Note: This page contains sample records for the topic male sheep nutrient from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.

Adult-Onset Obesity Reveals Prenatal Programming of Glucose-Insulin Sensitivity in Male Sheep Nutrient Restricted during Late Gestation  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. Methods/Principal Findings Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n?=?6) or energy restricted (0.7M) diet during early (1–65 days; LEE, n?=?6) or late (65–128 days; LEL, n?=?7) gestation (term ?147 days). Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT) and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6–7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were ‘lean’ (1.5 years). Obesity revealed generalised metabolic ‘inflexibility’ and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulinAUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] mins) during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16]; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively). Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. Conclusions This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and ‘reveals’ programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young prenatally ‘programmed’ animals so long as weight is adequately controlled. Nutritional excess in adulthood exacerbates any programmed phenotype, indicating greater vigilance over weight control is required for those individuals exposed to nutritional thrift during gestation.

Rhodes, Philip; Craigon, Jim; Gray, Clint; Rhind, Stuart M.; Loughna, Paul T.; Gardner, David S.



Effects of castration on fear reactions of male sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of castration (3 months of age) on fear reactions of male sheep were studied by comparing the results of previously validated tests on ten rams and ten wethers at 14 months of age. These tests involved situations classically reported to induce far in sheep: isolation from conspecifics, surprise effect and presence of a human. Twenty five behavioural items

M. Vandenheede; M. F. Bouissou



A mechanistic model for predicting the nutrient requirements and feed biological values for sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Pro- tein System (CNCPS), a mechanistic model that pre- dicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for cattle, was modified for use with sheep. Pub- lished equations were added for predicting the energy and protein requirements of sheep, with a special em- phasis on dairy sheep, whose specific needs are not considered by most

A. Cannas; L. O. Tedeschi; D. G. Fox; A. N. Pell; P. J. Van Soest


Hypothalamic integration of nutrient status and reproduction in the sheep.  


Nutrient availability is a determinant of reproductive success. It is well known that inadequate nutrition results in reproductive failure due to a number of factors including delay of puberty or anoestrous in post-pubertal animals. The lack of nutrients is detected primarily by changes in circulating nutrient molecules and hormones and communicated directly or indirectly to the hypothalamus and brain stem for integration. The general effect is that low nutrition leads to increased appetite stimulation and reduced reproductive performance. When nutrition is adequate, the reverse is true. Both aspects will be the focus of this review. One result of the lack of nutrients is a reduction in luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and pulse frequency. Nutrient signals, such as glucose availability, hormonal signals, such as insulin and leptin, and neuroendocrine signals, such as neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone, have been clearly demonstrated to interact to produce changes in LH and reproductive success. Other signals, such as fatty acids, ghrelin, agouti-related peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, kisspeptin, neurokinin, dynorphin and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone may also play a role in integrating nutrition and reproduction. This review will focus on the major features of the reciprocal control of appetite and reproduction in sheep. PMID:23962214

Daniel, Ja; Foradori, Cd; Whitlock, Bk; Sartin, Jl



Male mate choice influences female promiscuity in Soay sheep.  


In most animal species, males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, while females are expected to choose between potential mates. However, when males' rate of reproduction is constrained, or females vary widely in 'quality', male mate choice is also predicted to occur. Such conditions exist in the promiscuous mating system of feral Soay sheep on St Kilda, Scotland, where a highly synchronized mating season, intense sperm competition and limitations on sperm production constrain males' potential reproductive rate, and females vary substantially in their ability to produce successful offspring. We show that, consistent with predictions, competitive rams focus their mating activity and siring success towards heavier females with higher inclusive fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first time that male mate choice has been identified and shown to lead to assortative patterns of parentage in a natural mammalian system, and occurs despite fierce male-male competition for mates. An additional consequence of assortative mating in this population is that lighter females experience a series of unstable consorts with less adept rams, and hence are mated by a greater number of males during their oestrus. We have thus also identified a novel male-driven mechanism that generates variation in female promiscuity, which suggests that the high levels of female promiscuity in this system are not part of an adaptive female tactic to intensify post-copulatory competition between males. PMID:15734690

Preston, B T; Stevenson, I R; Pemberton, J M; Coltman, D W; Wilson, K




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in soil bulk density and soil nutrient profiles are a major concern of dryland grain producers considering grazing sheep on cereal stubble fields. Although sheep grazing may reduce wheat stem sawfly over-wintering larval numbers and help control weeds on fallow ground, potential sheep impac...


Effect of Stage of Lactation on Nutrient Composition of Tswana Sheep and Goat's Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Tswana goats and seven Tswana sheep suckling single (male or female) kids or lambs were milked to obtain information on the milk composition of Tswana goats and ewes under semi-intensive management. The milk samples collected were from does and ewes 40–166 days post-partum. The aim of this study was to document the chemical composition of Tswana goat and sheep's

A. A. Aganga; J. O. Amarteifio; N. Nkile



Periconceptional Undernutrition in Sheep Affects Adult Phenotype Only in Males  

PubMed Central

Periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN) in sheep alters fetal growth and metabolism and postnatal growth regulation, but effects on adult body composition are unknown. We investigated the effects of PCUN on adult phenotype. Singleton lambs of ewes fed normally (N, n = 17) or undernourished before (UN-61-0 d, n = 23), before and after (UN-61-30 d, n = 19), or after (UN-2-30d, n = 17) mating (d0) were weighed at birth, 12 weeks, and intermittently to adulthood. At the age of 3-4 years, body composition was assessed by dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry followed by postmortem examination. Compared with N animals, male, but not female, offspring of all UN groups had greater % fat mass (all UN versus N: 9 ± 1 versus 2 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and perirenal fat (544 ± 36 versus 222 ± 44?g, P = 0.002), and proportionately smaller hearts (4.5 ± 0.1 versus 5.2 ± 0.2?g·kg?1), lungs (9.1 ± 0.2 versus 10.6 ± 0.5?g·kg?1), and adrenals (0.06 ± 0.002 versus 0.08 ± 0.003?g·kg?1). UN males also had larger testes (726 ± 21 versus 545 ± 32?g, P = 0.007), but UN females had smaller ovaries (2.7 ± 0.08 versus 3.4 ± 0.4?g, P = 0.01). Changes were independent of birth weight or postnatal growth velocity. Brief PCUN has sex-specific effects on adult phenotype, predominantly affecting males, which may contribute to adverse metabolic outcomes.

Jaquiery, Anne L.; Oliver, Mark H.; Honeyfield-Ross, Maggie; Harding, Jane E.; Bloomfield, Frank H.



Maternal nutrient restriction predisposes ventricular remodeling in adult sheep offspring.  


Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy is associated with the development of a "thrifty phenotype" in offspring, conferring increased prevalence of metabolic diseases in adulthood. To explore the possible mechanisms behind heart diseases in adulthood following maternal nutrient restriction, dams were fed a nutrient-restricted (NR: 50%) or control (100%) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation. Both groups were then fed 100% of requirements to lambing. At 6 years of age, female offspring of NR and control ewes of similar weight and body condition were subjected to ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable diet for 12 weeks. Cardiac geometry, post-insulin receptor signaling, autophagy and proinflammatory cytokines were evaluated in hearts from adult offspring. Our results indicated that maternal nutrient restriction overtly increased body weight gain and triggered cardiac remodeling in offspring following the 12-week ad libitum feeding. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) was increased in left but not right ventricles from NR offspring. Levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 were up-regulated in left ventricles, whereas expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and toll-like receptor-4 was enhanced in right ventricles, in adult offspring of maternal nutrition-restricted ewes. No significant differences were found in pan-IRS1, pan-AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), pan-Akt, phosphorylated AMPK, phosphorylated Akt, glucose transporter 4, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light-chain 3 II proteins in left and right ventricles between the control and NR offspring. These data revealed that maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation may predispose adult offspring to cardiac remodeling possibly associated with phosphorylation of IRS1 as well as proinflammatory cytokines but not autophagy. PMID:23333094

Ge, Wei; Hu, Nan; George, Lindsey A; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun



Influences of flavomycin, ropadiar, and saponin on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and methane emission from sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the effects of three additives given together with a hay\\/concentrate-based diet on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and methane emission from sheep. The basal diet consisted of 1.29kg mixed hay and 0.43kg concentrate mixture based on dry matter (DM). Treatments consisted of control (no additive), flavomycin40 (250mg\\/d), ropadiar from an oregano extract (250mg\\/d), and saponin in the

C. J. Wang; S. P. Wang; H. Zhou



Nutrient supplementation: improving male fertility fourfold.  


Oxidative stress can contribute to impairment in spermatogenesis leading to male-factor infertility. The effectiveness of various antioxidants (such as carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10) is variable with respect to improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates. A recent Cochrane review determined that men taking antioxidants had a statistically significant increase in both live birth rates and pregnancy rates. For those undergoing assisted reproduction, the odds ratio that antioxidant use would improve pregnancy rates was 4.18, with a 4.85-fold improvement in live birth rate also noted. Further investigation with randomized, controlled clinical trials is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the medical management and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23775385

Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Shin, David



Quantifying differences in total tract nutrient digestibilities between goats and sheep.  


Conclusions from narrative qualitative reviews on differences in total tract digestibilities between goats and sheep did not account for variability among studies. Therefore meta-analytic techniques were used to describe the magnitude of these differences with numerical values. A unitless effect size (Hedges' g) was applied within studies to measure differences in digestibilities of dry matter (DM; 104 comparisons), organic matter (OM; 93 comparisons), crude protein (CP; 85 comparisons), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 74 comparisons), acid detergent fibre (ADF; 59 comparisons), cellulose (24 comparisons), hemicellulose (18 comparisons) and gross energy (GE; 29 comparisons). The absence and inability to describe independent factors which contributed to variation among studies necessitated the use of frequentist random effects and hierarchical Bayesian models in the calculation of summary statistics across studies. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose were higher (p < 0.05) in goats than sheep when all-forage diets were fed. When concentrates were included in the diets, there were no such differences. Differences between goats and sheep in DM intake were found to be non-significant. Differences in nutrient digestibilities of forages as sole feed implies that species-specific values have to be used in feed formulation and feeding strategies. However, caution is needed when extrapolating results from stall-feeding, which is how digestibility data are usually measured, to grazing conditions. PMID:21762428

Sales, J; Jan?ík, F; Homolka, P



The Influence of Maternal Early to Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction of Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fetal Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tis...


Simulation of the Metabolism of Absorbed Energy Yielding Nutrients in Young Sheep: Efficiency of Utilization of LJpidand Amino Acid1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously described mathematical model that simulates the metabolism of absorbed nutrients in a sheep weighing 25 kg was used to examine the effects of altering lipid and amino acid absorption, and the potential of the animal to deposit protein on the efficiency of utilization (k,) of metabolizable energy. The predicted k, of energy from lipid added to several diets



Fortifying native pasture hay with molasses–urea mixtures improves its digestibility and nutrient intake by weaner sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weaner ewes were fed poor quality native pasture hay fortified with molasses–urea solutions, and a 42-day indoor metabolism study was conducted to determine forage intake and nutrient metabolism. Low quality native pastures in the Falkland Islands restrict sheep productivity, and methods to improve the value of this resource have been requested by local farmers. Fortification solutions used in the study

Sean M. Miller; Gordon Lennie; Derek Clelland



Effect of protein-protected fat on ruminal and total nutrient digestibility of sheep diets.  


Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing chopped ryegrass hay with 0, 5, 10, or 20% fat coated with ruminal bypass protein (Prolip on ruminal digestion by cows and nutrient digestibility by sheep. Ruminal disappearances of DM, ADF, and NDF were measured by the in sacco technique using a cannulated cow. Degradation of DM, ADF, and NDF was not affected by protected fat supplementation at the 5, 10, or 20% level during the first 16 h in the rumen. In addition, supplementation with Prolip did not influence in vitro fermentation characteristics such as pH and VFA patterns. A digestibility experiment with six mature sheep in a switch-back design showed no decrease in feed intake or other undesired effects between unsupplemented (basal) and Prolip-supplemented diets. Whatever the diet fed to sheep, fiber digestibility was similar; however, DM and nitrogen digestibilities were significantly higher relative to the basal diet when ryegrass hay was substituted at 20% (64.2 vs 59.0% and 74.1 vs 71.1%, respectively). Ether extract digestion was enhanced by increasing level of Prolip; the corresponding values were 48.0, 64.9, 74.6, and 84.6% at 0, 5, 10, or 20% Prolip. Likewise, Prolip supplementation at the 10 or 20% level augmented digestibility of energy (62.7 or 65.9 vs 59.2%). Nitrogen and energy retentions were improved due to the decreases in fecal and(or) urinary excretion(s). PMID:8386715

Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R; Vernay, M



The Influence of Maternal Early to Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction on Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fetal Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early to mid-gestational period (days 28–78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient\\u000a restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease\\u000a in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tissue fatty acids has not been reported. Ewes were fed to 50% (MNR) or

Yunhua Zhou; Mark Nijland; Myrna Miller; Stephen Ford; Peter W. Nathanielsz; J. Thomas Brenna



Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC),\\u000a 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and

Sohail H. Khan; Muhammad Aasif Shahzad; Mahr Nisa; Muhammad Sarwar



Sexual conflict in twins: male co-twins reduce fitness of female Soay sheep.  


Males and females often have different requirements during early development, leading to sex-specific interactions between developing offspring. In polytocous mammals, competition for limited resources in utero may be asymmetrical between the sexes, and androgens produced by male foetuses could have adverse effects on the development of females, with potentially long-lasting consequences. We show here, in an unmanaged population of Soay sheep, that female lambs with a male co-twin have reduced birth weight relative to those with a female co-twin, while there was no such effect in male twins. In addition, females with a male co-twin had lower lifetime breeding success, which appeared to be mainly driven by differences in first-year survival. These results show that sex-specific sibling interactions can have long-term consequences for survival and reproduction, with potentially important implications for optimal sex allocation. PMID:19493877

Korsten, Peter; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B



Body reserves affect the reproductive endocrine responses to an acute change in nutrition in mature male sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic status is a powerful regulator of reproductive activity, but the metabolic mediators involved and the relationships between fat reserves, food intake and the systems that control reproduction are not fully understood. In this study with mature male Merino sheep, we tested whether the effect of an acute nutritional stimulus on pulsatile LH secretion depended on body condition. Two groups

Song Zhang; Dominique Blache; Margaret A. Blackberry; Graeme B. Martin



Nutrient intake and iron status of Australian male vegetarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the iron intake and status of Australian, male vegetarians aged between 20 and 50 y.Design: Cross-sectional comparison of male vegetarians and age\\/sex matched omnivores.Setting: Free-living community subjects.Subjects: 39 ovolactovegetarians, 10 vegans and 25 omnivores were recruited by local advertisement.Outcome measures: A 12-d semiquantitative dietary record to assess iron and zinc intake. Iron status

AK Wilson; MJ Ball



Effect of several supplemental Chinese herbs additives on rumen fermentation, antioxidant function and nutrient digestibility in sheep.  


Two experiments were carried out in this study. Experiment 1 was conducted to examine the effects of several supplemental Chinese herbs on antioxidant function and slaughtered body weight in sheep. Results indicated that Fructus Ligustri Lucidi supplementation improved the blood antioxidant function [higher concentration of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase and lower concentration of malondialdehyde] and slaughtered body weight in sheep (p < 0.05). Experiment 2 was conducted to investigate the effect of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract (FLLE) on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in sheep. Four levels of FLLE treatments, i.e. 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg dry matter (DM), were used in this part. Addition of FLLE at 300 or 500 mg/kg DM increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and propionate proportion, decreased ammonia-N concentration in the ruminal fluid, reduced blood urea nitrogen concentration at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after morning feeding (p < 0.05). Addition of FLLE at all dosages had no effect on ruminal pH value and acetate concentration at all sampling time points in sheep (p > 0.05). Dynamic degradation coefficient c of maize DM was significantly increased by supplementing FLLE at 300 or 500 mg/kg DM (p < 0.05). Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract addition had no effect on degradation coefficients a, b, c of DM and nitrogen of soybean meal; a, b of maize DM; a, b, c of maize nitrogen; and a, b, c of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) of Chinese wildrye (p > 0.05). Addition of FLLE at 300 or 500 mg/kg DM increased DM and organic matter digestibility of diet (p < 0.05). Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract addition had no effect on digestibility of diet's NDF, ADF and crude protein (p > 0.05). From the aforementioned results, it is indicated that FLLE improved antioxidant status and slaughtered body weight. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract addition has capability to modulate rumen fermentation, increase the maize degradation rate, total volatile fatty acid concentration and propionate proportion in sheep. PMID:21848844

Qiao, G H; Zhou, X H; Li, Y; Zhang, H S; Li, J H; Wang, C M; Lu, Y



Males make poor meals: a comparison of nutrient extraction during sexual cannibalism and predation.  


Cannibalism is hypothesized to have evolved as a way to obtain a high-quality meal. We examined the extraction of lipid and protein by female wolf spiders, Hogna helluo, during sexual cannibalism of males and predation of crickets. Most food-limited females did not cannibalize males but immediately consumed a size-matched cricket. When consuming male H. helluo and crickets, female H. helluo only consumed 51% of the male body while they consumed 72% of the cricket body. While males had higher protein content in their bodies than crickets and other insects, female H. helluo ingested similar amounts of protein from male H. helluo and crickets. Female H. helluo extracted 47% of the protein present in male H. helluo and 67% of the protein present in crickets. Females were able to extract nearly all of the lipid present in male H. helluo and crickets. However, crickets and other insects had almost 4 times higher lipid content than male H. helluo. The ratio of lipid to protein consumed from crickets appeared more similar to the nutritional requirements of egg production than that of males. Taken together, female hesitancy to engage in cannibalism, low extraction of nutrients from males and a low ratio of lipid to protein in the food extracted from males suggest that males may be poor-quality prey items compared to common insects such as crickets. PMID:19960354

Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L



Renal responses to furosemide are significantly attenuated in male sheep at 6 months of age following fetal uninephrectomy.  


We have previously shown that fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days) in male sheep results in a 30% nephron deficit, reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow, and elevation in arterial pressure at 6 mo of age. Furthermore, in response to an acute 0.9% saline load, sodium excretion was significantly delayed in uni-x animals leading us to speculate that tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) activity was reset in uni-x animals. In the present study, we induced TGF blockade by furosemide administration (1.5 mg/kg iv over 90 min) and determined GFR, effective renal plasma flow, and urine and sodium excretion responses in 6-mo-old male sheep. In response to furosemide, a significant diuresis and natriuresis was observed in the sham group; however, the response was significantly delayed and reduced in uni-x animals (both, P(treatment×time) < 0.001). Cummulative urinary and sodium output was significantly less in the uni-x compared with the sham sheep (both, P(treatment×time) < 0.001). GFR was increased in the sham but not the uni-x sheep (P(treatment×time) < 0.0001). In conclusion, the excretory response to furosemide was attenuated in the uni-x sheep, and this suggests a rightward resetting of the TGF operating point. The TGF mechanism is important in the fine tuning of sodium homeostasis and is likely a contributing factor for the dysfunction in sodium regulation we have previously observed in the uni-x animals. PMID:22319047

Singh, Reetu R; Moritz, Karen M; Bertram, John F; Denton, Kate M



Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  


Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L



Consideration for Dietary Nutrient Density and Energy Feeding Programs for Growing Large Male Broiler Chickens for Further Processing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three trials with identical experimental design were conducted to examine the effects of dietary nutrient density and energy feeding programs on male broiler chickens grown to heavy weights for further processing. Diets were formulated to provide a minimum of 107.5% of NRC (1994) amino acid requirements, maintained in proportion to dietary energy levels. Diets with different nutrient density were obtained

E. A. Saleh; S. E. Watkins; A. L. Waldroup; P. W. Waldroup


Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate.  


The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC), 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and concentrate as 50:50 (SSC), 100% millet silage (MiS) and millet silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MiSC), respectively. For this purpose, 24 Sipli lambs were randomly allotted to six experimental diets in a completely randomized design for 90 days, four lambs per diet. The results indicated that among various silage diets, lambs fed MS diet consumed higher dry matter (DM) than those fed SS and MiS diets. Likewise, lambs offered MSC had higher dry matter intake than those fed SSC and MiSC diets. Crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) consumed by the lambs also followed the similar trend. Higher DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were also observed in lambs fed MS and MSC diets than those fed SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. Overall digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were higher in experimental diets containing silage with concentrate. Lambs fed MS diet had 2.79 g/day and 4.45 g/day higher N retention than those fed SS and MiS, respectively. Similarly, lambs fed MSC diet had 2.24 g/day and 5.12 g/day higher N retention than those fed SSC and MiSC diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed MSC gained more daily weight gain had better feed conversion ratio than those fed MS, SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. The findings of the present study indicated that lambs fed MSC diet had higher nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain. PMID:21116714

Khan, Sohail H; Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Nisa, Mahr; Sarwar, Muhammad



Development of sheep androgenetic embryos is boosted following transfer of male pronuclei into androgenetic hemizygotes.  


Androgenetic embryos are useful model for investigating the contribution of the paternal genome to embryonic development. Little work has been done with androgenetic embryo production in domestic animals. The aim of this study was the production of diploid androgenetic sheep embryos. In vitro matured sheep oocytes were enucleated and fertilized in vitro; parthenogenetic and normally fertilized embryos were also produced as a control. Fifteen hours after in vitro fertilization (IVF), presumptive zygotes were centrifuged and scored for the number of pronucleus. IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos (haploid, diploid, and triploid) were cultured in SOFaa medium with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proportion of oocytes with polyspermic fertilization increased linearly with increasing sperm concentration. After IVF, there was no significant difference in early cleavage and morula formation rates between the groups, while there was a significant difference on blastocyst development between IVF, parthenogenetic, and androgenetic embryos, the last ones displaying poor developmental potential (IVF, parthenogenetic, and haploid, diploid, and triploid androgenetic embryos: 43%, 38%, 0%, 2%, and 2%, respectively). In order to boost androgenetic embryonic development, we produced diploid androgenetic embryos through pronuclear transfer. Single pronuclei were aspirated with a bevelled pipette from haploid or diploid embryos and transferred into the perivitelline space of other haploid embryos, and the zygotes were reconstructed by electrofusion. Fusion rates approached 100%. Pronuclear transfer significantly increased blastocyst development (IVF, parthenogenetic, androgenetic: Diploid into Haploid, and Haploid into Haploid: 42%, 42%, 19%, and 3%, respectively); intriguingly, the Haploid + Diploid group showed the highest development to blastocyst stage. The main findings of our study are: (1) sheep androgenetic embryos display poor developmental ability compared with IVF and parthenogenetic embryos; (2) diploid androgenetic embryos produced by pronuclear exchange developed in higher proportion to blastocyst stage, particularly in the Diploid-Haploid group. In conclusion, pronuclear transfer is an effective method to produce sheep androgenetic blastocysts. PMID:17907948

Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Turco, Margherita Yayoi; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Reynolds, Lawrence; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino



Changes of drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver of male sheep exposed to either cypermethrin or dimethoate.  


Xenobiotics such as insecticides are metabolized to more or less toxic metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes including cytochrome P450 (Cyp P450), cytochrome b5 (Cyp b5), NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (Cyt.c R), N-nitrosdimethylamine-N-demethylase I (NDMA-dI), glutathione (GSH), glutathione s-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Therefore, the present study showed the influence of oral administration of cypermethrin (6 and 12 mg/kg/day) and dimethoate (1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg/day) for 63 consecutive days on the activities of the above mentioned enzymes in the livers of male sheep. Low and high-treatments of sheep with cypermethrin significantly increased the levels of Cyp P450 by 56% and 98%, Cyp b5 by 65% and 80%, GSH by 68% and 74%, and Cyt.c R by 67% and 98%, respectively in a dose-dependent manner. However, low dose of cypermethrin increased the activities of GST and GR by 56% and 91% respectively. In addition, low and high dose-treatments with dimethoate increased the hepatic contents of Cyp P450 by 27% and 40%, GSH by 259% and 132%, whereas NDMA-dI decreased by 27 and 55% respectively, and no change in the content of Cyp b5 and the activity of Cyt.c-R at any given dose of this compound. It is concluded that exposure to cypermethrin and dimethoate significantly changed the hepatic activity of phases I & II drugmetabolizing enzymes in sheep, and these changes are mainly dependent on the administred dose, and also on the type of the tested insecticides. Also, such changes should be considered when therapeutic drugs administered to people exposed to such insecticides. PMID:22372553

Sheweita, S A; Yousef, M I; Baghdadi, H H; Elshemy, A G



Nutrient Intake Evaluation of Male and Female Cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutrient intakes of male and female cadets were evaluated during the 1979-80 academic year as part of a study to determine factors contributing to weight gain in the West Point cadets. Five consecutive days of dietary data were collected from 136 males an...

H. E. Sauberlich M. J. Kretsch P. M. Conforti



Increasing nutrient use efficiency in West-African agriculture: the impact of micro-topography on nutrient leaching from cattle and sheep manure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In African agriculture, availability of nutrients for crop production can be increased using external inputs such as mineral fertiliser. However, for many African farmers the large scale use of external inputs will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future. There is, therefore, also a need for increasing the efficiency of use of locally available nutrients such as manure and crop

Joost Brouwer; J. Mark Powell



Nutrient intake, body fat, and lipid profiles of competitive male and female bodybuilders.  


The purpose of this research was to measure nutrient intake, body fat, [estimated from seven skinfolds: chest, axilla, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh (Jackson and Pollock, 1985)], total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, and HDL3-C of 19 male and 8 female bodybuilders competing in the National Physique Committee's USA Bodybuilding Championships (Raleigh, NC, April 1988). Casual blood samples and anthropometric data were collected 18 hours prior to competition, whereas 7-day diet records were completed 1 week prior to competition. Only 11 males and 2 females provided blood samples. Competitors were not tested for steroid use. These data are unique because the measurements were collected on site at the competition. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Estimated body fat for males (6.0 +/- 1.8%) and females (9.8 +/- 1.5%) was quite low. Blood lipids (mg%) for males (TC = 187 +/- 11, HDL-C = 37 +/- 6, HDL2-C = 13 +/- 4, and HDL3-C = 24 +/- 4) were not indicative of increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Data for the 2 females (TC = 190, 205; HDL-C = 56, 56; HDL2-C = 22, 8; and HDL3-C = 34, 48) could only be evaluated on an individual basis. Body fat was significantly correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.63; p = 0.04) and HDL3-C (r = 0.65; p = 0.03), but not TC nor HDL2-C. Of the dietary variables, only saturated fat was significantly correlated with HDL2-C (r = 0.60; p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2338462

Bazzarre, T L; Kleiner, S M; Litchford, M D



Nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations differing in protein level, main protein source and non-forage fibre source.  


Two in vivo digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet's crude protein (CP) level, N degradability, and non-forage fibre source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed four isocaloric and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial, mean CP/metabolizable energy (ME) ratio of the diets was 17 g/MJ ME and at the second trial, 13 g/MJ ME. At both trials, the first ration contained cotton seed cake (CSC) and wheat bran (WB), the second CSC and corn gluten feed (CGF), the third corn gluten meal (CGM) and WB and the fourth CGM and CGF. Data of both trials were analysed in common as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Low N degradability (CGM) had positive effect on CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility of the ration. Those results suggest that an increase in rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility of sheep rations. Corn gluten feed significantly elevated crude fibre (CF) digestibility, in comparison with WB. Rations having high CP/ME ratio had higher digestibility of CP in comparison with those having low CP/ME ratio; the opposite was true for ether extract, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities. CP level x N degradability interaction negatively affected energy value of the rations that had high CP level and high N degradability. Former suggest that when CP content is high then N degradability should be low otherwise ration's ME is negatively affected. CP digestibility and coefficient q of the rations containing WB and having high N degradability (N degradability x NFFS interaction) were the lowest suggesting that the combination of CSC and WB negatively affected CP digestibility and energy value of the ration. This could be explained by a reduced microbial CP synthesis, or lower RUP digestibility or both. PMID:18184379

Milis, Ch; Liamadis, D



Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under limited nutrient conditions in Drosophila male germline stem cells  

PubMed Central

Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient conditions mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient conditions. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient conditions.

Roth, Therese M.; Chiang, C.-Y. Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E.; Yamashita, Yukiko M.



Centrosome misorientation mediates slowing of the cell cycle under limited nutrient conditions in Drosophila male germline stem cells.  


Drosophila male germline stem cells (GSCs) divide asymmetrically, balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Although asymmetric stem cell division balances between self-renewal and differentiation, it does not dictate how frequently differentiating cells must be produced. In male GSCs, asymmetric GSC division is achieved by stereotyped positioning of the centrosome with respect to the stem cell niche. Recently we showed that the centrosome orientation checkpoint monitors the correct centrosome orientation to ensure an asymmetric outcome of the GSC division. When GSC centrosomes are not correctly oriented with respect to the niche, GSC cell cycle is arrested/delayed until the correct centrosome orientation is reacquired. Here we show that induction of centrosome misorientation upon culture in poor nutrient conditions mediates slowing of GSC cell proliferation via activation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint. Consistently, inactivation of the centrosome orientation checkpoint leads to lack of cell cycle slowdown even under poor nutrient conditions. We propose that centrosome misorientation serves as a mediator that transduces nutrient information into stem cell proliferation, providing a previously unappreciated mechanism of stem cell regulation in response to nutrient conditions. PMID:22357619

Roth, Therese M; Chiang, C-Y Ason; Inaba, Mayu; Yuan, Hebao; Salzmann, Viktoria; Roth, Caitlin E; Yamashita, Yukiko M



Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and early postnatal growth in sheep differentially reset the control of energy metabolism in the gastric mucosa.  


Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood. PMID:21558318

Sebert, S P; Dellschaft, N S; Chan, L L Y; Street, H; Henry, M; Francois, C; Sharma, V; Fainberg, H P; Patel, N; Roda, J; Keisler, D; Budge, H; Symonds, M E



Maternal Nutrient Restriction During Late Gestation and Early Postnatal Growth in Sheep Differentially Reset the Control of Energy Metabolism in the Gastric Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Fetal growth restriction followed by accelerated postnatal growth contributes to impaired metabolic function in adulthood. The extent to which these outcomes may be mediated centrally within the hypothalamus, as opposed to in the periphery within the digestive tract, remains unknown. In a sheep model, we achieved intrauterine growth restriction experimentally by maternal nutrient restriction (R) that involved a 40% reduction in food intake through late gestation. R offspring were then either reared singly to accelerate postnatal growth (RA) or as twins and compared with controls also reared singly. From weaning, all offspring were maintained indoors until adulthood. A reduced litter size accelerated postnatal growth for only the first month of lactation. Independently from postnatal weight gain and later fat mass, R animals developed insulin resistance as adults. However, restricted accelerated offspring compared with both the control accelerated and restricted restricted offspring ate less and had higher fasting plasma leptin as adults, an adaptation which was accompanied by changes in energy sensing and cell proliferation within the abomasum. Additionally, although fetal restriction down-regulated gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1-dependent pathways in the abomasum, RA offspring compensated for this by exhibiting greater activity of AMP-activated kinase-dependent pathways. This study demonstrates a role for perinatal nutrition in the peripheral control of food intake and in energy sensing in the gastric mucosal and emphasizes the importance of diet in early life in regulating energy metabolism during adulthood.

Sebert, S. P.; Dellschaft, N. S.; Chan, L. L. Y.; Street, H.; Henry, M.; Francois, C.; Sharma, V.; Fainberg, H. P.; Patel, N.; Roda, J.; Keisler, D.; Budge, H.



Partitioning of nutrient net fluxes across the portal-drained viscera in sheep fed twice daily: effect of dietary protein degradability.  


