most detrimental stressors causing water-resource impairment. Of systems surveyed and reported as impaired, 40% of rivers, 51% of lakes, and 57% of estuaries listed nutrients as a primary cause of impairment (USEPA, 1996). In many cases, these ...

  11. Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bopp, L.; Boyd, P. W.; Galbraith, E. D.; Geider, R. J.; Guieu, C.; Jaccard, S. L.; Jickells, T. D.; La Roche, J.; Lenton, T. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Marañón, E.; Marinov, I.; Moore, J. K.; Nakatsuka, T.; Oschlies, A.; Saito, M. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Tsuda, A.; Ulloa, O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial activity is a fundamental component of oceanic nutrient cycles. Photosynthetic microbes, collectively termed phytoplankton, are responsible for the vast majority of primary production in marine waters. The availability of nutrients in the upper ocean frequently limits the activity and abundance of these organisms. Experimental data have revealed two broad regimes of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in the modern upper ocean. Nitrogen availability tends to limit productivity throughout much of the surface low-latitude ocean, where the supply of nutrients from the subsurface is relatively slow. In contrast, iron often limits productivity where subsurface nutrient supply is enhanced, including within the main oceanic upwelling regions of the Southern Ocean and the eastern equatorial Pacific. Phosphorus, vitamins and micronutrients other than iron may also (co-)limit marine phytoplankton. The spatial patterns and importance of co-limitation, however, remain unclear. Variability in the stoichiometries of nutrient supply and biological demand are key determinants of oceanic nutrient limitation. Deciphering the mechanisms that underpin this variability, and the consequences for marine microbes, will be a challenge. But such knowledge will be crucial for accurately predicting the consequences of ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to oceanic nutrient biogeochemistry.

  12. Physiological effects of major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth P McNatty; Susan M Galloway; Theresa Wilson; Peter Smith; Norma L Hudson; Anne O'Connell; Adrian H Bibby; Derek A Heath; George H Davis; James P Hanrahan; Jenny L Juengel

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mutations with major effects on ovulation rate in sheep were recently identified in two genes of the transforming growth factor (TGF?) superfamily and a TGF? receptor, namely bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), otherwise known as the growth differentiation factor 9b (GDF9b), GDF9 and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6) otherwise known as the BMP receptor type IB (BMPRIB). Animals homozygous for

  13. Blood polymorphism in west African breeds of sheep.

    PubMed

    Missohou, A; Nguyen, T C; Sow, R; Gueye, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the blood groups and blood protein distribution in West African sheep breeds. About 100 animals of the Djallonke, Fulani and Touabire breeds were sampled for blood polymorphism analysis. Their blood groups were typed by haemolytic and agglutination reactions, and their blood proteins by starch gel electrophoresis. Almost all the loci analysed showed variability in the three breeds, with the Touabire and Fulani being closer to each other than to the Djallonke. PMID:10445253

  14. The Texas A&M Sheep and Goat Simulation Models 

    E-print Network

    Blackbur, H.D.; Cartwright, T.C.; Smith, G.M.; Graham, N.McC.; Ruvuna, F.

    1987-01-01

    ) and secretion rate (SR) per unit in a manner similar to that developed by Bywater (1976). Genetic differences in milk level (GMLKL) and period of lactation (LACPp) set an upper limit on ALC. Either the intake capacity of nursing young (MLKLIM) or nutrition... and the rates of chemical and physical processes Which determine the turnover of the content of this volume (Ellis, 1978) are reflected in the physical limit equation. For sheep in extensive production systems, volume and turnover rate are the influential...

  15. Effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids of fetal sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Walker; A. J. Gentry; L. R. Green; M. A. Hanson; L. Bennet

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   Secondary amino acid disturbances from circulatory responses during hypoxia may cause problems in interpreting plasma amino\\u000a acid profiles of sick babies investigated for possible inherited defects. Systematic studies to characterise them are difficult\\u000a in man. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on plasma amino acids by studying 9 late gestation fetal sheep in utero during 11 one hour episodes

  16. Variations in development of the ruminal mucosae of sheep

    E-print Network

    Sinclair, John Henry

    1959-01-01

    , it may be that color represents products of microbial activity. If Bo, color may provide additional means. of evaluating bacterial action and thereby, be also a means of evaluating the influence of dietary, factors on the rumen flora. It appeared, from... the products of micro- bial metabolism have far reaching physiologic chnsequence, accounting in large part for the marked differences in rates of gain observed among young ruminants. CHAPTER III VARIATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUMINAL MUCOSAE IN SHEEP: I...