Extrusion is used to decrease leguminous seed protein degradability in the rumen in order to shift part of the dietary protein digestion towards the small intestine. The effect of such displacement of digestion site on the partitioning of nutrient net fluxes across the gastrointestinal tract was studied using four sheep fitted with catheters and blood-flow probes, allowing measurements across the rumen, the mesenteric-drained viscera (MDV) and the portal-drained viscera (PDV). Two diets containing 34 % of pea seeds were tested in a crossover design. They differed only according to pea treatment: raw pea (RP) or extruded pea (EP) diet. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) accounted for 23 and 40 % of dietary crude protein for RP and EP diets, respectively. Across the rumen wall, ammonia net flux was lower with EP diet, whereas urea net flux was not different. Across the MDV, free amino acid (FAA) net flux was greater with EP diet, whereas peptide amino acid net flux was not different, accounting for 7 % of the non-protein amino acid net release. From RP to EP diet, PDV net flux of ammonia decreased by 23 %, whereas FAA net release increased by 21 %. The difference in dietary RUP did not affect the PDV net flux of SCFA, 3-hydroxybutyrate, lactate and glucose. In conclusion, the partial shift in pea protein digestion from the rumen to the small intestine did not affect the portal net balance of N, but decreased N loss from the rumen, and increased amino acid intestinal absorption and portal delivery. PMID:19173767

Rémond, Didier; Bernard, Laurence; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Nozière, Pierre



Comparison of the efficacy of three concentrations of retinoic acid for transdifferentiation induction in sheep marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into male germ cells.  


Recent studies have shown the unique role of retinoic acid (RA) in the induction of transdifferentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into germ cells (GCs). This study is the first study that compares the efficacy of three different concentrations of RA for the production of male GCs in vitro. Male sheep marrow-derived MSCs (MMSCs) were treated with the following concentrations of RA: 1 ?m (RA1), 5 ?m (RA2) and 10 ?m (RA3) for a period of 21 days. The production of male GCs was evaluated by the assessment of expressions of GC-specific markers (by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry), morphological characteristics and changes in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. All three concentrations created male GC features. RA treatment upregulated the expressions of VASA and beta1 INTEGRIN and downregulated PIWIL2 and OCT4. DAZL was not expressed by RA treatment. Interestingly, immunocytochemistry detected PGP 9.5 expression in all treatment groups, with the highest expression noted in the RA3 group (P < 0.05). GC-like cells along with increased ALP activity were observed in all treated cultures, too. Finally, results showed that 10 ?m RA has the most efficiency for transdifferentiation induction in MMSCs and production of male GCs in vitro. PMID:23131047

Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, M; Eslaminejad, M B; Batavani, R; Sedighi-Gilani, M



Supplementation of isonitrogenous oil seed cakes in cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica)–tef straw ( Eragrostis tef) based feeding of Tigray Highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted at Maichew Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training College, Ethiopia. Twenty four male yearling Tigray Highland sheep with mean body weight (BW) of 21±2.6kg (mean±S.D.) were used to investigate the effect of different protein sources on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, BW change and carcass parameters in a study comprising of 90 days feeding trial, followed by

Amare Degu; Solomon Melaku; Gebreyohannes Berhane



Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the ‘boss cow of the nutrient herd’ and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken



Performance and digestibility of growing sheep fed with açai seed meal-based diets.  


This trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of açai seeds in the diet of sheep, specifically, to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets containing four different mixtures of açai seeds and coastcross hay. Sixteen noncastrated male sheep with an average initial body weight of 22 kg were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments using initial body weight as a covariate. The diets used coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. The concentrate was the same in all the treatments. The açai seed was added to the diet as a partial substitute for the coastcross hay to make up four diet treatments: 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 % açaí added to the diet on a dry matter basis. The daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake were found to linearly increase with the increase in added dietary açai seed meal (P < 0.05). Moreover, increasing the proportions of açai seed meal did not significantly alter the nutrient tract digestibility, except that the crude protein level declined in a linear manner. The inclusion of açai seed as a substitute for coastcross hay increases the intake and the daily weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets using coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. PMID:22576274

Gomes, Daiany Iris; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Mezzomo, Rafael; dos Santos, Raphael Bicho; Barcelos, Sandra de Sousa



Elephant grass, sugarcane, and rice bran in diets for confined sheep.  


We aimed to evaluate the effects of diets, based on elephant grass or sugarcane as roughage and corn meal or rice bran as energy concentrate, on performance and body composition in terms of diet intake and digestibility. A total of 30 Santa Ines crossbreds (SIC), castrated male sheep with 19.8 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight (BW) were used. Six animals were slaughtered at the onset of the experiment to estimate the initial body composition for the other animals. The remaining 24 animals were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, with four treatments (two roughages and two concentrates) and six replicates. The sheep were slaughtered when they reached 30.0 kg BW. Elephant grass diets provided higher intake and digestibility than sugarcane diets for the following contents: dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre, minerals, total carbohydrates (TC), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Among the concentrates, corn meal diets were associated with higher intakes than rice bran diets for the following contents: DM, OM, CP, TC, and TDN. Animals from all of the treatments exhibited low average daily weight gain and low protein and high fat and energy body levels. Sugarcane and rice bran can be used as ingredients in diets for sheep with low weight gain potential. Regardless of roughage or concentrate types used in diets for confined SIC sheep, performance and body composition remained unaltered. PMID:22528534

Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; do Carmo, Danilo Moreira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Mezzomo, Rafael; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos



Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.  


This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet. PMID:22820996

Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet



Sheep Statistics, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of sheep on Canadian farms also declined between January 1, 2009 and January 1, 2010. The total sheep inventory fell 0.2% to 806,600 head. The slaughter of sheep in Canada remained unchanged from levels a year ago. The number of sheep on Canadi...



Epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in a semi-arid region of eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep was carried out in a semi-arid region of eastern Ethiopia for 2.5 years (May 2003 to September 2005). The experimental flock comprised a total of 60 Black Head Ogaden sheep, consisting of four equal groups of young male and female and old male and female sheep.

Menkir M. Sissay; Arvid Uggla; Peter J. Waller



Suppression of metastasis of intratesticular inoculation of B16FO melanoma cells by a novel nutrient mixture in male athymic nude mice  

PubMed Central

Metastasis, commonly to the lung, is the major cause of mortality from testicular cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a novel nutrient mixture (NM) containing ascorbic acid, amino acids and green tea extract on the inhibition of melanoma growth and metastasis using a model of intratesticular inoculation of B16FO cells into nude mice. Male athymic mice (n=12), 10–12 weeks of age, were inoculated with 5×105 B16FO melanoma cells in 100 ?l of PBS into the right testis, while the left testis was left untreated. Following inoculation, the mice were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n=6) was fed a regular mouse chow diet and the NM 1% group (n=6) the same diet, but supplemented with 1% NM. Four weeks later the mice were sacrificed and the abdominal cavity was opened. Mice in the control group exhibited extensive metastasis in the peritoneal cavity and severely enlarged right testes and necrotic seminiferous tubules. By contrast, in the NM 1% fed group there was no evidence of peritoneal metastasis in 50% of the animals and mild metastasis in the remaining 50%. The right testes were enlarged and seminiferous tubules in the area of invasion showed evidence of degeneration. No metastasis to the liver, kidney or spleen were evident in either group. However, severe lung metastasis was observed in 2 of 6 mice in the control group and mild metastasis in 2 of 6 mice in the NM 1% group. In conclusion, these results confirm earlier studies and verify the anti-metastatic potential of NM.




Breed differences in sheep with respect to the accumulation of copper in the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male lambs of the pure breeds Texel, Flemish milk sheep, and Finnish landrace, and of the crossbrech Texel x Friesian milk sheep, Texel x Finnish landrace, Suffolk x Friesian milk sheep, and Finnish landrace x He de France were fed hay and concentrates, the latter differing only in the content of copper. At high (± 35 ppm) and at moderately

R. van der Berg; W. van der Schee



Comparative digestion in deer, goats, and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made between castrated male red deer, Angora × New Zealand feral goats, and Border-Leicester × Romney sheep fed chaffed lucerne hay ad libitum during summer and winter. Measurements were made of apparent digestibility, fractional outflow rate (FOR) of rumen digesta, rumen pool size, and particle size breakdown in the rumen, at voluntary feed intake (VFI) during both summer

B. M. Francoise Domingue; D. W. Dellow; P. R. Wilson; T. N. Barry



Animal sexual abuse in a female sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of animal sexual abuse and sadism in a female sheep is described. The animal suffered severe genital tract injury most likely caused by the insertion and manipulation of a branch of wood and by penile penetration by a human male. Postmortem examination revealed multiple perforations of the vagina with massive haemorrhages. Animal sexual abuse is a complex diagnostic

I. Imbschweiler; M. Kummerfeld; M. Gerhard; I. Pfeiffer; P. Wohlsein



Slaughter characteristics of Menz and Horro sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 454 Menz and Horro male sheep at Debre Berhan Research Station, Ethiopia, were evaluated for slaughter characteristics. Rams were born from October 1992 to July 1996 and reared together from birth to slaughter at about 17 months of age. Pre-slaughter live weight (PSW) was about 25kg, while carcass weight (CW) was about 10kg in both breeds. Empty body

Ewnetu Ermias; Alemu Yami; J. E. O. Rege



Liver biopsy in sheep.  


Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using an apparatus with a fibre optic continuous light source and a telescope. The sheep were placed in a sternal position on a special table constructed of metal pipes (3.8 cm diameter) and 4.5 cm spacing. Approximately 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be analyzed for copper or vitamin E. PMID:8343810

Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M



Studies on Allotypes in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antiserum obtained from a sheep immunized with pooled sheep vitreous body was shown to contain allotypic antibodies which defined a specificity designated A. Subsequent immunization of 5 sheep with sheep sera elicited antibodies which recognized 7 additional allotypic specificities designated B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Comparison of antigenic specificities in double diffusion gel precipitation indicated that

J. A. Bash; F. Milgrom



Nutrient Rquirements of Goats: Angora, Dairy, and Meat Goats in Temperate and Tropical Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report establishes nutrient requirements of goats from original studies directly concerned with the needs of goats. Past efforts relied heavily on extrapolation of values derived from cattle and sheep studies. The discussion of energy and protein requ...



Transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A base-line survey was carried out on the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis in sheep in the Department of Florida, Uruguay. Mean life expectancy at birth of the sheep population in this Department was estimated at 3.5 and 4.8 years for male and female sheep, respectively. Both intensity and prevalence of E. granulosus infection increased

P. A. Cabrera; G. Haran; U. Benavidez; S. Valledor; G. Perera; S. Lloyd; M. A. Gemmell; M. Baraibar; A. Morana; J. Maissonave; M. Carballo




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient Management is the science and art directed to link soil, crop, weather and hydrologic factors with cultural, irrigation and soil and water conservation practices to achieve the goals of optimizing nutrient use efficiency, yields, crop quality, and economical returns, while reducing off-site...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearly 600,000 acres of sunflower are grown in the Central Great Plains Region. Because sunflower is relatively new to the region, producers have many questions regarding optimal nutrient management of this crop. This writeup provides the regions producers timely information regarding nutrient manag...


Phenotypic characterization of indigenous Tswana goats and sheep breeds in Botswana: continuous traits.  


The majority of Tswana sheep and goats in Botswana are indigenous. These animals provide income, employment and food security to the resource-poor farmers. Limited characterization of these species has been done, resulting in poor efforts to fully exploit and conserve them. The objective of this study was to phenotyically characterize indigenous sheep and goats countrywide. Measurements were collected from 2783 goats and 1282 sheep kept by traditional farmers, covering nearly all the districts of Botswana. In each district a total of 15 farmers with sheep and goats were selected randomly and records were taken on 4-12 animals per farm, depending on average district flock size. Traits recorded for each animal were body length, body weight, ear length, heart girth, height at withers, hip width, neck length, rump height, shoulder width, tail length (goats only) and horn length. Age (estimated from dentition) and sex of the animals were also recorded and vegetation type was noted. The data were analysed using the general linear model procedure in Statistical Analysis System. Prior to analyses, a main effects model of sex, age and vegetation type was fitted. Later, two types of analyses were done: (i) within a vegetation type fitting sex and age and their interaction, and (ii) within sex fitting age and vegetation type and their interaction. Least-squares means were separated using Student's t-test. Sex, age and vegetation significantly (p<0.05) affected the magnitude of traits. Phenotypic body measurements of castrates were generally higher than in both females and entire males, which were similar. The body measurements of younger animals were less than those of older age groups since the former were still growing compared to the latter. Different vegetation types promoted different body measurements, which should be expected due to differences in nutrient supply from different vegetation types. The indigenous breeds of sheep and goats can be classified as medium-size breeds. The breeds should be conserved since they are well suited to the harsh environment of Botswana where drought and livestock diseases are ever present. Efforts should be undertaken to characterize them genetically and increase their productivity. PMID:15643814

Nsoso, S J; Podisi, B; Otsogile, E; Mokhutshwane, B S; Ahmadu, B



Manufacture of yoghurt from stored frozen sheep’s milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of long-term deep-frozen storage of sheep’s milk on its physicochemical, microbiological and physical stability characteristics, as well as on the corresponding characteristics and the sensory attributes of the yoghurt manufactured from the stored frozen milk after thawing were examined. Bulk whole sheep’s milk, after clarification and pasteurisation (72° C for 15 s), was sampled for analysis and then

Maria C Katsiari; Leandros P Voutsinas; Efthymia Kondyli



Effect of nutrient intake on intramuscular glucose metabolism during the early growth stage in cross-bred steers (Japanese Black male × Holstein female).  


The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrient intake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNF? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle. PMID:22698257

Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T



Homocytotropic antibody in sheep  

PubMed Central

It has been possible to demonstrate, using the homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction, the presence of homocytotropic (reagin-like) antibody in the sera of sheep infected with Ostertagia. The presence of antibody was detectable with Evans blue dye, and a radiolabelled 131I technique. The antibody appeared to fulfil the criteria for homocytotropic antibody, and reacted with an allergenic extract (molecular weight 20,000–50,000) of Ostertagia. An in vitro radio-allergo-absorption method using IgG1A (a new sheep immunoglobulin sub-class) failed to detect homocytotropic antibody, although the Fc fragment of goat anti-sheep IgG1A was capable of blocking the PCA reaction, and of producing a reversed-type allergic skin reaction. This homocytotropic antibody is probably associated with the `self-cure' reaction in Ostertagia infection. ImagesFIG. 1

Hogarth-Scott, R. S.



Review of Disease Related Conflicts between Domestic Sheep and Goats and Bighorn Sheep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research shows that contact between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep and goats can lead to respiratory disease and fatal pneumonia in bighorn sheep. We reviewed experimental methods and evidence regarding respiratory disease in bighorn sheep relative to d...

M. M. Woolever T. J. Schommer



Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient requirements of tilapia are reviewed. The dietary protein requirements vary from 20% to 56% depending upon many factors such as species, size, protein quality, level of non-protein energy in the diets, water salinity, water quality, availability of natural food and feeding management. Til...


Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.



Preservation of Sheep Pelt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some aspects of preserving sheep pelt are discussed. They include short term curing by air drying, and wet and dry salting methods. Preparation methods for tanning are also given, i.e., soaking, liming, de-liming, bating, degreasing, and pickling. Tanning...

R. Lungrin



Horn type and horn length genes map to the same chromosomal region in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of male weaponry in animals is driven by sexual selection, which is predicted to reduce the genetic variability underlying such traits. Soay sheep have an inherited polymorphism for horn type in both sexes, with males presenting with either large, normal horns or small, deformed horns (scurs). In addition, there is additive genetic variation in horn length among males

S E Johnston; D Beraldi; A F McRae; J M Pemberton; J Slate



Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

PubMed Central

In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.



Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)



Re-establishment of nematode infra-community and host survivorship in wild Soay sheep following anthelmintic treatment.  


Compared to mainland Britain, where there has been decades of anthelmintic use, the natural host-parasite relationship of the wild Soay sheep on the remote archipelago of St. Kilda has remained undisturbed. Small-scale anthelmintic bolus experiments on the island have previously shown that the removal of gastrointestinal nematodes can improve over-winter survival of young and male sheep in high host density years. This study, in which two-year-old sheep were treated, is the first to examine patterns of re-establishment of different nematode species in sheep following treatment and also investigates which species are likely to affect host survival. The experiment showed that, although all sheep were equally likely to die, host sex and weight influenced temporal survivorship in that females and heavier sheep tended to survive longer. Examination of the nematodes that had re-infected males six months after administration of an anthelmintic bolus showed that, compared to controls, the diversity of species was lower. Of the nine nematode species, there were fewer Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus nematodes in treated sheep. In control sheep there were more T. axei and T. vitrinus nematodes in males than females. In addition there was an association between host over winter weight loss and the intensity of T. vitrinus. The fact that this species had higher numbers in males than females and was associated with over-winter weight loss implies it could have an important role in host mortality in high-density years. PMID:19150178

Craig, B H; Jones, O R; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaves (A), leaves plus stems (B) and stems (C) were fed to sheep, and relationships among dietary cell wall content, voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility, rate of passage and ruminal measurements were determined. Cell wall contents of diets A, B and C were 48, 56 and 64%, respectively; with in- creasing cell wall content, there were

A. Y. Robles; R. L. Belyea; F. A. Martz



Effects of Energy Source and Food Flavor on Conditioned Preferences in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock and range managers would have a powerful tool to direct utilization and modify plant communities if animals could be conditioned to eat specific foods or plants. We attempted to condition preferences for a low-quality forage through nutrient loading. Sheep were fed licorice or orange-flavored straw pellets then were gavaged with glucose or propionate (.38 1 Mcal, which amounted to

M. H. Ralphs; F. D. Provenza; R. D. Wiedmeier; F. B. Bunderson



The losses of nutrients during the production of strained (Torba) yoghurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional method has been used in the production of Torba yoghurt (a strained yoghurt produced from cow’s, goat’s or sheep’s milk) and this is based on straining with a special cloth bag. In this study, the losses of nutrients during the straining of yoghurt were as follows: 51.8% thiamin, 60.5% riboflavin, 7.28% protein, 0.77% fat, 71.1% lactose, 70.2% sodium,

Cevdet Nergiz; A Kemal Seçkin



Scrapie and experimental BSE in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep, but it can also be successfully transmitted between sheep by experimental inoculation. Although BSE is primarily a disease of cattle, it has also infected humans (causing vCJD) and, in addition, can be trans- mitted orally to sheep bringing concerns that BSE might naturally have infected the UK sheep population. Because of this, scrapie

Nora Hunter



Dolly the Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.



The role of adrenergic mechanisms in thermoregulatory control of blood flow through capillaries and arteriovenous anastomoses in the sheep hind limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of adrenergic mechanisms in thermoregulatory changes in the partition of femoral blood flow between nutrient (capillary) and non-nutrient (arteriovenous anastomoses, AVA) circuits in the hind limb of conscious sheep has been investigated employing radioactive microsphere and electromagnetic blood flow measurement techniques. Constriction of AVAs, normally induced by spinal cooling, could be inhibited by phentolamine, whereas dilatation of

J. R. S. Hales; A. Foldes; A. A. Fawcett; R. B. King



Lack of diet partitioning by sex in reintroduced desert bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) became extinct in Texas, U.S.A., during the 1960s and reintroduction efforts have resulted in an extant population of about 300 free-ranging animals. We studied diet preferences of reintroduced desert bighorn sheep in three mountain ranges in western Texas, U.S.A., during 1994–1995. We predicted that botanical composition and species richness of diets of reintroduced male

Timothy E. Fulbright; W. Frank Robbins; Eric C. Hellgren; Randall W. DeYoung; Ira D. Humphreys



Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Experimental Oleander ( Nerium oleander ) Toxicosis in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried Nerium oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg\\/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep.\\u000a Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the\\u000a heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria\\u000a and

M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; A. Abbasian; M. Zarehpour



Nutrient absorption.  


Many advances in the study of nutrient absorption have been made with the use of molecular and genetic techniques; however, standard in vivo studies have provided interesting and important new information. Omega-3 long-chain fatty acids have unexpected effects on lipoprotein formation and secretion in neonatal intestinal cells; this needs to be considered in the modification of infant formulas. Rexinoids affect intestinal cholesterol homeostasis via two receptors: retinoic acid receptor/liver X receptor (cholesterol efflux to lumen) and retinoic acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor (cholesterol catabolism). Absorption of the antioxidant plant polyphenol quercetin involves interaction with the glucose transporter and deglycolsylation and conjugation reactions. Cells of the polarized human colon cancer cell line, CaCo-2, take up phenylalanine by two mechanisms: passive uptake across the basolateral membrane, and temperature-dependent transcellular movement from apical to basolateral media. Absorption of vitamins A and E is markedly enhanced in normal and damaged intestine by the administration of restructured triacylglycerols derived from fish oil and medium-chain fatty acids. Surprisingly, dietary protein and phosphorus apparently have no significant effect on the efficiency of calcium absorption in adult women. Finally, many studies examined a variety of genes that regulate iron absorption and homeostasis. PMID:17033282

Nutting, David F; Kumar, N Suresh; Siddiqi, Shadab A; Mansbach, Charles M



Nutrient Content Claims  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Final Rule: Food Labeling; Nutrient Content Claims, Expanded Use of the Nutrient Content Claim, "Lean" January 12, 2007. ... More results from


Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep.  


Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy. PMID:19386013

Nurfeta, A; Tolera, A; Eik, L O; Sundstøl, F



Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (± SD) live weight of 20.5 ± 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization. PMID:20050945

Nurfeta, A



Gastrointestinal nematode species burdens and host mortality in a feral sheep population.  


Every few years a large proportion of the feral sheep on Hirta, St Kilda die due to food shortage. The effects of malnutrition are exacerbated by gastrointestinal nematodes. As found in sheep flocks in mainland Britain, Teladorsagia circumcincta has long been considered the predominant and most pathogenic nematode species in all age classes of Soay sheep. Previous research indicated that intensity of this species showed a negative association with host age and comprised 75% of the entire gastrointestinal burden. Here we present new data that show Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus to be the predominant worm pathogens in young Soay sheep. In the present study, Trichostrongylus spp. burdens declined with host age whereas T. circumcincta actually increased in burden over the first few age classes. Also, male hosts had significantly higher burdens of Trichostrongylus spp. than females, with this genus making up a higher proportion of the strongyle egg producing community in male hosts than female hosts. These new findings raise questions concerning our previous interpretation of the main nematode species contributing to strongyle egg count in the population, and the contrasting infection patterns of these nematode species in unmanaged St Kilda Soay sheep compared with domestic sheep in mainland Britain. PMID:16817995

Craig, B H; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M



Contribution of nitric oxide to adaptation of tibetan sheep to high altitude.  


We examined the effects of endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on pulmonary hemodynamics in awake sheep living at low and high altitudes to evaluate the role of NO in adaptation to an hypoxic environment. Unanaesthetized male sheep in three places--Matsumoto, Japan (680 m above sea level), Xing, China (2300 m) and Maxin, China (3750 m)--were prepared for measurements of pulmonary artery (Ppa) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) before and after the NOS inhibition. The non-selective NOS inhibitor, Nw-nitro-l-argine (NLA, 20 mg/kg) was used. Baseline Ppa became elevated with an increase in altitude. After NLA administration, PVR significantly increased in animals of all groups. However, the increase in PVR after NLA in tibetan sheep at 3750 m was significantly higher than those in other groups. We conclude that augmented endogenous NO production may contribute to regulating the pulmonary vascular tone in tibetan sheep (3750 m) adapted to high altitude. PMID:15134666

Koizumi, Tomonobu; Ruan, Zonghai; Sakai, Akio; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Saitou, Muneo; Matsuzaki, Tetsuya; Kubo, Keishi; Wang, Zhangang; Chen, Qiuhong; Wang, Xiaoqin



9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sheep intended for export shall be identified by eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator. 3 except that sheep for...identified by flock brands. 3 Information concerning eartags or tattoos approved by the Administrator may be obtained, upon...



Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep from Predators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A livestock guarding dog is one that generally stays with sheep without harming them and aggressively repels predators. The dog chooses to remain with sheep because it has been reared from puppyhood with them. Its protective behaviors are largely instinct...



Soil fauna in sheep-grazed hill pastures under organic and conventional livestock management and in an adjacent ungrazed pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic pasture management includes a focus on mixed livestock grazing, restrictions on nutrient inputs and livestock pest control. These are all factors which influence the environment of soil invertebrates. In this study, soil macrofauna, mesofauna and microfauna were collected from duplicate 11 and 20 year old organic and conventional legume-based sheep-grazed pasture systems. Pastures in both systems had received the

N. L. Schon; A. D. Mackay; M. A. Minor



The predation of Tern chicks by sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1973 and 1980, sheep ate parts of at least 680 live Arctic Tern chicks and at least 10 Arctic Skua chicks on Foula. This predation was almost completely confined to the dry heath habitat in the southeast corner of Foula. Characteristically, the sheep bit off one or both legs or wings, or more rarely the head. Three different sheep

R. W. Furness



Sheep and Goats (Released July 24, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on July 1, 2009 totaled 7.05 million head, down 3 percent from July 1, 2008. Breeding sheep inventory at 4.28 million head on July 1, 2009 was down 3 percent from July 1, 2008. Market sheep and lambs (incl...



Performance and nutrient digestion of lambs fed incremental levels of wild cactus (Opuntia leucotrichia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Mexico the cacti Opuntia leucotrichia (OL) is abundant and widely distributed. Traditionally, OL cladodes are used as emergency feed for livestock during dry seasons; however, scarce research has been carried out using OL cladodes on high production diets for sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate growing performance, nutrient digestion and rumen parameters of lambs fed

F. Mendez-Llorente; R. G. Ramírez-Lozano; J. I. Aguilera-Soto; C. F. Arechiga-Flores



Multiple Nutrient Markers. Energy and Nutrient.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates h...

T. D. Luckey B. Venugopal D. P. Hutcheson



Nutrient Density Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.



Nutrient Density Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)|

Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.



Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

Blodgett, D.J.



Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...


Value of processed saltbush and acacia shrubs as sheep fodders under the arid conditions of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Succulent parts of Acacia saligna and Atriplex nummularia (saltbush) were both offered to twenty-four adult male sheep in three forms: fresh, or processed by air-drying or ensiling to evaluate feeding value and utilization under arid conditions. The study lasted 45 days with feeding and metabolism trials. Fresh saltbush diet attained higher crude protein, crude fiber and ash contents than fresh

H. M. Abou El Nasr; H. M. Kandil; A. El Kerdawy; Dawlat; H. S. Khamis; H. M. El-Shaer



Histomorphologic study of the renal artery in post-natal life of sheep (Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the structure of different layers of renal artery and comparing these structures in post-natal male and female sheep. To do so, right and left renal arteries of 6 adult and 6 newborn animals were dissected; the middle parts of arteries were only collected. After tissue processing using paraffin

S. Gholami; Haghighat Jahromi


Photosenitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture.  


The clinical appearance and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity were studied in 5 groups of sheep (12 per group) on kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) pasture plots and in 1 group of sheep (10 animals) on native buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) pasture. Eleven sheep (at least 1 from each group on kleingrass pasture plots) had elevated serum GGT activity. Seven of 11 sheep with elevated serum GGT activity developed signs of photosensitization. None of the sheep on buffalograss pasture developed signs of photosensitization or elevated GGT activity. The pathologic findings were similar in the sheep that had signs of photosensitization. Grossly, there was icterus and subcutaneous edema. The livers had tapeworms (Thysanosoma actinioides) in the bile ducts, were slightly swollen, and varied in color from yellow to ochre in severe cases of biliary system derangements. Microscopically, there was cholangitis. PMID:6108949

Muchiri, D J; Bridges, C H; Ueckert, D N; Bailey, E M



Hemorrhagic disease in bighorn sheep in Arizona.  


Two bighorn sheep from Arizona (USA) were submitted for necropsy. One was a Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and the other was a desert bighorn (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Both had lesions consistent with those of hemorrhagic disease (HD). Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) type-2 and bluetongue virus (BTV) type-17, respectively, were isolated from the sheep tissues. To our knowledge, HD caused by either EHDV or BTV infection has not been documented previously in Arizona bighorn sheep. PMID:11838210

Noon, Ted H; Wesche, Shannon Lynn; Cagle, Dave; Mead, Daniel G; Bicknell, Edward J; Bradley, Gregory A; Riplog-Peterson, Shawnee; Edsall, Dave; Reggiardo, Carlos



Sheep-urine-induced changes in soil microbial community structure.  


Soil microbial communities play an important role in nutrient cycling and nutrient availability, especially in unimproved soils. In grazed pastures, sheep urine causes local changes in nutrient concentration which may be a source of heterogeneity in microbial community structure. In the present study, we investigated the effects of synthetic urine on soil microbial community structure, using physiological (community level physiological profiling, CLPP), biochemical (phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and molecular (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) fingerprinting methods. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine treatment had no significant effect on total microbial (total PLFA), total bacterial or fungal biomass; however, significant changes in microbial community structure were observed with both PLFA and DGGE data. PLFA data suggested that synthetic urine induced a shift towards communities with higher concentrations of branched fatty acids. DGGE banding patterns derived from control and treated soils differed, due to a higher proportion of DNA sequences migrating only to the upper regions of the gel in synthetic urine-treated samples. The shifts in community structure measured by PLFA and DGGE were significantly correlated with one another, suggesting that both datasets reflected the same changes in microbial communities. Synthetic urine treatment preferentially stimulated the use of rhizosphere-C in sole-carbon-source utilisation profiles. The changes caused by synthetic urine addition accounted for only 10-15% of the total variability in community structure, suggesting that overall microbial community structure was reasonably stable and that changes were confined to a small proportion of the communities. PMID:16629760

Nunan, Naoise; Singh, Brajesh; Reid, Eileen; Ord, Brian; Papert, Artemis; Squires, Julie; Prosser, Jim I; Wheatley, Ron E; McNicol, Jim; Millard, Peter



Sheep Welfare: A Future Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is every indication that animal welfare will continue to be a major issue affecting livestock farming in the future.\\u000a At the same time sheep farming is under pressure worldwide to become a lower-input farming enterprise. The drive to lower\\u000a inputs and, in particular, restrictions on labour could have important implications for animal welfare by reducing levels\\u000a of care and

A. B. Lawrence; J. Conington


Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch.

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjo, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta



Nutrients in vegetarian foods.  


Persons who use tables of food composition have often found that foods that vegetarians commonly eat are not included. To help remedy this situation, a table is presented which includes the 49 foods on the vegetarian Exchange Lists and 18 additional nonmeat foods. Nutrient contents of household measures of these foods are given for water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folacin. Nutrient amounts were derived from USDA sources and from other published research when available. Nutrient amounts from foods assumed to be identical to those in the table were placed in parentheses. When nutrient amounts were not available, they were estimated from similar foods and placed in brackets. When values found for a single nutrient in a food varied by 20% or more, the total range was shown. When a dash was found in a literature reference and the amount of the nutrient was known to be insignificant, a zero was presented in the table. Thus, there are no gaps in the table. Until accurate laboratory-derived data are available for the nutrients in vegetarian foods, this table, used with appropriate judgment, should be useful for estimating the nutrient intakes of persons who eat vegetarian foods. PMID:6361102

Truesdell, D D; Whitney, E N; Acosta, P B



Nutritive evaluations of some browse tree foliages during the dry season: Secondary compounds, feed intake and in vivo digestibility in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four browse tree foliages (Cassia fistula, Schinus molle, Chorisia speciosa and Eucalyptus camaldulensis), native to the semi-arid region of north Egypt, were harvested during the dry season and evaluated for nutritional quality by determination of levels of nutrient and secondary compounds, as well as feed intake and apparent digestibility in sheep and goats. The study consisted of four experiments conducted

A. Z. M. Salem; M. Z. M. Salem; M. M. El-Adawy; P. H. Robinson



Psoroptic scabies in bignorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in New Mexico.  


Prior to 1978, no reports were made of scabies lesions or mites recovered from any Mexican bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) examined in the San Andres National Wildlife Refuge in southern New Mexico. In 1978, all of five rams harvested by hunters had live mites of the genus Psoroptes and active lesions of scabies in their ears and/or on their bodies. Deaths due to scabies were not documented during this outbreak although aerial helicopter surveys conducted in March, June and September, 1979 recorded less than half the sheep observations of five previous and similarly conducted surveys. After measurement of the length of the outer opisthosomal setae of the male mites, they appear to be Psoroptes ovis (Hering), the common scabies mite of domestic sheep, cattle and horses. Final specific determination must await proposed transmission studies with domestic livestock. PMID:7373729

Lange, R E; Sandoval, A V; Meleney, W P



Developmental effect of antenatal exposure to betamethasone on renal angiotensin II activity in the young adult sheep  

PubMed Central

Antenatal corticosteroids may have long-term effects on renal development which have not been clearly defined. Our objective was to compare the responses to intrarenal infusions of ANG II in two groups of year-old, male sheep: one group exposed to a clinically relevant dose of betamethasone before birth and one not exposed. We wished to test the hypothesis that antenatal steroid exposure would enhance renal responses to ANG II in adult life. Six pairs of male sheep underwent unilateral nephrectomy and renal artery catheter placement. The sheep were infused for 24 h with ANG II or with ANG II accompanied by blockade of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2) receptor. Baseline mean arterial blood pressure among betamethasone-exposed sheep was higher than in control animals (85.8 ± 2.2 and 78.3 ± 1.0 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.003). Intrarenal infusion of ANG II did not increase systemic blood pressure (P ? 0.05) but significantly decreased effective renal plasma flow and increased renal artery resistance (P < 0.05). The decrease in flow and increase in resistance were significantly greater in betamethasone- compared with vehicle-exposed sheep (betamethasone P < 0.05, vehicle P ? 0.05). This effect appeared to be mediated by a heightened sensitivity to the AT1 receptor among betamethasone-exposed sheep. Sodium excretion initially decreased in both groups during ANG II infusion; however, a rebound was observed after 24 h. AT1 blockade was followed by a significant rebound after 24 h in both groups. AT2 blockade blunted the 24-h rebound effect among the vehicle-exposed sheep compared with the betamethasone-exposed sheep. In conclusion, antenatal corticosteroid exposure appears to modify renal responsiveness to ANG II by increasing AT1- and decreasing AT2 receptor-mediated actions particularly as related to renal blood flow and sodium excretion.

Bi, Jianli; Chappell, Mark C.; Rose, James C.



Sheep Behaviour, Needs, Housing and Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Sheep (Ovis aries) are an attractive animal for scientific procedures; for medical, veterinary and fundamental biological research. They are docile, rarely show aggression, have a (relatively) short flight distance and are gregarious. In the UK, of 3 million animal scientific procedures in 2006, over 36,000 involved sheep. Small as a proportion perhaps, but exceeded only by the number involving


Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. Additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. The livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. All visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. Based

Panagiotis D. Katsoulos; Georgios Christodoulopoulos; Maria A. Karatzia; Konstantinos Pourliotis; Anastasios Minas




Microsoft Academic Search

In January 1993 we simulated a conductive hearing loss in three Mexican bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) by placing bone wax or saline solution in their ear canals. Our objective was to test whether lesions of the external auditory canal caused by psoroptic mites (Psoroptes ovis) may lead to conductive hearing loss in bighorn sheep. We assessed the effects of

Linda W. Norrlx; Donald W. DeYoung; Paul R. Krausman; Richard C. Etchberger; Theodore J. Glattke


Hemorrhagic Disease in Bighorn Sheep in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bighorn sheep from Arizona (USA) were submitted for necropsy. One was a Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis can- adensis) and the other was a desert bighorn (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Both had lesions consistent with those of hemorrhagic disease (HD). Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) type-2 and bluetongue virus (BTV) type-17, respectively, were isolated from the sheep tissues. To our

Ted H. Noon; Shannon Lynn Wesche; Dave Cagle; Daniel G. Mead; Edward J. Bicknell


Contagious ecthyma in exotic sheep in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From earlier and recent reports it would appear that contagious ecthyma is endemic in Nigeria although the virus was only recently isolated from indigenous breeds of sheep and goats from a natural outbreak (Obi and Gibbs, 1978). Many exotic breeds of sheep have been introduced into state farms for up-grading of indigenous breeds but a search through the literature revealed

A. E. J. Okoh



Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...


Bacteriological Examinations of Air in Sheep Folds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were made to define the degree of bacterial air pollution in sheep folds in differentiating microclimatic conditions. Bacteriological and microclimatic examinations of the air were performed in Feb 75 in 12 halo-type sheep folds in which merino sh...

K. Kozlowska W. Rogowska



Sheep and Goats (Released July 25, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on July 1, 2008 totaled 7.35 million head, down 3 percent from July 1, 2007, and 5 percent below July 1, 2006. Breeding sheep inventory at 4.42 million head on July 1, 2008 was down 3 percent from July 1, ...



Sheep and Goats (Released January 30, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2009, totaled 5.75 million head, down 3 percent from 2008. Breeding sheep inventory decreased to 4.25 million head on January 1, 2009, down 4 percent from 4.43 million head on January 1, 2008...



Sheep and Goats (Released January 29, 2010).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2010, totaled 5.63 million head, down 2 percent from 2009. Breeding sheep inventory decreased to 4.19 million head on January 1, 2010, down 1 percent from 4.25 million head on January 1, 2009...



Sheep and Goats. (Released February 1, 2013).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2013, totaled 5.34 million head, down 1 percent from 2012. Breeding sheep inventory decreased to 3.98 million head on January 1, 2013, down 1 percent from 4.0 million head on January 1, 2012....



Sheep and Goats (Released July 20, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on July 1, 2007 totaled 7.73 million head, down slightly from July 1, 2006, and 1 percent below July 1, 2005. Breeding sheep inventory at 4.61 million head on July 1, 2007 was down slightly from July 1, 20...



Sheep and Goats (Released February 1, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2008, totaled 6.06 million head, down 2 percent from 2007. After consecutive increases in 2005 and 2006, inventory has now declined for the past two years. Breeding sheep inventory decreased ...



Nutrient composition of whitetop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Whitetop or heart-podded hoary cress (Cur&riir &u&z(L.)Desv.) is an Eurasian native of the Cruciferae actively invading range- lands throughout,western North America. The plant is reported to be unpalatable to livestock and contain potentially toxic glucosin- olates. Practical experience indicates sheep consume,whitetop dur- ing its early growth,stages and cattle ingest large quantities of seedheads. Chemical analysis of whole plants from

J. Range; Michael L. Mcinnis; Larry L. Larson; Richard F. Miller


Sheep as an experimental model of Taenia saginata cysticercosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taenia saginata cysticercosis was experimentally produced in 4 Soay sheep, 1 four-horned sheep and 1 Texel sheep by oral administration of eggs of the parasite. Some of these sheep were given dexamethasone therapy. The evolution ofT. saginata cysticercosis in this host is characterised by a rapid immune reaction so that by 6 weeks after infection almost all the cysts were

S. Geerts; V. Kumar; J. Mortelmans



Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  


A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S



21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133...133.184 Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk....



Epidemiology of nematode infections of Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda.  


The epidemiology of nematode infections of Soay sheep on the island of St Kilda over a period of 2 years (August 1988-August 1990) spanning a host population crash is described. Infective larvae (L3) levels on pasture were high (2422 +/- 365 L3/kg D.M. grass in midsummer 1988) when host population density was high, decreasing after the sheep population declined by 70% in early 1989 (601 +/- 14 L3/kg D.M. in midsummer 1989). The availability of infective larvae to sheep increased during the winter of 1988-1989, probably as a result of concentration of existing larvae on grass as vegetation was destroyed by bad weather and overgrazing. Increased availability of pre-parasitic stages was accompanied by a marked increased in faecal egg counts from sheep of all ages and both sexes. Prevalence and intensity of infection (faecal egg counts) were higher in males than females throughout the 2-year study (chi 2 = 208.3, P < 0.005 and F1, 2000 = 304, P < 0.001 respectively), except during the lambing periods, and decreased with age in both sexes. Changes in prevalence and intensity of strongyle infections were associated with changes in host population density. Prevalence and intensity of Dictyocaulus filaria larvae in faeces increased during the host population crash. Infection intensity decreased with age (F1, 203 = 44.02, P < 0.001) and was higher in males than females (F1, 203 = 13.45, P < 0.001). PMID:1461687

Gulland, F M; Fox, M



Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth âÃÂàthe process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.



Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of S esbania sesban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole Napier grass (control) and four Napier grass-Sesbania mixtures consisting of 100, 200, 300, and 400 g\\/kg of

Tibebu Manaye; Adugna Tolera; Tessema Zewdu



Effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the dry matter intake, digestibil- ity and ruminal fermentation in sheep were investigated. Ten male merino sheep were used in a changeover design trial of five 30-day periods. Baker's yeast (50 g\\/kg straw), molasses (100g\\/kg straw) and barley grain (100 g\\/kg straw) were given either

Ahmet G. ÖNOL; S. Yalçin; S. Ya?ar; A. ?ehu



The use of a concentrate containing Meskit ( Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial using twenty-four ten-month old Omani native male sheep (BW 31.4±1.10kg) was carried out to evaluate the use of a local by-product based concentrate to replace a commercial concentrate. Sheep were divided into three groups of eight animals each. One group was fed a concentrate pelleted feed made mainly from local by-products including Prosopis pods, wheat bran, date

Osman Mahgoub; Isam T. Kadim; Eugene H. Johnson; A. Srikandakumar; Naseeb M. Al-Saqri; Abdullah S. Al-Abri; Andrew Ritchie



Nutrient intake, adiposity, and diabetes.  

PubMed Central

To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of glucose tolerance correlated positively with the degree of adiposity but tended to be negatively correlated with total food energy intake and its component nutrients (total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fat). This inverse trend was largely accounted for by highly significant inverse correlations between food energy intake and adiposity, a relation found in both sexes and in all three population samples and which extended across the whole range of nutrient intake and BMI. These findings suggest that greater degrees of adiposity are associated with lower than average food energy intakes and hence lower total energy expenditures. The association of increased adiposity with low food energy consumption may indicate an underlying "low energy throughput" state, and it may be the mechanisms of this, as well as the obesity, that are responsible for disease.

Keen, H; Thomas, B J; Jarrett, R J; Fuller, J H




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of Mucuna bean as a supplement for growing Pelibuey sheep fed with a basal diet of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Twenty males averaging 19.9 ± 2.19 kg LW were divided in four treatment groups and fed Napier grass ad libitum. The Mucuna bean supplementation consisted of Mucuna bean grain and husks that had been

A. M. Castillo-Caamal; J. B. Castillo-Caamal; A. J. Ayala-Burgos



Integrated Urban Nutrient Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most cities, especially from the developing countries, are facing serious problems with the management of nutrients, necessitating an urgent review of current waste management systems. Whilst highly efficient technologies are available, the inclusion of these in a well-thought out and systematic approach is necessary to contain the nutrient influxes and outfluxes from towns. Five intervention measures are proposed in this paper. The first is to manage the use and generation of nutrients by drastically minimising water consumption and employing other cleaner production approaches. The second deals with the optimal reuse of nutrients and water at the smallest possible level, like at the household and on-plot level. The second option is to covert the waste into something useful for reuse, and, where not possible, to something which is envi- ronmentally neutral. This involves treatment, but applying technologies that makes the best use of side products via reuse. Where the first three options will have failed, two least preferred options could be used. Waste can be dispersed or diluted to enhance self-purification capacities of downstream water bodies. The last option is to store the wastewater for some parts of the year when there is water shortage to allow for polishing during the standing period. The success of urban nutrient planning requires an integrated approach, proving specific solutions to specific situations. This, in turn, requires appropriate institutional responses.

Nhapi, I.; Veenstra, S.; Siebel, M. A.; Gijzen, H. J.


Spatial and temporal trend of Chinese manure nutrient pollution and assimilation capacity of cropland and grassland.  


Dynamics of livestock and poultry manure nutrient was analyzed at a provincial scale from 2002 to 2008. The nutrient capacity of 18 kinds of croplands and grasslands to assimilate nutrients was assessed in the same temporal-spatial scale. Manure nitrogen (N) had increased from 5.111 to 6.228 million tons (MT), while manure phosphorus (P) increased from 1.382 to 1.607 MT. Manure N and P share similar spatial patterns of yields, but proportion of specialized livestock husbandry and contribution of leading livestock categories (swine, cattle, cow, sheep, layer chicken, broiler chicken) were different. The nutrients generated from dominant seven provinces took more than about half of total manure N in China. After subtracting the chemical fertilizers, there were some manure nutrient capacities in western part of China. Risk analysis of manure nutrient pollution overload in eastern and southern parts of China was serious, which should restrict livestock's developments. Amount of chemical fertilizers applied should be reduced to make room for manure nutrients. For the sake of greenhouse effects, the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (NO x ) emissions in China is serious for the global change, thus merits further statistics and studies. The spatial and temporal pattern of Chinese manure nutrient pollution from livestock and the assimilation capacity of cropland and grassland can provide useful information for policy development on Chinese soil environment and livestock. PMID:23334552

Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Wei, Xinfeng; Huang, Haobo



Pulmonary myxoma in a sheep.  


Pulmonary myxomas are rare in domestic animals and only two cases have been reported previously in sheep. An 8 x 6 x 4 cm mass was detected in the diaphragmatic lobe of the right lung of a 4-year-old Persian Karakul ewe. The mass was well demarcated, multilobulated, soft in consistency and white in colour. The cut surface exuded a mucoid substance and a distinct capsule was evident. Microscopically, the tumour comprised a hypocellular myxomatous matrix, rich in acid mucopolysaccharides, with scattered spindle-shaped or stellate cells. These cells had uniform, oval-shaped nuclei without visible nucleoli and expressed vimentin and S100 on immunohistochemical examination. These gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features are characteristics of myxoma. PMID:19406435

Oryan, A; Ahmadi, N; Ghane, M; Daneshbod, Y



Kisspeptin and Seasonality in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Sheep are seasonal breeders, experiencing a period of reproductive quiescence during spring and early summer. During the non-breeding period, kisspeptin expression in the arcuate nucleus is markedly reduced. This strongly suggests that the mechanisms that control seasonal changes in reproductive function involve kisspeptin neurons. Kisspeptin cells appear to regulate GnRH neurons and transmit sex-steroid feedback to the reproductive axis. Since the non-breeding season is characterized by increased negative feedback of estrogen on GnRH secretion, the kisspeptin neurons seem to be fundamentally involved in the determination of breeding state. The reduction in kisspeptin neuronal function during the non-breeding season can be corrected by infusion of kisspeptin, which causes ovulation in seasonally acyclic females.

Clarke, Iain J; Smith, Jeremy T; Caraty, Alain; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N



Correlation of zinc and copper values in the blood serum of Makuii sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In autumn 2009, 87 blood samples (28 male and 59 female) were taken, via jugular vein puncture using a heparinised venoject,\\u000a from Makuii sheep in a preserved herd. The samples were divided into four age groups. Blood samples were transferred to a\\u000a laboratory on ice, and the serum samples were separated from whole blood by centrifugation. Concentration of zinc and

Fereydon Rezazadeh Zavoshti; Siamak Asri Rezaei; Amir Babak Sioofy-Khojine; Ali Akbar Heidary


Body size dimorphism and sexual segregation in polygynous ungulates: an experimental test with Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual segregation in Soay sheep (Ovis aries) was investigated using an experimental approach in order to test the sexual dimorphism-body size hypothesis. Two corollaries\\u000a of the sexual dimorphism-body size hypothesis were tested: (1) in dimorphic species males, the larger sex, have relatively\\u000a smaller bite sizes on short swards because of the scaling of incisor arcade with body weight, and (2)

F. J. Pérez-Barbería; I. J. Gordon



Effect of long-term feed restriction on seasonal endocrine changes in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 15 adult, castrated, male Soay sheep were housed under natural daylength conditions at 57°N and fed a complete diet ad libitum (AL) or at a restricted rate (R) of 35 g dry matter (DM)\\/kg0.75 initial liveweight per day. The diet was based on barley and dried grass pellets and contained an estimated 11.6 MJ of metabolisable energy, 83%

S. M Rhind; S. R McMillen; E Duff; C. E Kyle; S Wright



Energetics of Sheep Concerned with the Utilization of Acetic Acid1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of utilization for growth-fattening, of the energy of diets resulting in high (5.4:1) and low (3.1:1) ratios of acetic acid to propionic acid in the ruminai ingesta was determined in 24 intact male and 24 female sheep by means of a slaughter-analysis experiment. To establish the chemical composition and energy value of the body at the beginning of




Ocean Currents: Sinking Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute sound segment discusses the nutrients produced by phytoplankton, one-celled plants which live on the surface of the ocean and which form the basis of what scientists call biological productivity. A professor explains that the organic matter that comes sinking out of the surface actually sinks very far down into the water column before bacteria are actually able to break it back down into dissolved nutrients and it is difficult for the water that those nutrients are in to come back up to the surface. This site is from an archive of a daily radio program called Pulse of the Planet, which provides its listeners with a portrait of Planet Earth, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. The site also provides a written transcript of the broadcast.


Toxoplasma gondii in wild cervids and sheep in Finland: north-south gradient in seroprevalence.  


A nationwide seroepidemiological study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in selected wild and domestic ruminants in Finland. Serum samples from 1367 game cervids collected during the hunting season in 2008-2009 and 1940 sheep sera collected in 2008 were screened with a commercial direct agglutination test at a serum dilution of 1:40. T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 116 (9.6%) of 1215 moose (European elk, Alces alces), 36 (26.7%) of 135 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 3 (17.6%) of 17 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and 477 (24.6%) of 1940 domestic sheep. Seropositive sheep were found in 74 (76.3%) of the 97 flocks examined. The odds of seropositivity in the adult moose was 2.9 times higher than the odds in calves; in white-tailed deer, the odds ratio was 3.2. The male moose had a significantly lower seroprevalence than the female, whereas the seroprevalence in the male white-tailed deer was higher than in the female; the odds ratios were 0.6 and 2.5, respectively. A clear geographical gradient in the seroprevalence was revealed in moose and sheep. The seroprevalences were lowest (1.6 and 8.6%, respectively) in the north and highest (24.6 and 36.4%, respectively) in the south-western regions, and ranged between these values in the other regions. In fact, the seroprevalence in moose from the south-west was not significantly different from the prevalence in white-tailed deer from the same area. Thus, the Finnish wild cervids and sheep are commonly exposed to T. gondii, especially in the southern part of the country. PMID:20434266

Jokelainen, Pikka; Näreaho, Anu; Knaapi, Suvi; Oksanen, Antti; Rikula, Ulla; Sukura, Antti



Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.  


Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha



Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.  


Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of ?-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex ?-subunit with human Hex ?-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H



Pathology of GM2 gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep.  


The G(M2) gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for the enzyme hexosaminidase or the G(M2) activator protein. Four Jacob sheep from the same farm were examined over a 3-year period for a progressive neurologic disease. Two lambs were 6-month-old intact males and 2 were 8-month-old females. Clinical findings included ataxia in all 4 limbs, proprioceptive deficits, and cortical blindness. At necropsy, the nervous system appeared grossly normal. Histologically, most neurons within the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia were enlarged, and the cytoplasm was distended by foamy to granular material that stained positively with Luxol fast blue and Sudan black B stains. Other neuropathologic findings included widespread astrocytosis, microgliosis, and scattered spheroids. Electron microscopy revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the cytoplasm of neurons. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of G(M2) gangliosidosis. This form of G(M2) gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep is very similar to human Tay-Sachs disease and is potentially a useful animal model. PMID:21123862

Porter, B F; Lewis, B C; Edwards, J F; Alroy, J; Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Bretzlaff, K N; Kolodny, E H



Male circumcision.  


Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if the infant's condition is stable and healthy. Male circumcision should be performed by tra



Determinants of sheep prices in the highlands of northeastern Ethiopia: implication for sheep value chain development.  


In order to assess and identify the determinants of sheep price and price variation across time, a time series data were collected from four selected markets in North Shewa, Northeastern Ethiopia on weekly market day basis for a period of 2 years. Data on animal characteristics and purpose of buying were collected on a weekly basis from randomly selected 15-25 animals, and a total of 7,976 transactions were recorded. A general linear model technique was used to identify factors influencing sheep price, and the results showed that sheep price (liveweight sheep price per kilogram taken as a dependent variable) is affected by animal characteristics such as weight, sex, age, condition, season, and color. Most of the markets' purpose for which the animal was purchased did not affect significantly the price per kilogram. This may be due to the similarity of the markets in terms of buyer's purpose. The results suggest that there will be benefit from coordinated fattening, breeding, and marketing programs to take the highest advantage from the preferred animals' characteristics and selected festival markets. Finally, the study recommends for a coordinated action to enhance the benefit generated for all participant actors in the sheep value chain through raising sheep productivity, improving the capacity of sheep producers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to access and use latest knowledge and technologies; and strengthening linkages among actors in the sheep value chain. PMID:21465103

Kassa, Beneberu Teferra; Haile, Anteneh Girma; Essa, John Abdu



Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...


Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and



Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.


Ocean nutrient enhancer \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean nutrient enhancer (ONE) is composed of a spar type floating structure from which is suspended a 175 m long compliant steel riser. The ONE was installed at the center of Sagami-Bay in May 2003 for the purpose of discharging density controlled water, which is adjusted by mixing the up-welled deep ocean water (DOW) and surface water, into the

Satoshi Masuda; Masayuki Yonezawa; Masao Morikawa



Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.


Male Infertility  


... and abuse of other illegal drugs, emotional stress, obesity and age (fertility gradually decreases in men who are older than 35). Sometimes the cause of male infertility cannot be identified. In these cases, there may be an underlying genetic problem. Diagnosis & Tests Should men be checked for ...


BAM Media M159: Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M159: Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M159 Trypticase Soy-Sheep Blood Agar. ... More results from


Immunogenicity of Chemical Anthrax Vaccine in Experiments on Sheep.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of the study of the immunogenic effectiveness of the improved chemical anthrax vaccine for sheep support earlier published data on checking the immunogenicity of the alum antigen on sheep. It was established that a single inoculation with chemical...

N. I. Aleksandrov




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...


Urban nutrient balance for Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the options for recycling of nutrients from mega-cities to agricultural land, a nutrient balance model was developed. The balancing was done for Bangkok Province and considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To estimate the food supply, the most decisive nutrient flow, an online database (faostat) was employed; its country level data are disaggregated to the urban level. A

Jens Færge; Jakob Magid



Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in P Nutrient Cycling in Pastures astures astures astures astures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients in a pasture system cycle through soil organisms, pasture plants, and grazing livestock. Appropriate management can enhance the nutrient cycle, increase productivity, and reduce costs. Two practical indicators of soil health are the number of earthworms and the percentage of organic matter in the soil. A diversity of pasture plants growing on healthy soils use sunlight and the nutrient

Alice E. Beetz



Nutrient removal from farm effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were: (i) to examine the efficiency of nutrient removal during the treatment of dairy farm effluent in a two-pond system, and (ii) to produce an inexpensive but effective nutrient trap which could be recycled as a nutrient source or soil mulch. The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

N. S. Bolan; L. Wong; D. C. Adriano



Pathological and epidemiological investigations into listerial encephalitis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three outbreaks of encephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the migratory flocks of sheep in Punjab, India. Sixty-nine sheep were affected out of 930 animals (875 sheep and 55 goats) during these outbreaks, with cumulative morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate of 7.89, 7.08 and 89.85%, respectively. Incidence of disease was low in sheep below 6 months of

H. Kumar; B. B. Singh; M. S. Bal; Kamalpreet Kaur; Randhir Singh; P. K. Sidhu; K. S. Sandhu



Molecular Diversity of Rumen Methanogens from Sheep in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and

Andre ´-Denis G. Wright; Andrew J. Williams; Barbara Winder; Claus T. Christophersen; Sharon L. Rodgers; Kellie D. Smith



Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada  

PubMed Central

A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.

McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...



9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals...CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for...



Closing the nutrient loop.  


A pattern of hauling nutrients from rural to urban areas prevails in thousands of cities on the planet. This massive shifting of nutrients had diminished the vitality of many of the planet's most productive croplands, grazing lands, and fisheries, and it could accelerate more of the human population concentrates in the cities in the coming decades. It is also creating a dilemma of feeding the growing number of people who are far removed from their main sources of food, without unbalancing and collapsing the ecosystems on which those people ultimately depend. City dwelling people are adopting urban farming to support their feeding needs. The approach will not only feed the people but it can also play an important role in the municipal waste management. Governments are beginning to recognize that local food production may be an important component of food security; these include the US, Germany, the Netherlands, and Canada, where empty lots are turned into farmland that propagates vegetation. PMID:12349475

Nelson, T


Male Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk.

Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep



Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application  

EPA Science Inventory

Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...


Nutrient Management in the Potomac Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Current water quality conditions; Ecological trends as related to nutrient enrichment; Nutrient sources and controllability; Nutrient transport and algal standing crop mathematical models; Eutrophication control; Establishment of nutrient criter...

N. A. Jaworski D. W. Lear O. Villa



Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition\\u000a relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic\\u000a studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases\\u000a such as coronary heart disease,

Regina C. Casper



Seasonal change in nutrient composition of spotted knapweed and ...  

Treesearch Government Made Easy ... of targeted sheep grazing to control spotted knapweed, we examined sheep preference and forage quality of ... Sheep readily consumed spotted knapweed in all phenological stages; however, rosette and ...


Surveillance of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in sheep in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan.  


Surveillance of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood DNA samples collected from 40 sheep and goats in 10 different flocks in Hokkaido, the northern island of Japan. No exogenous (oncogenic) JSRV sequence was detected by PCR in these samples, while the ovine endogenous retrovirus sequence was successfully amplified in all samples. Our paper is the first demonstration of JSRV surveillance in Japan and shows no evidence of oncogenic JSRV infection in sheep and goats in Hokkaido. PMID:21712639

Maeda, Naoyoshi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Oouchi, Satoshi; Uede, Toshimitsu



Intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients in the Taiwanese elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to examine dietary intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients for the Taiwanese elderly in order to relate nutrient intakes to food choices and to provide suggestions for dietary improvement. The data were derived from the 24-hour recalls from 1,911 subjects (955 males and 956 females) aged 65 and above, who

Shin-Jiuan Wu; Ya-Hui Chang; Ien-Lan Wei; Mei-Ding Kao; Yi-Chin Lin; Wen-Harn Pan



Microsoft Academic Search

We collected Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in southwestern Ontario in 1976 to determine the relative importance of nutrient reserves and dietary nutrients to laying females; males were used as controls. Lean dry weight and leg and breast muscle weights were used to index protein reserves, ether-extractable fat to index fat reserves, and leg and breast bone weights to index calcium



Update on trematode infections in sheep.  


Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. PMID:22521973

Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcárcel, F; Martínez-Valladares, M



Conductive hearing loss in bighorn sheep.  


In January 1993 we simulated a conductive hearing loss in three Mexican bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) by placing bone wax or saline solution in their ear canals. Our objective was to test whether lesions of the external auditory canal caused by psoroptic mites (Psoroptes ovis) may lead to conductive hearing loss in bighorn sheep. We assessed the effects of these manipulations using the auditory brainstem response test. Placing saline solution in the external auditory canal, which loads the tympanic membrane, had a more dramatic effect on the auditory brainstem response than did bone wax. We propose that decreased hearing sensitivity or alterations in resonance characteristics of the external auditory canal, due to psoroptic scabies lesions, may make bighorn sheep more susceptible to predation. PMID:8583641

Norrix, L W; DeYoung, D W; Krausman, P R; Etchberger, R C; Glattke, T J



Control of sheep lungworm in India.  


Lungworm infections (parasitic bronchitis) of sheep and goats are widely prevalent in hilly regions of India and neighbouring countries. Several species of strongyloid nematodes are involved but the most prevalent, and most pathogenic, is Dictyocaulus filaria - responsible for heavy mortality in young animals and severe morbidity in survivors. Control of these parasites now relies on a gamma-attenuated D. filaria vaccine developed in India in 1971. Vaccination of 6-week-old lambs has since become an accepted part of the regular sheep husbandry practice in India, and trials are now underway to extend use of the vaccine to goats, and to set up similar vaccination procedures in other countries. In this review, the authors trace the development of the D. filaria vaccine, highlighting its production and application. Although imperfect, the vaccine is now making a substantial contribution to improved sheep rearing by pastoral in the northern hill areas of India. PMID:15463033

Sharma, R L; Bhat, T K; Dhar, D N



Tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed as fiber source in spineless cactus diets for sheep.  


The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of three different sources of fiber (tifton hay, soybean hulls, and whole cottonseed) in spineless cactus diets for sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one sheep in finishing phase with indeterminate breed, non-castrated, and with initial weight of 18.90 ± 1.07 kg were randomly distributed to individual stalls where they were confined for the duration of the experiment. The intakes of dry and organic matter, total carbohydrates, and total digestive nutrients were not influenced (P > 0.10) by the different fiber sources (1.10, 0.97, 0.73, and 0.80 kg/day, respectively). However, sheep which received the whole cottonseed diet were characterized by a lower (P < 0.10) intake of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and greater (P < 0.10) intake of ether extract (0.11, 0.29, and 0.048 kg/day, respectively). The different sources of fiber resulted in similar times spent feeding (P > 0.10), although the rumination time was greater for tifton hay (P < 0.10) (429.05 min/day). The digestibility coefficient of dry and organic matter differed between the treatments (P < 0.10), with the soybean hull diet showing a higher level of digestion (83.23 and 86.72 %, respectively). The whole cottonseed diet gave the smallest digestibility coefficient of crude protein (68.95 %) and greatest for ether extract (85.94 %). The daily weight gain of animals fed on whole cottonseed was significantly lower (P < 0.10). On the basis of these findings, we recommend the use of tifton hay or soybean hulls as important additional source of fiber in forage spineless cactus diets for sheep in finishing phase. PMID:22618190

de Miranda Costa, Suellen Brandão; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Pessoa, Ricardo A Silva; Batista, Angela Maria Vieira; Ramos, Alenice Ozino; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; dos Santos Gomes, Luiz Henrique



Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...


Toxoplasma gondii in Ireland: seroprevalence and novel molecular detection method in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens.  


Toxoplasma gondii is among the most studied parasites worldwide but there is not much information about it published in Ireland. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens and the molecular detection of T. gondii DNA in muscle tissue. Serum samples were collected from these species at the time of slaughter at Irish abattoirs during 2007 and tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using a commercial semi-quantitative latex agglutination test. Antibodies (titre ?1 : 64) were found in 36% (105/292) sheep, 4.7% (15/317) pigs and 6.6% (23/348) deer. In chickens, 18% (65/364) had antibody titres, ranging between 1 : 5 and 1 : 1024. Significant (P ? 0.05) age-related differences in seroprevalence were found in adult sheep (58.1%) and pigs (23.1%). Significant gender differences in seroprevalence was also found in sheep with more females (43%) than males (22.4%) being positive. However, when adjusted for age through logistic regression gender was no longer significant. Seroprevalence was also evaluated on farm locations grouped to NUTS level 3, but the prevalence was too low to draw any statistical conclusions. Using a nested PCR, the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected in diaphragm samples from 3.6% (3/83) sheep, 13.0% (3/23) pig and 4.2% (3/71) deer. Meat digestion liquids from a Trichinella spp. survey in pigs were also used for the first time to detect T. gondii. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 50% (10/20) of pooled samples. This is the first in depth study of T. gondii seroprevalence in animals in Ireland and a novel method, using digestion liquid from pooled diaphragm samples, for PCR detection in pigs is described. PMID:22697578

Halová, D; Mulcahy, G; Rafter, P; Tur?eková, L; Grant, T; de Waal, T



Clinicopathological investigation on caseous lymphadenitis in local breed sheep in Algeria.  


This study was carried out of 4,419 animals raised in an extensive system on local breed sheep of the Tiaret region during 2 years (2010-2011) to determine some clinical and pathological aspects associated to caseous lymphadenitis (CL). Clinical examination revealed a prevalence rate of 5.7 %. CL prevalence rate was significantly higher in females (6 %) than in males (4.8 %). The most affected superficial lymph nodes were mandibular lymph nodes (46.1 %). Gross examination of 1,679 carcasses of sheep at the abattoir revealed the presence of abscesses on 250 carcasses (14.9 %). Out of 105 cases showing lesions of CL, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (53.6 %) was isolated as mixed infection with Staphylococcus aureus (43 %) and Escherechia coli (17.9 %). CL prevalence was significantly higher in adult than in young sheep and in female than in male ones. Visceral form of CL was associated to "thin ewe syndrome" responsible for significant economic losses in Algeria. PMID:23604639

Chikhaoui, Mira; Khoudja, Fatima Benchaib



Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on nutrient availability to the fetus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effects of maternal Se intake and plane of nutrition during mid and/or late gestation on AA concentrations and metabolite levels in the dam and fetus, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array: Se level [initiated at breed...