  17. Comparison of two methods of Marshallagia marshalli donor sheep production.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, Nona; Borji, Hassan; Razmi, Gholamreza; Kazemi, Hossein; Maleki, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    Marshallagia marshalli is found in the abomasums of sheep, goats and wild ruminants in tropical and sub tropical climates. In Iran among different species of Ostertagiinae that can infect sheep, M. marshalli is currently the major cause of parasitic gastroenteritis in ruminant. Having a donor animal is essential for various studies. In the present study we compared the efficacy of two different method of M. marshalli donor sheep production. In the first method, M. marshalli donor sheep was produced by transplanting of adult forms of this worm into abomasum of a lamb (6 months of age) through a surgically established cannula. In the second method, 5,000 infective larvae (L3) from the female M. marshalli culture were given to a worm-free lamb of 6 months age through a stomach tube. After 3 days of transplanting, few eggs of M. marshalli appeared in the cannulated lamb's faeces. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) increased in the following days. The average number of EPG reached up to 23.5 ± 11.26 per day in 2 months. In larval infected lamb by day 21 post infection the eggs were appeared in faeces. The average number of EPG reached up 53.5 ± 42.5 per day in 2 months. In comparison between cannulation and larval infected, the number of eggs laid by worms transplanted in cannulated lamb was less than that of larval infected lamb. However, the abomasal cannulation method seems more preferable due to some advantages such as defined number of worms transplanted into abomasums, rapid access to the eggs and their culture. PMID:25035587

  18. Fetal transabdominal pulse oximeter studies using a hypoxic sheep model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoko Nioka; Meltem Izzetoglu; Theresa Mawn; MICHAEL J. NIJLAND; David Boas; Britton Chance

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the validity of transabdominal pulse oximetry using a sheep fetal hypoxia model with fetal arterial hemoglobin saturation. Methods. Four pregnant ewes were anaesthetized and cannulated through the brachial artery to measure direct arterial blood saturation, SaO2. Next, the transabdominal pulse oximeter was used to measure indirect measurement of the arterial saturation of the fetus, SpO2, from

  19. Repeated endoscopic ovum pick-up in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stangl; B. Kühholzer; U. Besenfelder; G. Brem

    1999-01-01

    Endoscopy is an effective and minimally invasive technique which offers the possibility of repeated ovum pick-up (OPU). In this study 4 different treatment programs (Groups A, B, C and D) for repeated endoscopic OPU in sheep were investigated. The number of follicles and oocytes, quality of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs), and detectable effects on fertility of the donor ewes were compared. Each

  20. (1)H NMR brain metabonomics of scrapie exposed sheep.

    PubMed

    Scano, Paola; Rosa, Antonella; Incani, Alessandra; Maestrale, Caterina; Santucciu, Cinzia; Perra, Daniela; Vascellari, Sarah; Pani, Alessandra; Ligios, Ciriaco

    2015-06-16

    While neurochemical metabolite modifications, determined by different techniques, have been diffusely reported in human and mice brains affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), this aspect has been little studied in the natural animal hosts with the same pathological conditions so far. Herein, we investigated, by high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical data analysis, the brain metabolite profile of sheep exposed to a scrapie agent in a naturally affected flock. On the basis of clinical examinations and western blotting analysis for the pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in brain tissues, sheep were catalogued as not infected (H), infected with clinical signs (S), and infected without clinical signs (A). By discriminant analysis of spectral data, comparing S vs. H, we found a different metabolite distribution, with inosine, cytosine, creatine, and lactate being higher in S than in H brains, while the branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine), phenylalanine, uracil, tyrosine, gamma-amino butyric acid, total aspartate (aspartate + N-acetyl aspartate) being lower in S. By a soft independent modelling of class analogy approach, 1 out of 3 A samples was assigned to class H. Furthermore, A brains were found to be higher in choline and choline-containing compounds. By means of partial least squares regression, an excellent correlation was found between the PrP(Sc) amount and the (1)H NMR metabolite profile of infected (S and A) sheep, and the metabolite mostly correlated with PrP(Sc) was alanine. The overall results, obtained using different chemometric tools, were able to describe a brain metabolite profile of infected sheep with and without clinical signs, compared to healthy ones, and indicated alanine as a biomarker for PrP(Sc) amounts in scrapie brains. PMID:25959287

  1. Evaluation of the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. W. Woods; B. Puschner; M. S. Filigenzi; D. M. Woods; L. W. George

    2011-01-01

    To determine the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis (adonis) in sheep, adult Suffolk ewes were administered 1 per cent bodyweight adonis via surgically placed rumen cannulas in an acute, high-dose toxicity study, and 0.2 per cent bodyweight daily in a two-week, low-dose toxicity study. The ewes received cardiac examinations before dosing, 24 and 48 hours after dosing with 1 per cent

  2. Detoxication of Ammonia in Sheep Fed Soy Protein or Urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM CHALUPA; JIMMY CLARK; PAMELA OPLIGER

    Urea-fed sheep were able to detoxify additional ammonia absorbed from the digestive tract by a mechanism involving increased concentrations of liver ornithine. Feeding urea as the sole nitrogen source caused decreases in activities of carbamyl phosphate synthetase, ornithine transcarbamylase and argüíase while no differences were noted in activities of arginine synthetase and argininosuccinase. Decreases in these enzyme systems were concluded

  3. Crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen using hexamethylene diisocyanate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. H. Olde Damink; P. J. Dijkstra; M. J. A. Luyn; P. B. Wachem; P. Nieuwenhuis; J. Feijen