Fc receptor function on sheep alveolar macrophages.  


We have examined the binding to sheep alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of sheep immunoglobulin G subclasses or rabbit IgG immune complexes formed between rabbit anti-DNP IgG and DNP-bovine serum albumin. Binding studies using 125I-rabbit IgG immune complexes demonstrated 6.6 +/- 3.5 X 10(4) receptors per alveolar macrophage; these receptors bound immune complexes with an average association constant of 3.3 X 10(7) M-1. Saturation binding was achieved by 90 minutes at 4 degrees C with 6 X 10(-8) M IgG. Binding of subclasses of sheep IgG was examined by immunofluorescence. Only 10% of alveolar macrophages bound monomeric IgG1 and no binding of sheep IgG2 monomer could be demonstrated. In contrast, most peripheral blood PMN (93.0 +/- 9.5%) bound IgG2, but not IgG1. No binding to adult peripheral blood PMN of rabbit IgG immune complexes could be demonstrated. To study further the development of pulmonary host defense, we examined the expression of receptors for IgG immune complexes (Fc gamma R) on alveolar macrophages obtained from animals aged 8 through 180 days. At 8 and 21 days of age, the number of Fc gamma R varied considerably (75,000-192,000 sites per cell) and equalled or even exceeded that of adult sheep. Fc gamma R number declined by 42 and 90 days of age, where a nadir was reached (37,000 +/- 6,000 and 25,000 +/- 6,000 sites, respectively). By 180 days of age, the number of receptors had approached those of normal adult sheep (70,000 +/- 20,000 sites per cell). These studies parallel previous observations that revealed age-related differences in the phagocytic capacity of ovine alveolar macrophages. PMID:3528365

Fleit, H B; Weiss, R A; Chanana, A D; Joel, D D



[Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins].  


Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field). It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils. PMID:18358063

Armisén, M; Vidal, C; López-Rosés, L; Rodríguez, V; Bartolomé, B



Study on the optimal level of cactus pear ( Opuntia ficus- indica) supplementation to sheep and its contribution as source of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 90-day experiment using a randomised complete block design with eight sheep per treatment was conducted to determine the optimum cactus pear supplementation level and its contribution as source of water. Cactus pear replaced 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pasture hay (C0, C20, C40, C60 and C80, respectively), on dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM, nutrients and water

Firew Tegegne; C. Kijora; K. J. Peters



Male catheterization.  


The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality. PMID:11855766

Hadfield-Law, L



Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed.

Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Munoz-Guzman, Marco Antonio



Effect of different levels of cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain in tef ( Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) inclusion on feed intake, diet apparent digestibility and live weight gain in tef (Eragrostis tef) straw-based feeding of sheep. A randomized complete block design was used to assign 24 male Highland sheep with initial live weight of 17.0±3.9kg (mean±S.D.) in six replications to one of

Tikabo Gebremariam; Solomon Melaku; Alemu Yami



Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.  


From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2032914

Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E



Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic




Chemerin analog regulates energy metabolism in sheep.  


Accumulating data suggest a relationship between chemerin and energy metabolism. Our group previously described gene cloning, expression analysis and the regulatory mechanism of chemerin and its own receptor in mice and cattle. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological effect of chemerin on endocrine changes and energy metabolism in sheep using a biologically stable chemerin analog. The chemerin analog was intravenously administrated (100 or 500?µg/head) to sheep, and plasma insulin and metabolites (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) were analyzed. The chemerin analog dramatically increased the insulin levels, and glucose levels were decreased. NEFA levels were slightly decreased at 20?min but then increased gradually from 60 to 180?min after analog administration. In addition, injection of the chemerin analog immediately increased triglyceride and total cholesterol but not HDL levels. These results suggested that chemerin analog regulated insulin secretion related to glucose metabolism and the release of triglycerides in sheep in vivo. This study provides new information about endocrine and metabolic changes in response to chemerin in sheep. PMID:22435632

Suzuki, Yutaka; Song, Sang-Houn; Sato, Katsuyoshi; So, Kyoung-Ha; Ardiyanti, Astrid; Kitayama, Shun; Hong, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Sung-Dae; Choi, Ki-Choon; Hagino, Akihiko; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-gun



Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma of sheep and goats.  


Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma is a contagious tumour of the mucosal nasal glands affecting young adult sheep or goats. The disease occurs naturally in all continents except Australia and New Zealand. Clinical signs include continuous nasal discharge, respiratory distress, exophthalmos and skull deformations. The tumour is classified histologically as a low-grade adenocarcinoma. Nasal glands of both respiratory and olfactory muosal glands seem to be the origin of the neoplasia. It has been experimentally transmitted in sheep and goats using either tumour extracts or concentrated nasal fluids. Two distinct retroviruses are implicated in the aetiology of the neoplasia one in sheep (ONAV) and one in goats (CNAV). We suggest that jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), ONAV, CNAV, and their endogenous counterparts represent a unique family of retroviruses. The similarities between these viruses suggests that any control strategies, including vaccination, may be appropriate to both diseases. The differences, however, represent a unique resource for delineating the function of individual regions of the virus. It is intriguing that whilst ONAV and CNAV appear to be as different to each other as they are to JSRV, that they have very similar disease pathologies, distinct from that of OPA. Additionally, all three exogenous viruses manage to avoid instigating any apparent immune response. Whether this is indeed a result of tolerance induced by the endogenous counterparts or whether the viruses themselves have unique immunosuppressive properties will be an important finding. PMID:12596900

De las Heras, M; Ortín, A; Cousens, C; Minguijón, E; Sharp, J M



Fiber Digestibility by Goats and Sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browse appears to be important in the diet of goats, but no good explanations or reasons are in the literature. Digestibility data on browse in goats are few. Semi- arid natural tropical grass hay was con- sumed more by goats than sheep, but digestibility coefficients were similar between species except for crude fiber, which was digested better in goats. Rice

E. A. Gihad; T. M. El-Bedawy; A. Z. Mehrez



The current status of sheep pox disease.  


Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem. PMID:16458357

Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K



Sex-ratio variation in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of ecological variables on the birth sex ratio of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) lambs on the island of Hirta, in the St Kilda archipelago, Scotland. Both individual- and population-level models were constructed. In the individual-based model, only population size was significantly associated with the sex of a lamb, with the probability of giving birth to a

Jan Lindström; Tim Coulson; Loeske Kruuk; Mads C. Forchhammer; Dave W. Coltman; Tim Clutton-Brock



Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.



Cytochemistry of sheep bone marrow cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted on bone marrow samples obtained from 15 clinically normal Libyan Barbary sheep. Haemopoietic cells, including those of myelocytic series, erythrocytic series, megakaryocytic series, lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes and mitotic cells were identified on the basis of their morphological characteristics in May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained bone marrow smears. Cytochemical reactions of bone marrow cells revealed that all granulocytes,

Mahasen Matug Gawas; Khalid Mohammed Belhaj; AL IZZI


Black sheep and walls of silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the frequently observed phenomenon that (i) some members of a team (“black sheep”) exhibit behavior disliked by other (honest) team members, who (ii) nevertheless refrain from reporting such misbehavior to the authorities (they set up a “wall of silence”). Much cited examples include hospitals and police departments. In this paper, these features arise in equilibrium.

Gerd Muehlheusser; Andreas Roider



Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition

P Maltby



Sheep and Goats (Released February 2, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2007, totaled 6.19 million head, down 1 percent from 2006, but still 1 percent above 2005. After two consecutive year to year increases inventory growth was hampered by extremely dry weather ...



Sheep and Goats (Released January 27, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on January 1, 2006, totaled 6.23 million head, up 2 percent from both 2005 and 2004. The inventory began increasing in 2005 and has shown two consecutive year to year increases for the the first time since...



Sawfly poisoning in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1984 some sheep in a flock of 250 suffered depression, anorexia, incoordination and difficulty in rising; 50 ewes and weaners died. Post mortem examination revealed petechial bleeding, massive acute liver necrosis and in some animals degeneration of the kidney tubules. The rumen and gut contained many larvae of the blue-black birch sawfly (Arge pullata). Laboratory and field observations

SM Thamsborg; RJ Jorgensen; E Brummerstedt



Reproductive characteristics of Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to estimate heritabilities of, and genetic correlations among, body weight (WT) and testicular measurements — scrotal circumference (SC), testicular diameter (TD), testicular length (TL) and epididymal diameter (ED) — in ram lambs between 6, 9 and 12 months old, and relationship of the testicular traits with age at puberty in ewe lambs (AP). Two fat-tailed sheep

F. Toe; J. E. O. Rege; E. Mukasa-Mugerwa; S. Tembely; D. Anindo; R. L. Baker; A. Lahlou-Kassi



Reproductive characteristics of Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of season on, and to estimate heritabilities of, and genetic correlations among, semen and spermatozoa characteristics and the relationship of these characteristics with measures of testicular or scrotal size in 6-, 9- and 12-month old ram lambs of Menz and Horro sheep breeds indigenous to Ethiopian highlands. A total of 278 ram

J. E. O. Rege; F. Toe; E. Mukasa-Mugerwa; S. Tembely; D. Anindo; R. L. Baker; A. Lahlou-Kassi




Microsoft Academic Search

Two subspecies of bighorn sheep currently occur in Arizona: the desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana, O. c. nelsoni) and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis). In central Arizona (Game Management Unit 23 (GMU 23)), bighorn sheep colonized an area along the Salt River; however, the source of this population was enigmatic. Although the nearest desert bighorn sheep herd



Supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake and/or wheat bran on feed utilization and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.  


Thirty yearling male intact Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 15.5 +/- 0.21 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial, 10 days digestibility trial followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at Bokoji, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate effects of supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake (LSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures at 2:1 and 1:2, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters. The five treatments included ad libitum feeding of natural pasture hay (control) and with daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole LSC, 2LSC:1WB mix, 1LSC:2WB mix, and sole WB. Six sheep were randomly assigned to each treatment using randomized complete-block design. Four sheep in each treatment were randomly selected and used for determination of digestibility and carcass characteristics using a completely randomized design. The intake of hay DM was higher (P < 0.001) for the non-supplemented sheep compared with the supplemented ones, but the contrary was true for total DM intake. Sheep in the control treatment lost BW (-1.5 g/day), while the supplemented ones gained 69.0-104.1 g BW/head/day. Digestibility of CP was higher (P < 0.001) for supplemented sheep as a result of higher (P < 0.001) CP intake. Slaughter weight, empty BW, and hot carcass weight were lower (P < 0.001) for sheep in the control treatment compared with the rest. Sheep supplemented with LSC and its mixtures with WB had better (P < 0.001) performance in daily BW gain than sole WB supplemented ones indicating the advantages of using supplements as mixed rations. Moreover, supplementation proved to be profitable, whereas feeding hay alone led to economic loss. PMID:19876753

Tafa, Abebe; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J



Salivary prions in sheep and deer  

PubMed Central

Scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids are transmissible prion diseases. Milk and placenta have been identified as sources of scrapie prions but do not explain horizontal transmission. In contrast, CWD prions have been reported in saliva, urine and feces, which are thought to be responsible for horizontal transmission. While the titers of CWD prions have been measured in feces, levels in saliva or urine are unknown. Because sheep produce ?17 L/day of saliva and scrapie prions are present in tongue and salivary glands of infected sheep, we asked if scrapie prions are shed in saliva. We inoculated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing ovine prion protein, Tg(OvPrP) mice, with saliva from seven Cheviot sheep with scrapie. Six of seven samples transmitted prions to Tg(OvPrP) mice with titers of ?0.5 to 1.7 log ID50 U/ml. Similarly, inoculation of saliva samples from two mule deer with CWD transmitted prions to Tg(ElkPrP) mice with titers of ?1.1 to ?0.4 log ID50 U/ml. Assuming similar shedding kinetics for salivary prions as those for fecal prions of deer, we estimated the secreted salivary prion dose over a 10-mo period to be as high as 8.4 log ID50 units for sheep and 7.0 log ID50 units for deer. These estimates are similar to 7.9 log ID50 units of fecal CWD prions for deer. Because saliva is mostly swallowed, salivary prions may reinfect tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and contribute to fecal prion shedding. Salivary prions shed into the environment provide an additional mechanism for horizontal prion transmission.

Tamguney, Gultekin; Richt, Jurgen A; Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Young, Alan J; Glidden, David V; Johnson, Natrina L; Giles, Kurt; DeArmond, Stephen J



Effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements to teff straw given to Ethiopian highland sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding graded levels of Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Sesbania sesban and Chamaecytisus palmensis supplements on intake, digestibility and live weight changes was evaluated using 102 male Ethiopian highland sheep in a 90-day trial. Teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was fed ad libitum (control diet), or supplemented with graded levels (15, 30, 45, 60% of ration dry matter intake)

R. J. Kaitho; N. N. Umunna; I. V. Nsahlai; S. Tamminga; J. Van Bruchem



Comparison of pulmonary vascular response to endogenous nitric oxide inhibition in sheep and pigs living at 2,300 m.  


To compare the role of nitric oxide in an adaptive process to chronic hypoxia, we examined the effects of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibition on pulmonary vascular tone in conscious sheep and pigs living at high altitude. Unanesthetized male sheep (n = 6) and pigs (n = 5), born and residing in the highlands of Qinghai Province, China (2,300-3,000 m a.s.l.) were studied at that altitude. Pulmonary artery pressure (P(pa)), pulmonary artery wedge pressure (P(cwp)), and cardiac output (CO) were measured. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated as (P(pa)- P(cwp))/ CO. Using a climatic chamber, hemodynamic measurements during exposures to atmospheric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 0, 2,300, and 4,500 m a.s.l. were performed with and without NO inhibition, using N(w)-nitro- L-argine (NLA; 20 mg kg(-1)), a potent stereospecific competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. P(pa) and PVR at baseline (2,300 m) and during hypoxic exposure (4,500 m) were significantly higher in pigs than in sheep. After NLA administration, P(pa) increased and CO decreased in both animals, resulting in significantly increased PVR at baseline and during hypoxic exposure. However, there were no significant differences in the percent increase in basal or hypoxic PVR after NLA administration between sheep and pigs. We conclude that augmented endogenous NO production could contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone at high altitude in sheep and pigs. However, it is unlikely that NO is responsible for the different pulmonary vascular tones between sheep and pigs at basal condition at moderately high altitude. PMID:15309479

Ruan, Zonghai; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Sakai, Akio; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Wang, Zhangang; Chen, Qiuhong; Wang, Xiaoqin



Molecular cloning of sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 and localization in sheep testis.  


Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 (PDIA3) is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family and is multifunctional in many processes. Recently, it has been confirmed as a sperm membrane component and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion under which the molecular mechanism is still obscure. Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 cDNA has been cloned in several mammals; however, goat and sheep counterparts have not been identified. To facilitate the studies on the potential function of PDIA3 protein in sperm-egg fusion in sheep and goat, we cloned the cDNA encoding for Pdia3 of sheep (Ovis aries) and cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and studied its transcript and protein localization in sheep testis. The cloned sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 cDNA are 1660 bp and 1591 bp, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that sheep and goat Pdia3 cDNA both have a coding region of 1518 bp with the same nucleotides encoding the same 505 amino acids. The predicted peptide, with two typical motifs of Trp-Cys-Gly-His-Cys-Lys (WCGHCK) which is a hallmark of the PDI family, has high homology to that of bovine (99.21%), human (95.05%), rat (89.50%) and mouse (90.89%). Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 protein was observed in cells of various stages of spermatogenesis, from the primary spermatocyte to spermatozoa phases, as well as in the Leydig cells. It was observed in the entire sheep spermatozoa and mostly at the equatorial segment and the forepart of the flagellum. The Pdia3 mRNA was detected over the seminiferous epithelium in all stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:21382104

Lv, L X; Ujisguleng, B; Orhontana, B; Lian, W B; Xing, W J



Nutrient Cycling Study  

SciTech Connect

The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

Peter A. Pryfogle



Nutrients, neurodevelopment, and mood.  


Human neurodevelopment is the result of genetic and environmental interactions. This paper examines the role of prenatal nutrition relative to psychiatric disorders and explores the relationship among nutrients, mood changes, and mood disorders. Epidemiologic studies have found that adults who were born with a normal, yet low birth weight have an increased susceptibility to diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and stroke in adulthood. Prenatal caloric malnutrition, low birth weight, and prematurity also increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoid and antisocial personality disorders. Placebo-controlled studies in medicated patients suggest that add-on treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid, may ameliorate symptoms of major depressive disorder. Additional studies are necessary to confirm any benefits for bipolar disorders. PMID:15538990

Casper, Regina C



Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.  


Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease. PMID:16213032

Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam



Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to…

Cassel, Russell N.



Research on Yucca schidigera extract feeding on the rumen ecology, protozoal populations and serum chemistries of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a completely randomized block design experiment, 16 ruminally cannulated male sheep with body weights of (40 ± 2.1) kg\\u000a were fed twice daily (8:00 and 16:00) with concentrate and forage (50:50 on dry matter (DM) basis). Dietary treatments were\\u000a supplemented with intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) at the levels of 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300

Chunlong Liu; Zhongqiu Li; Fugang Peng; Yanming Ren; Zhuolong Wang



The effects of castration, sex ratio and population density on social segregation and habitat use in Soay sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed 16 years of census data gathered on the island of Hirta (archipelago of St. Kilda) to investigate the effects\\u000a of castration, population density, sex ratio, season and group type on habitat use and social segregation of Soay sheep. From\\u000a 1978 to 1980, 72 male lambs were castrated. We used this experiment to study how a change in reproductive status

K. E. Ruckstuhl; A. Manica; A. D. C. MacColl; J. G. Pilkington; T. H. Clutton-Brock



Influence of flavomycin on microbial numbers, microbial metabolism and gut tissue protein turnover in the digestive tract of sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavomycin is an antibiotic that promotes growth in ruminant and non-ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of action of flavomycin in sheep by measuring microbial numbers, microbial metabolism and gut tissue protein turnover at different sites in the digestive tract. Two weight-matched groups (n 5) of male castrate lambs (30kg) received 800g grass cubes\\/d

Joan E. Edwards; Brian J. Bequette; Nest McKain; Neil R. McEwan; R. John Wallace



75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments on the land...



Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)|

Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda



Nutrient Intake among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing all the critical nutrients during pregnancy is essential for the mother's and baby's health. Nutrition plays an important role in the outcome of pregnancy. Low birthweight (LBW), which is a common cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States, may be reduced if all the essential nutrients are available in sufficient amounts in the diets of pregnant

J. Arena; E. Kilbashian; Y. Labita; L. Torres; S. Wunderlich



Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)|

Shah, Kanti L.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fertilization is an essential part of cropping systems to sustain profitable crop production. Over application of nutrients can lead to degraded water quality, resulting from increased levels of nutrients in runoff waters. Degradation of a drinking water source in Oklahoma led to a lawsuit in whic...


Nutrient availability in rangeland soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...


[Male contraception].  


Male contraceptive drugs meeting the criteria of efficacy, easy applicability and reversibility -- and also having limited side effects -- are discussed. These drugs affect the hypothalamus, the hypophysis, the ductus deferens, and the testes. Gestagens inhibit the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonadotropic hormones inhibit spermatogenesis by producing intratesticular concentration of testosterone. Recently, a combination of gestagen and androgen has been used to avoid decreased libido. Oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone produce azoospermia, but with serious side effects, i.e., hirsutism and acne; however, they can be reduced by iv administration. Cyproterone acetate inhibits androgen secretion, and a daily dosage of 5-10 mg slightly reduces the sperm count; however, higher doses can lead to thromboembolitic effects. Combining cyproterone with an androgen prevents negative effects on the libido. Buserelin administered iv or as a nasal spray stimulates the secretion of LH and FSH from the hypophysis 20-40 times more effectively than does natural LH release of the hormone (LH-RH). Gossypol exerts its inhibitory effect on the epithelium of testes, but can cause hypokalemia. It has been used successfully in a Chinese experiment involving 9000 men who received daily oral doses of 20 mg for 60-70 days. Cytostatic agents also produce azoospermia, but are not recommended. Implantation of a copper wire into the ductus deferens has been tried in animal experiments with mixed results. Vasectomy has been performed on 50 million men since the 1960's (48,000 in 1981 in Denmark). It has to be regarded as a partially irreversible operation. The oral administration of the adrenergic blocking agent, phenoxybenzamine, at the rate of 20 mg per day has produced azoospermia; however, more research is needed to understand its side effects. Finally, chlorohydrin is not usable because of its neurotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. PMID:3775919

Kjaergaard, N



Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) Wild Sheep Working Group Initial Subcommittee Recommendations for Domestic Sheep and Goat Management In Wild Sheep Habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the USDA Forest Service (USFS), the two principal federal land management agencies in the western United States, are in the process of reviewing and updating their policies on the management of domestic sheep and goats in wild sheep habitat, with the intention of developing consistent, and potentially joint, policy. Although the risk

Mike Cox; Vic Coggins; Bob Henry; Helen Schwantje; Vern Bleich; Michael Miller; Dale Toweill; Keith Aune; Melanie Woolever; Jim Karpowitz


A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and other nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: The development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolisable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats

L. O. Tedeschi; A. Cannas; D. G. Fox



A nutrition mathematical model to account for dietary supply and requirements of energy and nutrients for domesticated small ruminants: the development and evaluation of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic model that predicts nutrient requirements and biological values of feeds for sheep (Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System; CNCPS-S) was expanded to include goats and the name was changed to the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS). The SRNS uses animal and environmental factors to predict metabolizable energy (ME) and protein, and Ca and P requirements. Requirements for goats

Luis Orlindo Tedeschi; Antonello Cannas; Danny Gene Fox



Serodiagnostic antibody responses to Psoroptes sp. infestations in bighorn sheep.  


The antibody responses of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) infected with Psoroptes sp. mites were investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay on western blots of P. cuniculi antigens. Serum from 20 Psoroptes sp.-infested bighorn sheep (O. canadensis mexicana, O. canadensis nelsoni, O. canadensis canadensis) from New Mexico, Nevada, California, and Idaho reacted strongly with mite antigens ranging from 12 to 34 kd. Serum from 35 Psoroptes sp.-free bighorn sheep of unknown tick infestation status and from three Psoroptes sp.-free bighorn sheep infested with Dermacentor hunteri ticks did not react with these antigens. Psoroptes sp.-specific antibody responses were present throughout a 16 mo period in one infected bighorn sheep, but were not detectable 8 mo following successful treatment. These results demonstrate that specific serodiagnosis of Psoroptes sp. infestation is feasible in bighorn sheep and suggest that antibody responses are indicative of current or recent infestation. PMID:2023305

Boyce, W M; Jessup, D A; Clark, R K



The distribution of pepsinogen within the abomasa of cattle and sheep infected with Ostertagia spp. and sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nematode infections on the production of pepsinogen by ruminants was investigated immunohistochemically and biochemically. Abomasal tissues were collected from parasite-naive cattle and sheep, from sheep infected with predominantly Ostertagia circumcincta, sheep infected experimentally with Haemonchus contortus and cattle infected with Ostertagia ostertagi. Pepsinogen was also assayed biochemically in homogenates of fundic mucosae from sheep infected with predominantly

I Scott; A Dick; J Irvine; M. J Stear; Q. A McKellar



Plasma disposition of conventional and long-acting moxifloxacin in sheep after intravenous administration.  


This study describes disposition of long-acting moxifloxacin and conventional formulations of moxifloxacin in sheep after intravenous administration in five male sheep. Long acting moxifloxacin solution (10% moxifloxacin in solution with L-arginine, N-butyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol) and conventional moxifloxacin (10%) were injected in jugular vein. Blood samples were collected from contralateral jugular vein in test tubes containing 30-50?IU heparin (anticoagulant) periodically from 0.083 to 72?h of drug administration. Drug concentrations in plasma were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of buffer (10?gm of tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate per liter-deionised water) and acetonitrile (80?:?20). The buffer was 0.067M of disodium hydrogen phosphate with pH of 7.5. The flow rate was 1?mL·min(-1) at ambient temperature. The effluent was monitored at 296?nm excitation and 504?nm emissions wavelength. HPLC with fluorescence detector method for plasma moxifloxacin assay was standardized with specific modification for plasma of sheep in the present study. After single-dose intravenous administration of long acting moxifloxacin the plasma concentration of 0.016 ± 0.001? ? g·mL(-1) was maintained for up to 72?h. Conventional formulation of moxifloxacin remained in body for up to 24?h of drug administration with the level of 0.015 ± 0.005 ? g·mL(-1). PMID:23738134

Modi, C M; Mody, S K; Modi, F D; Patel, H B



Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation.  


Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120

Jarrar, Bashir M



Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep ( Ovine aries )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA\\u000a D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence somain, and PCR-SSCP of the D-loop 5? end region of\\u000a a 253 bp fragment. Our findings have provided the first evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in sheep and possible mechanisms\\u000a of

Xingbo Zhao; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li; Changxin Wu



Effect of lead in water on the absorption of copper, iron, manganese and zinc by sheep (Ovis aries) infected with sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa).  


The sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its host Ovis aries were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for their copper, iron, manganese, zinc and lead levels. Element concentrations in cestode parasites were compared to those in various organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep. Tapeworms in the small intestine of sheep that were administered 2g of Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) per os daily (7 days) had significantly higher lead concentrations than sheep tissues. Cu levels significantly increased after Pb administration in sheep muscle and sheep tapeworms. Contrarily, Zn content significantly decreased in sheep muscle, but significantly increased in sheep tapeworms. However, Mn content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep tapeworms. Furthermore, Fe content significantly decreased after Pb administration in sheep liver and kidneys. PMID:22425750

Jankovská, I; Száková, J; Lukešová, D; Langrová, I; Válek, P; Vadlejch, J; ?adková, Z; Petrtýl, M



Nutrient utilization by sheep fed forage grown on soil treated with fluidized-bed combustion residue.  


A mineral balance trial was conducted with 18 wether lambs fed sun-cured hay harvested from pastures located on a reclaimed strip-mined site. The following soil applications were made during each of 3 yr: 1) none, 2) dolomitic limestone and 3) fluidized-bed combustion residue (FBCR). Because FBCR had half the buffering capacity of limestone, it was applied at twice the rate of limestone. Apparent digestibility of hemicellulose was higher (P less than .05) for limestone-amended forage than for FBCR-amended forage (70.2 vs 67.0%), and apparent digestibility of cellulose was higher (P less than .05) for amended forages (66.7%) than for the control (63.9%). Apparent absorption and retention of N were similar among treatments, when expressed as a percentage of intake. Lambs fed control forage were in negative Ca balance, lower (P less than .01) than with amended forages. Apparent absorption and retention of Mg and Fe (g/d basis) were higher (P less than .05) for lambs on the limestone treatment than for lambs on the FBCR treatment. Apparent absorption of S was higher (P less than .01) for lambs on the FBCR treatment than for those on the limestone treatment. These differences were related to differences in mineral concentrations of the forages. Serum P was lower (P less than .05) for lambs fed FBCR-treated forage than for lambs fed limestone-treated forage (10.1 vs 12.9 mg/dl). Soil amendment with FBCR did not have deleterious effects on digestibility or mineral metabolism; in fact, it may have enhanced utilization of Ca and S and improved digestibility of some fiber components by lambs. PMID:1848547

Cochran, M A; Perry, H D; Fontenot, J P; Allen, V G



Nutrient intake and utilisation in sheep fed with prickly pear cactus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of prickly pear cactus (Opuntiaspp.) was assessed on 18 adult rams divided into three equal groups fed either (i)Cenchrus ciliarishay to appetite plus 200 g concentrate (G1), (ii) chopped cactus andCenchrus ciliaris(G2), and (iii) chopped cactus andSorghum helepense(G3in a cafeteria system.Opuntia-fed groups G2and G3consumed 6·31 and 4·21 kg fresh cactus daily, amounting to 79 and 54% of

S. K. Sirohi; S. A. Karim; A. K. Misra



Ammonia emissions during vermicomposting of sheep manure.  


The effect of C:N ratio, temperature and water content on ammonia volatilization during two-phase composting of sheep manure was evaluated. The aerobic phase was conducted under field conditions. This was followed by Phase II, vermicomposting, conducted in the laboratory under controlled conditions of water content (70% and 80%) and temperature (15 and 22 °C). The addition of extra straw lead to a 10% reduction in NH3 volatilization compared to sheep manure composted without extra straw. Temperature and water content significantly effected ammonia volatilization at 0 day in Phase II, with a water content of 70% and temperature of 22 °C leading to greater losses of ammonia. Nitrogen loss by ammonia volatilization during vermicomposting ranged from 8% to 15% of the initial N content. The addition of extra straw did not result in significant differences in total carbon content following vermicomposting. PMID:21996478

Velasco-Velasco, Joel; Parkinson, Robert; Kuri, Victor



First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep.  


Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. PMID:21247018

Derakhshanfar, A; Mozaffari, A A



Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.  

PubMed Central

Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption.

Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.



Effects of Yucca on the sheep ruminal fermentation and some serum parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a completely randomized block design experiment, 16 ruminally cannulated male sheep(40±2.1 kg)fed a 50% Concentrate:50% Forage diet(DM basis)were given intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera extract(YSE). Doses of 0 (control), 100, 200or 300 mg\\/kg diet were fed twice at 8:00 and 16:00 daily. On 15th,16th,and 17th d of experimental period, ruminal content was sampled 0,2,4,6 and 8 h after

Zhongqiu Li; Di Liu; Hong Ma; Bo Fu; Liang Wang; Zhenghua Gou; Jinyan Sun; Xinmiao He; Chunlong Liu



Malignant theileriosis of sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, pathological and epizootiological studies were carried out in an experimental flock of 39 sheep that was exposed to natural infection ofTheileria hirci in an enzootic area. A morbidity rate of 100 per cent and a mortality rate of 89.74 per cent were observed in this flock which had been transferred from another enzootic region. NoTheileria hirci infection was observed,

P. Hooshmand-Rad; N. J. Hawa



Experimental production of sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHEEP pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA) or Jaagsiekte is a contagious disease of unknown aetiology1. A herpesvirus has been isolated from such tumours in Britain2 and in Africa3,4 but attempts to produce adenomata with this virus have been unsuccessful (ref. 5 and W.B.M., G. Robinson, and K.W.A., in preparation). More recently, evidence has been presented that a type C virus with a

William B. Martin; Frank M. M. Scott; James M. Sharp; Kenneth W. Angus



Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated\\u000a prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation\\u000a of PrPSc was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer’s patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrPSc accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and

L. J. M. van Keulen; M. E. W. Vromans; C. H. Dolstra; A. Bossers; F. G. van Zijderveld



Natural History of JSRV in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung tumour of sheep and, rarely, goats that arises from two types of\\u000a secretory epithelial cell that retain their luxury function of surfactant synthesis and secretion. It is classified as a low-grade\\u000a adenocarcinoma and is viewed as a good model for epithelial neoplasia because of its morphological resemblance to the human\\u000a lung tumour,

J. M. Sharp; J. C. DeMartini


Sawfly poisoning in sheep and goats.  


In September 1984 some sheep in a flock of 250 suffered depression, anorexia, incoordination and difficulty in rising; 50 ewes and weaners died. Post mortem examination revealed petechial bleeding, massive acute liver necrosis and in some animals degeneration of the kidney tubules. The rumen and gut contained many larvae of the blue-black birch sawfly (Arge pullata). Laboratory and field observations indicated that these were the cause of the illness. PMID:2891213

Thamsborg, S M; Jørgensen, R J; Brummerstedt, E



Cloning and ontogenetic expression of the uncoupling protein 1 gene UCP1 in sheep.  