    1995-01-01

    The use of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDIC) as a crosslinking agent for dermal sheep collagen (DSC) was studied. Because HMDIC is only slightly water soluble, a surfactant was used to obtain a clear and micellar crosslinking solution and to promote the penetration of HMDIC in the DSC matrix. Using optimized conditions treatment of non-crosslinked DSC (N-DSC) with HMDIC (H-DSC) increased the

  4. Characterization and biocompatibility of epoxy-crosslinked dermal sheep collagens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wachem van P. B; R. Zeeman; P. J. Dijkstra; J. Feijen; M. Hendriks; P. T. Cahalan; Luyn van M. J. A

    1999-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen (DSC), which was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BD) by using four different conditions, was characterized and its biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous implantation in rats. Crosslinking at pH 9.0 (BD90) or with successive epoxy and carbodiimide steps (BD45EN) resulted in a large increase in the shrinkage temperature (Ts) in combination with a clear reduction in amines.

  5. Ex vivo permeation characteristics of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pund, Swati; Rasve, Ganesh; Borade, Ganesh

    2013-01-23

    Venlafaxine, a dual acting antidepressant is a new therapeutic option for chronic depression. Depression is a common mental disorder associated with the abnormalities in neuronal transport in the brain. Since the nose-to-brain pathway has been indicated for delivering drugs to the brain, we analyzed the transport of venlafaxine through sheep nasal mucosa. Transmucosal permeation kinetics of venlafaxine were examined using sheep nasal mucosa mounted onto static vertical Franz diffusion cells. Nasal mucosa was treated with venlafaxine in situ gel (100 ?l; 1% w/v) for 7h. Amount of venlafaxine diffused through mucosa was measured using validated RP-HPLC method. After the completion of the study histopathological investigation of mucosa was carried out. Ex vivo studies through sheep nasal mucosa showed sustained diffusion of venlafaxine with 66.5% permeation in 7h. Transnasal transport of venlafaxine followed a non-Fickian diffusion process. Permeability coefficient and steady state flux were found to be 21.11×10(-3) cmh(-1) and 21.118 ?g cm(-2)h(-1) respectively. Cumulative amount permeated through mucosa at 7h was found to be 664.8 ?g through an area of 3.14 cm(2). Total recovery of venlafaxine at the end of the permeation study was 87.3% of initial dose distributed (i) at the mucosal surface (208.4 ?g; 20.8%) and (ii) through mucosa (664.8 ?g; 66.5%). Histopathological examinations showed no significant adverse effects confirming that the barrier function of nasal mucosa remains unaffected even after treatment with venlafaxine in situ gel. Permeation through sheep nasal mucosa using in situ gel demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery of venlafaxine, providing new dimension to the treatment of chronic depression. PMID:23159662

  6. CONSUMPTION OF SIMULATED ACID MINE WATER BY SHEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Horvath

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption by sheep in 48-h periods was measured in three replicated experiments. Intake was expressed as ml, kg body weight-'73-d-1 and treatments were compared with intake of tap water or distilled water in no-choice situations. Neutralizing two acid mine drainage (AMD) polluted waters having pH values of 2.4 and 2.8, with Ca(OH) 2 did not make either as acceptable

  7. Age-related intramuscular pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tohamy

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in one, six-months and one year old sheep following a single intramuscular doses of 1 and 10mgkg?1b.wt. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) as test organism. Following intramuscular administration of cefquinome, the absorption half-lives (t0.5(ab)) were 1.540, 1.037 and 0.664h at a dose of

  8. Degradation of Abamectin and Doramectin on Sheep Grazed Pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEVENKA KOŽUH ERŽEN; LUCIJA KOLAR; VESNA CERKVENIK FLAJS; JERNEJ KUŽNER; IRENA MARC; MILAN POGA?NIK

    2005-01-01

    Avermectins are widely used veterinary medicines. They bind strongly to faeces in their non-metabolized form and their half-life\\u000a in faeces depends on field conditions. There are conflicting data regarding the behaviour of avermectins in the environment.\\u000a Therefore, we investigated the degradation of abamectin and doramectin on sheep grazed pasture under field conditions in soil,\\u000a soil–faeces and faeces samples from day 6