The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is an indicator of brown adipocytes and is involved in the control of body temperature and regulation of energy balance. It abundantly expresses in newborns and has important functions in adults. However, little information was known on UCP1 gene expression in young and adolescent sheep. In this study, we cloned and identified the full-length DNA and cDNA sequences of the ovine UCP1 gene, which were 6659 bp and 1621 bp, respectively, and predicted the location of the gene on chromosome 17. Forty-eight animals with an equal number of males and females each for both Guangling Large Tail sheep (GLT) and Small Tail sheep Han (STH) sheep were used to study the ontogenetic expression of UCP1 mRNA in eight adipose tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the mRNA was expressed in all tissues studied and at all stages from 2 to 12 months of age. Nevertheless, the mRNA in perirenal fat was expressed significantly higher than that in other tissues and lower in superficial fat than in deep deposits. The highest expression was observed in animals at 2 months of age and then decreased gradually with age. Global expression in GLT was significantly higher than that in STH. Interactions between tissue and breed and age also influenced the mRNA expression significantly. In addition, the mRNA expression was associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes detected in the cDNA of the gene. PMID:22359234

Yuan, Ya-Nan; Liu, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Jian-Hua; Qiao, Li-Ying; Wu, Jian-Liang



Leptospirosis in Sheep in Western Canada  

PubMed Central

A survey of 930 ovine sera and kidneys from 33 sheep was conducted to assess the rate of leptospiral infection in sheep slaughtered in Alberta. Sera were tested for the presence of agglutinins to indigenous serovars of Leptospira interrogans. Kidneys with gross lesions were examined for the presence of leptospires by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and by culture. Antibodies to serovars pomona and hardjo were present at rates of 1.0% and 0.4%, respectively, in sheep from Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Sera from 120 feedlot lambs shipped from Oregon reacted to serovars pomona, hardjo and grippotyphosa at rates of 1.7%, 61.7% and 59.1%, respectively. Fluorescent antibody test detected serovars (presumptively) hardjo in 52% of Oregon feedlot lambs and grippotyphosa in 32% of the same group, a finding supported by the isolation of both these serovars from a pool of two fluorescent antibody test-positive kidneys. The grippotyphosa strain was highly virulent for hamsters, producing intense icterus and death. Leptospires, presumptively serovar grippotyphosa were demonstrated by fluorescent antibody test in one Alberta lamb kidney. The possibility of spreading leptospirosis by movement of breeding stock through public facilities and by assembling lambs in feedlots is discussed.

Kingscote, B.



Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep  

PubMed Central

Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease.

Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.



Rumen involvement in sheep tannic acid metabolism.  


Tannic acid (TA) metabolism was studied in sheep after p.o., intra-abomasal and i.p. administration. TA and its phenolic metabolites in ruminal fluid, abomasal fluid, plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography at various intervals post-dosing. After po administration, gallic acid (GA) and pyrogallol (PYR) were present in ruminal fluid and plasma, and GA, PYR and 4-O-methyl gallic acid (40MGA) were found in urine. The concentration of GA in ruminal fluid and urine gradually decreased after dosing, while PYR concentration continued to rise. By contrast, after intra-abomasal dosing, GA and ellagic acid (EA) as well as TA were found in abomasal fluid, GA, 40MGA, EA and TA were present in plasma, and GA, 40MGA and PYR were in urine. The latter 3 metabolites were also detected in the urine after ip administration of TA. The plasma concentration of TA after intra-abomasal administration was significantly correlated with liver necrosis, and PYR concentration in ruminal fluid following po administration was significantly correlated to blood methemoglobin level. It was concluded that the methemoglobinemia seen in sheep given TA po is caused by high levels of the phenolic metabolite PYR, which is produced in the rumen. Liver and kidney necrosis, seen in sheep given TA directly into the abomasum, appears caused by unmetabolized TA rather than by metabolites. PMID:8592830

Zhu, J; Filippich, L J; Ng, J



Kisspeptin Signaling Is Required for the Luteinizing Hormone Response in Anestrous Ewes following the Introduction of Males  

PubMed Central

The introduction of a novel male stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of female sheep during seasonal anestrus, leading to the resumption of follicle maturation and ovulation. How this pheromone cue activates pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) is unknown. We hypothesised that pheromones activate kisspeptin neurons, the product of which is critical for the stimulation of GnRH neurons and fertility. During the non-breeding season, female sheep were exposed to novel males and blood samples collected for analysis of plasma LH profiles. Females without exposure to males served as controls. In addition, one hour before male exposure, a kisspeptin antagonist (P-271) or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle and continued for the entire period of male exposure. Introduction of a male led to elevated mean LH levels, due to increased LH pulse amplitude and pulse frequency in females, when compared to females not exposed to a male. Infusion of P-271 abolished this effect of male exposure. Brains were collected after the male effect stimulus and we observed an increase in the percentage of kisspeptin neurons co-expressing Fos, by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the per-cell expression of Kiss1 mRNA was increased in the rostral and mid (but not the caudal) arcuate nucleus (ARC) after male exposure in both aCSF and P-271 treated ewes, but the per-cell content of neurokinin B mRNA was decreased. There was also a generalized increase in Fos positive cells in the rostral and mid ARC as well as the ventromedial hypothalamus of females exposed to males. We conclude that introduction of male sheep to seasonally anestrous female sheep activates kisspeptin neurons and other cells in the hypothalamus, leading to increased GnRH/LH secretion.

De Bond, Julie-Ann P.; Li, Qun; Millar, Robert P.; Clarke, Iain J.; Smith, Jeremy T.



Effects of Bermudagrass hay and soybean hulls inclusion on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets.  


The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of replacing corn with soybean hulls (SH) or Bermudagrass tifton hay (TH) on performance of sheep fed cactus-based diets. Three ruminally fistulated sheep were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square experiment with 21-day periods. All diets contained 75% spineless cactus (dry matter basis, DM) and formulated to be isonitrogenous. Fiber source had no influence on nutrient intakes except for the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) which was lower (p<0.05) for animals fed corn relative to those fed SH or TH. Time expended in rumination and total chewing time were higher (p<0.05) for animals fed TH than those fed SH or corn. In vivo nutrient digestibilities were similar for all dietary treatments and averaged 69.6%, 74.8%, 69.9%, and 61.8% for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and NDF, respectively. Feeding SH relative to TH and corn decreased ruminal pH (p<0.05) and increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05). However, ruminal NH3-N concentration was higher (p<0.05) for animal fed TH than for those fed SH or corn. Abdominal distension and ruminal biofilm production were greater (p<0.05) in animals fed corn or SH than in those fed TH. It was concluded that replacing corn with SH or TH up to 15% of the diet DM in a cactus-based diet had no effect on nutrient intakes or total tract nutrient utilization. Changes in ruminal fermentation parameters reflected differences in ruminal degradability between the two fiber sources. Bermudagrass tifton hay was more effective than SH in reducing the risk of bloat associated with feeding high levels of spineless cactus to ruminants. PMID:19731062

Santos, A O A; Batista, Angela M V; Mustafa, Arif; Amorim, G L; Guim, A; Moraes, A C; de Lucena, R B; de Andrade, R



Rates of bluetongue virus transmission between Culicoides sonorensis and sheep.  


Two experiments were undertaken to estimate the transmission rates of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 between a biting midge vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) (Ceratopogonidae), and a natural host, sheep. In an experiment to measure the transmission rate from vector to host (V-->H), six batches of one, five and 20 intrathoracically infected midges were fed on a total of 18 bluetongue (BT)-naïve sheep. The sheep were then monitored for 21 days for clinical signs of BT, viraemia and antibody response. All sheep fed on by five or 20 midges and five of six sheep fed on by just one midge showed signs of BT, were viraemic and developed antibody. The sixth sheep fed on by a single infected midge did not show signs of BT or have detectable viraemia; it did, however, develop a weak antibody response. A bite from a single infected midge is therefore able to transmit BTV to naïve sheep with 80-100% efficiency. Sheep fed upon by larger numbers of infected midges took less time to reach maximum viraemia and developed stronger antibody responses. Sheep exposed to greater amounts of BTV in feeding midges developed a higher level of viraemia and stronger antibody responses. In a second experiment to measure the transmission rate from host to vector (H-->V), batches of up to 500 uninfected female C. sonorensis fed every 1-2 days on two experimentally infected sheep during the course of infection. Of 3929 engorged midges that were individually titrated after surviving the extrinsic incubation period, only 23 (0.6%) were infected with BTV. Viraemia in the sheep extended for up to 19 days post-inoculation. No infected midges, however, were detected from 14 days post-infection. PMID:18816271

Baylis, M; O'Connell, L; Mellor, P S



In situ degradability and selected ruminal constituents of sheep fed with peanut forage hay.  


Because legumes are a very important feed source for ruminants, the aim of this study was to evaluate the ideal inclusion level of hay Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte in sheep diets by measuring the dry matter intake (DMI), concentration of volatile fatty acids, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, ruminal pH and the in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). In the experiment with four sheep, a 4 × 4 Latin Square design was used with four periods and four treatments (0%, 30%, 60% and 100% Arachis replacing grass hay). Significant interactions were observed between treatments and sampling times for ammonia-nitrogen and acetate, propionate and butyrate concentration and the acetate:propionate ratio. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by interaction between treatments and sampling time. The degradation of DM and CP was similar, rising with the increasing content of Arachis, showing a linear effect. The treatment containing 60% of Arachis showed best results, with good levels of daily weight gain and higher ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids. The legume showed high levels of CP, high digestibility and appropriate levels of fibre, with excellent standards of degradation and ruminal characteristics. The use of the legume  Arachis for ruminants is a promising option of nutrient supply to meet production demands of these animals. PMID:24016145

Fernandes, Gisele Machado; Possenti, Rosana Aparecida; Teixeira de Mattos, Waldssimiler; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida; Junior, Evaldo Ferrari



Effect of partially substituting concentrate feed mixture by either fresh or waste oil in sheep diets.  


Seven digestibility trials were carried out on sheep to study the effect of replacing concentrate feed mixture (CFM) with varying amounts of fresh (raw) sunflower oil or heated oil from bean cake (Taamiah) frying, in almost isocalorific and isonitrogenous diets. Boiling altered the physical and chemical properties of oil but not significantly except for the peroxide value (P < or = 0.05). Substitution with fresh oil significantly increased the digestibility of nutrients, whereas the boiled lead to conflicting results where all the digestibilities tended to decrease. The feeding value was also affected by the addition of oil. The blood analyses of the animals reflected biochemical changes indicating some dysfunction of the internal organs, in particular the liver showed signs of hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. It was concluded that the loss of CFM energy could be partly substituted by fresh oil or by a small amount of waste oil. PMID:8215892

Abdelhamid, A M; Gabr, A A; el-Shinnawy, M M



The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60?±?2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P?nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep. PMID:23080339

Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur



Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery.  


Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth-HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in each cycle, the potential of nutrient reduction, as well as cell morphology changes. This study demonstrates progress towards the standalone operation of algae biorefineries. PMID:23828814

Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, Mathijs P; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R A; Brilman, Derk W F



Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas.\\u000a These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal\\u000a infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition\\u000a by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying

H. Marschner



Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called “water cultures” had a simple composition and consisted of salts like KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, KHPO4, MgSO4, and

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt



Plant Nutrients in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective nutrient management is essential in organic farming systems. Processed soluble fertilisers such as ammonium nitrate,\\u000a which feed the plant directly and are thought to bypass the natural processes of the soil, are not generally acceptable. Nutrient\\u000a supply to crop plants is supported through recycling, the management of biologically-related processes such as nitrogen fixation\\u000a by clover and other legumes, and

Keith Goulding; Elizabeth Stockdale; Christine Watson



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a rhadinovirus, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinically susceptible ruminants, including cattle, bison, and deer. Recently we demonstrated the presence of OvHV-2 virions in nasal secretions from sheep (Kim, et al. 2003; Virus ...


A partial amino acid sequence for sheep haemoglobin A  

PubMed Central

Amino acid analysis and terminal-group analysis of tryptic and chymotryptic peptides from sheep haemoglobin A have enabled a partial amino acid sequence to be worked out. By comparing this partial sequence with the known amino acid sequences of human haemoglobins A and F as well as horse slow haemoglobin the most probable sequence of sheep haemoglobin has been deduced.

Beale, D.



Toxoplasma gondii in sheep from the Campania region (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional serological survey was conducted in order to evaluate, irrespective of abortion, the Toxoplasma gondii infection in pastured sheep from the Campania region of southern Italy. A geographical information system was used in order to uniformly sample the ovine farms (n=117) throughout the entire region. Blood and milk samples were collected from 10 adult sheeps (>18 months) on each

Giovanna Fusco; Laura Rinaldi; Achille Guarino; Yolande Therese Rose Proroga; Antonella Pesce; De Marco Giuseppina; Giuseppe Cringoli



Comparative Aspects of Glucose Tolerance in Camels, Sheep, and Ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to gain informations about factors responsible for the higher level of plasma glucose in camels as compared to sheep and ponies. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out with four camels, four ponies, and four sheep by infusing 1 mmol glucose per kg body weight intravenously within 3 min. Concentrations of glucose, insulin,

Barakat Elmahdi; Hans-Peter Sallmann; Herbert Fuhrmann; Wolfgang von Engelhardt; Martin Kaske



Calcification characteristics of porcine stentless valves in juvenile sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare calcification characteristics of two porcine stentless valves (Toronto SPV and Freestyle) with different designs, fixation and antimineralization techniques using a juvenile sheep model of valve implantation inside the circulation. Methods: The stentless valves (n = 2 ? 6) were implanted in juvenile sheep in the pulmonary artery as an interposition, while the circulation was maintained with a

Paul Herijgers; Shigeyuki Ozakia; Eric Verbeken; Alfons Van Lommelb; Rozalia Racz; Miroslaw Zietkiewicz; Bartlomiej Perek; Willem Flamenga


Guanacos and sheep: evidence for continuing competition in arid Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are the only wild ungulate species widely distributed across the Patagonian steppe and have undergone a precipitous population decline since the introduction of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) 100 years ago. There has been speculation that sheep ranching may have played a major role in guanaco population decline after monopolising the most productive land because of competition for

Ricardo Baldi; S. D. Albon; D. A. Elston



Prediction of Body Weight from Body Measurements in Morkaraman Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topai, M. and Macit, M. 2004. Prediction of body weight from body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 25: 97–100.In this research, linear regression models were used for estimation of body weights from various body measurements in Morkaraman sheep. Simple and multiple regression models were fitted with body weight (BW) as dependent variable and body length (BL), heart

Mehmet Topai; Muhlis Macit



Abundance and distribution of microbial populations in sheep fleece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated and enumerated from fresh wool samples from sheep flocks throughout New Zealand. Bacterial populations averaged 10?10 colony forming units (cfu) g wool and varied little between flocks. Highest numbers of bacteria were recovered from the back, neck, and rump of the sheep rather than the underside of the animal. Within the fleece, most bacteria (>95% of total)

T. A. Jackson; J. F. Pearson; S. D. Young; J. Armstrong; M. OCallaghan



Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scrapie is a fatal, transmissible disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep. Scrapie eradication is a national priority of the U.S. sheep industry. Variation in the prion gene (PRNP) sequence has been correlated with differences in scrapie susceptibility. A PRNP haplotype allele enco...


Habitat use by desert bighorn sheep during lambing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat used for predator escape may be a factor limiting restoration of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) in small mountain ranges in New Mexico. Female bighorn sheep seek isolation in discrete areas for parturition. Although parturition sites are used only for n = 21), parturition (n = 38), random (n = 38), and post-parturition sites (n = 21). At

Peter D. Bangs; Paul R. Krausman; Kyron E. Kunkel; Zachary D. Parsons



Phylogeny of sheep and goat Theileria and Babesia parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationship of Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18S RNA gene structure was addressed in the present study. For this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal RNA genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including T. lestoquardi, T. ovis, T. separata, B. ovis, B. motasi, B.

Leonhard Schnittger; Hong Yin; Marc J. Gubbels; Doreen Beyer; Stefan Niemann; Frans Jongejan; Jabbar S. Ahmed



Goat and sheep milk products other than cheeses and yoghurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of goat and sheep milk for manufacture of different milk and milk products is increasing, although the proportion is much less compared to cow and buffalo milk worldwide, but it is much better organized in some countries than in others. Manufacturing of goat and sheep milk commercially or artisanally on the farm for direct sales is done successfully

A. J. Pandya; K. M. Ghodke



Effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to study the effects of environmental factors on growth traits in Ghezel sheep breed. Growth related data (birth weight, weaning weight, month 6 weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning and weaning to month 6) were collected from lambs that have been born during 1994 - 2006 at Ghezel sheep breeding station in

Hasan Baneh; Seyed Hasan Hafezian


Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M?:?F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39?years ± 10.5?y), Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49?±?3.49?mg). All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2?g/dL (11.4?±?2.60 male and 11.2?±?4.25 female). Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Mbagaya, Grace; Kakai, Rose



Male contraceptive technology for nonhuman male mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contraceptive techniques applied to males have potential to mitigate diverse instances of overpopulation in human and animal populations. Different situations involving different species dictate that there is no ideal male contraceptive, and emphasizes the value of varying approaches to reducing male fertility. A majority of work in this field has focused on non-surgically destroying the testes or obstructing the epididymis,

R. A. Bowen



Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.  


The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo



A review of some characteristics, socio-economic aspects and utilization of Zulu sheep: implications for conservation.  


Zulu sheep are Nguni sheep of Zululand and are adapted to the harsh conditions of KwaZulu-Natal. They are used by rural farmers for economic purposes. Their numbers are declining, indicating a potential extinction threat. Knowledge of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics is essential for conservation planning. In this review, there is a focus on the utilization, socio-economic aspects, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as well as a proposed breeding programme. A survey has shown that rural farmers in the areas of northern KwaZulu-Natal prefer to keep this breed for its adaptability, resistance to diseases and meat quality. Zulu sheep are small-framed multi-coloured animals. Mature males weigh up to 38 kg and females up to 32 kg. Based on four morphological traits and live weight, phenotypic diversity between three populations was estimated at 48%. A genetic diversity between these three populations was estimated at 22%. Live weight of Zulu sheep can be estimated using the heart girth and wither height measurements. Scrotum circumference of young rams (up to 22 months old) is reliable for estimating the live weight. Animals that were characterized in the studies were grazed extensively and no supplements were provided. There is therefore a potential of weight increase if these animals are reared in a semi-extensive environment. An open nucleus breeding scheme is thus recommended for a sustainable use and conservation of this breed. For more conclusive results, larger numbers of phenotypic and genetic characteristics, in larger numbers of Zulu sheep populations, should be investigated. PMID:21509458

Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred; Bezuidenhout, Carlos C; Nsahlai, Ignatius V; Nesamvuni, Edward A



Investigation of border disease and bovine virus diarrhoea in sheep from 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms in eastern Switzerland.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of sheep persistently infected with Border disease virus (BDV) on 76 mixed cattle and sheep farms and whether seroconversion to BDV infection occurred in cattle of these farms. Seroprevalence of BDV and bovine viral disease virus (BVDV) infection in sheep was also investigated. Quantitative RT-PCR for pestivirus detection and an ELISA to detect pestivirus antibodies were used in 2'384 and 2'291 ovine blood samples, respectively. Another 27 seropositive sheep from ten flocks underwent serum neutralization testing to differentiate between BDV and BVDV antibodies. A BDV titre that was at least four times higher than the BVDV titre was interpreted as the result of BDV infection. Titres against BVDV were interpreted in an analogous fashion. All examined sheep were pestivirus-negative, 310 sheep were seropositive, 119 had an indeterminate titre and 1'862 were seronegative. The flock seroprevalence ranged from 0.0 to 73.9 %. Three of the 27 flocks that underwent serum neutralization testing were interpreted as BDV-infected because of 6 sheep with higher BDV titres, and 6 flocks were interpreted as BVDV-infected because of 14 sheep with higher BVDV titres. PMID:23644292

Braun, U; Bachofen, C; Schenk, B; Hässig, M; Peterhans, E



Prenatal betamethasone exposure alters renal function in immature sheep: sex differences in effects.  


Synthetic glucocorticoids are commonly given to pregnant women when premature delivery threatens. Antenatal administration of clinically relevant doses of betamethasone to pregnant sheep causes sex-specific compromises of renal function and increases in blood pressure in adult offspring. However, it is unclear whether such effects are present in immature lambs. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine whether antenatal betamethasone at 80-81 days of gestation increases blood pressure and adversely impacts renal function in adolescent ewes and rams. Prenatal steroid exposure increased blood pressure significantly in the young male (84 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mmHg) and female sheep (88 +/- 5 vs. 79 +/- 4), but it did not alter basal glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow (RBF), or sodium excretion in either sex. However, antenatal betamethasone exposure blocked increases in RBF (P = 0.001), and enhanced excretion of an acute Na load (P < 0.05) in response to systemic infusions of angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) at 10 in males. In females, the natriuretic response to combined ANG-(1-7), and Na load was significantly altered by prenatal betamethasone exposure. These findings indicate that blood pressure is increased in immature animals in response to antenatal steroid exposure and that sex-specific effects on renal function also exist. These changes may reflect greater risk for further loss of renal function with age. PMID:20554936

Tang, Lijun; Bi, Jianli; Valego, Nancy; Carey, Luke; Figueroa, Jorge; Chappell, Mark; Rose, James C



Prenatal betamethasone exposure alters renal function in immature sheep: sex differences in effects  

PubMed Central

Synthetic glucocorticoids are commonly given to pregnant women when premature delivery threatens. Antenatal administration of clinically relevant doses of betamethasone to pregnant sheep causes sex-specific compromises of renal function and increases in blood pressure in adult offspring. However, it is unclear whether such effects are present in immature lambs. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to determine whether antenatal betamethasone at 80–81 days of gestation increases blood pressure and adversely impacts renal function in adolescent ewes and rams. Prenatal steroid exposure increased blood pressure significantly in the young male (84 ± 2 vs. 74 ± 3 mmHg) and female sheep (88 ± 5 vs. 79 ± 4), but it did not alter basal glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow (RBF), or sodium excretion in either sex. However, antenatal betamethasone exposure blocked increases in RBF (P = 0.001), and enhanced excretion of an acute Na load (P < 0.05) in response to systemic infusions of angiotensin (ANG)-(1–7) at 10 pmol·kg?1·min?1 in males. In females, the natriuretic response to combined ANG-(1–7), and Na load was significantly altered by prenatal betamethasone exposure. These findings indicate that blood pressure is increased in immature animals in response to antenatal steroid exposure and that sex-specific effects on renal function also exist. These changes may reflect greater risk for further loss of renal function with age.

Bi, Jianli; Valego, Nancy; Carey, Luke; Figueroa, Jorge; Chappell, Mark; Rose, James C.



Resistance of Indonesian thin tail sheep against Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resistance of Indonesian thin tail (ITT) sheep against Fasciola gigantica has been confirmed. Naive ITT sheep had only 17% of the number of mature parasites collected from control St. Croix sheep. In contrast, the level of resistance of ITT sheep against F. hepatica was the same as that of the low resistance Merino breed after both primary and secondary

J. A. Roberts; E. Estuningsih; S. Widjayanti; E. Wiedosari; S. Partoutomo; T. W. Spithill



Determination of prediction equations for estimating body weight of Zulu (Nguni) sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on linear body measurements (LBM) of 403 sheep collected in three areas of KwaZulu-Natal were utilized to develop a prediction equation for live body weight of Zulu sheep. Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), wither height (WH) and scrotum circumference (SC) on sheep of all ages. The age of sheep was estimated by dentition. The

N. W. Kunene; A. E. Nesamvuni; I. V. Nsahlai




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a previously defined antigen and calculate the relative risk of CMI positive sheep in MAP tissue culture positive sheep.A johnin PPD (NVSL lot 0201) was evaluated in 2 non-infected sheep flocks (288 sheep) and found to have a skin test...


The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted on 252 farms randomly distributed over all the sheep raising areas in Uruguay. The study involved farms with more than 600 sheep, which represented 80% of the total sheep population of the country. Three anthelmintic groups were assessed, namely, benzimidazoles, levamisole and avermectins. Overall, the results showed 80% of sheep flocks had benzimidazole resistance, 71% had

A. Nari; J. Salles; A. Gil; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen



Accuracy of Ultrasound Measures Relative to Carcass Measures of Body Composition in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Implications Real-time ultrasound measures of body composition were collected on 85 head of market sheep by 3 ultrasound technicians and subsequent measures were collected on the carcasses of these sheep. This study may help to establish reasonable expectations for ultrasound certification statistics within the sheep industry. Based on these data, it appears that reasonable standards for a sheep

Bob Kimm


Neural structures within the sheep temporomandibular joint.  


To better understand pathologic processes associated with arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), detailed information on the innervation of TMJ tissues in normal as well as arthritic joints is needed. The aim of this study was to describe the normal innervation of the sheep TMJ in preparation for using this animal as a model for the study of the effects of arthritis on joint innervation. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance plus the distribution of neural structures within the TMJ were examined using fluorescence histochemistry (glyoxylic acid), immunohistochemistry (calcitonin gene-related peptide), silver, and gold chloride techniques. Joints from 10 mature merino sheep were studied. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers were found in the capsule and the synovial membrane, but not in the disc. Nerve bundles and single nerve fibers in the capsule, synovial membrane, and the peripheral 2 to 3 mm of the disc were stained by glyoxylic acid. Ruffini, paciniform-type, and Golgi organ nerve endings plus free nerve endings were located in the capsule, with the highest density of nerve endings occurring at the site of attachment of the disc to the capsule. The highest density of neural structures (using gold chloride) was in the posterior part of the joint. The highest density of autonomic fibers (using glyoxylic acid) was in the anterior capsule. The highest density of sensory fibers (using calcitonin gene-related peptide) was in the synovial and subsynovial tissues of the anterior capsule. These results confirm the existence of autonomic and sensory nerves in the capsule, synovial membrane, and peripheral disc in healthy adult sheep. PMID:9161227

Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, A; Tedman, R A; Goss, A



A bovine herpesvirus isolated from sheep.  

PubMed Central

A viral agent was isolated from the trachea of a lamb that was suffering from a respiratory disorder. The physical and chemical properties of the isolates are characteristic of the herpesvirus group. It contains DNA in its virion, is ether sensitive, acid labile at pH 3.0 and heat labile at 56 degrees C after five minutes. The cytopathology observed provided further evidence of a herpesvirus isolate. The neutralization of the infectivity of the isolate with antiserum to bovine herpesvirus 1 is evidence that it should be considered an isolate of bovine herpesvirus 1. It is concluded that this is a report of a bovine herpesvirus infection in sheep.

Trueblood, M S; Swift, B L; McHolland-Raymond, L



Male pattern baldness  


Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...


Male Pattern Alopecia  


newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss, Male Pattern Baldness (Male Pattern Alopecia) Information for adults A A A This man has worsening male-pattern hair loss resulting from the medication Tenormin. Overview ...


Bulimia Nervosa in Males  


... Learn / Diversity Issues / Males / Bulimia Nervosa in Males Bulimia Nervosa in Males Bulimia nervosa is a severe, life-threatening disorder characterized ... to prevent weight gain. An individual struggling with bulimia is intensely afraid of gaining weight and exhibits ...


Nutrient provision increases signalling and protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle after repeated sprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nutrient availability on the acute molecular responses following repeated sprint exercise is unknown. The aim\\u000a of this study was to determine skeletal muscle cellular and protein synthetic responses following repeated sprint exercise\\u000a with nutrient provision. Eight healthy young male subjects undertook two sprint cycling sessions (10 × 6 s, 0.75 N m torque kg?1, 54 s recovery) with either pre-exercise nutrient (24 g whey, 4.8 g leucine,

Vernon G. Coffey; Daniel R. Moore; Nicholas A. Burd; Tracy Rerecich; Trent Stellingwerff; Andrew P. Garnham; Stuart M. Phillips; John A. Hawley



Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.  


Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils. PMID:22440173

Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D



Sensory receptors in the sheep's foot  

PubMed Central

1. Median and ulnar nerves of anaesthetized Soay sheep have been investigated in vivo. 2. The compound action potentials of these nerves indicate that the most rapidly conducting fibres had mean velocities of 87 m/sec in the median nerve and 57 m/sec in the ulnar nerve. The mean conduction velocities of the axons responsible for the Group A ?? wave in the median nerve were 23-30 m/sec and those responsible for the Group A ? wave in the ulnar nerve conducted at 23-26 m/sec. 3. Single myelinated afferents were isolated by microdissection of median and ulnar nerves in the metacarpal region, and action potentials were recorded from hair follicle units, cutaneous mechanoreceptors, deeply situated proprioceptors, and from units of unknown function which were spontaneously active. 4. The hair follicle units fell into two categories: `diffuse' units which innervated many hairs in an area of about 1-3 cm2 anywhere on the hairy skin above the hoof, and `localized' units which innervated a few hairs within small areas of the skin adjacent to the hoof. The `diffuse' units generally resembled the ordinary hair follicle units of other animals except that in the sheep the afferents had higher conduction velocities. The `localized' units also had large myelinated axons, but their physiological properties differed in several aspects from the guard hair, tylotrich and carpal hair units which have been studied in other animals. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Evans, M. H.



Structure of amniotic papillae in sheep.  

PubMed Central

The structure of amniotic papillae in sheep was investigated by light transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Papillae were found on the amnion near the umbilical cord in a majority of the sheep examined, from early mid-term onwards. The papillae possessed a basic connective tissue core with a varying degree of vascularity, the whole being sheathed in squamous epithelial cells in the earlier stages of development; but in larger, and presumably older, papillae, squamous epithelium was absent over the tips. The blood supply to these papillae was shown to originate from the chorion and to pass into the amnion at sites where the two members were closely applied to each other. Tentatively we conclude that amniotic papillae are complex organized structures which develop near amniotic plaques, or, in some instances, from the plaques themselves. The stimuli responsible for their growth and development are unknown. Images Fig. 1(a) Fig. 1(b) Fig. 1(c) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Turner, C B; Garlick, P R



Tularemia in range sheep: an overlooked syndrome?  


Abortion and death caused by Francisella tularensis were well recognized in range flocks of domestic sheep in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming in the first 6 decades of the 20th century. The current report describes 4 episodes of tularemia in 3 range flocks in Wyoming and South Dakota in 1997 and 2007 (1 flock was affected twice). Flock owners reported that ticks were unusually numerous and commonly present on sheep during outbreaks. Tularemia presented as late-term abortions (3 episodes) or listlessness and death in lambs and, to a lesser extent, ewes (1 episode). Lesions were multifocal pinpoint necrotic foci in tissues, particularly spleen, liver, and lung. An immunohistochemical procedure demonstrated F. tularensis, particularly in necrotic foci. The diagnosis was corroborated by bacterial isolation and, in individual cases, by serology, fluorescent antibody assay, and/or polymerase chain reaction detection of F. tularensis. Diagnosticians in endemic areas should include tularemia as a differential diagnosis when investigating late-term abortions or outbreaks of fatal illness in young lambs, particularly in years of high tick activity and when characteristic necrotic foci occur in spleen, liver, and lung. PMID:18599860

O'Toole, Donal; Williams, Elizabeth S; Woods, Leslie W; Mills, Kenneth; Boerger-Fields, Amy; Montgomery, Donald L; Jaeger, Paula; Edwards, William H; Christensen, Dwayne; Marlatt, William



Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer’s patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrPSc accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrPSc accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrPSc was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7–L1. At subsequent time points, PrPSc was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrPSc involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

Vromans, M. E. W.; Dolstra, C. H.; Bossers, A.; van Zijderveld, F. G.




EPA Science Inventory

In order to establish meaningful nutrient criteria, consideration must be given to the spatial variations in geographic phenomena that cause or reflect differences in nutrient concentrations in streams. Regional differences in stream nutrient concentrations were illustrated usin...


Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species.  


Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium is a parasite of sheep transmitted by sheep keds, the sheep-restricted ectoparasite Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Sheep keds were 100% prevalent in sheep from five organic farms in Croatia, Southeastern Europe, whereas trypanosomes morphologically compatible with T. melophagium were 86% prevalent in the guts of the sheep keds. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses using sequences of small subunit rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spliced leader, and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the rDNA distinguished T. melophagium from all allied trypanosomes from other ruminant species and placed the trypanosome in the subgenus Megatrypanum. Trypanosomes from sheep keds from Croatia and Scotland, the only available isolates for comparison, shared identical sequences. All biologic and phylogenetic inferences support the restriction of T. melophagium to sheep and, especially, to the sheep keds. The comparison of trypanosomes from sheep, cattle, and deer from the same country, which was never achieved before this work, strongly supported the host-restricted specificity of trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep. PMID:22168919

Martinkovi?, Franjo; Matanovi?, Krešimir; Rodrigues, Adriana C; Garcia, Herakles A; Teixeira, Marta M G



Nutrient enrichment and nutrient regeneration stimulate bacterioplankton growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial abundance results from predatory losses of individuals and replacement of losses through growth. Growth depends on sustained input of organic substrates and mineral nutrients. In this work we tested the hypothesis that bacterial growth in two oligotrophic Canadian shield lakes was limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). We also determined whether consumer-regenerated resources contributed substantially to net bacterial

T. H. Chrzanowski; R. W. Sterner; J. J. Elser



Nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a growing knowledge of nutrient limitation for mangrove species and how mangroves adapt to low nutrients, there is\\u000a scant information about the relative importance of N:P ratio and leaf phenolics variability in determining nutrient conservation.\\u000a In this study, we evaluated possible nutrient conservation strategies of a mangrove Rhizophora stylosa under nutrient limitation. 1. The leaf nutrient concentrations of R.

Yi-Ming Lin; Xiao-Wei Liu; Hui Zhang; Hang-Qing Fan; Guang-Hui Lin



Disturbance of methyl group metabolism in alloxan-diabetic sheep.  


Alloxan-induced diabetes results in changes in the activities of a number of enzymes related to methyl group metabolism in sheep. Decreases in the activities of phospholipid methyltransferase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase in diabetic sheep liver indicate a reduced rate of choline synthesis and oxidation. A 65-fold increase in the activity of glycine methyltransferase and a 4-fold rise in the activity of gamma-cystathionase in diabetic sheep liver with elevated urinary excretion of cyst(e)ine suggest that catabolism of the methyl group of methionine and homocysteine was enhanced in the diabetic state. PMID:4038311

Xue, G P; Snoswell, A M



Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...



EPA Science Inventory

An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...



EPA Science Inventory

A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States Surgeon General issued the first report on osteoporosis in Americans in 2004 with a major emphasis on prevention through better nutrition. The first set of Dietary Reference Intakes in 1997 made recommendations for those nutrients most closely associated with promoting and mainta...


Stillage processing for nutrient recovery  

SciTech Connect

Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.



Nutrient retranslocation in temperate conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Controversy exists about the relationship between retranslocation from leaves and uptake from soil in the mineral nutrition of trees. Evidence is presented to show that uncertainty has arisen partly because the significance of retranslocation from young leaves has been overlooked. Retranslocated nutrients are important for the production of new tissues at all stages of development from the seedling to




Hunting Nutrients and Trapping Carbon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil fertility is enhanced directly by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) efficiently absorbing the maximum amount of nutrients available and indirectly by formation of stabilized soil aggregates. Glomalin is sticky, not easily soluble substance, on AMF hyphae and provides a protective coating to b...


Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fish have been kept for more than three centuries as ornamentals, and the development of manufactured feed since 50 years ago has contributed to the tremendous growth of this hobby, nutrition of ornamental fish is based on extrapolation of results derived from food fishes under intensive farming conditions. Some research on nutrient (protein, minerals) requirements of growing freshwater ornamental species

James Sales; Geert P. J Janssens



Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.  


The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment. PMID:23054805

Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger



Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.  


Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH. PMID:19616401

Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L



Characteristics of drug use on sheep farms in Ontario, Canada.  


This study examined characteristics of the use of drugs, especially antimicrobials, on Ontario sheep farms. Forty-nine sheep farms participated in a 12-month prospective study. Producers documented treatment events during the study period and drug use data from the records were summarized. The most frequently used drugs of the 15 drug categories used by producers belonged to the following categories: antimicrobial (40.7%, n=2710), vitamin/mineral (12.0%), and biological (11.1%). Short-acting penicillin (27.2%, n=1103), long-acting oxytetracycline (22.9%), and long-acting penicillin (21.9%) were the most frequently used antimicrobials. The drugs that were used most frequently on sheep farms were antimicrobials, of which 93% of treatments were extra-label. Extensive extra-label drug use may be the result of the limited number of drugs that are approved in Canada for use in sheep. PMID:21358930

Moon, Catherine S; Berke, Olaf; Avery, Brent P; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Scott, Lisa; Menzies, Paula



Association of Klebsiella organisms with pulmonary lesions in sheep.  


Small nodules were seen on chest wall and in the lungs of sheep slaughtered in Al-Ahsa abattoir, Saudi Arabia. Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies ozaenae was isolated and characterized. The histopathology of the nodules was described. PMID:1818362

Gameel, A A; el-Sanousi, S M; al-Nawawi, F; al-Shazly, M O



Efficacy of triclabendazole against Fasciola hepatica in sheep and goats.  


Triclabendazole (Fasinex), a new fasciolicide of the benzimidazole group, was tested in sheep and goats. A controlled test with 24 artificially-infected sheep revealed a 100% efficacy of triclabendazole at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 body weight against Fasciola hepatica aged 4 and 13 weeks, respectively. In naturally-acquired severe subacute to chronic fascioliasis in 66 sheep and 10 goats, the drug was highly effective in three trials when applied at 10 mg kg-1 in sheep and at 5 mg kg-1 in goats. Triclabendazole was well tolerated, whereas side effects occurred in one trial with niclofolan (Bilevon-M) (3 mg kg-1) which was used for comparison. PMID:6685399

Wolff, K; Eckert, J; Schneiter, G; Lutz, H



Experimental Photosensitization and Toxicity in Sheep Produced by Tetradymia glabrata  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the phototoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata were investigated. Photosensitization, which occurs regularly in the field situation, was unpredictable and difficult to produce experimentally. In attempting to understand this unpredictability we concluded that the plant does not lose its toxicity after field collection either through volatility of the toxin, plant enzymatic degradation of the toxin or dehydration. The chlorophyll source, from which the suspected phototoxic agent phylloerythrin is derived, did not appear to be important. The single case of photosensitization produced gave no clues as to why it occurred. Some predisposing factors important to the production of tetradymia related photosensitization in sheep are unknown. In disagreement with previous reports the hepatotoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata was extremely variable. Also plants in comparable stages of growth, but from different locations, varied in their toxicity to sheep. Young budding plants are most toxic, however, toxicity of the plant remains through maturity.

Johnson, A. E.



Desert Bighorn Sheep: A Guide to Selected Management Practices,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guide summarizes pertinent literature on four topics of desert bighorn sheep ecology and management: (1) their water requirements and adaptations are compared with those of other desert-dwelling ungulates; (2) the effects of human activities such as m...

N. S. Smith P. R. Krausman



[Black sheep effect and ingroup favoritism in social identity perspective].  


Black sheep effect (Marques, Yzerbyt, & Leyens, 1988) and ingroup favoritism (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971) appear to contradict each other with respect to the evaluation of inferior ingroup members. In addition to examining the relationship between the two phenomena, this study also examined the effect of ingroup identification on them. Sixty-one female student-nurses participated in the study. To measure black sheep effect, superior and inferior ingroup and outgroup members were rated on 20 adjectives. Distribution matrices (Tajfel et al., 1971) were used to measure ingroup favoritism. The participants were median split according to their level of group identification. Black sheep effect was found only among high-identification participants, who also showed ingroup favoritism. Ingroup identification had a positive correlation with both ingroup favoritism and black sheep effect. Overall, ingroup favoritism had a positive correlation with the evaluation of superior members, while it had a negative correlation with that of inferior ingroup members. PMID:12625238

Oishi, Chitose; Yoshida, Fujio



Olfaction in the female sheep botfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria



Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) poisoning in sheep.  


Twenty-four lambs grazing pastures of Panicum coloratum developed photosensitization secondary to hepatic dysfunction. Lesions were necrosis of scattered hepatocytes, obstruction of small bile ducts and bile canaliculi by small aggregates of birefringent crystals, and accumulation of birefringent crystals in phagocytes within sinusoids. The number of crystals in livers of affected sheep varied, depending on the amount of time of exposure to toxic plants and severity of hepatic abnormalities. Crystals in the liver were soluble in acidified ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, pyridine, chloral hydrate, and methanol, but not in xylene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, water, or cold ethyl alcohol. Crystals were not stained by oil red O. There was necrosis of epithelial cells in renal distal convoluted tubules, papillary muscles of the heart, and the adrenal cortex. Lesions of Panicum coloratum-associated disease are similar to those associated with photosensitization induced by Tribulus terrestris, Agave lecheguilla, and Nolina texana. PMID:3455080

Bridges, C H; Camp, B J; Livingston, C W; Bailey, E M



[Bacteriolytic enzymes of blood plasma from sheep].  


In the present work the studies ofbacteriolytic factors from sheep blood plasma have been performed. Three novel enzymes have been identified and characterized. Two of them have a molecular weight 15 +/- 2 kDa and able to lyse the gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The third enzyme has a molecular weight 34 +/- 4 kDa and is able to lyse both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Micrococcus luteus bacteria. The bacteriolytic reactions have been studied for all three enzymes; particularly, pH-optima have been identified with respect to the substrate. To identify the enzymes trypsinolysis and consequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry studies were performed. The results were compared to data from publicly available databases, such as Swiss-Prot, NCBI, MSDB. PMID:22997703

Sedov, S A; Belogurova, N G; Shipovskov, S V; Semenova, M V; Gitinov, M M; Levashov, A V; Levashov, P A


Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.  


A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern. PMID:9160420

Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P


On-Line Wastewater Nutrient Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identifying and testing continuous monitoring technologies to track and control nutrients in source and product waters, including treated effluents, is important to achieving further reduction of nutrients in the aquatic environment. In 2005, the U.S. EPA...

J. McKernan



Aerobic Decomposition of Algae and Nutrient Regeneration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study presents definitive hypotheses for natural aerobic algal decomposition and nutrient regeneration. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the refractory organic fraction of algae in the decay and nutrient regeneration processes. Other variabl...

W. J. Jewell P. L. McCarty




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient cycling in forage production systems is complicated and crucial; complicated, because elements can exist in many forms and are affected by both biological and physical processes, and crucial, because nutrients affect productivity, profitability, and environmental sustainability of forage sy...


Propylene-Glycol-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propylene glycol is commonly used as a vehicle for drug administration. In experiments involving the measurement of pulmonary hemodynamics, pentobarbital anesthesia routinely resulted in pulmonary hypertension in sheep. Since pentobarbital is formulated with 40% propylene glycol, we studied the pulmonary hemodynamic effects of propylene glycol in halothane-anesthetized sheep. Intravenous 40% propylene glycol (0.12 ml\\/kg over 3 min) rapidly increased pulmonary

Ronald G. Pearl; Susan A. Rice



Characterising the potential of sheep wool for ancient DNA analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wool derived from sheep (Ovis aries) hair shafts is widespread in ancient and historic textiles. Given that hair can represent a valuable source of ancient DNA,\\u000a wool may represent a valuable genetic archive for studies on the domestication of the sheep. However, both the quality and\\u000a content of DNA in hair shafts are known to vary, and

Luise Ørsted Brandt; Lena Diana Tranekjer; Ulla Mannering; Maj Ringgaard; Karin Margarita Frei; Eske Willerslev; Margarita Gleba; M. Thomas P. Gilbert



Ontogenesis of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important for the metabolism of many drugs. To understand the ontogeny of these enzymes in sheep (Ovis aries), knowledge of their expression levels at different developmental stages is important. cDNA sequences of six UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) were cloned in sheep liver by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The mRNA and protein levels

Manoja Pretheeban; Geoff Hammond; Stelvio Bandiera; Wayne Riggs; Dan Rurak



Anthelmintic resistance and sheep management practices in south western Victoria.  


Twenty-eight farms in 7 shires in south western Victoria were selected and tested for presence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes between November 1979 and June 1981. Mean faecal egg counts of sheep were less than 100 strongyloid eggs/g on 11 farms. Faecal egg count reduction tests were conducted on the remaining 17 farms and thiabendazole was less than 90% efficient in reducing egg counts in sheep from 5 (29%) of these farms. Thiabendazole-resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta were identified at necropsy of experimentally infected treated sheep. In further studies a survey of 104 farms was conducted in the Mount Rouse and Dundas shires of western Victoria in 1981 and 1982 respectively to determine the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in these shires. Mean faecal egg counts among weaner sheep in the winter-spring of both years were less than 100 eggs/g which indicated low levels of parasitic nematode populations. A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on 10 farms and thiabendazole was less than 90% efficient on 3; levamisole was greater than 90% efficient in all 10 tests. Most of the surveyed farms carried Merino or Merino crossbred sheep at 10 to 15 dry sheep equivalents per ha and weaners were treated with anthelmintics 3 to 6 times per year. Management procedures based mainly on anthelmintic therapy were effective in controlling nematode populations in weaner sheep, although many producers alternated between different groups of anthelmintics within the same year contrary to current recommendations for long-term preservation of anthelmintic efficacy. It was concluded that anthelmintic resistance was not of practical importance to the majority of sheep producers in the region. PMID:6508667

Riffkin, G G; Callinan, A P; Freemantle, A M; Westcott, J M; Napthine, D V; O'Connor, A J




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Data from comparative slaughter experi- ments involving 396 growing and fattening young sheep and 26 mature sheep on blended pelleted roughage-concentrate diets or Sudan hay were used to estimate the energy cost of protein and fat deposition. Protein synthesis required 45.6 -+ 8.69 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per gram or 8.14  1.55 kcal ME per kilocalorie of protein

P. V. Rattray; W. N. Garrett; N. Hinman



Establishment and biological characteristics of Ujumqin sheep fibroblast line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissue (USEM) fibroblast line, frozen in 147 cryovials with 4 × 106 cell each, was successfully established from 33 Ujumqin sheep ear marginal tissues using explant culture and cryopreservation\\u000a techniques. The cells were morphologically consistent with fibroblasts. The growth curve was typical S-shape and the cell\\u000a population passed through a lag phase, a logarithmic phase and a

Ri Su Na; Qian Jun Zhao; Da Peng Jin; Xiao Hua Su; Xian Wei Chen; Wei Jun Guan; Yue Hui Ma



Climate change: is the dark Soay sheep endangered?  


It was recently reported that the proportion of dark-coloured Soay sheep (Ovis aries) in the Hebrides has decreased, despite the fact that dark sheep tend to be larger than lighter sheep, and there exists a selective advantage to large body size. It was concluded that an apparent genetic linkage between loci for the coat colour polymorphism and loci with antagonistic effects on body size explained the decrease. Those results explain why the proportion of dark animals is not increasing, but not why it is decreasing. Between 1985 and 2005 there was a significant increase in mean ambient temperature near the islands. We suggest that, while in the past a dark coat has offset the metabolic costs of thermoregulation by absorbing solar radiation, the selective advantage of a dark coat may be waning as the climate warms in the North Atlantic. In parallel, Bergman's rule may be operating, reducing the selective advantage of large body size in the cold. Either or both of these mechanisms can explain the decrease in the proportion of dark-coloured larger sheep in this population in which smaller (and light-coloured) sheep should be favoured by their lower gross energy demand. If environmental effects are the cause of the decline, then we can expect the proportion of dark-coloured Soay sheep to decrease further. PMID:19625302

Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan



Epidemiology of sheep infection by Oestrus ovis in Algeria.  


313 sheep were examined in 1996 to assess the importance and seasonal evolution of Oestrus ovis infection in the Algerian region of El-Tarf. Prevalence was found to be 67.4%. The larval burden was 18 larvae by infected sheep. The prevalence was higher in older sheep than in lambs; intensity was similar. The different larval stages were found all along the year in sheep with prevalence ranging from 33.1 to 80.5% for L1, 9.7 to 43.9% for L2 and 8.4 to 23.0% for L3. The sheep were the least infected in winter (prevalence from 35.7 to 44% and intensity seven to ten larvae per sheep). The highest infection was found during the warm season (spring to autumn, prevalence from 62 to 90% and intensity ranging from 15 to 25). This larval evolution profile suggested the existence of one long cycle (November-April) and possibly two shorts cycles (May-October). This epidemiological pattern is similar to that in Morocco but was slightly different from the situation in Tunisia where the winter cycle was apparently of lesser importance. PMID:15224587

Benakhla, A; Sedraoui, S; Benouareth, D E; Cabaret, J; Boulard, C



Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo



Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo



Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...


Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...


Nutrient Content of Single – Muscle Pork Cuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...


Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison



Nutrient mobilization and yield of soybean genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from leaf and carpel tissue during seed growth was estimated for 18 diverse, field?grown soybean lines and cultivars during two years. The objective was to determine whether lines differed in nutrient mobilization and, if so, whether such differences were related to yielding ability.Lines differed in nutrient concentration and tissue mass and in nutrient content,

Gregory L. Loberg; Richard Shibles; D. E. Green; J. J. Hanway



Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.  


In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the specific activity of GDH enzyme in bacteria fraction of rumen liquor of animal species, while GDH activity was similar in protozoa fraction of rumen liquor of sheep and goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P < 0.05) low. Specific activities of GOT and GPT enzymes in both bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor differ significantly (P < 0.05) due to supplementation of browse leaves to DA grass. Browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the cellulase enzyme activity in animal rumen liquor, being highest on DA-LL (193.4) and lowest on DA-HB diet (144.8 microg sugar/mg protein). Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass-browse leaves diets. Results indicate that browse leaves supplementation affect the enzyme activities of sheep and goats rumen, while the goats rumen liquor had higher activities of GOT, GPT and GDH enzyme than sheep. PMID:20352330

Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S



Biomass and nutrient allocation of sawgrass and cattail along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass and nutrient allocation in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) were examined along a nutrient gradient in the Florida Everglades in 1994. This north to south nutrient gradient, created by discharging nutrient-rich agricultural runoff into the northern region of Water Conservatio ea 2A, was represented by three areas (impacted, transitional and reference). Contrasting changes of plant

S. L. Miao; F. H. Sklar



Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda.  


The feral Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) population on Hirta, St Kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. This paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and 11 species of Eimeria in Soay sheep across 3 years of varying host population density. Prevalence and intensity of almost all species of protozoa significantly decreased with host age, with the exception of E. granulosa, which increased in prevalence with host age. The prevalence of C. parvum appeared to vary positively with host population density but that of G. duodenalis did not vary significantly with density. Most species of Eimeria showed a distinct lag in infection level following the host population crash of 2002, taking up to 2 years to decrease. Mixed Eimeria species intensity and diversity were highest in 2002, a year of low host density. Parasite diversity decreased with host age and was higher in males. There were 5 positive pair-wise associations between protozoa species in terms of prevalence. The results of this study highlight the potential for protozoal infection to shape the evolution of parasite resistance in wild host populations harbouring diverse parasite species. PMID:16978448

Craig, B H; Pilkington, J G; Kruuk, L E B; Pemberton, J M



Evaluation of serodiagnostic methods for brucellosis among sheep and goats in Egypt.  


A total of 1246 animals (778 sheep and 468 goats) were examined for detection of brucellosis using serum tube agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT) as well as Abortus Bang Ring test (ABR-test) have been conducted on both dairy ewes and goats. Eighteen ovine sera played positive serum agglutination reactions (2.31%). Out of the total 468 goat's serum samples examined, 22 (4.70%) gave a positive titers and 2 (0.43%) gave doubtful reactions. The reactors of sheep to the CFT was 2.44% and the incidence was lower in rams (1.63%) than among ewes (2.97%). Seven out of the 339 ewe's milk samples were positive to ABR-test (2.06%), 7 were doubtful (2.06%). Out of 354 goat's milk samples examined, 14 were positive to ABR-test (3.96%). CFT was considered to be a reliable procedure for detecting brucella infected animals particularly in male more than the SAT. Among dairy ewes, both tests were identical in their results. PMID:6427127

Abd-el-Ghani, M; Osman, K; Nada, S M



Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat  

SciTech Connect

Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (USA))



Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we have shown that CD18, the ?-subunit of ?2-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep

Weiguo Liu; Kelly A. Brayton; John Lagerquist; William J. Foreyt; Subramaniam Srikumaran



Male pattern baldness (image)  


Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...


Direct evidence for embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients in two pipefishes (Syngnathidae: Syngnathus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seahorses, sea dragons and pipefishes of the teleost family Syngnathidae are unique in that embryos develop within specialized\\u000a brooding structures of the male. We enriched brooding Syngnathus fuscus and Syngnathus floridae males with injections of L-lysine-[15N2] and 16:0-palmitic acid 1-[13C] to demonstrate embryonic uptake of paternally-derived nutrients. While all embryos demonstrated amino acid enrichment,\\u000a late stages showed significantly higher [15N],

Jennifer L. Ripley; Christy M. Foran



Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.



Anorexia Nervosa in Males  


... Learn / Diversity Issues / Males / Anorexia Nervosa in Males Anorexia Nervosa in Males Anorexia nervosa is a severe, life-threatening disorder in which ... changes to the diagnostic categories and criteria for eating disorders, including the addition of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) ...


Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp.) in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan. Methods Reverse line blot (RLB) assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products. Results Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa. Conclusion Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001). Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03), animals infested by ticks (P = 0.03) and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001) were more infected by blood parasites.

Iqbal, F; Khattak, RM; Ozubek, S; Khattak, MNK; Rasul, A; Aktas, M



Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics(1)[W  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Male fertility depends on the proper development of the male gametophyte, successful pollen germination, tube growth, and delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule. Previous studies have shown that nutrients like boron, and ion gradients or currents of Ca(2+), H(+), and K(+) are critical for pollen ...


The Effect of Mannanoligosaccharides, Bambermycins, and Virginiamycin on Performance of Large White Male Market Turkeys1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), bambermycins (BAM), and virginiamycin (VIR) on the growth perfor- mance of male turkeys. Hybrid Large White male poults were assigned to six dietary treatments: control, MOS, BAM, VIR, MOS+BAM (MB), and MOS+VIR (MV). All diets were formulated to meet NRC (1994) nutrient re- quirements. There were eight replicate floor

C. W. Parks; J. L. Grimes; P. R. Ferket; A. S. Fairchild


Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared to prior studies of the other three NOAA-managed reference marshes in the Hudson Valley. The data supplements carbon content data (presented in a companion poster) to estimate the carbon cycling and sequestration capacity of the Marsh sediments. Nutrient data is being collected as one component of a broad ecological and geochemical study of the Marsh and its adaptation to human influence (see companion posters on carbon cycling and habitat utilization in the Marsh). All data were collected and analyzed as part of Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program, which engages NYC high school teachers and students in research in the Hudson/Raritan estuarine environment.

Diaz, K.; Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.



Effects of Chito-Oligosaccharide Supplementation on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Serum Composition in Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 196 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a study conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplemen- tation of chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on growth, nutrient digestibility, and serum composition. The experimental diets consisted of an unsupplemented control diet based on corn, soybean meal, and fish meal or similar diets supplemented with

X. J. Li; X. S. Piao; S. W. Kim; P. Liu; L. Wang; Y. B. Shen; S. C. Jung; H. S. Lee


Pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione derivative, in male Naeini (Iranian fat-tailed) sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioglitazone (PGT) belongs to thiazolidinedione (TZD) family or insulin sensitizers that are potent ligands for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been shown that injection of TZD in cattle has some useful effects on blood parameters but there is no published study with respect to the feeding of

S. M. Ghoreishi; H. Rajaian; M. Sheykhzade; M. Alikhani; H. R. Rahmani; A. R. Hajipour; M. Khorvash; H. R. Khodaei



Mating in bighorn sheep: frequent male reproduction via a high-risk “unconventional” tactic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocky Mountain bighorn rams use three distinct tactics in competition for mates. Two tactics (tending and blocking) feature\\u000a defense and cooperative mating over a relatively prolonged consort period (up to 3 days). In the coursing tactic, subordinate\\u000a rams fight dominants for temporary copulatory access (lasting seconds) to defended ewes. By combining population-wide genetic\\u000a (microsatellite) exclusion of paternity, behavioral data and

John T. Hogg; Stephen H. Forbes



Executive Decision-Making in the Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Two new large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) have been developed recently, an old world monkey (macaque) and a sheep. Macaques, with their large brains and complex repertoire of behaviors are the ‘gold-standard’ laboratory animals for testing cognitive function, but there are many practical and ethical issues that must be resolved before HD macaques can be used for pre-clinical research. By contrast, despite their comparable brain size, sheep do not enjoy a reputation for intelligence, and are not used for pre-clinical cognitive testing. Given that cognitive decline is a major therapeutic target in HD, the feasibility of testing cognitive function in sheep must be explored if they are to be considered seriously as models of HD. Here we tested the ability of sheep to perform tests of executive function (discrimination learning, reversal learning and attentional set-shifting). Significantly, we found that not only could sheep perform discrimination learning and reversals, but they could also perform the intradimensional (ID) and extradimensional (ED) set-shifting tasks that are sensitive tests of cognitive dysfunction in humans. Their performance on the ID/ED shifts mirrored that seen in humans and macaques, with significantly more errors to reach criterion in the ED than the ID shift. Thus, sheep can perform ‘executive’ cognitive tasks that are an important part of the primate behavioral repertoire, but which have never been shown previously to exist in any other large animal. Sheep have great potential, not only for use as a large animal model of HD, but also for studying cognitive function and the evolution of complex behaviours in normal animals.

Morton, A. Jennifer; Avanzo, Laura



Bicarbonate transport in sheep parotid secretory cells.  


1. Intracellular pH (pH1) was measured by microfluorimetry in secretory endpieces isolated from sheep parotid glands and loaded with the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). 2. Stimulation with 1 microM acetylcholine (ACh) caused a large, transient decrease in pH1 of 0.37 +/- 0.02 pH units followed by a slower recovery. The transient, which was reduced by 60% in the absence of HCO3-, could be attributed mainly to HCO3- efflux. During sustained stimulation, pH1 increased to a value that exceeded the resting value by 0.083 +/- 0.023 pH units after 20 min. 3. The anion channel blocker NPPB (0.1 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 48% and raised pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of NPPB and ACh accelerated the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that NPPB inhibits HCO3- efflux. 4. The stilbene derivative H2DIDS (0.5 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 76% but caused a marked decrease in pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of H2DIDS and ACh slowed the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that the main effect of H2DIDS was to inhibit HCO3- accumulation. 5. In the absence of HCO3-, the recovery from an acid load was unaffected by ACh stimulation. Acid extrusion, although dependent on Na+, was not inhibited by amiloride (1 mM), clonidine (1 mM) or H2DIDS (0.5 mM) and was therefore provisionally attributed to a Na(+)-H+ exchanger isoform other than NHE1 or NHE2. 6. In the presence of HCO3-, the rate of recovery from an acid load was reduced during ACh stimulation, probably as a result of the increased efflux of HCO3-. Acid extrusion was dependent on Na+ and was significantly inhibited by H2DIDS. 7. We conclude that ACh-evoked HCO3- secretion in the sheep parotid gland differs from that in many other salivary glands by being driven predominantly by basolateral Na(+)-HCO3- cotransport rather than by Na(+)-H+ exchange. PMID:8865077

Steward, M C; Poronnik, P; Cook, D I



Reticulo-ruminal mechanoreceptors in sheep.  


1. The nervous activity in single afferent gastric vagal units was recorded electrophysiologically from halothane-anaesthetized sheep with spontaneous reticulo-ruminal movements present.2. Sixty-six afferent units innervating gastric mechanoreceptors were isolated from fifteen sheep. The receptors were located mainly in the medial walls of the reticulum and the cranial sac of the dorsal rumen, and also in the reticular groove, the reticulo-ruminal fold, the dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen and the omasal canal.3. The mean conduction velocity (C.V.) for twenty-seven units was 12.4 +/- 1.0 m/sec (S.E.). For units with a pathway in the dorsal vagal trunk, the mean C.V. was 14.5 +/- 1.0 m/sec (S.E.) and for units with a pathway in the ventral vagal trunk the mean C.V. was 6.6 +/- 0.5 m/sec (S.E.).4. From the receptors a slowly adapting response was elicited by tangential lengthening. These were tension receptors in series with contractile elements, as they were excited by increased tensions developed both passively by inflation of the viscus and actively by muscular contractions.5. Receptors in the reticulum and the rumen appeared to be situated deep in the muscle layers, whereas those in the reticular groove structures seemed to be more superficial and gave the in series tension receptor response as well as a response to light pressure.6. A resting discharge in tension receptor units was usually absent at low levels of distension but appeared and increased as the level of distension was raised. Intermittency and fluctuations in the resting discharge were related to intrinsic local movement involving the receptive fields. Increasing distension enhanced the intrinsic movements.7. Even after the removal of the abomasum, reticular and ruminal (primary cycle) movements were evoked by distending the reticulum. It is possible that this manoeuvre enhanced intrinsic movements, which, in turn, caused an increased excitatory afferent input to the ;gastric centres' from in series reticular tension receptors.8. The enhanced afferent discharge from reticular tension receptors elicited by an isometrically recorded reticular contraction reflexly inhibited the subsequent (primary cycle) contraction of the rumen.9. Very few receptors were located in the caudal regions of the rumen whereas the cranial sac is richly supplied with tension receptors. The idea that the cranial sac may serve as the reflexogenic zone for secondary cycle movements of the rumen is discussed. PMID:5789939

Leek, B F



Effects of different grazing intensities of sheep on accumulated particulate organic matter (POM) and organic matter mineralization in low-alpine grassland soils in Norway.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer farming in mountain areas of Norway (e.g. livestock grazing and logging of fire wood) has reduced during the last century; however the number of sheep stayed relatively unchanged implying a translocation of grazing impact. Herbivores may affect both vegetation dynamics and nutrient cycling. Much information exists about the impact of cession of grazing, but little is known about the ecological effect of different grazing intensities. Using a controlled grazing experiment organized as total randomized block design (starting 2001), with three levels of grazing intensities by sheep (high, low and no sheep), effects of different grazing pressure on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization and amount and quality of POM was studied in a low alpine region of Southern Norway. In a parallel study in situ measurements were conducted to determine biomass production rate and the quality of litter input. Soil samples from the O-horizon were incubated (determining C and N mineralization) and fractionated (free light POM fraction, density <1,8 g cm-3, size 20-2000 µm). It was hypothesized that high levels of grazing would induce (1) higher C and N mineralization rates and (2) less POM, due to physical (trampling) and chemical (input of faeces and urea) impact of sheep in addition to observed changes in vegetation cover. Results indicate that the amount of POM was in the order low>no sheep>high, indicating that low grazing intensity build up a potential larger mineralizable fraction compared with high and no sheep. The C content of POM was in the order no sheep>low>high and the N content of POM in the order low>no sheep>high. The C content of POM at high grazing intensity was significantly lower than at low grazing intensity and no sheep (ns. different). The low C content of POM at high grazing intensities (but not the N content) was the main reason for the observed CN ratios of the POM fraction being lowest at high densities (no sheep>low>high). Initial analysis of C and N mineralization suggest that the amount of CO2 evolved per g soil is highest in soil samples from low grazing pressure; however respiration rates expressed per g POM do not differ between treatments. Ammonium is the dominant form of inorganic N mineralized from SOM. By contrast, there is little or no accumulation of nitrate, suggesting low nitrification potentials in these soils. Differences between treatments in the amount and quality of POM and in mineralization rates indicate that there is a non linear response of grazing activity. Thus, change in management practice may have important consequences for feedback mechanisms controlling above and below ground productivity. At the conference more data on C and N mineralization in addition to a coupled stoichiometri of selected plants and SOM will be presented.

Martinsen, V.; Mulder, J.; Austrheim, G.; Mysterud, A.



Effects of eutrophication on vitellogenin gene expression in male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17?-ethynylestradiol in field mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of aquatic secondary nutrient supply levels (nitrogen and phosphorus) on the subcellular response of adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a single nominal concentration of 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a potent synthetic estrogen, under quasi-natural field conditions. Outdoor mesocosms were maintained under low, medium, and high nutrient supply conditions as categorized by total phosphorus (TP)

Denise A. Gordon; Gregory P. Toth; David W. Graham; James M. Lazorchak; Tirumuru V. Reddy; Charles W. Knapp; Frank deNoyelles; Scott Campbell; David L. Lattier



Isolation and molecular detection of Neospora caninum from naturally infected sheep from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neospora caninum was isolated from a naturally infected sheep from Brazil by bioassay in dogs. Approximately 70g of brain from each of two 4-month-old sheep with indirect fluorescent antibodies (?1:50) to N. caninum was offered to a different IFAT negative dog (Sheep n. 302, IFAT 1:400—Dog 1 and Sheep n. 342, IFAT 1:50—Dog 2). Parasite DNA was detected in both

H. F. J. Pena; R. M. Soares; A. M. A. Ragozo; R. M. Monteiro; L. E. O. Yai; S. M. Nishi; S. M. Gennari



Arsenic metabolism in seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland.  