  9. Upregulation of Defensins in Burn Sheep Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Poindexter, Brian J.; Klein, Gordon L.; Milner, Stephen M.; Bick, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to visualize and localize the sheep antimicrobials, ?-defensins 1, 2, and 3, (SBD-1, SBD-2, SBD-3), sheep neutrophil defensin alpha (SNP-1), and the cathelicidin LL-37 in sheep small intestine after burn injury, our hypothesis being that these compounds would be upregulated in an effort to overcome a compromised endothelial lining. Response to burn injury includes the release of proinflammatory cytokines and systemic immune suppression that, if untreated, can progress to multiple organ failure and death, so protective mechanisms have to be initiated and implemented. Methods: Tissue sections were probed with antibodies to the antimicrobials and then visualized with fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies and subjected to fluorescence deconvolution microscopy and image reconstruction. Results: In both the sham and burn samples, all the aforementioned antimicrobials were seen in each of the layers of small intestine, the highest concentration being localized to the epithelium. SBD-2, SBD-3, and SNP-1 were upregulated in both enterocytes and Paneth cells, while SNP-1 and LL-37 showed increases in both the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the muscularis externa following burn injury. Each of the defensins, except SBD-1, was also seen in between the muscle layers of the externa and while burn caused slight increases of SBD-2, SBD-3, and SNP-1 in this location, LL-37 content was significantly decreased. Conclusion: That while each of these human antimicrobials is present in multiple layers of sheep small intestine, SBD-2, SBD-3, SNP-1, and LL-37 are upregulated in the specific layers of the small intestine. PMID:20076788

  10. Pharmacokinetics of levamisole in sheep after intravenous administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fernández; J J. García; M. Sierra; M. J. Diez; M. T. Terán

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of levamisole at doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 mg\\/kg were determined after its intravenous administration to eighteen healthy Merino sheep. Using compartmental analysis, the disposition of the drug best fitted a two-compartmental open model. The mean values for the compartmental volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) were 2.034 ± 0.23I, 2.347 ± 0.720 and 2.001 ±

  11. CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM IN SHEEP G.D. BRAITHWAITE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and duration of its effect on the various processes of Ca and P metabolism has now been studied in the sheep each of the follo- wing 4 treatments: 0, 0.02, 0.05 or 0.1 !g/kg body-weight of laIOHID, in propylene glycol injected daily for 12 days. Ca and P kinetic studies (Braithwaite, 1979) were carried out during

  12. Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Palumbo, A.V.; Steinman, A.D.; Huston, M.A.; Elwood, J.W. (Environmental Sciences Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

    1989-01-01

    The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships. What are the effects of limiting nutrients on the stability of ecosystem food webs Most of the literature on food web stability centers around the dynamics of population numbers and/or biomasses. Nevertheless, a growing body of theoretical and empirical research considers the role that both nutrient limitation and recycling can play in stability. In this paper, it is the authors objective to summarize the current understanding of several important types of stability. The theoretical and empirical evidence relating these types of stability and nutrient cycling is described. A central generalization is produced in each case.

  13. Selfish-herd behaviour of sheep under threat.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Wilson, Alan M; Wilshin, Simon D; Lowe, John; Haddadi, Hamed; Hailes, Stephen; Morton, A Jennifer

    2012-07-24

    Flocking is a striking example of collective behaviour that is found in insect swarms, fish schools and mammal herds. A major factor in the evolution of flocking behaviour is thought to be predation, whereby larger and/or more cohesive groups are better at detecting predators (as, for example, in the 'many eyes theory'), and diluting the effects of predators (as in the 'selfish-herd theory') than are individuals in smaller and/or dispersed groups. The former theory assumes that information (passively or actively transferred) can be disseminated more effectively in larger/cohesive groups, while the latter assumes that there are spatial benefits to individuals in a large group, since individuals can alter their spatial position relative to their group-mates and any potential predator, thus reducing their predation risk. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to characterise the response of a group of 'prey' animals (a flock of sheep) to an approaching 'predator' (a herding dog). Analyses of relative sheep movement trajectories showed that sheep exhibit a strong attraction towards the centre of the flock under threat, a pattern that we could re-create using a simple model. These results support the long-standing assertion that individuals can respond to potential danger by moving towards the centre of a fleeing group. PMID:22835787

  14. Exploring the sheep rumen microbiome for carbohydrate-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lucas Dantas; de Souza Lima, André Oliveira; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Darias, Phillip; da Silva, Lília Raquel Fé; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Mendes, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    The rumen is a complex ecosystem enriched for microorganisms able to degrade biomass during the animal's digestion process. The recovery of new enzymes from naturally evolved biomass-degrading microbial communities is a promising strategy to overcome the inefficient enzymatic plant destruction in industrial production of biofuels. In this context, this study aimed to describe the bacterial composition and functions in the sheep rumen microbiome, focusing on carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAE). Here, we used phylogenetic profiling analysis (inventory of 16S rRNA genes) combined with metagenomics to access the rumen microbiome of four sheep and explore its potential to identify fibrolytic enzymes. The bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, followed by Proteobacteria. As observed for other ruminants, Prevotella was the dominant genus in the microbiome, comprising more than 30 % of the total bacterial community. Multivariate analysis of the phylogenetic profiling data and chemical parameters showed a positive correlation between the abundance of Prevotellaceae (Bacteroidetes phylum) and organic matter degradability. A negative correlation was observed between Succinivibrionaceae (Proteobacteria phylum) and methane production. An average of 2 % of the shotgun metagenomic reads was assigned to putative CAE when considering nine protein databases. In addition, assembled contigs allowed recognition of 67 putative partial CAE (NCBI-Refseq) representing 12 glycosyl hydrolase families (Pfam database). Overall, we identified a total of 28 lignocellulases, 22 amylases and 9 other putative CAE, showing the sheep rumen microbiome as a promising source of new fibrolytic enzymes. PMID:25900454

  15. Omasal ciliated protozoa in cattle, bison, and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Towne, G; Nagaraja, T G

    1990-01-01

    Omasal contents were collected from slaughtered cattle (n = 54), bison (n = 15), and sheep (n = 40) to determine numbers and generic distribution of ciliated protozoa. Total protozoan numbers were significantly lower in omasal contents than in ruminal contents of all three species, but the percent composition of all protozoan genera was similar between omasal and ruminal populations. The highest numbers of omasal protozoa found were 7.61 X 10(5)/g in cattle, 7.01 X 10(5)/g in bison, and 1.29 X 10(6)/g in sheep. Omasal dry matter was significantly higher than ruminal dry matter in all species and ranged up to 51.5% in cattle fed high-concentrate diets. The omasal pH was similar to the ruminal pH in all species. The number of omasal laminae averaged 149, 145, and 74 for cattle, bison, and sheep, respectively. Although protozoan concentrations in omasal contents were approximately 80% lower than those in ruminal contents, the omasum harbored relatively high numbers of ciliated protozoa. The resident omasal protozoa are extremely difficult to remove, particularly in cattle, and apparently are responsible for reinoculating transiently defaunated rumens. PMID:2306089

  16. Genes Contributing to Genetic Variation of Muscling in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Tellam, Ross L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Vuocolo, Tony; Bidwell, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Selective breeding programs aiming to increase the productivity and profitability of the sheep meat industry use elite, progeny tested sires. The broad genetic traits of primary interest in the progeny of these sires include skeletal muscle yield, fat content, eating quality, and reproductive efficiency. Natural mutations in sheep that enhance muscling have been identified, while a number of genome scans have identified and confirmed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal muscle traits. The detailed phenotypic characteristics of sheep carrying these mutations or QTL affecting skeletal muscle show a number of common biological themes, particularly changes in developmental growth trajectories, alterations of whole animal morphology, and a shift toward fast twitch glycolytic fibers. The genetic, developmental, and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the actions of some of these genetic variants are described. This review critically assesses this research area, identifies gaps in knowledge, and highlights mechanistic linkages between genetic polymorphisms and skeletal muscle phenotypic changes. This knowledge may aid the discovery of new causal genetic variants and in some cases lead to the development of biochemical and immunological strategies aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle. PMID:22952470

  17. Mother-lamb acoustic recognition in sheep: a frequency coding.

    PubMed

    Searby, Amanda; Jouventin, Pierre

    2003-09-01

    Ewes of the domestic sheep ( Ovis aries ) display selective maternal investment by restricting care to their own offspring and rejecting alien young. This trait relies on individual recognition processes between ewes and lambs. Whereas identification at the udder is only olfactory, distance recognition is performed through visual and acoustic cues. We studied the effectiveness and modalities of mutual acoustic recognition between ewes and lambs by spectrographic analysis of their vocal signatures and by playbacks of modified calls in the field. Our results show that ewes and their lambs can recognize each other based solely on their calls. The coding of identity within the vocal signatures, previously unknown in sheep, is similar in lamb and ewe: it uses the mean frequency and the spectral energy distribution of the call, namely the timbre of the call. These results point out a simple signature system in sheep that uses only the frequency domain. This engenders a signal with low information content, as opposed to some highly social birds and mammal species that may integrate information both in the temporal and spectral domains. The simplicity of this system is linked to the roles played by vision and olfaction that corroborate the information brought by the vocal signature. PMID:12964977

  18. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep.

    PubMed

    Evans, M J; Gurer, C; Loike, J D; Wilmut, I; Schnieke, A E; Schon, E A

    1999-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain two distinct genomes. One is located in the nucleus (nDNA) and is transmitted in a mendelian fashion, whereas the other is located in mitochondria (mtDNA) and is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Cloning of mammals typically has been achieved via nuclear transfer, in which a donor somatic cell is fused by electoporation with a recipient enucleated oocyte. During this whole-cell electrofusion, nDNA as well as mtDNA ought to be transferred to the oocyte. Thus, the cloned progeny should harbour mtDNAs from both the donor and recipient cytoplasms, resulting in heteroplasmy. Although the confirmation of nuclear transfer has been established using somatic cell-specific nDNA markers, no similar analysis of the mtDNA genotype has been reported. We report here the origin of the mtDNA in Dolly, the first animal cloned from an established adult somatic cell line, and in nine other nuclear transfer-derived sheep generated from fetal cells. The mtDNA of each of the ten nuclear-transfer sheep was derived exclusively from recipient enucleated oocytes, with no detectable contribution from the respective somatic donor cells. Thus, although these ten sheep are authentic nuclear clones, they are in fact genetic chimaeras, containing somatic cell-derived nuclear DNA but oocyte-derived mtDNA. PMID:10471506

  20. Flatpea intoxication in sheep and indications of ruminal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, M A; Allison, M J; Foster, J G

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the signs of toxicity when seed-bearing flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris L) hay is fed to sheep. Signs of intoxication (including seizure, muscular trembling and spasmotic torticollis) are similar to those observed for ammonia toxicity in ruminants. Accumulation of ammonia may be a direct consequence of flatpea ingestion, given that 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA, a toxic constituent of flatpea) is known to inhibit hepatic urea synthesis. However, other modes of toxicity for DABA as well as other flatpea toxins may also contribute to this process of intoxication. Our evidence suggests that ruminal microbes are responsible for flatpea detoxification and host animal protection. The adaptation of sheep to flatpea may be a consequence of enhanced ruminal detoxification activity. Ruminal protective functions can be disrupted, however, through abrupt monensin feeding or the replacement of nonadapted for adapted rumen contents. This disruption temporarily suppresses mechanisms of ruminal detoxification. As a consequence sheep can again be made vulnerable to flatpea intoxication. PMID:8470353

  1. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively) was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28%) antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5%) of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats), the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines. PMID:22429653

  2. Effect of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Coleman, E S; Elsasser, T H; Kemppainen, R J; Coleman, D A; Sartin, J L

    1993-07-01

    Endotoxin, a potent stimulator of the immune system and an important mediator in the pathophysiology of septic shock, has been shown to alter the release of certain hormones following its systemic administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of endotoxin on pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, with emphasis placed on its effects on growth hormone (GH) release. Endotoxin (400 ng/kg i.v.) increased plasma GH, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, while it decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor, a major mediator of endotoxin effects, also increased following endotoxin administration. Endotoxin did not affect the GH response to human GH-releasing hormone. In vitro studies evaluated the effect of endotoxin to alter GH secretion from dispersed sheep anterior pituitary cells at dosages of 1, 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, with samples collected at 4, 8 and 24 h. Endotoxin increased pituitary GH secretion at 24 h for 1 microgram/ml (p < 0.05) and at all time periods for 10 and 50 micrograms/ml (p < 0.05). It also led to an increased release of ACTH and LH in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate the ability of endotoxin to alter pituitary hormone secretion both in vivo and in vitro in sheep, suggesting a direct effect of endotoxin on the pituitary gland. PMID:8264844

  3. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Eisapour, Hamed; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Kalantary, Amir Ali; Amoli, Jamileh Salar; Mozafari, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix) and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran) had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm) and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  4. Oxfendazole Treatment of Sheep with Naturally Acquired Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dueger, Erica L.; Moro, Pedro L.; Gilman, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    A blinded, randomized placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of oxfendazole for the treatment of ovine hydatid disease. Cyst fertility and parasite viability were measured following daily, weekly, and monthly treatment schedules with 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg of body weight. The 12-week trial was conducted in 215 adult sheep in the central Peruvian Andes and was masked for both treatment group and scheduling. In this trial oxfendazole significantly reduced protoscolex viability relative to controls in all treatment groups. In the daily, weekly, and monthly groups, 100, 97, and 78% of sheep, respectively, were either cured or improved following treatment, compared to 35% cured or improved animals in the control group. However, daily dosing at 30 mg of oxfendazole per kg proved highly toxic to sheep, resulting in a 24% death rate in the daily group as compared to a 4 to 6% mortality rate in all other groups. If found safe in humans, oxfendazole may prove to be a useful and inexpensive treatment for cestode infections in humans. This study suggests that a staggered dosing regimen of oxfendazole, and possibly other benzimidazoles, may be as efficacious as daily treatment regimens for hydatidosis while decreasing both the cost and adverse effects associated with daily dosing. PMID:10471576

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Implication of nutrient and salinity interaction on the productivity of Spartina nutrient availability and reduced salinity. Although studies have documented nutrient limitation and salinity stress in coastal marshes, interpreting the effects of freshwater rein- troduction on plant

  6. Version 2.1 January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Version 2.1 ­ January 2012 Nutrient Balance Sheet Prepared For Operator's Name Operator's Address _________________________________ County of Origin _____________________________________ Nutrient Balance Worksheet Appendices The following appendices need to accompany the Nutrient Balance Worksheets if applicable: · Maps of fields where

  7. Air movement and heat loss from sheep. I. Boundary layer insulation of a model sheep, with and without fleece.

    PubMed

    McArthur, A J; Monteith, J L

    1980-08-13

    A model sheep, made from metal cylinders and hemispheres, was heated electrically. Heat loss by forced convection in a wind tunnel was analysed in terms of the dependence of the Nusselt number (Nu) on Reynolds number (Re). For a bare trunk Nu = 0.095 Re0.684, but with fleece covering the trunk to a depth of 3.5 cm, Nu = 0.0112 Re0.875 when the mean radiative temperature of the the coat was taken as the surface temperature. Heat transfer by convection from the whole body, including legs, was described by Nu = 0.029 Re0.80. However, a bulk Nesselt number should not be used to estimate heat loss from a live sheep in a hot environment if the windspeed is below about 4 m s-1 because the relation between mean surface temperature, Nusselt number and convective heat flux is not unique. PMID:6107914

  8. Substrates enriched by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata: an in vitro study of nutrient composition, sheep rumen fermentation and lipid metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Wencelov'a; Z V'aradyov'a; K Mihalikov'a; L Guothov'a; J Janštov'a; M ?ert'ik; L Homo?ov'a; P Pristaš; D Jal?; S Kišidayov'a

    2014-01-01

    \\u000a\\u000aAims\\u000a\\u000aEnrichment of wheat bran (WB), corn meal (CM) and barley flakes (BF) with the oleaginous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata (CE) might lead to effective use of these by-products in ruminant nutrition. We examined their effects on rumen fermentation and lipid metabolism.\\u000a\\u000a\\u000aMethods and Results\\u000a\\u000aWB, CM and BF substrates without or with brewer's grains (WBG, CMG, BFG) and enriched with

  9. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  10. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: ?-adrenergic blockers, 5-? reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  11. Reinstatement of Dermacentor kamshadalus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) as a valid species parasitizing mountain goats and sheep in the United States, Canada, and Russia.

    PubMed

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A

    2013-07-01

    Reexamination of Dermacentor albipictus (Packard, 1869) holdings stored in the United States National Tick Collection revealed several collections of a morphologically distinct Dermacentor species. Comparison of these specimens with other Dermacentor taxa showed that they are identical to an old taxon originally described as Dermacentor variegatus kamshadalus Neumann, 1908. For more than a century, this taxon was known only from the male holotype specimen collected in Russia, and the name was considered a junior synonym of D. albipictus. D. kamshadalus is reinstated here to a full species rank, and its male is redescribed and its female and nymph are described for the first time. Adults of D. kamshadalus can be distinguished from those of D. albipictus by a short spur on trochanters I, shorter spurs on coxae I, shorter dorsal cornua, more numerous perforations on spiracular plates, less numerous and shorter setae on idiosoma, especially around spiracular plates, and considerably paler coloration of the conscutum and scutum. The nymph of D. kamshadalus can be differentiated from that of D. albipictus by shorter spurs on coxae I and the numerous perforations on the spiracular plates. Adults and nymphs ofD. kamshadalus are recorded from the United States, Canada, and Russia, where they have been collected from mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus (de Blainville), bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Shaw, and sheep, Ovis sp. of which the species was not stated. PMID:23926766

  12. The effect of sex and genotype on growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of local sheep group Pantaneiro and Texel or Santa Inês crossbred finished on feedlot.

    PubMed

    Vargas Junior, Fernando Miranda de; Martins, Charles Ferreira; Pinto, Guilherme dos Santos; Ferreira, Marcos Barbosa; Ricardo, Hélio de Almeida; Leão, André Gustavo; Fernandes, Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass traits of Pantaneiro sheep and their Texel and Santa Inês crossbreds. Ninety-six lambs, fifty-one males, and forty-five females, with a mean weaning weight of 15.21?±?1.25 kg and 78?±?13 days of age, were slaughtered at a 32-kg body weight. The results showed better production efficiency from males compared with females. Texel-crossed lambs had a better growth performance than the other genotypes. The Texel?×?Pantaneiro lambs were more efficient with a better feedlot performance, higher ribeye muscle area, and better carcass characteristics with an adequate amount of fat cover. Pantaneiro lambs and their crosses with meat breeds could be useful in meat production systems under Savanna environmental conditions. PMID:24781152

  13. Effects of different processing methods of flaxseed on ruminal degradability and in vitro post-ruminal nutrient disappearance.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Saman; Azizi, Osman; Jahani-Azizabadi, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat-processing methods of flaxseed on the in situ effective dry matter degradability (EDMD) and the in situ effective crude protein degradability (ECPD). The treatments included roasting, steep roasting, rolled roasting, rolled steep roasting, microwave irradiation and extrusion. Three rumen-fistulated sheep were used for in situ incubations. Furthermore, the effects of heat-processing methods on post-ruminal in vitro nutrient disappearance and total tract disappearance were measured by a three-step in vitro technique. The seeds were roasted and extruded at 140°C to 145°C. One lot of roasted seeds was gradually cooled for about 1 h (roasting) and another lot was held in temperature isolated barrels for 45 min (steep roasting). Moreover, roasted and steep roasted flaxseed was rolled in a roller mill. The lowest and highest EDMD was observed for unheated and extruded flaxseed, respectively (p < 0.05). The highest ECPD was observed for extruded flaxseed (p < 0.05). Roasting and microwave irradiation reduced ECPD of flaxseed (p < 0.05). In vitro post-ruminal disappearance of crude nutrients including fibre fractions was highest for rolled-roasted and rolled steep-roasted flaxseed (p < 0.05). The lowest and highest total tract disappearance rates of crude nutrients and fibre fractions were estimated for unheated and extruded flaxseed, respectively (p < 0.05). The post-ruminal disappearance of crude nutrients was also increased by roasting, in which rolling enhanced this effect. In conclusion, all investigated heat treatments had significant effects on in situ and in vitro degradability of nutrients. As well, rolling of roasted flaxseed enhanced the respective effects. Therefore, different methods of heat processing can be used to modify the feed value of flaxseed for specific purposes. PMID:25907846

  14. Pedigree analysis of seven small French sheep populations and implications for the management of rare breeds.

    PubMed

    Danchin-Burge, C; Palhière, I; François, D; Bibé, B; Leroy, G; Verrier, E

    2010-02-01

    Pedigree information was analyzed in 7 small populations of sheep raised in France (Bleu du Maine, Charmoise, Cotentin, on-farm Romanov, Romanov ex situ in vivo, Roussin de la Hague, Solognote) to estimate their genetic variability. The pedigree information for each breed, estimated by the number of equivalent generations traced, ranged from rather poor (4.6) to very good (10.5) when compared with other studies. On the basis of probabilities of gene origin, the effective number of ancestors ranged from 17 (on-farm Romanov breed) to 59 (Bleu du Maine). On the basis of the rate of inbreeding, the realized effective size was found to range from 65 (Romanov breed ex situ) to 231 (Bleu du Maine). The average kinship coefficients between rams from which semen doses are available in the French National Cryobank and the active ram and ewe populations were also computed. Results found in each breed were analyzed by taking into consideration the demographic evolution of the breeds, their management practices, and the use of cryopreservation as a way to preserve genetic variability. It appeared quite clear that, in populations in which AI with frozen semen is seldom used, factors that mainly affect the genetic variability are the female-to-male ratio, which should be as small as possible, and the number of reproducing female offspring by males, which should be as balanced as possible. Finally, our work showed that all populations under study have fairly good genetic variability in comparison with other species, despite their scarce numbers. PMID:19820041

  15. Low-quality roughages in high-concentrate pelleted diets for sheep: digestion and metabolism characteristics as affected by corncob and(or) rice hull additions.

    PubMed

    Kinser, A R; Fahey, G C; Berger, L L

    1988-02-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of feeding corncobs, rice hulls or a combination of both on nutrient digestion and flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract of multiple-cannulated sheep (55-kg Rambouillet X Dorset rams; trial 1; 4 X 4 Latin square) as well as ruminal, digestive and metabolic characteristics of early-weaned lambs (24.1-kg crossbred rams; trial 2; randomized complete block design; 3 periods) fed pelleted 75% concentrate-25% roughage diets. In trial 1, apparent total tract dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities decreased and N digestibility increased as percentage of dietary corncobs decreased and percentage of rice hulls increased. Site of NDF digestion appeared to shift from the upper to the lower digestive tract as percentage of corncobs decreased and percentage of rice hulls increased. In trial 2, apparent DM digestibility decreased as corncobs were replaced with rice hulls in the diet. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility was not affected by diet except in larger lambs at higher intakes, with NDF digestibility generally decreasing as percentage of dietary rice hulls increased. Nitrogen digestibility was not affected by replacing corncobs with rice hulls in the diet. Ruminal pH decreased as rice hulls replaced corncobs in the diet. These data are interpreted to indicate that rice hulls can be effectively substituted for corncobs in sheep diets when added at levels up to 25% of the total diet. PMID:2836352

  16. Linking nutrient enrichment, sediment erodibility and biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, B.; Mahon, R.; Sojka, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment movement in coastal lagoons affects nutrient flux and primary producer growth. Previous research has shown that sediment erodibility is affected by biofilm concentration and that growth of benthic organisms, which produce biofilm, is affected by nutrient enrichment. However, researchers have not examined possible links between nutrient addition and sediment erodibility. We manipulated nutrient levels in the water column of 16 microcosms filled with homogenized sediment from a shallow coastal lagoon and artificial seawater to determine the effects on biofilm growth, measured through chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate concentrations. Erosion tests using a Gust microcosm were conducted to determine the relationship between sediment erodibility and biofilm concentration. Results show that carbohydrate levels decreased with increasing nutrient enrichment and were unrelated to chlorophyll concentrations and erodibility. The nutrient levels did not predictably affect the chlorophyll levels, with lower chlorophyll concentrations in the control and medium enrichment treatments than the low and high enrichment treatments. Controls on biofilm growth are still unclear and the assumed relationship between carbohydrates and erodibility may be invalid. Understanding how biofilms respond to nutrient enrichment and subsequent effects on sediment erodibility is essential for protecting and restoring shallow coastal systems.

  17. The use of endogenous retroviruses as markers to describe the genetic relationships among local Swedish sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Mukiibi, R; Rochus, C M; Andersson, G; Johansson, A M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the genetic relationships among five Swedish sheep breeds using insertional polymorphisms of six endogenous Jaagsiekte retroviruses of sheep. Although the Swedish breeds were found to have genomes of 'primitive' origin, there also are indications of the presence of more recently derived sheep breeds within the ancestries of three of the breeds. PMID:25644015

  18. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  19. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...

  20. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312...and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection...parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine and goats, meat food products in...