Cation exchange and anion exchange liquid chromatography were coupled to an ICP-MS and optimised for the separation of 13 different arsenic species in body fluids (arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium ion (TMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenocholine (AsC), dimethylarsinoyl ethanol (DMAE) and four common dimethylarsinoylribosides (arsenosugars). The arsenic species were determined in seaweed extracts and in the urine and blood serum of seaweed-eating sheep from Northern Scotland. The sheep eat 2-4 kg of seaweed daily which is washed ashore on the most northern Island of Orkney. The urine, blood and wool of 20 North Ronaldsay sheep and kidney, liver and muscle from 11 sheep were sampled and analysed for their arsenic species. In addition five Dorset Finn sheep, which lived entirely on grass, were used as a control group. The sheep have a body burden of approximately 45-90 mg arsenic daily. Since the metabolism of arsenic species varies with the arsenite and arsenate being the most toxic, and organoarsenic compounds such as arsenobetaine the least toxic compounds, the determination of the arsenic species in the diet and their body fluids are important. The major arsenic species in their diet are arsenoribosides. The major metabolite excreted into urine and blood is DMAA (95 +/- 4.1%) with minor amounts of MMAA, riboside X, TMA and an unidentified species. The occurrence of MMAA is assumed to be a precursor of the exposure to inorganic arsenic, since demethylation of dimethylated or trimethylated organoarsenic compounds is not known (max. MMAA concentration 259 microg/L). The concentrations in the urine (3179 +/- 2667 microg/L) and blood (44 +/- 19 microg/kg) are at least two orders of magnitude higher than the level of arsenic in the urine of the control sheep or literature levels of blood for the unexposed sheep. The tissue samples (liver: 292 +/- 99 microg/kg, kidney: 565 +/- 193 microg/kg, muscle: 680 +/- 224 microg/kg) and wool samples (10470 +/- 5690 microg/kg) show elevated levels which are also 100 times higher than the levels for the unexposed sheep. PMID:11220824

Feldmann, J; John, K; Pengprecha, P



Live fast, die young: trade-offs between fitness components and sexually antagonistic selection on weaponry in Soay sheep.  


Males are predicted to compete for reproductive opportunities, with sexual selection driving the evolution of large body size and weaponry through the advantage they confer for access to females. Few studies have explored potential trade-offs of investment in secondary sexual traits between different components of fitness or tested for sexually antagonistic selection pressures. These factors may provide explanations for observed polymorphisms in both form and quality of secondary sexual traits. We report here an analysis of selection on horn phenotype in a feral population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on the island of Hirta, St. Kilda, Scotland. Soay sheep display a phenotypic polymorphism for horn type with males growing either normal or reduced (scurred) horns, and females growing either normal, scurred, or no (polled) horns; further variation in size exists within horn morphs. We show that horn phenotype and the size of the trait displayed is subject to different selection pressures in males and females, generating sexually antagonistic selection. Furthermore, there was evidence of a trade-off between breeding success and longevity in normal-horned males, with both the normal horn type and larger horn size being associated with greater annual breeding success but reduced longevity. Therefore, selection through lifetime breeding success was not found to act upon horn phenotype in males. In females, a negative association of annual breeding success within the normal-horned phenotype did not result in a significant difference in lifetime fitness when compared to scurred individuals, as no significant difference in longevity was found. However, increased horn size within this group was negatively associated with breeding success and longevity. Females without horns (polled) suffered reduced longevity and thus reduced lifetime breeding success relative the other horn morphs. Our results therefore suggest that trade-offs between different components of fitness and antagonistic selection between the sexes may maintain genetic variation for secondary sexual traits within a population. PMID:17133873

Robinson, Matthew R; Pilkington, Jill G; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B



Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.



The small luteal cell of the sheep.  

PubMed Central

Corpora lutea of sheep were examined by electron microscopy at day 10 of the oestrous cycle and at days 15, 25, 50, 100, 125 and 140 of pregnancy. Small luteal cells were present in all corpora lutea, and were two to three times as numerous as large luteal cells. The former were irregular in shape, with tapering cytoplasmic processes. Their major cytoplasmic organelles were a predominantly smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular and lamellar cristae, and one or more Golgi complexes. The enzyme delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was present in their cytoplasm. Small luteal cells were often interposed between large luteal cells and capillaries, and formed close, complex surface relationships with large luteal cells. Small and large luteal cells differed in many ways, including the restriction of numerous approximately 0.2 micron cytoplasmic granules to the large cells, and no cells of intermediate structure were observed. These features of small luteal cells suggest a steroid hormone synthetic function, and direct interaction with large luteal cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11

O'Shea, J D; Cran, D G; Hay, M F



Functional development of the sheep diaphragmatic ligament.  

PubMed Central

1. The diaphragmatic ligament, which lines the thoracic surface of the diaphragm, plays a major role in setting the passive compliance of the diaphragm in the adult. Since many elastic tissues are more compliant at younger ages, our aim was to determine whether this diaphragmatic ligament plays an important role during development of the diaphragm. 2. We examined the passive biaxial length-tension properties of the isolated mid-costal diaphragm from fetal, newborn and adult sheep; initially with the diaphragm intact and then with the diaphragmatic ligament removed to reveal its functional significance. 3. We found that unlike other elastic tissues the diaphragmatic ligament is stiffer in early development than in the adult. The diaphragmatic ligament supports about 75% of the passive tension in the diaphragm in the 121 day fetus (term at 147 days) declining to about 50% from 3 weeks of age. The fetal diaphragm muscle fibres are exposed to 1-7 kPa of stress over the last 26 days of gestation. 4. We suggest that the diaphragmatic ligament provides a structural framework on which the muscle fibres of the diaphragm grow in fetal life, and that the ligament's elasticity is regulated to maintain a low and constant stress on the diaphragm muscle fibres during development.

Griffiths, R I; Berger, P J



Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted with aged nuclear-free homogenate of sheep liver and aged mitochondria in an attempt to measure both the extent of oxidation of propionate and the distribution of label from [2-14C]propionate in the products. With nuclear-free homogenate, propionate was 44% oxidized with the accumulation of succinate, fumarate, malate and some citrate. Recovery of 14C in these intermediates and respiratory carbon dioxide was only 33%, but additional label was detected in endogenous glutamate and aspartate. With washed mitochondria 30% oxidation of metabolized propionate occurred, and proportionately more citrate and malate accumulated. Recovery of 14C in dicarboxylic acids, citrate, ?-oxoglutarate, glutamate, aspartate and respiratory carbon dioxide was 91%. The specific activities of the products and the distribution of label in the carbon atoms of the dicarboxylic acids were consistent with the operation solely of the methylmalonate pathway together with limited oxidation of the succinate formed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle via pyruvate. In a final experiment with mitochondria the label consumed from [2-14C]propionate was entirely recovered in the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamate, aspartate, methylmalonate and respiratory carbon dioxide.

Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.



Some physiological effects of ketamine in sheep.  


The effects of intravenous injections of ketamine in sheep on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are compared with the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the same drug and also with the effects of intravenous barbiturate and steriod anaesthetics. Intravenously administered ketamine caused an initial fall in arterial blood pressure the extent of which was dose dependent. This depression was short lived and was occasionally followed by a mild pressor phase. Intracerebroventricular injection of the drug provoked only a mild transient rise in mean arterial blood pressure. The intravenous injection of ketamine gave a brief period of respiratory depression which was mirrored in the PaO2 and PaCO2 levels followed by a period of respiratory stimulation with elevated PaO2 levels. The comparison of the three injection anaesthetics showed that the blood gas tensions with ketamine showed there was a brief period of respiratory depression similar to that seen with the steroid anaesthetic but that the barbiturate caused a much longer depression similar to that seen with the steroid anaesthetic but that the barbiturate caused a much longer depression. The blood gas tensions following the steroid anaesthetic soon returned to normal while the tensions following ketamine indicated an elevated PaO2 after the initial depression. The blood gas tensions following intracerebroventricular injection of ketamine were difficult to evaluate due to the variable period of apnoea which followed the injection. PMID:31664

Waterman, A; Livingston, A



Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep  

SciTech Connect

We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.



Potential environmental consequences of administration of anthelmintics to sheep.  


Anthelmintics, veterinary medicines for the control of endoparasites, enter into the environment largely through faeces of the treated animals. Sheep dung is a patchily distributed, ephemeral resource, with a functionally important decomposer community. The nature of this community and the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics in sheep mean that the ecotoxic impacts of these drugs in sheep dung may differ markedly from those in cattle dung, where most research has been focussed. The period of maximum residue excretion is generally more transient in sheep than cattle dung, but low-level excretion may continue for longer, giving the potential for extended sub-lethal effects. Here, the environmental impacts of sheep anthelmintics, as well as alternative endoparasite control methods are reviewed. Impacts are discussed in terms of the potential for residues to enter into the environment, the toxicity and the impact on ecosystem functioning at an appropriate scale. Future research priorities are also discussed; these include the need for studies of the functional contributions of dung-colonising species, as well as the development of higher-tier ecotoxicological methods bridging the gap between laboratory and field experiments. Large-scale and long-term studies, including the development of appropriate models, are necessary to allow the consequences of anthelmintic administration to be assessed, particularly within the remit of sustainable animal production. PMID:22538093

Beynon, S A



Impact of maedi-visna in intensively managed dairy sheep.  


Maedi-visna (MV) is a slow lentiviral disease of sheep that has a significant economic impact in many sheep-producing regions although there remains a paucity of data relating to actual production losses resulting from this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate direct losses, through death or culling, from two dairy sheep flocks with high seroprevalences of infection over a 2year period. Maedi-visna was found, either alone or in combination with other diseases, to be the most common disease diagnosed in these sheep, and the major cause of direct animal losses in the two flocks. Moderate to severe lesions associated with MV were found in 52% and 80% of the sheep, respectively, affecting the lungs, brain and/or mammary glands. Despite the similarity of the two flocks under study in terms of breed, number of animals, geographical proximity, and inter-change of rams, a striking difference was observed regarding the clinical presentation of the disease: in one flock the respiratory form was dominant while in the other 70% of animals died or were culled because of neurological signs. PMID:23643869

Benavides, Julio; Fuertes, Miguel; García-Pariente, Carlos; Otaola, Javier; Delgado, Laetitia; Giraldez, Javier; García Marín, Juan Francisco; Carmen Ferreras, M; Pérez, Valentín



Experimental infection of bighorn sheep with liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica).  


Nine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were each inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the time of inoculation and at 5, 10, 14, and 20 wk after inoculation. Numbers of fluke eggs in feces, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and eosinophil values were determined. Five of the bighorn sheep were treated with triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight 14 wk after inoculation. Based on fecal evaluations, all bighorns developed patent infections. Six weeks after treatment, fluke eggs were not detected in feces from the five treated animals but were present in two of four untreated animals. One untreated bighorn sheep was euthanized 20 wk after inoculation, and 57 adult F. hepatica were recovered from the liver. Results from this experiment indicated that bighorn sheep are efficient hosts for F. hepatica. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight was safe and, based on fluke egg recovery in feces, apparently an effective treatment. To my knowledge, this is the first published report of F. hepatica in bighorn sheep. PMID:19901401

Foreyt, William J



Efficacy of clorsulon against Fascioloides magna infection in sheep.  


In a study to evaluate the efficacy of clorsulon against Fascioloides magna infection in sheep, 12 ewes were inoculated orally with 100 metacercariae of F magna, and 6 were treated with clorsulon (15 mg/kg of body weight) 8 weeks after inoculation. The sheep were euthanatized 16 weeks after inoculation, flukes were recovered, and the liver and other tissues were subjectively scored for the severity of lesions (0 to 4+). The number of flukes recovered from the clorsulon-treated group (3.8 +/- 1.2 flukes) was significantly (P = 0.025) lower than the number of flukes recovered from the group of untreated controls (10.0 +/- 6.6 flukes). The severity of lesions was significantly (P = 0.004) reduced (45.9%) in the treated group (2.0 +/- 1.1), compared with that in the untreated controls (3.7 +/- 0.5). In the untreated group, 3 sheep died and 1 became moribund 14 to 16 weeks after inoculation. The data suggested that a single treatment with clorsulon at a dosage of 15 mg/kg 8 weeks after inoculation was not effective in preventing F magna infection in sheep, because the survival of only a few F magna is potentially fatal in sheep within 6 months after infection. PMID:3366676

Conboy, G A; Stromberg, B E; Schlotthauer, J C



The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams  

PubMed Central

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference.

Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine



Concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in grazing sheep and goat milk fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of grazing sheep and goat milk fat, throughout their lactation period, was examined. Six sheep and six goat representative farms were selected at random and milk samples were taken at monthly intervals for fatty acids profile determination. Sheep and goat nutrition was based on natural grazing and on supplementary feeding during the winter months.

E. Tsiplakou; K. C. Mountzouris; G. Zervas



Maggot Debridement Therapy in the Treatment of Footrot and Foot Scald in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koãi‰ová A., J. Pistl, R. Link, E. âonková, M. Goldová: Maggot Debridement Therapy in the Treatment of Footrot and Foot Scald in Sheep. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 277-281. In sheep with acute and chronic interdigital skin inflammation, maggot therapy was used for the debridement and speeding up the healing process. Sheep were housed at the university farm Zemplínska Teplica

A. Ko?išová; J. Pistl; R. Link; E. ?onková; M. Goldová



Gas production and nitrogen digestion by rumen microbes from deer and sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates at which gas was produced by rumen microbes from red deer (Cervus elaphus) and sheep were measured in vitro. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the lower frequency of rumen eructation contractions in deer, compared to sheep and other ruminants, may have been associated with a lower rate of gas production. Two sheep and two deer

G. C. Waghorn; K. J. Stafford



Pass-Through Elasticity, Substitution and Market Share: the Case for Sheep Meat Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the exchange rate pass-through elasticity, using sheep meat exports from the two major exporters, Australia and New Zealand. The results show the coexistence of incomplete and complete pass-through in the international sheep meat industry. The Australian sheep meat exporters have a relatively smaller market share than New Zealand and are not able to exercise monopoly power.

Minsoo Lee; Moonjoong Tcha



Host responses during experimental infection with Fasciola gigantica or Fasciola hepatica in Merino sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the early biochemical changes in plasma, comparative host-immune responses and parasite recovery data in Merino sheep during the first 10 weeks of infection with Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. One group of sheep were uninfected, four groups of sheep received incremental challenge doses of F. gigantica metacercariae (50, 125, 225 and 400, respectively) and the sixth group

H. W. Raadsma; N. M. Kingsford; Suharyanta; T. W. Spithill; D. Piedrafita



Density-dependent foraging behaviour of sheep on alpine pastures: effects of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging patterns of large herbivores may give important clues as to why their life history varies depending on population density. In this landscape-scale experi- ment, domestic sheep Ovis aries were kept at high (80 sheep km? 2) and low (25 sheep km? 2) population densities during summer in high mountain pastures in Hol, Norway. We predicted an increasing use of

K. Kausrud; A. Mysterud; Y. Rekdal; O. Holand; G. Austrheim



Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....



Microsoft Academic Search

The venom of Crotalus atrox liberates a substance resembling bradykinin (BKLS) from sheep and human plasma. Up to 2.5 ?g, bradykinin-equivalents per ml, of sheep plasma could be recovered in vitro. Antivenin inhibits this reaction. The effect of injected venom in sheep was assessed by estimating the residual BKLS precursor, converting it into BKLS with excess of venom or trypsin.

J Margolis; Sally Bruce; B Starzecki; GJ Horner; DFJ Halmagyi



Kinetic model of whole-body vanadium metabolism: studies in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compartmental model for vanadium metabolism in sheep has been proposed. The model is consistent with data obtained from sheep fed a control diet (2.6 ppm vanadium) containing 0 or 200 ppm supplemental vanadium. Sheep were administered UYV dioxovanadium either orally or intravenously. Blood feces, and urine radioactivity were monitored for 6 days postdosing. Several new insights regarding vanadium metabolism

B. W. Patterson; S. L. II Hansard; C. B. Ammerman; P. R. Henry; L. A. Zech; W. R. Fisher



Habitat use by female desert bighorn sheep in the Fra Cristobal Mountains, New Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexican desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) populations have declined since the 1980s, and restoration efforts are necessary to establish viable populations. Mexican desert bighorn sheep were translocated to the Fra Cristobal Mountains of south-central New Mexico in 1995. We described seasonal habitats used by female desert bighorn sheep by comparing characteristics of radiolocations with random locations within their home

Peter D. Bangs; Paul R. Krausman; Kyran E. Kunkel; Zachary D. Parsons



Structural Organization of the P-Globin Locus of B-Haplotype Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats and some sheep synthesize a juvenile hemoglobin, Hb C (a* by), at birth and produce this hemoglobin exclusively during severe anemia. Sheep that synthesize this juvenile hemoglobin are of the A haplotype. Other sheep, belonging to a separate group, the B haplotype, do not synthesize hemoglobin C and during anemia continue to produce their adult hemoglobin. To understand the

Karen J. Garner; Jerry B. Lingrel


Face pictures reduce behavioural, autonomic, endocrine and neural indices of stress and fear in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faces are highly emotive stimuli and we find smiling or familiar faces both attractive and comforting, even as young babies. Do other species with sophisticated face recognition skills, such as sheep, also respond to the emotional significance of familiar faces? We report that when sheep experience social isolation, the sight of familiar sheep face pictures compared with those of goats

Ana P. da Costa; Andrea E. Leigh; M.-S. Man; K. M. Kendrick



Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...


Social facilitation of predatory, sheep-chasing behaviour in Norwegian Elkhounds, grey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep grazing on unfenced mountain pasture may be attacked by loose dogs, which may chase and kill sheep and separate lambs from their mothers. We have earlier shown that testing dogs individually towards sheep with an electronic dog collar may effectively reduce the chasing propensity 1 year later. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how a

Frank O Christiansen; Morten Bakken; Bjarne O Braastad



Behavioral toxicologic assessment of the neurologic effect of lead in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments using adult female sheep were conducted to investigate the behavioral toxicologic effects of oral doses of lead. Eight sheep were trained to depress a pedal following the presentation of an auditory signal. Four sheep were dosed with 100 mg lead\\/kg daily for nine weeks and four served as unexposed controls. After four weeks the difference between the number

G. A. Van Gelder; Tom Carson; Richard M. Smith; William B. Buck



Organization and funding of sheep research and extension in the United States — from research to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of sheep research results and the transfer of these results into practice on sheep farms in the U.S. is accomplished through the cooperative funding of sheep research and extension by Federal, state, and local governments and the complete integration of the extension service and research scientists within Land Grant Universities. Over $40 million is spent annually on 800

David L. Thomas; Larry R. Miller




Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect on sheep losses of selectively rentocing breeding coyotes (Canis htrans) frorrl trrri- tories experiencing depreclations. Breeding pairs of coyotes were the primarv predators of sheep, and they killed sheep only within or on the periphery of their territories. Removal of either or both members of a breeding pair reduced or eliminated predation in that territory during



The impact of environmental heterogeneity on genetic architecture in a wild population of Soay sheep.  


This work demonstrates that environmental conditions experienced by individuals can shape their development and affect the stability of genetic associations. The implication of this observation is that the environmental response may influence the evolution of traits in the wild. Here, we examined how the genetic architecture of a suite of sexually dimorphic traits changed as a function of environmental conditions in an unmanaged population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries) on the island of Hirta, St. Kilda, northwest Scotland. We examined the stability of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental (residual) covariance in males during the first year of life between horn length, body weight, and parasite load in environments of different quality. We then examined the same covariance structures across environments within and between the adult sexes. We found significant genotype-by-environment interactions for lamb male body weight and parasite load, leading to a change in the genetic correlation among environments. Horn length was genetically correlated with body weight in males but not females and the genetic correlation among traits within and between the sexes was dependent upon the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood. Genetic correlations were smaller in more favorable environmental conditions, suggesting that in good environments, loci are expressed that have sex-specific effects. The reduction in genetic correlation between the sexes may allow independent evolutionary trajectories for each sex. This study demonstrates that the genetic architecture of traits is not stable under temporally varying environments and highlights the fact that evolutionary processes may depend largely upon ecological conditions. PMID:19204380

Robinson, Matthew R; Wilson, Alastair J; Pilkington, Jill G; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B



Male Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Male breast cancer represents with 1.5% of male malignancies a rare disease. Compared to the vast amount of data and knowledge in female breast cancer, male breast cancer is less well-researched and explored. Potential risk factors are oestrogen (exogenous or endogenous), gynaecomastia, radiation, exposure to heat and the Klinefelter’s syndrome. Whereas female breast cancer shows a double-peak risk distribution,

M. Schön; M. Zaiac; P. M. Schlag



Allocation of nuptial gifts in tree crickets changes with both male and female diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male tree crickets, Oecanthus nigricornis, offer a nuptial gift to females during mating in the form of a secretion from a dorsal metanotal gland. I examined the effects\\u000a of male and female nutrient limitation on allocation of the gift. Males were fed 14C radiolabeled amino acids, placed onto high- or low-quality diets and then mated with females also maintained on

William D. Brown



Regulation of Nutrient Transport across the Placenta  

PubMed Central

Abnormal fetal growth, both growth restriction and overgrowth, is associated with perinatal complications and an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease later in life. Fetal growth is dependent on nutrient availability, which in turn is related to the capacity of the placenta to transport these nutrients. The activity of a range of nutrient transporters has been reported to be decreased in placentas of growth restricted fetuses, whereas at least some studies indicate that placental nutrient transport is upregulated in fetal overgrowth. These findings suggest that changes in placental nutrient transport may directly contribute to the development of abnormal fetal growth. Detailed information on the mechanisms by which placental nutrient transporters are regulated will therefore help us to better understand how important pregnancy complications develop and may provide a foundation for designing novel intervention strategies. In this paper we will focus on recent studies of regulatory mechanisms that modulate placental transport of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose.

Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa L.



Abomasal coccidiosis associated with proliferative abomasitis in a sheep.  


Abomasal coccidiosis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old female sheep that died after a 2-week period of anorexia and diarrhea. The abomasal mucosa was grossly thickened with a nodular surface and focal areas of hemorrhage. Microscopically, the middle to deep abomasal mucosa contained many intact and ruptured giant protozoal schizonts associated with hyperplasia of mucous neck cells, parietal cell atrophy, moderate lymphocytic-plasmacytic inflammation, and fibrosis centered on mineralized remnants of degenerate schizont walls. Sexual tissue stages and oocysts were not present. Microscopic features of schizonts and ultrastuctural features of merozoites were comparable to previous descriptions of Eimeria (Globidium) gilruthi, a coccidian of uncertain taxonomic status historically associated with incidental infections of the abomasum in sheep and goats. The distinctive lesions suggest that, similar to ostertagiasis, heavy coccidial infection of the abomasum should be considered as a cause of anorexia, diarrhea, and proliferative abomasitis in sheep. PMID:17459846

Maratea, Kimberly A; Miller, Margaret A



Pneumotoxicosis in sheep caused by ingestion of trema micrantha.  


Trema micrantha, a fast-growing tree distributed throughout the Americas, produces palatable leaves that have been associated with hepatic necrosis and acute death when consumed by livestock. This report describes fatal pulmonary disease of sheep triggered by consumption of Trema micrantha. Affected sheep had severe progressive dyspnea for a few days before death. Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema, reddened lungs, interalveolar septal thickening, and diffuse type II pneumocyte proliferation were the main pathological findings. After ingesting 77.5 and 102.5 g/kg (divided in 3 doses, at 30-day intervals) of T. micrantha leaves, 2 additional sheep developed the same condition. These findings indicate that T. micrantha toxicosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovine respiratory disease. PMID:23417165

Wouters, F; Wouters, A T B; Watanabe, T T N; Soares, M P; Cruz, C E F; Driemeier, D



Helminth infections of sheep in North Sumatra, Indonesia.  


Gastrointestinal tracts of 73 indigenous sheep were obtained from the Medan abattoir in North Sumatra, Indonesia, and examined for the presence of helminths. A total of 13 species of helminths, eight nematodes, one cestode and four trematodes were encountered. All sheep were infected by more than one species of nematodes. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei and Haemonchus contortus were the most common species. The intensity of the nematode infections was very high: the average burden was over 7500 worms. Trichostrongylus spp. accounted, on average, for 81.5% of the total nematode burden. No influence of age on total nematode burden could be shown. Eurytrema pancreaticum and Schistosoma spindale were found in 23.3% and 4.1% of the examined sheep, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to common management and helminth control systems. PMID:8720574

Dorny, P; Batubara, A; Iskander, M; Pandey, V S



Albendazole as a fasciolicide in experimentally infected sheep.  


The new drug albendazole (methyl [5-(propylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate) was tested in 90 sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Dose rates of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg of body weight were active against adult flukes, with efficacies of 98, 95, and 100% respectively. The drug was less active against immature F hepatica at 3 weeks after sheep were inoculated. The drug given at dose rates of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg had efficacies 24, 47, 63, and 76%. Flukes were not found at posttreatment hour 48 in bile ducts of sheep given a dose of 20 mg/kg. Evidence of drug toxicity was not seen. PMID:879579

Knight, R A; Colglazier, M L



In vivo transfection of bovine leukemia provirus into sheep.  


Bovine leukemia virus is horizontally transmitted mainly through infected cells by direct blood transfer. In this report, a cloned bovine leukemia virus (BLV) provirus was examined for its infectivity by direct inoculation into sheep. One hundred micrograms of plasmid DNA containing a complete provirus was mixed with a cationic liposome solution and injected intradermally into five sheep at three different locations. Seroconversion occurred 1 to 2 months after injection as demonstrated by immunodiffusion, indirect ELISA (for the gp51 envelope protein), and blocking ELISA (for gp51 and the major capsid protein, p24). These results demonstrate that BLV infection can be efficiently initiated by direct transfection into sheep. This approach should thus facilitate investigation of the involvement of BLV genetic determinants in the induction of leukemia in ruminants. PMID:1322602

Willems, L; Portetelle, D; Kerkhofs, P; Chen, G; Burny, A; Mammerickx, M; Kettmann, R



Cement kiln dusts as a selenium source in sheep rations.  


Cement dust has been found to be a source of selenium when included in the rations of sheep. In the work reported, rations including 3% by weight of cement dusts were fed to sheep for 165 days. The dust were taken from 3 collectors located at progressively greater distances from the coal-fired end of the kiln. Selenium levels and blood and tissues of the animals fed the cement dusts increased significantly above those of the control sheep. No tissue abnormalities were observed in animals receiving any of the treatment rations. The source of selenium is believed to derive from its content of fly ash as a result of the coal combustion during cement manufacture. PMID:7226848

Hogue, D E; Van Soest, P J; Stouffer, J R; Earl, G H; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J



Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep.  


We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection. BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) In human beings are caused by the same infectious agent, and the sheep-BSE experimental model has a similar pathogenesis to that of human vCJD. Although UK blood transfusions are leucodepleted--a possible protective measure against any risk from blood transmission--this report suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings may represent a risk of spread of vCJD infection among the human population of the UK. PMID:11041403

Houston, F; Foster, J D; Chong, A; Hunter, N; Bostock, C J



Characterization of pulmonary surfactant from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. Pulmonary surfactants from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep were isolated and analysed. 2. All preparations had a high anenoic phosphatidylcholine content and would produce stable surface tensions of 0.01 Nm-1 or less. 3. Protein content was 8-18% of the dry weights. A number of proteins were observed; their overall composition were high in hydrophobic amino acid residues. 4. Lipid content varied from 79% (ox) to 90% (rabbit) with phosphatidylcholine representing from 58% (sheep) to 83% (rabbit) of the total lipid. The surfactant preparations were rather similar in lipid composition except that sheep surfactant contained about 10% lysophosphatidylcholine. 5. Hexadecanoic acid was the principal fatty acid. It was particularly high in phosphatidylcholine. 6. Phosphatidylglycerol was a minor constituent of all surfactants but phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine was not detected.

Harwood, J L; Desai, R; Hext, P; Tetley, T; Richards, R



Nematode control practices and anthelmintic resistance on British sheep farms.  


Nearly 23 per cent of 3000 randomly selected sheep farmers returned questionnaires on strategies to control the development of anthelmintic resistance. Twenty-five per cent stated that they regularly checked the accuracy of their drenching gun, and 52 per cent stated that they weighed a few animals and treated the whole flock like the heaviest. The mean annual frequency of dosing lambs was 4.39 compared with 2.43 for ewes. Forty-eight per cent stated that they changed the anthelmintic group annually. Seventeen per cent always treated sheep brought on to their farm with ivermectin. However, only 7 per cent had had their flocks tested for anthelmintic-resistant nematodes. The responses suggest that most sheep farmers are not actively seeking to prevent the development and spread of anthelmintic-resistant nematodes. PMID:9265708

Coles, G C



Trials to induce protective immunity in mice and sheep by application of protoscolex and hydatid fluid antigen or whole body antigen of Echinococcus granulosus.  


In the current study, soluble proteins prepared from 200 mature Echinococcus granulosus and protoscolices of sheep hydatid cysts were applied to immunize sheep and mice respectively. The samples were mechanically homogenized in a blender, sonicated and the final yield was maintained at -20 degrees C until analysis. Hydatid fluid was isolated from liver or lung of sheep under sterile conditions. In the first experiment, 15 mice were randomly allocated to three groups of five mice each. Each mouse in groups 1 and 2 was immunized with 100 microg of hydatid fluid and protoscolex proteins in 100 microl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and emulsified with an equal volume of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) respectively. The mice of group 3 were immunized with adjuvant in PBS. The mice were boosted 4 weeks after the first vaccination with the same preparation except that FCA was replaced by Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). In the second experiment, eight male or female lambs 4-6 months of age, were allocated to two groups of four lambs each. Each lamb in the test group was vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck with a 2-ml dose of vaccine (1 mg of whole body protein of E. granulosus dissolved in 1 ml of PBS plus 1 ml of FCA). Control lambs were vaccinated with adjuvant in PBS. Lambs were boosted the same way as in the first experiment. Three weeks after the second vaccination, each mouse and lamb received a challenge infection with 2000 protoscolices intraperitoneally and each lamb additionally received 10 gravid E. granulosus. All mice and sheep were killed after 7 months and examined for hydatid cysts. In these studies, protective immunity was induced in mice with protoscolex protein and with hydatid fluid, and in sheep with whole-body homogenate of E. granulosus and the levels of protection afforded were found to be 72.1, 82.6 and 90.9% respectively. PMID:16115099

Hashemitabar, G R; Razmi, G R; Naghibi, A



Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina



Utilization of Energy Nutrients by Cerebellar Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed an ontogenetic study about the utilization of glycine, glutamine, ß-hydroxybutyrate and glycerol as energy nutrients by rat cerebellum slices. Production of CO2 from glycerol and glutamine increased with the animals' age and glutamine was the most used nutrient for CO2 production. In adult age, glutamine oxidation to CO2 was 15 to 35 times higher than all other nutrients

Liane N. Rotta; Sandra C. Valle; Ingrid Schweigert; Luciana Dei Ricardi; Maria E. Ferronatto; Luciane da Silva; Diogo O. Souza; Marcos L. S. Perry



Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

Evans, R. D.



USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.



Population density influences male–male competition in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male–male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male–male competition and mate

Mullica Jirotkul



Diversity of ectoparasites in sheep flocks in São Paulo, Brazil.  


The occurrence of ectoparasites in sheep flocks is frequently reported but seldom quantified. Sheep production used to be a predominantly family activity in the state of São Paulo (Brazil), but it began to become a commercial activity in the past decade. Thus, information about the ectoparasites existing in sheep flocks has become necessary. The present data were obtained by means of questionnaires sent to all sheep breeders belonging to the 'Associação Paulista de Criadores de Ovinos' (ASPACO; São Paulo State Association of Sheep Breeders). Response reliability was tested by means of random visits paid to 10.6% of the respondents. Most of the properties (89.5%) reported the presence of one or more ectoparasites. Screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) was the most frequent ectoparasite (72.5%), followed by bot fly larvae (Dermatobia hominis, 45.0%), ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) and Boophilus microplus, 31.3%) and finally lice (Damalinia ovis, 13.8%). Combined infestations also occurred, the most common one being screw-worm with bot fly larvae (36.0%) followed by bot fly larvae with ticks (13.9%), screw-worm with ticks (9.3%), bot fly larvae with lice (6.9%), and ticks with lice (5.0%). The most common triple combination was screw-worm, bot fly larvae and ticks (12.8%). Breeds raised for meat or wool were attacked by bot fly larvae and ticks more often than other breeds. Lice were only absent from animals of indigenous breeds. The relationships among these ectoparasites are discussed in terms of sheep breeds, flock size, seasonality and the ectoparasitic combinations on the host. PMID:11020945

Madeira, N G; Amarante, A F; Padovani, C R



Population structure in Indian sheep ascertained using microsatellite information.  


This study attempts to provide a comprehensive insight into the prevailing genetic status of Indian sheep breeds using microsatellite markers. Seventeen Indian sheep breeds from 3 agroecological zones were analysed using a panel of 25 microsatellite markers. All of the sheep breeds investigated were genetically diverse, as evident from the high allele (>6) and gene (>0.6) diversity values. The gene diversity values for all breeds ranged from 0.621 to 0.780. The within-population heterozygote deficit (F(IS)) varied from -0.098 to 0.234, reflecting significant levels for 12 of the 17 breeds investigated. The average genetic differentiation between all breeds (F(ST)) was 11.1%, revealing moderate discrimination between the indigenous sheep breeds. The genetic distance and principal component analysis revealed a separation of sheep breeds based on geographical propinquity. The Bayesian clustering approach suggested poor breed differentiation in the north-western arid and semi-arid region when compared to the breeds from the eastern and southern peninsular regions. The observed results mirror the divergent management strategies in the different agroecological regions, lack of specific selection policies, and intermixing of breeds in close proximity. Immediate steps to curb the intermixing and erosion of breed purity for some of these breeds need to be implemented, for example, by introducing measures like making proven rams available and ensuring their frequent exchange between flocks. The data generated here provides valuable information about the genetic structure of the 17 Indian sheep breeds and this can be used for designating priorities for their conservation. PMID:21554345

Arora, R; Bhatia, S; Mishra, B P; Joshi, B K



Inhibition of rumen methanogenesis by tea saponins with reference to fermentation pattern and microbial communities in Hu sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve rumen fistulated Hu sheep were used to assess effects of tea saponins (TS) on methanogenesis, fermentation pattern and rumen microbial communities. All sheep were defaunated by administration of sodium lauryl sulfate. After two weeks, half of the defaunated sheep were refaunated by inoculation with faunate rumen fluid. Both defaunated (DfN) and refaunated (RfN) sheep were divided into two groups,

Y. Y. Zhou; H. L. Mao; F. Jiang; J. K. Wang; J. X. Liu; C. S. McSweeney



First identification of Sarcocystis tenella (Railliet, 1886) Moulé, 1886 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) by PCR in naturally infected sheep from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcocystis tenella is a dog–sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. The present study was initially aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other Apicomplexa parasites in 602 Brazilian sheep. Twenty of these

Rodrigo Costa da Silva; Chunlei Su; Helio Langoni



Separate Critical Periods Exist for Testosterone-Induced Differentiation of the Brain and Genitals in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Sheep exposed to testosterone during a critical period from gestational day (GD) 30 to GD 90 develop masculine genitals and an enlarged male-typical ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (oSDN). The present study tested the hypothesis that separate critical periods exist for masculinization of these two anatomical end points. Pregnant ewes were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) either from GD 30 to GD 60 (early TP) or GD 60 to GD 90 (late TP). Control (C) pregnant ewes were treated with corn oil. Fetuses were delivered at GD 135 and the volume of the oSDN was measured. Early TP females possessed a penis and a scrotum devoid of testes, whereas late TP and C females had normal female genitals. Neither period of TP exposure grossly affected the genitals of male fetuses. Despite masculinized genitals, the mean volume of the oSDN in early TP females (0.32 ± 0.06 mm3) was not different from C females (0.24 ± 0.02 mm3) but was significantly enlarged in late TP females (0.49 ± 0.04 mm3; P < 0.05 vs. C) when the genitals appeared normal. In contrast, the volume of the oSDN in late TP males (0.51 ± 0.02 mm3) was not different from C males (0.51 ± 0.04 mm3) but was significantly smaller in the early TP males (0.35 ± 0.04 mm3; P < 0.05 vs. C). These results demonstrate that the prenatal critical period for androgen-dependent differentiation of the oSDN occurs later than, and can be separated temporally from, the period for development of masculine genitals.

Estill, Charles T.; Stadelman, Henry L.; Meaker, Mary; Stormshak, Fred



Nutrient specific feeding and endocrine effects of jejunal infusions.  


Intestinal nutrient infusions result in variable decreases in food intake and body weight based on the nutrient type and the specific intestinal infusion site. Only intrajejunal infusions of fatty acids decrease food intake beyond the calories infused. To test whether this extra-compensatory decrease in food intake is specific to fatty acids, small volume intrajejunal infusions of glucose (Glu) and casein hydrolysate (Cas), as well as linoleic acid (LA) were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Equal kilocalorie (kcal) loads of these nutrients (11.4) or vehicle were infused into the jejunum over 7 h/day for five consecutive days. Food intake was continuously monitored and body weight was measured daily. After the infusion on the final day, rats were killed and plasma collected. Intrajejunal infusions of LA and Glu, but not Cas, suppressed food intake beyond the caloric load of the infusate with no compensatory increase in food intake after the infusion period. Rats receiving LA and Glu infusions also lost significant body weight across the infusion days. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was increased in both the LA and Glu rats compared with control animals, with no significant change in the Cas-infused animals. Peptide YY (PYY) levels increased in response to LA and Cas infusions. These results suggest that intrajejunal infusions of LA and Glu may decrease food intake and body weight via alterations in GLP-1 signaling. Thus, particular nutrients are more effective at producing decreases in food intake, body weight, and inducing changes in peptide levels and could lead to a novel therapy for obesity. PMID:20134410

Dailey, Megan J; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H



Factors influencing soay sheep survival: a Bayesian analysis.  


This article presents a Bayesian analysis of mark-recapture-recovery data on Soay sheep. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo technique is used to determine age classes of common survival, and to model the survival probabilities in those classes using logistic regression. This involves environmental and individual covariates, as well as random effects. Auxiliary variables are used to impute missing covariates measured on individual sheep. The Bayesian approach suggests different models from those previously obtained using classical statistical methods. Following model averaging, features that were not previously detected, and which are of ecological importance, are identified. PMID:16542248

King, R; Brooks, S P; Morgan, B J T; Coulson, T



Frequency of Clostridium perfringens types in Jordanian sheep.  


778 fecal samples from 29 Jordanian sheep flocks were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. 252 field strains were isolated and typed by the enzyme immunosorbent assay. The presence of C. perfringens types B, C and D in Jordanian sheep was confirmed. Type D was found in 55% of the flocks examined. Types B and C were each isolated from 7% of the flocks examined. The proteinase activity of isolated type B field strains was similar to that of type B reference strains. According to the results, it does not seem to be necessary to include locally isolated C. perfringens strains in the Jordanian vaccine production. PMID:7858351

Younan, M; Both, H; Müller, W



Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep.



Increased Erythropoietin Elimination in Fetal Sheep Following Chronic Phlebotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine by pharmacokinetic (PK) means the role of erythropoietin-receptor (EPO-R) upregulation in fetuses on the elimination\\u000a of erythropoietin (EPO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  Six fetal sheep were catheterized at a gestational age of 125–127 days and phlebotomized daily for 6 days. Paired tracer PK\\u000a studies using recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) were conducted in the sheep fetuses at baseline and post-phlebotomy, 7 days later.\\u000a A

Kevin. J. Freise; John A. Widness; Jeffrey L. Segar; Robert L. Schmidt; Peter Veng-Pedersen



NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.



Kinetics of allantoin metabolism in sheep.  


The kinetics of allantoin metabolism were studied in rumen-cannulated sheep by means of a single intravenous injection of [4,5-(14)C]allantoin. The decline in the specific radioactivity of allantoin in plasma following the injection of tracer was best described by a double exponential function, indicating that allantoin moves in and out of two or more kinetically distinct compartments. Sequestering of tracer in secondary or tertiary compartments in the body water appears likely to have resulted in overestimation of net flux of allantoin through the blood in the present study. In future studies, sampling of blood for several days after administration of tracer should alleviate this problem. About 80 % of the [(14)C]allantoin injected was recovered as [(14)C]allantoin in urine during the 12 h after tracer injection, increasing to 94 % after 4 d. Allantoin-C also passed through the blood bicarbonate pool, suggesting that allantoin is degraded in the gastrointestinal tract. A small amount of allantoin-C (4 % of the net flux of allantoin through the blood pool) was apparently degraded to form bicarbonate-C in the rumen and postruminally, and subsequently appeared in blood bicarbonate-C. Transfer of allantoin-C into the rumen via saliva was insignificant. In view of these findings, the net flux of allantoin through the blood should be a better predictor of rumen microbial outflow than urinary allantoin excretion, because urinary excretion of purine derivatives must be adjusted for conversion of allantoin-C to blood bicarbonate when used to predict the flow of microbial protein from the rumen. PMID:11177175

Kahn, L P; Nolan, J V



Behavioural and physiological measures following treadmill exercise as potential indicators to evaluate fatigue in sheep.  


The welfare consequences of long-distance transportation of animals remain a controversial topic. Animals that stand for most of the long journey (especially if additional muscular activity is required to deal with postural instability) are at risk of developing fatigue. Previous observational studies of behaviour and physiology suggested either that sheep do not become markedly fatigued by long journeys or that previous methods did not adequately identify fatigue. A range of behavioural and physiological measures were made on eight pairs of sheep during and after treadmill exercise. Within each pair of sheep, a treatment sheep was walked on a treadmill at 0.5 m/s for up to 5 h or until the sheep voluntarily stopped exercising or showed other signs of reduced performance, and a control sheep was exercised for two 10-min periods on either side of the exercise period for the treatment sheep. With the exception of one sheep that only walked for 4.5 h, all treatment sheep walked for 5 h without apparent difficulty. After exercise, the plasma cortisol concentration of treatment sheep was significantly greater than that of control sheep. However, there were no significant treatment effects on plasma creatine kinase activity or blood lactate concentration. After 5 h of exercise, there was a proportionate decrease in the median frequency of the electromyogram recorded over the m. semitendinosus, and this was significantly different from control sheep. There was no evidence that treatment sheep lay down sooner or for longer after treadmill exercise than controls. In sheep tested in a maze to examine whether there was increased motivation to rest after exercise, there was no significant difference between the times taken by treatment and control sheep to obtain a food reward. Qualitative behavioural assessment of the sheep by a panel of observers identified two main dimensions of sheep demeanour, but among descriptors elicited from observers only one person used a term associated with fatigue. No significant difference was found between the scores of treatment and control sheep on these two demeanour dimensions. Thus, there was little evidence that prolonged gentle walking exercise fatigues sheep. Further development of methods to both repeatedly induce and to identify fatigue in sheep is required. PMID:23031523

Cockram, M S; Murphy, E; Ringrose, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Miedema, H M; Sandercock, D A



Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.



Male butterflies bounce back  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About five years ago, on the islands of Samoa, most of the male Hypolimnas bolina butterflies, also known as the Eggfly or Blue Moon butterfly, disappeared. Now, scientists report that the males have made a comeback and are almost as common as females.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Black Male Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

Feintuch, Howard



Black Male Rising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

Feintuch, Howard



Gay Male Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of empirically-based publications on gay male gerontology was conducted. A total of 58 articles is presented. Findings indicate that the long-held negative stereotypes of gay male elders are unwarranted and have been repeatedly debunked. Happiness and successful adaptation to old age are possible and are frequently reported by older gay men. Substantial and unique competencies in old age

Jim Wahler; Sarah G. Gabbay




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we interrogate the call for more male role models within the context of boys' education debates in Australia and North America. We explicate links between failing masculinities and this call for more male teachers, arguing that the debate is driven by a \\



Do nutrient-competition models predict nutrient availabilities in limnetic ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theory on resource competition, predicated on the importance of hypothesized trade-offs between minimum requirements\\u000a for nutrient resources, predicts that there should be negative correlations between the supply rate of major limiting nutrients\\u000a and the availability of at least some secondary nutrients and\\/or among the availabilities of different limiting nutrients.\\u000a However, an analysis of four data sets from large-scale surveys

Mathew A. Leibold



The distribution and prevalence of Nairobi Sheep disease and other tick-borne infections of sheep and goats in northern Somalia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the tick-borne diseases of sheep and goats in the northern regions of the Somali Democratic Republic during the years 1970–72 revealed that Nairobi Sheep disease (NSD), not previously reported in the area, was prevalent. Secondary pneumonia caused byPasteurella haemolytica, was relatively common in sheep suffering from NSD. Heartwater and babesiosis were sporadic and more localised in distribution.

R. M. Edelsten



Male contraceptive technology for nonhuman male mammals.  


Contraceptive techniques applied to males have potential to mitigate diverse instances of overpopulation in human and animal populations. Different situations involving different species dictate that there is no ideal male contraceptive, and emphasizes the value of varying approaches to reducing male fertility. A majority of work in this field has focused on non-surgically destroying the testes or obstructing the epididymis, and suppressing gonadotropin secretion or inducing immune responses to reproductive hormones or sperm-specific antigens. Injection of tissue-destructive agents into the testes or epididymides can be very effective, but often is associated with unacceptable inflammatory responses and sometimes pain. Hormonal vaccines are often not efficacious and provide only short-term contraception, although GnRH vaccines may be an exception to this generality. Finally, there are no clearly effective contraceptive vaccines based on sperm antigens. Although several techniques have been developed to the point of commercialization, none has yet been widely deployed other than surgical castration. PMID:18191924

Bowen, R A



Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3 year field study was conducted with field corn from 2005 to 2007 to test the hypothesis that microbial inoc- ulants that increase plant growth and yield can enhance nutrient uptake, and thereby remove more nutrients, especially N, P, and K from the field as part of an integrated nutrient management system. The field trial evaluated microbial inoculants, which

A. O. Adesemoye; H. A. Torbert; J. W. Kloepper



Nutrient profiling of foods: creating a nutrient-rich food index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused

Adam Drewnowski; Victor Fulgoni




Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) are leading causes of water quality impairment in the Nation's rivers, lakes and estuaries. To address this problem, states need the technical resources to establish nutrient criteria, adopt them into their water quality standards, and implement them in regulatory programs. In recent years EPA developed and finalized a series of nutrient criteria documents to assist the

Richard A. Park; Jonathan S. Clough; Marjorie C. Wellman; Anthony S. Donigian


Foetal age estimation in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain gross external features were studied in 144 caprine and 109 ovine foetuses to aid in their age estimation. Body size changes were compared to ascertain phylogenic allometric relationships between the two species. Specimen collected from the Maiduguri abattoir belonged to northern Nigerian breeds. Developmental patterns of the integument, external jugular, facial and scrotal veins and male and female external

M. N. Sivachelvan; M. Ghali Ali; G. A. Chibuzo



Nutrient intake, adiposity, and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of

H Keen; B J Thomas; R J Jarrett; J H Fuller



Isolation of chromosome-specific paints from high-resolution flow karyotypes of the sheep ( Ovis aries )  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution bivariate flow karyotypes were obtained using fibroblast cell lines from a sheep with a normal karyotype (2n=54), from sheep carrying Robertsonian translocation chromosomes and from sheep—hamster somatic cell hybrids. By taking advantage of the presence of chromosome polymorphisms, translocation chromosomesand sheep—hamster somatic cell hybrids, all sheep chromosomes were isolated by flow sorting. Chromosome-specific paints were generated from each sorted

Dean J. Burkin; Patricia C. M. O'Brien; Thomas E. Broad; Diana F. Hill; Carol A. Jones; Johannes Wienberg; Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith



Comparison of the human with the sheep genomes by use of human chromosome-specific painting probes.  


Human chromosome specific painting probes were hybridized on sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) chromosomes by FISH. The painting results on sequentially stained RBA-banded preparations demonstrated high degree of conserved regions between human and sheep genomes. A total of 48 human chromosome segments were detected in sheep chromosomes. Comparisons with sheep gene mapping data available and previous Zoo-FISH data obtained in sheep, cattle, and river buffalo were performed. PMID:10384047

Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P; Perucatti, A; Incarnato, D



Procedures for Estimating Nutrient Values for Food Composition Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used to assess the nutrient content of diets, recipes, or commercial food products, a nutrient database should provide a complete nutrient profile for each food in the database. Chemical analyses for a wide range of nutrients in the many foods included in a database are not always practical. Therefore, some nutrient values must be estimated. Common methods for estimating

Sally F. Schakel; I. Marilyn Buzzard; Susan E. Gebhardt



Nutrient flow in a major urban settlement: Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrient balance is established for the contemporary urban ecosystem of Hong Kong. The flow of nutrients in the Hong Kong food system in particular is examined, including current and potential nutrient recycling patterns. Losses of nutrients in food for human consumption are found to be up to 20% for major nutrients. The flow of mineral phosphorus in the Hong

Ken Newcombel



Nutrient regulation of endocrine function in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones play a central role in the regulation of growth and nutrient utilization in fish. Consequently, fish endocrine systems are sensitive to alterations in nutrient intake. Procedures routinely employed in the development of diets and feeding protocols for cultured fish have pronounced effects on endocrine systems. We review the evidence that alterations in ration level (including food restriction and food

Duncan S MacKenzie; Cinnamon Moore VanPutte; Kevin A Leiner




Microsoft Academic Search

The solanaceous group of vegetables (tomato, eggplant, chili and bell peppers) generally take up large amounts of nutrients. The amount of nutrients they take up depends on the quan- tity of fruit and dry matter they produce, which in turn is influenced by a number of genetic and environmental variables. For tomato to produce 1 mt of fresh fruit, plants

D. M. Hegde



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Many soils in the United States contain excessive levels of nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), due to repeated heavy applications of animal manure. Also, soils with a history of long-term poultry litter or swine manure applications have elevated levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and arsenic (As). Runoff and eroded soils carry dissolved and sediment-associated nutrients to wa-

Hailin Zhang; Thanh H. Dao; Nicholas T. Basta; Elizabeth A. Dayton; Tommy C. Daniel


Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships.

D. L. DeAngelis; P. J. Mulholland; A. V. Palumbo; A. D. Steinman; M. A. Huston; J. W. Elwood



Urban Nutrient Balance Modelling Parameterized for Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the options for recycling of nutrients from mega-cities to agricultural land, a nutrient balance model was developed. The parameterization was established for Bangkok Province and considered nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). To estimate the food supply, the most decisive model parameter, an online database (FAOSTAT) estimating supply at country levels, was employed. It is argued that disaggregation to

Jakob Magid; Frits W. T. Penning de Vries



Nutrient losses in surface irrigation runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from surface-irrigated fields is typically managed to improve infiltration uniformity by reducing differences in infiltration opportunity times between the upper and lower ends of fields. Runoff water not used on other fields within an irrigation tract is discharged to streams or rivers, along with sediment and nutrients. Return flow nutrient and sediment concentrations may be greater than in the

D. L. Bjorneberg; D. T. Westermann; J. K. Aase


On the source of Gulf Stream nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along density surfaces, nutrient concentrations in the Gulf Stream are elevated relative to concentrations to either side of the current. We assess the source of these elevated nutrient concentrations in the western boundary current using historical hydrographic data. The analysis is extended to the separated Gulf Stream with four hydrographic sections recently occupied as part of the Climate Variability and

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier



On the source of Gulf Stream nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Along density surfaces, nutrient concentrations in the Gulf Stream are elevated relative to concentrations to either side of the current. We assess the source of these elevated nutrient concentrations in the western boundary current using historical hydrographic data. The analysis is extended to the separated Gulf Stream with four hydrographic sections recently occupied as part of the Climate Variability

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier



Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...


Acidic deposition, nutrient leaching and forest growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in Germany and confirmed in North America established that the forest decline that developed in the late 1970's and 80's resulted from a deficiency in one or more of the nutrient cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. These nutrients are essential to the structure of the foliage, to photosynthesis and to the growth of the trees. The reactions and mechanisms

George H. Tomlinson




Microsoft Academic Search

Salt affected soils limit crop yields around the world. Knowledge of how nutrient availability is affected in plants growing on salt affected soils is important in adopting appropriate management practices to satisfy plants’ nutritional requirements and improve yields to meet food demands of increasing world populations. In the salt affected environment plants required to absorb essential nutrients from a dilute

N. K. Fageria; H. R. Gheyi; A. Moreira



USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  


Welcome to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods using this new and improved ... items. In addition, you can now access the USDA Ground Beef Calculator from the same search page. ...



EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment is one of the most detrimental stressors causing water-resource impairment. Of systems surveyed and reported as impaired, 40% of rivers, 51% of lakes, and 57% of estuaries listed nutrients as a primary cause of impairment (USEPA, 1996). In many cases, these ...



EPA Science Inventory

The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a unique modification of a hydroponic plant growth system which utilizes plants growing on an impermeable surface. A thin film of water flowing through the extensive root system provides nutrients for plants and associated microbial growth. Ro...


SSMILes: Measuring the Nutrient Tolerance of Algae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity integrating mathematics and science intended to introduce students to the use of metric measurement of mass as a way to increase the meaningfulness of observations about variables in life sciences. Involves measuring the nutrient tolerance of algae. Contains a reproducible algae nutrient graph. (Author/MKR)|

Hedgepeth, David J.



Soil nutrient balances: what use for policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the application of the nutrient budget and balance approach from a range of settings and scales in Africa. The paper asks: can such analyses help in the design of effective policy which supports improved soil fertility management by Africa's small-holder farmers? Through the examination of existing studies, the paper highlights some of the difficulties with nutrient budget

I Scoones; C Toulmin



Nutrient recycling affects autotroph and ecosystem stoichiometry.  


Stoichiometric nutrient ratios are the consequence of myriad interacting processes, both biotic and abiotic. Theoretical explanations for autotroph stoichiometry have focused on species' nutrient requirements but have not addressed the role of nutrient availability in determining autotroph stoichiometry. Remineralization of organic N and P supplies a significant fraction of inorganic N and P to autotrophs, making nutrient recycling a potentially important process influencing autotroph stoichiometry. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between available N and P, autotroph N:P, and nutrient recycling, we analyze a stoichiometrically explicit model of autotroph growth, incorporating Michaelis-Menten-Monod nutrient uptake kinetics, Droop growth, and Liebig's law of the minimum. If autotroph growth is limited by a single nutrient, increased recycling of the limiting nutrient pushes autotrophs toward colimitation and alters both autotroph and environmental stoichiometry. We derive a steady state relationship between input stoichiometry, autotroph N:P, and the stoichiometry of organic losses that allows us to estimate the relative recycling of N to P within an ecosystem. We then estimate relative N and P recycling for a marine, an aquatic, and two terrestrial ecosystems. Preferential P recycling, in conjunction with greater relative P retention at the organismal and ecosystem levels, presents a strong case for the importance of P to biomass production across ecosystems. PMID:20374138

Ballantyne, Ford; Menge, Duncan N L; Ostling, Annette; Hosseini, Parviez



Nutrient dynamics and food-web stability  

SciTech Connect

The importance of nutrient limitation and recycling in ecosystems is widely recognized. Nutrients, defined in the broad sense as all material elements vital to biological functions, are in such small supply that they limit production in many ecosystems. Such limitation can affect ecosystem properties, including the structure and dynamics of the food webs that link species through their feeding relationships. What are the effects of limiting nutrients on the stability of ecosystem food webs Most of the literature on food web stability centers around the dynamics of population numbers and/or biomasses. Nevertheless, a growing body of theoretical and empirical research considers the role that both nutrient limitation and recycling can play in stability. In this paper, it is the authors objective to summarize the current understanding of several important types of stability. The theoretical and empirical evidence relating these types of stability and nutrient cycling is described. A central generalization is produced in each case.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Mulholland, P.J.; Palumbo, A.V.; Steinman, A.D.; Huston, M.A.; Elwood, J.W. (Environmental Sciences Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))



Function of weaponry in females: the use of horns in intrasexual competition for resources in female Soay sheep.  


In many species, females show reduced expression of a trait that is under sexual selection in males, and this expression is thought to be maintained through genetic associations with the male phenotype. However, there is also the potential for the female trait to convey an advantage in intrasexual conflicts over resources. We tested this hypothesis in a feral population of Soay sheep, in which males and females have a polymorphism for horn development, producing either full (normal horned), reduced (scurred) or no (polled, females only) horns. During the lambing period, females who possessed horns were more likely to initiate and win aggressive interactions, independent of age, weight and birthing status. The occurrence of aggression was also context dependent, decreasing over the lambing period and associated with local density. Our results demonstrate that a trait that confers benefits to males during intrasexual competition for mates may also be used by females in intrasexual competition over resources: males use weaponry to gain mates, whereas females use weaponry to gain food. PMID:17711817

Robinson, Matthew R; Kruuk, Loeske E B



The effect of shearing on the appetite of the sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty 2-tooth Romney wethers were allocated at random into 2 groups: group A on an ad libitum ration and group C on controlled intake. The sheep were individually fed in outdoor pens. Livewcight, wool growth, heart rate, and rectal and skin temperatures were measured. Air temperature and wind velocity were also recorded. After shearing. the appetite of the ad libitum

Manika Wodzicka-Tomaszewska



Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE HISTORY: A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining

ND Giadinis; V Psychas; Z Polizopoulou; E Papadopoulos; N Papaioannou; ATh Komnenou; A-L Thomas; EJ Petridou; M Kritsepi-Konstantinou; SQ Lafi; GD Brellou




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...



Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The design and operation of a system for monitoring feeding behavior of individual, free- feeding sheep is described. Eating and drinking activities of the animal are monitored by use of photoelectric relays coupled to event recorders. Feed is eaten from one of 10 removable pans located on the periphery of a turntable. After the animal has completed a meal

Paul J. Wangsness; L. E. Chase; A. D. Peterson; T. G. Hartsock; D. J. Kellmel; B. R. Baumgardt



All India Coordinated Research Project on Sheep Breeding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The All India Coordinated Research Project was launched with a view to undertake research on augmenting wool and mutton production. The main objectives of this project are: Evolving new fine wool breed of sheep suitable for different agro-climatic conditi...



Matrix metalloproteinase expression in sheep with listerial meningoencephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In this study, we investigated the presence of Listeria monocytogenes antigens and detected the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-7 in the brains of 22 sheep with clinical signs and histopathological findings characteristic of listerial meningoencephalitis. Archived sections from the brainstem, cerebrum, and cerebellum were

Fatma ?lhan; Yavuz Ulusoy; Mehmet Hal?gür



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of testicular maturation in relation to intrapuparial development was studied in the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae). After formation of the puparium during larval-pupal apolysis and the cryptocephalic pupal stage (=24-72 h), spermatogonia had undergone mitotic...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A flock of Rambouillet sheep was examined because of lamb mortality due to ineffective hemostasis at parturition. Decreased activities of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, severely reduced hepatic gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity and adequate vitamin K 2,3 epoxide reductase activity was det...


Domba dan Kambing di Indonesia (Sheep and Goats in Indonesia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nearly one of every five rural families in Indonesia keeps sheep or goats. The income derived from this activity averages 15-20% of the yearly income from agricultural sources. Nevertheless, until recently this type of livestock has been largely neglected...



Prevalence of Taenia multiceps in sheep in northern Jordan.  


From March 1996 to February 1997, slaughtered-sheeps' heads were examined for the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. Out of 451 sheep heads, only 12 (3%) were infested. All cysts but one were in the age group 0.5-2.5 years old, with prevalence of 10% (11 of 108). Eleven of 12 infested heads were found during the spring and autumn seasons. Out of 95 flocks involved in questionnaire survey unrelated to the abattoir survey, all the farmers reported the existence of the clinical signs known for coenurosis and described it in locally known names and diseases. Twenty-five of them had recent cases that were diagnosed by the veterinarian as coenurosis cases. Each flock reported one or two cases at the time of survey. A variety of clinical signs were reported from these cases (n = 42). These included circling (86%), head pressing (52%), blindness (29%) and paresis (40%). Coenurosis is a sheep-health problem and an important cause of sheep culling in Jordan. PMID:12383656

Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Jebreen, Eyad; Arab, Baker; Mukbel, Rami; Torgerson, Paul R




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Acute on chronic exposure to endotoxin in preterm fetal sheep.  


Acute, high-dose exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in preterm fetal sheep can trigger periventricular white matter lesions (PVL), in association with severe hypotension/hypoxemia and significant mortality. Intriguingly, however, chronic or repeated exposure to LPS can induce tachyphylaxis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that progressive, acute on chronic fetal infection would be associated with white matter injury with little fetal mortality. Chronically instrumented preterm (0.7 gestational age) fetal sheep were exposed to a continuous low-dose LPS infusion (100 ng over 24 h, followed by 250 ng/24 h for 96 h) or saline. Boluses of 1 ?g LPS or saline were given at 48, 72, and 96 h; sheep were killed at day 10. Six of 11 fetal sheep exposed to saline infusion + LPS boluses died 4-7 h after the first bolus. In contrast, there was no fetal mortality after saline infusions alone (n = 9), low-dose LPS infusion + saline boluses (n = 5), or low-dose LPS + LPS boluses (n = 9). Low-dose LPS infusion + LPS boluses was associated with greater microglial induction than low-dose LPS + saline boluses but a similar area of periventricular white matter inflammation. One fetus developed severe focal white matter necrosis after LPS infusion + boluses. The acute cardiovascular compromise associated with high-dose, acute exposure to LPS is markedly attenuated by previous low-dose infusions, with limited apparent exacerbation of periventricular white matter injury compared with low-dose infusion alone. PMID:23235324

Mathai, Sam; Booth, Lindsea C; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Fraser, Mhoyra; Jensen, Ellen C; George, Sherly; Naylor, Andrew; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura



Neonatal survival: contributions from behavioural studies in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newborn lambs need milk and immunological protection shortly after birth, and early interactions between the mother and the young are critical in this respect. The Merino ewe in the extensive conditions of Australia often has the reputation of being a poor mother. Attempts to improve the reproductive performance of these sheep must overcome this handicap. Observations at lambing highlight the

R. Nowak



Radiofrequency (electrosurgical) ablation of articular cartilage: a study in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a bipolar ablation probe on experimentally roughened articular cartilage and compare it with the traditional mechanical shaving technique using the knee joint of sheep. Twenty-eight skeletally mature ewes were divided randomly into two groups: one group was treated with a rotating shaving device and another group was treated using

AS Turner; JW Tippett; BE Powers; CH Mallinckrodt



Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Veratrum californicum was discovered to be teratogenic in sheep over 50 years ago. The alkaloids in V. californicum responsible for terata induction are jervine, 11-deoxojervine (cyclopamine), and cycloposine (the glycoside of cyclopamine). Current research objectives are to better describe cyclop...


Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their ``retrotype'' and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as ``primitive'' on the basis

Bernardo Chessa; Filipe Pereira; Frederick Arnaud; Antonio Amorim; Félix Goyache; Ingrid Mainland; Rowland R. Kao; Josephine M. Pemberton; Dario Beraldi; Michael J. Stear; Alberto Alberti; Marco Pittau; Leopoldo Iannuzzi; Mohammad H. Banabazi; Rudovick R. Kazwala; Ya-ping Zhang; Juan J. Arranz; Bahy A. Ali; Zhiliang Wang; Metehan Uzun; Michel M. Dione; Ingrid Olsaker; Lars-Erik Holm; Urmas Saarma; Sohail Ahmad; Nurbiy Marzanov; Emma Eythorsdottir; Martin J. Holland; Paolo Ajmone-Marsan; Michael W. Bruford; Juha Kantanen; Thomas E. Spencer; Massimo Palmarini



Practical implementation of holistic internal parasite management in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the availability of a range of worm control strategies in sheep to counter anthelmintic resistance (AR), implementation remains poor. The reasons include farmer perceptions of the relative importance of internal parasites, a preference for quick and easy solutions, an unwillingness to pay for advice rather than treatment, and a tendency to switch (change) drugs or use combinations.

G. F. Bath



Sheep: the first large animal model in nuclear transfer research.  


Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear