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Sample records for male sheep nutrient

  1. Maternal Obesity in Sheep Increases Fatty Acid Synthesis, Upregulates Nutrient Transporters, and Increases Adiposity in Adult Male Offspring after a Feeding Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nathan M.; Rule, Daniel C.; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ford, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity in women is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in adipose tissue metabolism and function in adult male offspring from obese and control fed mothers subjected to an ad libitum feeding challenge. We developed a model in which obese ewes were fed 150% of feed provided for controls from 60 days before mating to term. All ewes were fed to requirements during lactation. After weaning, F1 male offspring were fed only to maintenance requirements until adulthood (control = 7, obese = 6), when they were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with intake monitored. At the end of the feeding challenge offspring were given an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), necropsied, and adipose tissue collected. During the feeding trial F1obese males consumed more (P < 0.01), gained more weight (P < 0.01) and became heavier (P < 0.05) than F1control males. During IVGTT, Obese F1 offspring were hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.01) compared to F1 control F1. At necropsy perirenal and omental adipose depots weights were 47% and 58% greater respectively and subcutaneous fat thickness 41% greater in F1obese vs F1control males (P < 0.05). Adipocyte diameters were greater (P ≤ 0.04) in perirenal, omental and subcutaneous adipose depots in F1obese males (11, 8 and 7% increase vs. control, respectively). When adipose tissue was incubated for 2 hrs with C-14 labeled acetate, subcutaneous, perirenal, and omental adipose tissue of F1 obese males exhibited greater incorporation (290, 83, and 90% increase vs. control, respectively P < 0.05) of acetate into lipids. Expression of fatty acid transporting, binding, and syntheses mRNA and protein was increased (P < 0.05) compared to F1 control offspring. Maternal obesity increased appetite and adiposity associated with increased adipocyte diameters and increased fatty acid synthesis in over-nourished adult male offspring. PMID:25875659

  2. The Influence of Maternal Early to Mid-Gestation Nutrient Restriction of Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fetal Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early to mid-gestational period (days 28-78) in sheep is the period of most rapid placental development. Maternal nutrient restriction (MNR) in this phase has negative consequences on fetal growth and development, predisposing the fetus to disease in adult life. The influence of MNR on fetal tis...

  3. The 'male effect' in sheep and goats--revisiting the dogmas.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J Alberto; Gelez, Helene; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Hawken, Penelope A R; Martin, Graeme B

    2009-06-25

    Male-induced ovulation in sheep and goats (the 'male effect'), documented during the period 1940-1960, has long been shrouded in preconceptions concerning how, when and why it worked. These preconceptions became dogmas but recent research is challenging them so, in this review, we have re-visited some major physiological (breed seasonality; characteristics of the response; the nature of the male stimuli) and physical factors (duration of male presence; isolation from male stimuli) that affect the phenomenon. We reject the dogma that ewes must be isolated from males and conclude that male 'novelty' is more important than isolation per se. Similarly, we reject the perception that the neuroendocrine component of the male effect is restricted to anovulatory females. Finally, we re-assess the relative importance of olfactory and non-olfactory signals, and develop a perspective on the way male-induced ovulation fits with preconceptions about pheromonal processes in mammals. Overall, our understanding of the male effect has evolved significantly and it is time to modify or reject our dogmas so this field of research can advance. We can now ask new questions regarding the application of the male effect in industry and develop research so we can fully understand this biological phenomenon. PMID:19374015

  4. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Eimani, Hussein; Hajmusa, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Rouhollah; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2) levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97%) and female (24.14%) rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%). Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5%) and female (19.49%) transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%). Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 0.0%) and female (0.06 0.0%) rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 0.0%) rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P?0.05). Conclusion Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development. PMID:26644859

  5. Assessment of algae meal as a ruminant feedstuff: Nutrient digestibility in sheep as a model species.

    PubMed

    Stokes, R S; Van Emon, M L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrophic microalgae combined with soyhulls forms an algae meal (ALG), which contains partially deoiled microalgae (PDM; 57% DM basis) and soyhulls (43%). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of PDM and ALG on lamb digestibility. In Exp. 1, 8 wethers (23.02 ± 0.54 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of the PDM portion of ALG on total tract nutrient digestibility. Diets included a soyhull-based control (CON; 53% soyhulls), 10% PDM from ALG, 20% PDM from ALG (PDM20), and 30% PDM from ALG. Dry matter and OM intake and fecal DM and OM output were similar ( ≥ 0.11) between CON- and ALG-fed lambs. Urine output linearly increased ( = 0.02) as PDM increased in diets. Dry matter, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility linearly decreased ( < 0.01) as PDM increased in diets. Ether extract digestibility did not differ ( = 0.24) between CON- and PDM-fed lambs. Nitrogen digestibility and N retention linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as PDM increased in the diet. In Exp. 2, to determine the effects of ALG on diet and nutrient digestibility and N retention, 10 whiteface cross wethers (33.71 ± 0.55 kg) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square. Diets included a cracked corn-based control (CORN), 15% ALG, 30% ALG, 45% ALG (ALG45), and 60% ALG (ALG60). Dry matter and OM digestibility linearly ( < 0.001) decreased as ALG inclusion increased. Digestibility of NDF and ADF were lesser ( ≤ 0.03) for CORN-fed sheep than for ALG-fed sheep and linearly ( ≤ 0.03) increased as ALG increased in the diet. Ether extract digestibility was lesser ( = 0.002) for CORN than ALG, with a linear ( = 0.002) increase as ALG inclusion increased. There was a cubic ( = 0.03) effect for N digestibility with ALG45 and ALG60 being lesser and CORN being greater than all other treatments. Retention of N and plasma urea N concentration did not differ ( ≥ 0.22) between CORN and ALG. Nonfibrous carbohydrate digestibility linearly ( < 0.001) decreased as ALG increased in the diet. These results suggest that the PDM portion of ALG may be less digestible than soyhulls in ruminants, and differences in N retention in Exp. 1 may suggest an effect on growth in lambs. Furthermore, changes in digestibility of specific nutrients suggest that ALG is more characteristic of a concentrate rather than a fibrous feedstuff. However, lambs will readily consume ALG and this novel feedstuff could potentially serve as a viable component of ruminant diets. PMID:26641058

  6. Impact of sheep bedding on soil nutrient dynamics in the Centennial Mountains of Montana and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep and lamb production is an important industry in the state of Idaho, with sheep grazing in the mountains during summer months a common practice. Sheep are concentrated in bedding areas at night to guard them from theft and predation which leads to concentrated grazing and manure and urine accu...

  7. Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) is a major pest of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. From the 1960s to the 1980s there was a major effort to develop "field female killing" or FFK strains of L. cuprina that could be used for a cost-effective genetic control program. The FFK strains carried eye color mutations that were lethal to females in the field but not under conditions in the mass rearing facility. Males did not die in the field as normal copies of the eye color genes had been translocated to the Y chromosome and an autosome. Although the FFK strains showed some promise in field tests, a genetic control program in mainland Australia was never implemented for several reasons including instability of the FFK strains during mass rearing. A stable transgenic strain of L. cuprina that carried one or more dominant repressible female lethal genes offered the potential for efficient genetic control of blowfly populations. Here I review our research on tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic systems, Lucilia germ-line transformation and sex determination genes that ultimately led to the successful development of transgenic "male-only" strains of L. cuprina. The technology developed for L. cuprina should be directly transferable to other blowfly livestock pests including L. sericata and the New World and Old World screwworm. 29 PMID:25472415

  8. Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.

    PubMed

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Sdekum, Karl-Heinz; Dnicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15C, 25C and 35C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15C to 25C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15C, but no differences were found at 25C and 35C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals. PMID:24980034

  9. Effect of the combination of male effect with PGF2? on estrus synchronization of hair sheep in Mexican tropic.

    PubMed

    Alavez-Ramrez, Alejandro; Montes-Prez, Rubn; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the "male effect" at the end of protocol with prostaglandins (PG) on estrus synchronization of hair sheep during breeding season (November-December) in Yucatan, Mexico. Twenty female Pelibuey sheep (weighting 38.2??1.6kg and body condition score of 2.5??0.5) were randomly distributed in two groups (n?=?10). Group T1 (control, PG), two doses of 50?g of cloprostenol with 12days between applications were applied; in the second group T2 (PG-ME), ewes received the same PG protocol plus the introduction of a male at the end of treatment. The interval of end treatment-onset of estrus was analyzed using survival test; the number of sheep with presence/absence of estrus was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Ewes in estrus for groups T1 and T2 were 5 vs. 8, respectively. No significant differences were found as regards the interval end of treatment-onset of estrus (P?>?0.05), as well as in total proportion of ewes with estrus and likewise in the duration of it (P?>?0.05). We conclude that the protocol based on double dose of PGF2? with interval of 12days combined with the male effect is efficient to induce luteolysis and estrus synchronization in hair sheep. PMID:26701832

  10. Effect of Prenatal Androgens on Click-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Male and Female Sheep (Ovis aries)

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.; Valero, Michelle D.; Roberts, Eila K.; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were measured in male and female Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries). Some sheep had been administered androgens or estrogens during prenatal development, some were gonadectomized after birth, and some were allowed to develop normally. As previously reported for spotted hyenas, gonadectomy did not alter the OAEs for either sex; accordingly, the untreated/intact and the untreated/gonadectomized animals were pooled to form the control groups. The click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) exhibited by the female control group (N = 12) were slightly stronger (effect size = 0.42) than those in the male control group (N = 15), which is the same direction of effect reported for humans and rhesus monkeys. Females administered testosterone prenatally (N = 16) had substantially weaker (masculinized) CEOAEs than control females (effect size = 1.15). Both of these outcomes are in accord with the idea that prenatal exposure to androgens weakens the cochlear mechanisms that underlie the production of OAEs. The CEOAEs of males administered testosterone prenatally (N = 5) were not different from those of control males, an outcome also seen in similarly treated rhesus monkeys. Males administered dihydrotestosterone (DHT) prenatally (N = 3) had slightly stronger (hypo-masculinized) CEOAEs than control males. No spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were found in any ears, a common finding in non-human species. To our knowledge, this is the first ruminant species measured for OAEs. PMID:18834887

  11. Effect of prenatal androgens on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in male and female sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G; Valero, Michelle D; Roberts, Eila K; Lee, Theresa M

    2009-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were measured in male and female Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries). Some sheep had been administered androgens or estrogens during prenatal development, some were gonadectomized after birth, and some were allowed to develop normally. As previously reported for spotted hyenas, gonadectomy did not alter the OAEs for either sex; accordingly, the untreated/intact and the untreated/gonadectomized animals were pooled to form the control groups. The click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) exhibited by the female control group (N=12) were slightly stronger (effect size=0.42) than those in the male control group (N=15), which is the same direction of effect reported for humans and rhesus monkeys. Females administered testosterone prenatally (N=16) had substantially weaker (masculinized) CEOAEs than control females (effect size=1.15). Both of these outcomes are in accord with the idea that prenatal exposure to androgens weakens the cochlear mechanisms that underlie the production of OAEs. The CEOAEs of males administered testosterone prenatally (N=5) were not different from those of control males, an outcome also seen in similarly treated rhesus monkeys. Males administered dihydrotestosterone (DHT) prenatally (N=3) had slightly stronger (hypo-masculinized) CEOAEs than control males. No spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were found in any ears, a common finding in non-human species. To our knowledge, this is the first ruminant species measured for OAEs. PMID:18834887

  12. Effect of Mediterranean saltbush (Atriplex halimus) ensilaging with two developed enzyme cocktails on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Alsersy, Haidy; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Borhami, Borhami E; Olivares, Jaime; Gado, Hany M; Mariezcurrena, Maria D; Yacuot, Mohamed H; Kholif, Ahmed E; El-Adawy, Mounir; Hernandez, Saul R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2?L of ZAD1() or ZAD2() /1000?kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300?g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1() and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2() and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1() and ZAD2() (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P?nutrients intake (P?nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P?Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P?sheep. PMID:25228428

  13. Novel male-biased expression in paralogs of the aphid slimfast nutrient amino acid transporter expansion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major goal of molecular evolutionary biology is to understand the fate and consequences of duplicated genes. In this context, aphids are intriguing because the newly sequenced pea aphid genome harbors an extraordinary number of lineage-specific gene duplications relative to other insect genomes. Though many of their duplicated genes may be involved in their complex life cycle, duplications in nutrient amino acid transporters appear to be associated rather with their essential amino acid poor diet and the intracellular symbiosis aphids rely on to compensate for dietary deficits. Past work has shown that some duplicated amino acid transporters are highly expressed in the specialized cells housing the symbionts, including a paralog of an aphid-specific expansion homologous to the Drosophila gene slimfast. Previous data provide evidence that these bacteriocyte-expressed transporters mediate amino acid exchange between aphids and their symbionts. Results We report that some nutrient amino acid transporters show male-biased expression. Male-biased expression characterizes three paralogs in the aphid-specific slimfast expansion, and the male-biased expression is conserved across two aphid species for at least two paralogs. One of the male-biased paralogs has additionally experienced an accelerated rate of non-synonymous substitutions. Conclusions This is the first study to document male-biased slimfast expression. Our data suggest that the male-biased aphid slimfast paralogs diverged from their ancestral function to fill a functional role in males. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that members of the slimfast expansion are maintained in the aphid genome not only for the previously hypothesized role in mediating amino acid exchange between the symbiotic partners, but also for sex-specific roles. PMID:21917168

  14. Antenatal Betamethasone Exposure Alters Renal Responses to Angiotensin-(17) in Uninephrectomized Adult Male Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jianli; Contag, Stephen A.; Carey, Luke C.; Tang, Lijun; Valego, Nancy K.; Chappell, Mark C.; Rose, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid exposure reduces renal function and alters the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system to favor angiotensin activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediated responses in ovine offspring. This study aimed to assess whether antenatal steroid exposure would affect renal responses to the direct intrarenal infusion of angiotensin-(17) in rams and the Ang receptors involved in mediating responses to the peptide. Adult, uninephrectomized rams exposed to either betamethasone or vehicle before birth received intrarenal angiotensin-(17) infusions (1ng/kg/min) alone or in combination with antagonists to Ang receptors for 3 hours. Basal sodium excretion (UNa) was significantly lower and mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in betamethasone compared to the vehicle treated sheep. Angiotensin-(17) decreased UNa more in betamethasone than in vehicle treated sheep. Candesartan reversed the response to Angiotensin-(17) but D-Ala7-Angiotensin-(17) did not. Angiotensin-(17) infusion decreased effective renal plasma flow in both groups to a similar extent and the response was reversed by candesartan, but was not blocked by D-Ala7-Angiotensin-(17). Glomerular filtration rate increased significantly in both groups after 3h infusion of Angiotensin-(17) plus candesartan. These results suggest that antenatal exposure to a clinically relevant dose of betamethasone impairs renal function in rams. Moreover, Angiotensin-(17) appears capable of activating the AT1R in uninephrectomized rams. PMID:23161144

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with resveratrol on nutrient digestibility, methanogenesis and ruminal microbial flora in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Chen, D-D; Tu, Y; Zhang, N-F; Si, B-W; Deng, K-D; Diao, Q-Y

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on methanogenesis and microbial flora in Dorper × thin-tailed Han cross-bred ewes. In experiment 1, ten ewes (67.2 ± 2.24 kg BW) were assigned to two dietary treatments, a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with resveratrol (0.25 g/head·day), to investigate the effect of resveratrol on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. In experiment 2, six ewes (64.0 ± 1.85 kg BW) with ruminal cannulae were assigned to the identical dietary treatments used in experiment 1 to investigate supplementary resveratrol on ruminal fermentation and microbial flora using qPCR. The results showed that supplementary resveratrol improved the digestibility of organic matter (OM; p < 0.001), nitrogen (N; p = 0.007), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; p < 0.001) and acid detergent fibre (ADF; p < 0.001). The excretion of faecal N was reduced (p = 0.007), whereas that of urinary N increased (p = 0.002), which led to an unchanged N retention (p = 0.157). Both CO2 and CH4 output scaled to digestible dry matter (DM) intake decreased from 602.5 to 518.7 (p = 0.039) and 68.2 to 56.6 (p < 0.001) respectively. Ruminal pH (p = 0.341), ammonia (p = 0.512) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) (p = 0.249) were unaffected by resveratrol. The molar proportion of propionate increased from 13.1 to 17.5% (p < 0.001) while that of butyrate decreased from 11.0 to 9.55% (p < 0.001). The ratio of acetate to propionate (A/P) decreased from 5.44 to 3.96 (p < 0.001). Supplementary resveratrol increased ruminal population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (p < 0.001) while decreased protozoa and methanogens. In conclusion, dietary resveratrol inhibited methanogenesis without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation. PMID:25319536

  16. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

  17. Levels of nutrients in relation to fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke A; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry A

    2015-10-01

    Fish is an important source of nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce risk of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, fish may also contain significant amounts of environmental pollutants. The Wisconsin Departments of Health Services and Natural Resources developed a survey instrument, along with a strategy to collect human biological samples to assess the risks and benefits associated with long-term fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. The target population was men aged 50 years and older, who fish Wisconsin waters and live in the state of Wisconsin. Participants provided blood and hair samples and completed a detailed (paper) questionnaire, which included questions on basic demographics, health status, location of catch and species of fish caught/eaten, consumption of locally caught and commercially purchased fish, and awareness and source of information for local and statewide consumption guidelines. Biological samples were used to assess levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); vitamin D; and selenium in blood. Quantile regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between biomarker levels and self-reported consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and other areas of concern, other locally caught fish, and commercially purchased fish (meals per year). Respondents were largely non-Hispanic white men in their 60's with at least some college education, and about half were retired. Fish consumption was high (median of 54.5 meals per year), with most fish meals coming from locally-caught fish. Multivariate regression models showed that the effect of supplement use was much greater than that of fish consumption, on nutrient levels, although consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and areas of concern was significantly associated with higher levels of vitamin D even after controlling for supplement usage. PMID:26296180

  18. Nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations differing in protein level, main protein source and non-forage fibre source.

    PubMed

    Milis, Ch; Liamadis, D

    2008-02-01

    Two in vivo digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of diet's crude protein (CP) level, N degradability, and non-forage fibre source (NFFS) on nutrient digestibility and energy value of sheep rations. In each trial, rams were fed four isocaloric and isofibrous rations, differing in main protein and/or NFFS source. At the first trial, mean CP/metabolizable energy (ME) ratio of the diets was 17 g/MJ ME and at the second trial, 13 g/MJ ME. At both trials, the first ration contained cotton seed cake (CSC) and wheat bran (WB), the second CSC and corn gluten feed (CGF), the third corn gluten meal (CGM) and WB and the fourth CGM and CGF. Data of both trials were analysed in common as 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Low N degradability (CGM) had positive effect on CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility of the ration. Those results suggest that an increase in rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content does not negatively affect nutrient digestibility of sheep rations. Corn gluten feed significantly elevated crude fibre (CF) digestibility, in comparison with WB. Rations having high CP/ME ratio had higher digestibility of CP in comparison with those having low CP/ME ratio; the opposite was true for ether extract, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities. CP level x N degradability interaction negatively affected energy value of the rations that had high CP level and high N degradability. Former suggest that when CP content is high then N degradability should be low otherwise ration's ME is negatively affected. CP digestibility and coefficient q of the rations containing WB and having high N degradability (N degradability x NFFS interaction) were the lowest suggesting that the combination of CSC and WB negatively affected CP digestibility and energy value of the ration. This could be explained by a reduced microbial CP synthesis, or lower RUP digestibility or both. PMID:18184379

  19. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.04.1 years; BMI =29.12.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences. PMID:24901092

  20. Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on maternal endocrine status and placental characteristics.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the effects of dietary selenium and nutrient restriction (level and timing) on serum hormone and metabolite levels and placental characteristics in mid- to late-pregnancy ewes. Pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto...

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Raadsma, Herman W; Thomson, Peter C; Zenger, Kyall R; Cavanagh, Colin; Lam, Mary K; Jonas, Elisabeth; Jones, Marilyn; Attard, Gina; Palmer, David; Nicholas, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific map. This map was employed in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses on body-weight and growth-rate traits between birth and 98 weeks of age. A custom maximum likelihood program was developed to map QTL in half-sib families for non-inbred strains (QTL-MLE) and is freely available on request. The new analysis package offers the advantage of enabling QTL × fixed effect interactions to be included in the model. Fifty-four putative QTL were identified on nine chromosomes. Significant QTL with sex-specific effects (i.e. QTL × sex interaction) in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 SD were found on ovine chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, 23, 24 and 26. PMID:19389264

  2. Maternal exposure to dexamethasone or cortisol in early pregnancy differentially alters insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in adult male sheep offspring.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, M J; Dodic, M; Jefferies, A J; Moritz, K M; Wintour, E M; Owens, J A

    2007-07-01

    An adverse intrauterine environment increases the risk of developing various adult-onset diseases, whose nature varies with the timing of exposure. Maternal undernutrition in humans can increase adiposity, and the risk of coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance in adult life, which may be partly mediated by maternal or fetal endocrine stress responses. In sheep, dexamethasone in early pregnancy impairs cardiovascular function, but not glucose homeostasis in adult female offspring. However, male offspring are often more susceptible to early life "programming". Pregnant sheep were infused intravenously with saline (0.19 ml/h), dexamethasone (0.48 mg/h), or cortisol (5 mg/h), for 2 days from 26 to 28 days of gestation. In male offspring, size at birth and postnatal growth were measured, and glucose tolerance [intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)], insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity of glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen, and free fatty acid metabolism were assessed at 4 yr of age. We show that cortisol, but not dexamethasone, treatment of mothers causes fasting hyperglycemia in adult male offspring. Maternal cortisol induced a second-phase hyperinsulinemia during IVGTT, whereas maternal dexamethasone induced a first-phase hyperinsulinemia. Dexamethasone improved glucose tolerance, while cortisol had no impact, and neither affected insulin sensitivity. This suggests that maternal glucocorticoid exposure in early pregnancy alters glucose homeostasis and induces hyperinsulinemia in adult male offspring, but in a glucocorticoid-specific manner. These consequences of glucocorticoid exposure in early pregnancy may lead to pancreatic exhaustion and diabetes longer term and are consistent with stress during early pregnancy contributing to such outcomes in humans. PMID:17356009

  3. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.

    PubMed

    Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buenda, Germn; Soliman, N A M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?sheep with PH were higher (P?

  4. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  5. NutriDense and waxy corn hybrids: effects on site and extent of disappearance of nutrients in sheep.

    PubMed

    Akay, V; Jackson, J A; Harmon, D L

    2002-05-01

    Six Suffolk wether lambs (40.9+/-1.05 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal and double-L-shaped duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 3 x 6 Latin rectangle design to investigate the effects of three corn hybrids on site and extent of disappearance of nutrients and rumen characteristics. Treatments were 1) a conventional yellow dent corn (CC) diet, 2) a NutriDense corn (NC) diet, and 3) a waxy corn (WC) diet. Diets consisted of 43.9% cracked corn grain, 39.1% cottonseed hulls, 15.3% soybean meal, 1.49% vitamin and mineral supplement, and 0.21% chromic oxide (DM basis). Lambs were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm requirement. Ruminal pH, fluid dilution rate, volume, NH3 N, and total VFA concentrations, as well as molar proportions of isobutyrate, butyrate, and valerate, were similar (P > 0.10) among dietary treatments. Apparent and true OM disappearances (g/d and percentage of OM intake) from the stomach were similar (P > 0.10) among dietary treatments. Apparent OM disappearance (percentage of duodenal OM flow) from the small intestine was higher (P < 0.05) for the WC than for the NC treatment. Apparent total tract OM disappearance (percentage of OM intake) was also similar (P > 0.10) among dietary treatments. Total apparent and true starch disappearances (g/d) from the stomach were higher (P < 0.05) for the WC diet than for the CC and NC diets. However, apparent and true starch disappearances from stomach as percentage of starch intake were higher (P < 0.05) for the WC diet than for the CC diet. Starch disappearance (g/d) from the small intestine was higher (P < 0.05) for the CC diet than for the WC diet; however, apparent starch disappearance (percentages of duodenal starch flow) from the small intestine was higher (P < 0.05) for the WC diet than for the CC diet. Duodenal flows of total N, bacterial N, NH3 N, and non-NH3 nonbacterial N (g/d) and efficiencies of bacterial protein production (g of bacterial N/kg of true or apparent OM disappearing in the stomach) were similar (P > 0.10) among dietary treatments. Apparent and true N disappearance from stomach (g/d) and apparent total tract N disappearance (percentage of N intake) were also similar (P > 0.10) among dietary treatments. Total N disappearance from the hindgut was -0.81, -1.06, and -1.46 g/d for CC, NC, and WC, respectively, and was different (P < 0.05) between CC and WC diets. Results indicated that higher ruminal starch disappearance in WC did not increase microbial N production or efficiency when compared to CC. PMID:12019623

  6. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  7. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during water-stressed periods may not be necessary for desert bighorn sheep. PMID:26894504

  8. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during water-stressed periods may not be necessary for desert bighorn sheep. PMID:26894504

  9. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Alters Ca2+ Handling Properties and Contractile Function of Isolated Left Ventricle Bundles in Male But Not Female Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robyn M.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight below the 10th centile, may be caused by maternal undernutrition, with evidence that IUGR offspring have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are an integral messenger for several steps associated with excitation-contraction coupling (ECC); the cascade of events from the initiation of an action potential at the surface membrane, to contraction of the cardiomyocyte. Any changes in Ca2+ storage and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ may underlie the mechanism linking IUGR to an increased risk of CVD. This study aimed to explore the effects of maternal nutrient restriction on cardiac function, including Ca2+ handling by the SR and force development by the contractile apparatus. Juvenile Long Evans hooded rats born to Control (C) and nutrient restricted (NR) dams were anaesthetized for collection of the heart at 1012 weeks of age. Left ventricular bundles from male NR offspring displayed increased maximum Ca2+-activated force, and decreased protein content of troponin I (cTnI) compared to C males. Furthermore, male NR offspring showed a reduction in rate of rise of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ force response and a decrease in the protein content of ryanodine receptor (RYR2). These physiological and biochemical findings observed in males were not evident in female offspring. These findings illustrate a sex-specific effect of maternal NR on cardiac development, and also highlight a possible mechanism for the development of hypertension and hypertrophy in male NR offspring. PMID:26406887

  10. Maternal Nutrient Restriction Alters Ca2+ Handling Properties and Contractile Function of Isolated Left Ventricle Bundles in Male But Not Female Juvenile Rats.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Thomas J; Murphy, Robyn M; Morrison, Janna L; Posterino, Giuseppe S

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), defined as a birth weight below the 10th centile, may be caused by maternal undernutrition, with evidence that IUGR offspring have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are an integral messenger for several steps associated with excitation-contraction coupling (ECC); the cascade of events from the initiation of an action potential at the surface membrane, to contraction of the cardiomyocyte. Any changes in Ca2+ storage and release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), or sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca2+ may underlie the mechanism linking IUGR to an increased risk of CVD. This study aimed to explore the effects of maternal nutrient restriction on cardiac function, including Ca2+ handling by the SR and force development by the contractile apparatus. Juvenile Long Evans hooded rats born to Control (C) and nutrient restricted (NR) dams were anaesthetized for collection of the heart at 10-12 weeks of age. Left ventricular bundles from male NR offspring displayed increased maximum Ca2+-activated force, and decreased protein content of troponin I (cTnI) compared to C males. Furthermore, male NR offspring showed a reduction in rate of rise of the caffeine-induced Ca2+ force response and a decrease in the protein content of ryanodine receptor (RYR2). These physiological and biochemical findings observed in males were not evident in female offspring. These findings illustrate a sex-specific effect of maternal NR on cardiac development, and also highlight a possible mechanism for the development of hypertension and hypertrophy in male NR offspring. PMID:26406887

  11. Effect of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) hay inclusion in the diets of sheep.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Gustavo Araújo; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Cardoso, Daniel Barros; de Castro Soares, Pierre; de Morais, Nadja Nara Gomes; Souza, Andresa Cristina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing Tifton-85 hay (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % on a dry matter basis) with water hyacinth hay (Eichhornia crassipes) on intake and digestibility of nutrients, feeding behaviour, rumen and blood parameters of sheep. Five uncastrated male sheep, cannulated in the rumen, with an average body weight of 40 kg were assigned in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The water hyacinth hay contained 870 g/kg dry matter (DM), 159 g/kg crude protein (CP), 547 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and 461 g/kg total digestible nutrients (TDN). The DM intake and digestibility of NDF and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) were linearly reduced by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Similarly, there was a linear reduction of rumination time and efficiencies of feeding and rumination of DM and NDF. The concentrations of urea, glucose, AST and GGT in blood plasma were not changed by replacing the Tifton-85 hay with water hyacinth hay. Although water hyacinth hay reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients, the Tifton-85 hay replacement could be economically advantageous for sheep feeding. PMID:26739344

  12. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kaufman, Michael G; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature. PMID:26244643

  13. How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Donald A.; Kaufman, Michael G.; Ezeakacha, Nnaemeka F.

    2015-01-01

    Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature. PMID:26244643

  14. Performance and digestibility of growing sheep fed with aai seed meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Daiany Iris; Vras, Robson Magno Liberal; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Mezzomo, Rafael; dos Santos, Raphael Bicho; Barcelos, Sandra de Sousa

    2012-10-01

    This trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of aai seeds in the diet of sheep, specifically, to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets containing four different mixtures of aai seeds and coastcross hay. Sixteen noncastrated male sheep with an average initial body weight of 22 kg were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments using initial body weight as a covariate. The diets used coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. The concentrate was the same in all the treatments. The aai seed was added to the diet as a partial substitute for the coastcross hay to make up four diet treatments: 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 % aa added to the diet on a dry matter basis. The daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake were found to linearly increase with the increase in added dietary aai seed meal (P < 0.05). Moreover, increasing the proportions of aai seed meal did not significantly alter the nutrient tract digestibility, except that the crude protein level declined in a linear manner. The inclusion of aai seed as a substitute for coastcross hay increases the intake and the daily weight gain in sheep that are fed with diets using coastcross hay as the basal roughage in a 60:40 roughage/concentrate ratio. PMID:22576274

  15. Elephant grass, sugarcane, and rice bran in diets for confined sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; da Conceio dos Santos, Rozilda; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; do Carmo, Danilo Moreira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Mezzomo, Rafael; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos

    2012-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of diets, based on elephant grass or sugarcane as roughage and corn meal or rice bran as energy concentrate, on performance and body composition in terms of diet intake and digestibility. A total of 30 Santa Ines crossbreds (SIC), castrated male sheep with 19.8 2.0 kg initial body weight (BW) were used. Six animals were slaughtered at the onset of the experiment to estimate the initial body composition for the other animals. The remaining 24 animals were distributed in a completely randomized 2 2 factorial design, with four treatments (two roughages and two concentrates) and six replicates. The sheep were slaughtered when they reached 30.0 kg BW. Elephant grass diets provided higher intake and digestibility than sugarcane diets for the following contents: dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre, minerals, total carbohydrates (TC), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Among the concentrates, corn meal diets were associated with higher intakes than rice bran diets for the following contents: DM, OM, CP, TC, and TDN. Animals from all of the treatments exhibited low average daily weight gain and low protein and high fat and energy body levels. Sugarcane and rice bran can be used as ingredients in diets for sheep with low weight gain potential. Regardless of roughage or concentrate types used in diets for confined SIC sheep, performance and body composition remained unaltered. PMID:22528534

  16. EVALUATION OF THE RESPIRATORY ELIMINATION KINETICS OF SELENIUM AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION IN SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the respiratory excretion and elimination kinetics of organic and inorganic selenium after oral administration in sheep 38, 8-12 week-old crossbred sheep (19 males and 19 females)were randomly allocated to one of 10 treatment groups with 4 sheep/group except group 5 which contained 2 she...

  17. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  18. Protein source and nutrient density in the diets of male broilers from 8 to 21 d of age: Effects on small intestine morphology.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Peebles, E D; Morgan, T W; Harkess, R L; Zhai, W

    2015-01-01

    In a companion study, high amino acid (AA) or apparent metabolizable energy (AME) densities in the diets of broilers from 8 to 21 d of age were found to improve feed conversion. A total of 1,120 male RossRoss 708 chicks were randomly allocated to 80 pens (8 treatments, 10 replications per treatment, 14 chicks per pen). A 222 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the interaction among the protein source (high distillers dried grains with solubles diet [hDDGS] or high meat and bone meal diet [hMBM]), AA density (moderate or high), and AME density (2,998 or 3,100 kcal/kg) of diets on small intestine morphology. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum samples from 2 chicks per pen were collected and measured individually at 21 d. Jejunum sections were processed for histological analysis. Chicks fed hDDGS diets exhibited longer small intestines than did chicks fed hMBM diets. Particularly, when chicks were fed high AA density diets, jejuna were longer in groups fed hDDGS diets than groups fed hMBM diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunum villus height, width, area, crypt depth, villus to crypt ratio, goblet cell size, or cell density. In birds fed diets containing a moderate AA and a high AME density, jejunum muscle layers of chicks fed hDDGS diets were thicker than those fed hMBM diets. Chicks exhibited a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a higher BW gain when their crypts were shorter. In conclusion, an hDDGS diet may facilitate small intestine longitudinal growth in broilers, which may subsequently improve dietary nutrient absorption. In addition, broiler chicks with shallow intestinal crypts exhibited better growth performance. PMID:25542197

  19. Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

  20. Nutrients Differentially Regulate Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In Vitro in Cultured Stomach Ghrelinoma (MGN3-1) Cells and In Vivo in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Haneesha; Ramesh, Naresh; Mortazavi, Sima; Le, Anthony; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Unniappan, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is secreted, meal-responsive anorexigenic peptide encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 [NUCB2]. Circulating nesfatin-1 increases post-prandially, but the dietary components that modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 remain unknown. We hypothesized that carbohydrate, fat and protein differentially regulate tissue specific expression of nesfatin-1. NUCB2, prohormone convertases and nesfatin-1 were detected in mouse stomach ghrelinoma [MGN3-1] cells. NUCB2 mRNA and protein were also detected in mouse liver, and small and large intestines. MGN3-1 cells were treated with glucose, fatty acids or amino acids. Male C57BL/6 mice were chronically fed high fat, high carbohydrate and high protein diets for 17 weeks. Quantitative PCR and nesfatin-1 assays were used to determine nesfatin-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Glucose stimulated NUCB2 mRNA expression in MGN3-1 cells. L-Tryptophan also increased NUCB2 mRNA expression and ghrelin mRNA expression, and nesfatin-1 secretion. Oleic acid inhibited NUCB2 mRNA expression, while ghrelin mRNA expression and secretion was enhanced. NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the liver of mice fed a high protein diet compared to mice fed other diets. Chronic intake of high fat diet caused a significant reduction in NUCB2 mRNA in the stomach, while high protein and high fat diet caused similar suppression of NUCB2 mRNA in the large intestine. No differences in serum nesfatin-1 levels were found in mice at 7 a.m, at the commencement of the light phase. High carbohydrate diet fed mice showed significantly elevated nesfatin-1 levels at 1 p.m. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in mice fed high fat, protein or carbohydrate compared to the controls at 7 p.m, just prior to the dark phase. Mice that received a bolus of high fat had significantly elevated nesfatin-1/NUCB2 at all time points tested post-gavage, compared to control mice and mice fed other diets. Our results for the first time indicate that nesfatin-1 is modulated by nutrients. PMID:25506938

  1. The effect of dietary nitrogen and protein on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of sheep consuming high-concentrate diets ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Freetly, H C; Goetsch, A L; Kreikemeier, K K

    2001-05-01

    Our objectives were to determine the influences of supplemental nonprotein N or protein on feed intake, digestibility, and postabsorptive N metabolism in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet for ad libitum consumption. Nine Romanov-sired, crossbred wethers (13 mo old; 52 kg) were fitted with catheters in a mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein, and hepatic vein. Wethers consumed a 95% concentrate diet ad libitum. Treatments consisted of control (no supplemental N; 6.6% CP) or supplemental urea (11.4% CP), soybean meal (SBM; 11.2% CP) or ruminally undegradable protein (BFM; 11.2% CP; 50:50 blood meal and feather meal). Intake or apparently digested intake of DM, OM, and energy did not differ between control and N-supplemented (P > 0.40), or between urea- and protein-supplemented (P > 0.40), but were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM- than in BFM-supplemented wethers. Intake and apparently digested intake of N were less (P < 0.01) in wethers fed the control diet than in those receiving N supplementation but were less (P = 0.03) in BFM- than in SBM-supplemented wethers. Neither portal nor hepatic venous blood flows differed (P > 0.15) among treatments. Net portal release and hepatic uptake of alpha-amino N and ammonia N and hepatic release of urea N were greater (P < 0.05) in wethers supplemented with N than in controls, but portal-drained viscera (PDV) uptake of urea N did not differ (P > 0.40) among diets. Splanchnic release of a-amino N and ammonia N did not differ from 0 or among diets (P > 0.10), but net release of urea N was less (P = 0.05) for control than for sheep receiving N supplementation. No differences (P > 0.10) in blood concentration within vessel or net flux across PDV, hepatic, or splanchnic tissues of alpha-amino N, ammonia N, or urea N were observed among wethers receiving supplemental N. Net uptake of oxygen by the PDV did not differ among diets, but hepatic uptake was less (P < 0.05) in control and urea-supplemented sheep than in sheep receiving SBM or BFM. These observations suggest that the source of supplemental N had no large effects on the overall N economy of the animals used in this study. PMID:11374554

  2. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26??1.41kg (mean??SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P?nutrient digestibility (P?sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P?>?0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants. PMID:26250152

  3. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

  4. Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

  5. Nutritive value of maize stover/pasture legume mixtures as dry season supplementation for sheep.

    PubMed

    Undi, M; Kawonga, K C.; Musendo, R M.

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutrient contents and relative preferences of maize stover and three legumes forages and their feeding on intake and digestibility of sheep. Maize stover was blended with three legumes, stylo (Stylosanthes guainensis), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) and centro (Centrocema pubescens), to produce four treatments, namely, only maize stover (control), stover/stylo, stover/siratro and stover/centro mixtures. The first experiment evaluated the relative preference of the stover and the various stover/legume mixtures when offered to sheep. Six rams were offered pair combinations of the treatments in a 6x6 Latin square with a split plot arrangement such that each ram had access to two feeds at a time in each period of 6 days. The second experiment included measurements of intake and digestibility of the stover and stover/legume mixtures. Four intact and four castrated male sheep were used in two, 4x4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. The least (P<0.05) preferred feed was maize stover when it was offered as the sole feed. There were no significant differences in preference among the stover/legume mixtures. Dry matter intake (DMI) was highest (P<0.05) when sheep were offered the stover/centro mixture and lowest (P<0.05) when maize stover was fed as the sole feed. Dry matter digestibility did not differ significantly among treatments. Sheep that were offered maize stover only lost weight, those fed stover/centro gained weight and those that were fed either stover/siratro or stover/stylo maintained weight. However, these short-term weight changes may reflect changes in fill as much as changes in body tissue. Addition of legumes to maize stover improved the nutritive value, possibly by increasing the nitrogen content of the stover. The results suggest that maize stover, which is normally left to rot in the field, could be better utilised by intercropping with legumes and allowing animals access after grain harvest. PMID:11323211

  6. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  7. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  8. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each

  9. Acephalous lamb from an in vitro-produced sheep embryo

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Abolfazl; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Jadidi, Majid; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser; Heidari, Banafsheh

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of an acephalous lamb from the transfer of an in vitro-produced sheep embryo. Twelve in vitro-fertilized embryos were transferred to 4 recipient ewes (3 embryos/ewe). Two ewes remained pregnant: one delivered a normal female lamb, the other a male acephalous lamb. Possible contributing factors are discussed. PMID:19436635

  10. Nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Bormann, F H; Likens, G E

    1967-01-27

    The small-watershed approach to problems of nutrient cycling has these advantages. (i) The small watershed is a natural unit of suitable size for intensive study of nutrient cycling at the ecosystem level. (ii) It provides a means of reducing to a minimum, or virtually eliminating, the effect of the difficult-to-measure variables of geologic input and nutrient losses in deep seepage. Control of these variables makes possible accurate measurement of nutrient input and output (erosion) and therefore establishes the relationship of the smaller ecosystem to the larger biospheric cycles. (iii) The small-watershed approach provides a method whereby such important parameters as nutrient release from minerals (weathering) and annual nutrient budgets may be calculated. (iv) It provides a means of studying the interrelationships between the biota and the hydrologic cycle, various nutrient cycles, and energy flow in a single system. (v) Finally, with the small-watershed system we can test the effect of various land-management practices or environmental pollutants on nutrient cycling in natural systems. PMID:17737551

  11. Phosphorus Metabolic Disorder of Guizhou Semi-Fine Wool Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

  12. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to constrain increases in YW. Changes in EPD for MM or fleece traits generally had smaller effects on profitability than changes in PLC, WW, and YW. Two indexes designed to address current rangeland production conditions (low forage costs and discounting of heavy feeder lambs) or more intensive and integrated production with retained ownership and value-based marketing of lambs (higher forage costs and no discounting of heavy lambs) were anticipated to meet the needs of most Targhee producers. PMID:17609470

  13. [Virus in sheep's skin].

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M

    2005-04-01

    In a double sense, the ovine gamma herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2) is a virus in sheep's skin. Not only is it present world wide in all sheep breeds but also it causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in cattle pigs, elk, and bison. OvHV-2 cannot be propagated in cell culture. Therefore, new results from OvHV-2 research are based on molecular techniques and may be summarized as follows. OvHV-2 is transmitted by respiratory routes as well as by sexual intercourse. Lambs are infected within the first few months of life. Leucocytes, primarily latently infected lymphocytes, are responsible for disseminating the virus over the entire organism. On rare occasions, virus particles could be visualized by electron microscopy in explanted lymphocyte cultures. Structural antigens were detected by immunohistology in M-cells of diseased rabbits. Immunologically and cell biologically active genes have been detected on the viral genome.The products arising from those are thought to fine balance, the number of latently infected cells in sheep and to keep them alive without causing harm. Thus, it seems that this balance has been found through co-evolution, favoring both virus and natural host. In contrast, other host species that were exclude from the process of co-evolution, are bound to fall from MCF. PMID:15861922

  14. Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. Susceptibility to the disease is partly dependent upon the genetic makeup of the host. In a recent study, it was shown that sheep intracerebrally inoculated with a US scrapie agent (No. 13-7) developed scrapie and s...

  15. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  16. Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

  17. Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.

    PubMed

    Kreeger, Terry J; Cook, Walter E; Edwards, William H; Cornish, Todd

    2004-04-01

    Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep. PMID:15362833

  18. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  19. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n?3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n?6) into n?3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n ?=?925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n?3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n?6/n?3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  20. Nutrient dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 1981–2000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  1. Nutrient dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Buso, Donald C.; Bade, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the variability and trends in chemical concentrations and fluxes at Mirror Lake during the period 19812000. It examines the water and chemical budgets of Mirror Lake to identify and understand better long-term trends in the chemical characteristics of the lake. It also identifies the causes of changes in nutrient concentrations and examines the contribution of hydrologic pathways to the contamination of Mirror Lake by road salt. The role of groundwater and precipitation on water and chemical budgets of the lake are also examined.

  2. Genetic linkage map of a wild genome: genomic structure, recombination and sexual dimorphism in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The construction of genetic linkage maps in free-living populations is a promising tool for the study of evolution. However, such maps are rare because it is difficult to develop both wild pedigrees and corresponding sets of molecular markers that are sufficiently large. We took advantage of two long-term field studies of pedigreed individuals and genomic resources originally developed for domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to construct a linkage map for bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis. We then assessed variability in genomic structure and recombination rates between bighorn sheep populations and sheep species. Results Bighorn sheep population-specific maps differed slightly in contiguity but were otherwise very similar in terms of genomic structure and recombination rates. The joint analysis of the two pedigrees resulted in a highly contiguous map composed of 247 microsatellite markers distributed along all 26 autosomes and the X chromosome. The map is estimated to cover about 84% of the bighorn sheep genome and contains 240 unique positions spanning a sex-averaged distance of 3051 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 14.3 cM. Marker synteny, order, sex-averaged interval lengths and sex-averaged total map lengths were all very similar between sheep species. However, in contrast to domestic sheep, but consistent with the usual pattern for a placental mammal, recombination rates in bighorn sheep were significantly greater in females than in males (~12% difference), resulting in an autosomal female map of 3166 cM and an autosomal male map of 2831 cM. Despite differing genome-wide patterns of heterochiasmy between the sheep species, sexual dimorphism in recombination rates was correlated between orthologous intervals. Conclusions We have developed a first-generation bighorn sheep linkage map that will facilitate future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation in this species. While domestication has been hypothesized to be responsible for the elevated mean recombination rate observed in domestic sheep, our results suggest that it is a characteristic of Ovis species. However, domestication may have played a role in altering patterns of heterochiasmy. Finally, we found that interval-specific patterns of sexual dimorphism were preserved among closely related Ovis species, possibly due to the conserved position of these intervals relative to the centromeres and telomeres. This study exemplifies how transferring genomic resources from domesticated species to close wild relative can benefit evolutionary ecologists while providing insights into the evolution of genomic structure and recombination rates of domesticated species. PMID:20920197

  3. The role of nematode parasites in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) mortality during a population crash.

    PubMed

    Gulland, F M

    1992-12-01

    In early 1989, two-thirds of the Soay sheep population on St Kilda died over 12 weeks. Post-mortem examinations revealed emaciated carcasses and considerable nematode burdens, with protein-energy malnutrition as the probable cause of death. Haematological and blood biochemical changes in the sheep, as well as fecundity of gastrointestinal nematodes, suggested the hosts were immunosuppressed. In parallel, laboratory experiments in which Soay sheep on a high plane of nutrition were artificially infected with Ostertagia circumcincta, showed no clinical signs or mortality when supporting worm burdens similar to those recorded in dead sheep on St Kilda. Anthelmintic treatment of a group of animals increased daily survival rates in ewes and male lambs, although treated animals became re-infected as the 'crash' progressed. It is suggested that parasites contribute to mortality in malnourished hosts, exacerbating the effects of food shortage. PMID:1461688

  4. External and internal modulators of sheep reproduction.

    PubMed

    Blache, Dominique; Bickell, Samantha L

    2011-12-01

    Several factors such as season, genetics, social interaction and metabolic status control or modulate the reproductive capacity of sheep. In addition to these well-studied factors in sheep, the influence of emotional reactivity on the reproductive success of sheep has started to be investigated over the last two decades. In this paper, after briefly reviewing the impact of classical factors affecting reproduction in sheep, we define emotional reactivity and the expression of its inter-individual variability, named temperament. Then, following a description of the protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discussion on the heritability of temperament traits, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology of sheep. We will be mainly using results obtained from a unique flock of sheep selected for low or high emotional reactivity. In conclusion, we propose that energy partitioning could be one of the mechanisms by which selection for temperament in sheep affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle. PMID:22200880

  5. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in slaughtered sheeps in Isfahan province, southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Khodadad Pirali; Fallah, Aziz A; Azizi, Hamidreza; Samani, Amir Dehghani; Dehkordi, Shahram Danesh

    2015-09-01

    Linguatula serrata, well known as tongue worm; is an aberrant cosmopolitan parasite, which inhabits the carnivorous mammals (especially Canidae) respiratory system. The discharged eggs infect many plant feeder animals including human that produces visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is known as Marrara syndrome in man. In current study, the prevalence rate of infection with L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) of slaughtered sheeps was investigated in Esfahan Province, Iran. The MLNs of 506 slaughtered sheeps, including 236 females and 270 males, were examined for L. serrata nymphs by cutting the MLNs longitudinally and then microscopic studies for L. serrata nymphs. Sheeps were categorized into four age groups, including <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and >3 years. Results showed that 11.66 % of examined sheeps were infected with L. serrata. Age had significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps (infection in sheeps with >3 years old was more than other groups significantly) and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps. Infection rate in winter was significantly lower than infection rate in spring; but there were no significant differences between the other seasons. As high prevalence rate of infection in sheeps, suggesting possibly similar high rate of infection in other animals and man in the investigated area, which this emphasizes undertaking strict control measures to reduce risk of zoonotic outbreaks. This study was demonstrated infection rate of L. serrata in sheeps in central parts of Iran. PMID:26345063

  6. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

  7. Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Joe

    This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen

  8. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep

    PubMed Central

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg-1) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg-1. In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  9. Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg(-1)) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency. PMID:25568718

  10. Sheep and goat grazing as a tool to manage encroachment of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Engelm. Sarg.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of using prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper re-invasion could be improved by providing adequate nutrients to help animals detoxify plant terpenes. We analyzed the terpenoid chemistry of one-seed juniper leaves and conducted feeding trials with 12 Ramboull...

  11. Seasonal changes in one seed juniper intake by sheep and goats in relation to dietary protein and plant secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal variation in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) can influence voluntary intake levels of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Englem. Sarg.) of sheep and goats. Supplemental nutrients could mitigate the deterrent effects of juniper PSM. We determined the concentration of mono-and sesqui- t...

  12. The Pregnant Sheep as a Model for Human Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, James S.; Anthony, Russell V.

    2008-01-01

    Successful outcome of human pregnancy not only impacts the quality of infant life and well-being, but considerable evidence now suggests that what happens during fetal development may well impact health and well-being into adulthood. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the developmental events that occur between conception and delivery is needed. For obvious ethical reasons, many of the questions remaining about the progression of human pregnancy can not be answered directly, necessitating the use of appropriate animal models. A variety of animal models exist for the study of both normal and compromised pregnancies, including laboratory rodents, non-human primates and domestic ruminants. While all of these animal models have merit, most suffer from the inability to repetitively sample from both the maternal and fetal side of the placenta, limiting their usefulness in the study of placental or fetal physiology under non-stressed in vivo conditions. No animal model truly recapitulates human pregnancy, yet the pregnant sheep has been used extensively to investigate maternal-fetal interactions. This is due in part to the ability to surgically place and maintain catheters in both the maternal and fetal vasculature, allowing repeated sampling from non-anesthetized pregnancies. Considerable insight has been gained on placental oxygen and nutrient transfer and utilization from use of pregnant sheep. These findings were often confirmed in human pregnancies once appropriate technologies became available. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of human and sheep pregnancy, with emphasis placed on placental development and function as an organ of nutrient transfer. PMID:17976713

  13. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  14. Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Blodgett, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

  15. Profile of Some Trace Elements in the Liver of Camels, Sheep, and Goats in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdullah; Shamat, Ali Mahmoud; Hussien, Mohammed Osman; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    One hundred camels (Camelus dromedaries) and fifty sheep and goats being adult, male, and apparently healthy field animals were studied to provide data regarding the normal values of some hepatic trace elements. Liver samples were collected during postmortem examination, digested, and analyzed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Co, and Mn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the differences in mean liver concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Co between camels, sheep, and goats were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Hepatic Cu, Fe, and Co concentrations were higher in camels than in sheep and goats. All liver samples were adequate for Fe and Co, whereas only camel liver was adequate for Cu. In camels, hepatic Zn concentration was inadequately lower than that in sheep and goats. No difference in Mn concentration was detected between camels, sheep, and goats. All liver samples were inadequate compared to free-ranging herbivores. In camels, significant correlation (r2 = ?0.207, P value = 0.04) was detected between Zn and Co, whereas in sheep significant correlation (r2 = ?0.444, P value = 0.026) was detected between Zn and Mn. No significant correlation between trace elements was detected in goats. PMID:26464909

  16. Uterine biology in pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

  17. Emergence of insulin resistance in juvenile baboon offspring of mothers exposed to moderate maternal nutrient reduction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehyek; Li, Cun; McDonald, Thomas J; Comuzzie, Anthony; Mattern, Vicki; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Developmental programming of postnatal pancreatic ?-cell and peripheral insulin function by maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) has been extensively investigated in rodents and sheep, but no data exist from nonhuman primate offspring of MNR mothers. We hypothesized that moderate levels of MNR would result in developmental programming of postnatal ?-cell function and peripheral insulin sensitivity that lead to emergence of a prediabetic state prior to puberty. Prepregnancy phenotype of 18 nonpregnant baboons was matched. During pregnancy and lactation 12 mothers ate chow ad libitum (controls), while six ate 70% of chow consumed by controls (weight-adjusted MNR). Weaned offspring ate normal chow. At 3.5 0.18 yr (mean SE) in an intravenous glucose tolerance test, conscious, tethered MNR juvenile offspring (2 females and 4 males) showed increased fasting glucose (P < 0.04), fasting insulin (P < 0.04), and insulin area under the curve (AUC; P < 0.01) compared with controls (8 females and 4 males). Insulin AUC also increased following an arginine challenge (P < 0.02). Baseline homeostatic model assessment insulin ?-cell sensitivity was greater in MNR offspring than controls (P < 0.03). In a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp, the glucose disposal rate decreased 26% in MNR offspring. Changes observed were not sex dependent. MNR in pregnancy and lactation programs offspring metabolic responses, increasing insulin resistance and ?-cell responsiveness, resulting in emergence of an overall phenotype that would predispose to later life type-2 diabetes, especially, should other dietary challenges such as a Westernized diet be experienced. PMID:21653880

  18. Emergence of insulin resistance in juvenile baboon offspring of mothers exposed to moderate maternal nutrient reduction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaehyek; Li, Cun; McDonald, Thomas J.; Comuzzie, Anthony; Mattern, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Developmental programming of postnatal pancreatic ?-cell and peripheral insulin function by maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) has been extensively investigated in rodents and sheep, but no data exist from nonhuman primate offspring of MNR mothers. We hypothesized that moderate levels of MNR would result in developmental programming of postnatal ?-cell function and peripheral insulin sensitivity that lead to emergence of a prediabetic state prior to puberty. Prepregnancy phenotype of 18 nonpregnant baboons was matched. During pregnancy and lactation 12 mothers ate chow ad libitum (controls), while six ate 70% of chow consumed by controls (weight-adjusted MNR). Weaned offspring ate normal chow. At 3.5 0.18 yr (mean SE) in an intravenous glucose tolerance test, conscious, tethered MNR juvenile offspring (2 females and 4 males) showed increased fasting glucose (P < 0.04), fasting insulin (P < 0.04), and insulin area under the curve (AUC; P < 0.01) compared with controls (8 females and 4 males). Insulin AUC also increased following an arginine challenge (P < 0.02). Baseline homeostatic model assessment insulin ?-cell sensitivity was greater in MNR offspring than controls (P < 0.03). In a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp, the glucose disposal rate decreased 26% in MNR offspring. Changes observed were not sex dependent. MNR in pregnancy and lactation programs offspring metabolic responses, increasing insulin resistance and ?-cell responsiveness, resulting in emergence of an overall phenotype that would predispose to later life type-2 diabetes, especially, should other dietary challenges such as a Westernized diet be experienced. PMID:21653880

  19. Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant in Brazil that often poisons sheep. Conditioned food aversion may be a tool to reduce intoxication problems in grazing sheep. Fifteen sheep were adapted to consume I. carnea for 36 days. Subsequently sheep were randomly divided into three groups of five sheep each. ...

  20. Impaired ability to modulate glomerular filtration rate in aged female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Singh, Reetu R.; Hilliard, Lucinda M.; Moritz, Karen M.; Denton, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal uninephrectomy (uni?x) results in hypertension at a later age in female than male sheep. We hypothesized that dysregulation of tubular sodium handling contributes to the reduced ability to regulate extracellular fluid (ECF) homeostasis in older females born with a congenital nephron deficit. Following renal excretory balance studies, the response to inhibition of the Na+K+2Cl? cotransporter with furosemide (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 1 mg/kg per hour, i.v) or vehicle treatment was examined in conscious 5?year?old female uni?x (n = 7) and sham (n = 7) sheep. Balance studies in meal?fed sheep demonstrated that while average 24 h sodium excretion over 6 days was not different between the groups, the daily variation in sodium excretion was significantly greater in uni?x compared to sham sheep (31 4% vs. 12 2%; P < 0.001). Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal cortical cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) gene expression were lower in uni?x sheep (both, P < 0.01). The increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow observed in sham sheep in response to furosemide were significantly attenuated in uni?x sheep (both PGROUPTREAT < 0.05). However, fractional sodium excretion increased by a greater extent in the uni?x (4.4 1.0%) as compared to the sham sheep (2.0 0.4%; PGROUPTIME < 0.05) in response to furosemide. In conclusion, fetal uni?x was associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in aged females. The impaired ability to modulate PRA and GFR in the adults with a congenital nephron deficit may reduce the capacity of the kidney to respond to gains or losses in ECF to maintain a stable internal environment. PMID:24744887

  1. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more importantly, product availability have led to a move away from more traditional methods of pesticide application, particularly dipping, to the use of injectable endectocides. This has coincided with increased reports of sheep scab and lice infestations in some countries. Reduction in the use of organophosphate dips appears to have to some extent contributed to reported increased populations of ticks and tick activity, a consequence of which is not only of significance to sheep, but also many other hosts, including increased human zoonotic risks. PMID:22525586

  2. ACTH-elicited sodium appetite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Weisinger, R S; Coghlan, J P; Denton, D A; Fan, J S; Hatzikostas, S; McKinley, M J; Nelson, J F; Scoggins, B A

    1980-07-01

    Intramuscular injections of long-acting synthetic ACTH (45 U twice daily for 5 days) caused a large increase in the intake of 0.5 M NaCl in sheep. Mean Na intake of the sheep on the last 3 days of treatment approximated 50% of their total extracellular fluid Na. The mineral appetite was specific for NaCl. Intakes of 0.5 M KCl or 0.25 M CaCl2 were not significantly altered. The enhanced appetite for Na induced by ACTH appeared to precede any increase in urinary Na excretion. ACTH treatment was ineffective in adrenalectomized sheep. However, an infusion into adrenalectomized sheep of a combination of adrenal steroid hormones (including aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, and corticosterone) that contrived blood levels similar to those, obtained with ACTH treatment in normal sheep did induce Na appetite. Thus, ACTH induces a specific, adrenal-steroid hormone-dependent Na appetite in sheep. PMID:6249125

  3. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  4. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    PubMed

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

  5. Conservation genetics in Chinese sheep: diversity of fourteen indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Zhong, Tao; Ma, Yue-Hui; Gao, Hui-Jiang; He, Jian-Ning; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Huang, Yong-Fu

    2016-02-01

    The domestic sheep (Ovis aries) has been an economically and culturally important farm animal species since its domestication around the world. A wide array of sheep breeds with abundant phenotypic diversity exists including domestication and selection as well as the indigenous breeds may harbor specific features as a result of adaptation to their environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the population structure of indigenous sheep in a large geographic location of the Chinese mainland. Six microsatellites were genotyped for 611 individuals from 14 populations. The mean number of alleles (±SD) ranged from 7.00 ± 3.69 in Gangba sheep to 10.50 ± 4.23 in Tibetan sheep. The observed heterozygote frequency (±SD) within a population ranged from 0.58 ± 0.03 in Gangba sheep to 0.71 ± 0.03 in Zazakh sheep and Minxian black fur sheep. In addition, there was a low pairwise difference among the Minxian black fur sheep, Mongolian sheep, Gansu alpine merino, and Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. Bayesian analysis with the program STRUCTURE showed support for 3 clusters, revealing a vague genetic clustering pattern with geographic location. The results of the current study inferred high genetic diversity within these native sheep in the Chinese mainland. PMID:26865968

  6. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  7. Amino acids in sheep production.

    PubMed

    McCoard, Susan A; Sales, Francisco A; Sciascia, Quentin L

    2016-01-01

    Increasing production efficiency with a high standard of animal welfare and respect for the environment is a goal of sheep farming systems. Substantial gains in productivity have been achieved through improved genetics, nutrition and management changes; however the survival and growth performance of multiple-born lambs still remains a problem. This is a significant production efficiency and animal well-being issue. There is a growing body of evidence that some amino acids have a role in regulating growth, reproduction and immunity through modulation of metabolic and cell signaling pathways. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is currently known about the role of amino acids in sheep production and the potential for supplementation strategies to influence on-farm survival and growth of lambs. PMID:26709661

  8. A kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic comparison of stooped sheep shearing techniques and shearing with a sheep manipulator.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R N; Burnett, A F

    2004-03-01

    Traditional sheep shearing methods require workers to adopt postures where the trunk is approximately horizontal and held in that position against gravity for long periods of time. The objective of this study was to examine the biomechanics of stooped shearing techniques and to compare the effectiveness of a new sheep manipulator in reducing the frequency of these postures and the changes in low back forces and electromyographic (EMG) activity. Five male shearers were filmed using three video cameras and EMG and three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data were derived during seven segments of the shearing action. Kinematic data were used to calculate the L5/S1 compressive and shear forces using the 3D Static Strength Prediction Program(TM). Results showed the low back forces in stooped shearing were typically between 2200 and 3000N. Also, the sheep manipulator effectively allowed the shearers to maintain a more upright posture (mean trunk angle >65 degrees) which decreased the compressive (maximum <1350N) and shear (maximum <260N) forces at L5/S1. PMID:15105075

  9. Response to dietary tannin challenges in view of the browser/grazer dichotomy in an Ethiopian setting: Bonga sheep versus Kaffa goats.

    PubMed

    Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Ribeiro Alves Lourenço, Marta; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36 % Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9 % Ficus elastica (FE) + 55 % FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47 % more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9 % when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P < 0.001). The addition of PEG as a tannin binder improved digestion and performance in both species, but with the highest effect size in sheep. PMID:26519145

  10. Sheep shearing and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Irandoust, Shabnum; Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    A 29-year-old sheep shearer collapsed after walking across a shearing shed floor, holding his hand over an incised wound to his neck. Attempted resuscitation was unsuccessful. At the death scene fine arterial blood spatter was noted and at autopsy a single incised wound to the neck was observed, the patterned edges of which corresponded to the teeth of the shears. Dissection revealed injury to the underlying jugular vein and the mid portion of the common carotid artery. Death was attributed to blood loss from an incised wound of the left side of the neck. This case demonstrates the rare event of an accidental death related to the actions of a sheep. Although a relatively small animal, review of the circumstances and interviews with those present revealed that sudden and unexpected movement of the sheep during shearing had caused the shearer to lose control of his electrical shears resulting in a lethal incised wound to the neck. The blood spatter pattern at the scene was supportive of both witness descriptions and the findings at autopsy. PMID:24237795

  11. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ? 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    PubMed

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mnica Sarolli Silva de Mendona; Costa, Luiz Antnio de Mendona; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir Jos

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (? 50%) or lower (? 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ? 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer. PMID:26341827

  12. Male development.

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    The features that differentiate the C. elegans male from the hermaphrodite arise during postembryonic development. The major male mating structures, consisting of the blunt tail with fan and rays, the hook, the spicules and proctodeum, and the thin body, form just before the last larval molt. Male and hermaphrodite embryogenesis are similar but some essential male cell fates are already established at hatching. The male mating structures arise from three important sets of male-specific blast cells. These cells generate a total of 205 male-specific somatic cells, including 89 neurons, 36 neuronal support cells, 41 muscles, 23 cells involved in differentiating the hindgut, and 16 hypodermal cells associated with mating structures. Genetic and molecular studies have identified many genes required for male development, most of which also function in the hermaphrodite. Cell-cell interactions play a role in patterning all three of the generative tissues. Male-specific neurons, including sensory neurons of the rays, hook, post-cloacal sensilla, and spicules, differentiate at the end of the last larval stage and send out axons to make connections into the existing neuropil, greatly enlarging the posterior ganglia. The hindgut is highly differentiated to accommodate the spicules and the joining of the reproductive tract to the cloaca. A complex male-specific program generates many new muscles for copulation. The cell lineage and genetic program that gives rise to the one-armed male gonad appears to be a variation on that of the hermaphrodite. PMID:18050419

  13. NUTRIENT VARIABILITY IN MANURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR SAMPLING AND REGIONAL DATABASE CREATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The variability of manure nutrient levels within and across farms makes manure sampling and development of reliable tabular values challenging. The chemical characteristics of beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and chicken solid manures in Colorado were evaluated by sampling six to ten different livestock o...

  14. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirn, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  15. Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (≤50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

  16. Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Castro, Márcio Botelho de

    2014-06-01

    Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n = 12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The mean serum activities of γ-glutamyltransferase in the sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures. The saponin (protodioscin) concentrations in the pastures varied from 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg DM in B. decumbens, from 2.8 to 9.1 g/kg DM in B. brizantha, and from 1 to 1.5 g/kg DM in A. gayanus. No saponins were found in P. maximum. It is concluded that sheep from flocks reared in pastures of B. decumbens and B. brizantha were resistant to steroidal saponin poisoning and showed similar weight gains to those of sheep grazing in other tropical pastures. PMID:24557590

  17. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the Pasteurellaceae distribution between the White Mountains bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. PMID:19901369

  18. Sheep as an important source of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre

    2014-08-27

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a globally important foodborne pathogen and has been mainly associated with cattle as the reservoir. However, accumulating data shows the importance of sheep as an E. coli O157:H7 vehicle. The presence of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in recto-anal mucosal swap and carcass sponge samples of 100 sheep brought to the slaughterhouse in Kirikkale were analyzed over a year. Molecular characteristics (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3, espA, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?1, eae-?2/?, stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f, stx2g, blaampC, tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), sul1, sul2, floR, cmlA, strA, strB and aadA) of 79 isolates were determined and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 different antibiotics were investigated. E. coli O157/O157:H7 was found in 18% of sheep included in the study and was more prevalent in yearlings than lambs and mature sheep, and male than female sheep, though none of the categories (season, sex or age range) had significant effect on prevalence. Furthermore, Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 was determined in 2% and 8% of sheep feces and carcasses, respectively. Additionally, lpfA1-3 and eae-?1 were detected in all isolates. None of the isolates showed resistance against investigated antibiotics, even though 4 sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157 isolates were positive for tet(A), sul1 and aadA. This is the first study in Turkey that reveals the potential public health risk due to the contamination of sheep carcasses with potentially highly pathogenic STEC O157:H7 strains. PMID:25042529

  19. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception. PMID:23226635

  20. QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

    2012-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in malemale combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep. PMID:21847139

  1. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  2. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  3. Glacier National Park Bighorn Sheep Studies

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS studies bighorn sheep movements, population structures, and habitat use in and near Glacier National Park. Here, USGS scientist Tabitha Graves sets up remote camera at a salt lick in the park as a sheep stands in background....

  4. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in brazilian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 125 sheep between January and December 2007, on ten farms in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium. Ninety samples were collected from lambs 2 to 6 months of age, and 35 were from sheep over 12 months of age. All samples were...

  5. Identification of atypical scrapie in Canadian sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats, exists in most small ruminant producing countries of the world. An atypical form of this disease, originally termed Nor98, was discovered in large abattoir surveillance of clinically normal, predominantly older sheep and rarely ...

  6. Salads and nutrients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be a good way to get your daily nutrients. Salads can also supply extra daily fiber. However, ... salad, then you are getting healthy, disease-fighting nutrients. Beware of the extra items you add to ...

  7. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  8. The host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M

    2015-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845

  9. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alton C S; Weiser, Glen C; Anderson, Bruce C; Cummings, Patrick J; Arnold, Karen F; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host-parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  10. NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

  11. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  12. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  13. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  14. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  15. 9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113... Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two sheep of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  16. Use of probiotics to reduce faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rigobelo, E E C; Karapetkov, N; Maest, S A; Avila, F A; McIntosh, D

    2015-03-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic, foodborne pathogens of humans. Ruminants, including sheep, are the primary reservoirs of STEC and there is a need to develop intervention strategies to reduce the entry of STEC into the food chain. The initiation of the majority of bacterial, enteric infections involves colonisation of the gut mucosal surface by the pathogen. However, probiotic bacteria can serve to decrease the severity of infection via a number of mechanisms including competition for receptors and nutrients, and/or the synthesis of organic acids and bacteriocins that create an environment unfavourable for pathogen development. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the administration of a probiotic mixture to sheep experimentally infected with a non-O157 STEC strain, carrying stx1, stx2 and eae genes, was able to decrease faecal shedding of the pathogen. The probiotic mixture contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The numbers of non-O157 STEC in faecal samples collected from sheep receiving daily doses of the probiotic mixture were significantly lower at the 3rd, 5th and 6th week post-inoculation when compared to the levels recorded in untreated animals. It was concluded that administration of the probiotic mixture reduced faecal shedding of non-O157 STEC in sheep, and holds potential as a pre-harvest intervention method to reduce transmission to humans. PMID:25380795

  17. Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883

  18. Sex chromosome chimerism and the freemartin syndrome in Rideau Arcott sheep.

    PubMed

    Brace, M D; Peters, O; Menzies, P; King, W A; Nino-Soto, M I

    2008-01-01

    In cattle, nearly all heifers born co-twin to a male are freemartins, XX/XY chimeras that exhibit a characteristic masculinized phenotype. However, in sheep, while litters containing males and females are common, freemartins are relatively rare. The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency and features of XX/XY chimerism in female Rideau Arcott sheep. Also, breeding records were used to investigate the effect of litter size and sex ratios, as well as the genetic basis of the condition. Finally, the migration and transcriptional competence of cells of the opposite sex in the XX/XY female and male chimeras was explored. Genomic DNA (gDNA) from peripheral blood cells of ewes was screened by PCR for the male-specific SRY gene. Of 230 lambs screened, 10 were identified as chimeras. Litter size and sex ratio showed no statistically significant effect on the frequency of chimerism. PCR and FISH analysis confirmed the presence of opposite sex cells in female and male chimeras, and in the case of ewes, their migration to tissues other than blood. Transcriptional activity of SRY and AMH was detected in gonads of ewes, whereas XIST expression was detected in white blood cells of chimeric rams. It was concluded that the frequency of sex chromosome chimerism in Rideau Arcott sheep is estimated at 4.35%, with no significant effect of litter size and sex ratio. Moreover, as it was shown that opposite sex cells can migrate to tissues other than blood and be transcriptionally active in chimeric sheep, we speculate on the role they can play in these animals. PMID:18467837

  19. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  20. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Ct, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (?3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (?2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean1 SD) was 11.99.2 and 15.813.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  1. Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... men who are older than 35). Sometimes the cause of male infertility cannot be identified. In these cases, there may be an underlying genetic problem. Diagnosis & Tests Should men be checked for ...

  2. Rumen protozoa in South African sheep with a summary of the worldwide distribution of sheep protozoa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk; Dehority, Burk A

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa species were identified in rumen contents of four domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from South Africa. All animals were fed a forage diet which consisted of 50% lucerne and 50% teff hay. Ten new host records were identified, bringing the total number of species and forms observed in sheep in South Africa to 30. The occurrence and geographic distribution of ciliate protozoa in both domestic and wild sheep from around the world are summarised. It was found that 15 genera and 131 species occur in domestic sheep globally. PMID:23327210

  3. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management considerations for animal health authorities. Although concerns of vaccine efficacy, safety and issues with diagnosis and administration persist, vaccination is increasingly recognized as providing a robust strategy for managing paratuberculosis, having made important contributions to the health of Australian sheep and the lives of producers with affected properties, and offering a mechanism to reduce risk of infection entering the food chain in ovine and caprine products. PMID:26255556

  4. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "nave"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The nave group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

  5. A novel sheep gene, MMP7, differentially expressed in muscles from black-boned sheep and local common sheep.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, L; Shizheng, G

    2009-01-01

    Differences in gene expression in muscles from Chinese black-boned sheep and local common sheep were investigated using mRNA differential display. One differentially expressed novel gene was identified through semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the full-length cDNA sequence was then obtained using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The nucleotide sequence of this gene is not homologous to any of the known sheep genes, but it contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 416 amino acids, which has high homology with matrix metallopeptidase 7 (matrilysin, uterine) (MMP7) of 10 species: bovine (93%), rhesus monkey (75%), human (74%), pig (73%), chimpanzee (73%), dog (73%), horse (72%), mouse (66%), rat (65%), and chicken (53%). Thus the novel gene can be defined as the sheep MMP7 gene. It was finally assigned to GeneID:100192317. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the sheep MMP7 gene is closely related to the bovine MMP7. Our experiment is the first one to establish the primary foundation for further research on the sheep MMP7 gene. PMID:19638681

  6. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2014-12-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent 'de-orphanization' of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  7. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Trovato, A; Nuhlicek, D N; Midtling, J E

    1991-11-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are a commonly overlooked aspect of the prescribing practices of physicians. As more pharmaceutical agents become available, attention should be focused on interactions of drugs with foods and nutrients. Although drug-nutrient interactions are not as common as drug-drug interactions, they can have an impact on therapeutic outcome. Drugs can affect nutritional status by altering nutrient absorption, metabolism, utilization or excretion. Food, beverages and mineral or vitamin supplements can affect the absorption and effectiveness of drugs. Knowledge of drug-nutrient interactions can help reduce the incidence of these effects. Physicians should question patients about their dietary habits so that patients can be informed about possible interactions between a prescribed drug and foods and nutrients. PMID:1950962

  8. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  9. Persistent left superior vena cava in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Hanno; Uchida, Barry T; Monterroso, Victor H; Pavcnik, Dusan

    2006-05-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a rare finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of PLSVC in sheep. In this case, PLSVC was confirmed using angiography. PMID:16642974

  10. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  11. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander

    2013-07-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions are defined as physical, chemical, physiologic, or pathophysiologic relationships between a drug and a nutrient. The causes of most clinically significant drug-nutrient interactions are usually multifactorial. Failure to identify and properly manage drug-nutrient interactions can lead to very serious consequences and have a negative impact on patient outcomes. Nevertheless, with thorough review and assessment of the patient's history and treatment regimens and a carefully executed management strategy, adverse events associated with drug-nutrient interactions can be prevented. Based on the physiologic sequence of events after a drug or a nutrient has entered the body and the mechanism of interactions, drug-nutrient interactions can be categorized into 4 main types. Each type of interaction can be managed using similar strategies. The existing data that guide the clinical management of most drug-nutrient interactions are mostly anecdotal experience, uncontrolled observations, and opinions, whereas the science in understanding the mechanism of drug-nutrient interactions remains limited. The challenge for researchers and clinicians is to increase both basic and higher level clinical research in this field to bridge the gap between the science and practice. The research should aim to establish a better understanding of the function, regulation, and substrate specificity of the nutrient-related enzymes and transport proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as assess how the incidence and management of drug-nutrient interactions can be affected by sex, ethnicity, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms. This knowledge can help us develop a true personalized medicine approach in the prevention and management of drug-nutrient interactions. PMID:23674575

  12. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos.

    PubMed

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-03-22

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these 'reduced' embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using (14)C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that (14)C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant (14)C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

  13. Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesj, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonalves, Ins Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these reduced embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

  14. Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor. PMID:25040769

  15. Pathology of GM2 gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Lewis, B C; Edwards, J F; Alroy, J; Zeng, B J; Torres, P A; Bretzlaff, K N; Kolodny, E H

    2011-07-01

    The G(M2) gangliosidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for the enzyme hexosaminidase or the G(M2) activator protein. Four Jacob sheep from the same farm were examined over a 3-year period for a progressive neurologic disease. Two lambs were 6-month-old intact males and 2 were 8-month-old females. Clinical findings included ataxia in all 4 limbs, proprioceptive deficits, and cortical blindness. At necropsy, the nervous system appeared grossly normal. Histologically, most neurons within the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia were enlarged, and the cytoplasm was distended by foamy to granular material that stained positively with Luxol fast blue and Sudan black B stains. Other neuropathologic findings included widespread astrocytosis, microgliosis, and scattered spheroids. Electron microscopy revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the cytoplasm of neurons. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis of G(M2) gangliosidosis. This form of G(M2) gangliosidosis in Jacob sheep is very similar to human Tay-Sachs disease and is potentially a useful animal model. PMID:21123862

  16. Translational neurophysiology in sheep: measuring sleep and neurological dysfunction in CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep.

    PubMed

    Perentos, Nicholas; Martins, Amadeu Q; Watson, Thomas C; Bartsch, Ullrich; Mitchell, Nadia L; Palmer, David N; Jones, Matthew W; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    Creating valid mouse models of slowly progressing human neurological diseases is challenging, not least because the short lifespan of rodents confounds realistic modelling of disease time course. With their large brains and long lives, sheep offer significant advantages for translational studies of human disease. Here we used normal and CLN5 Batten disease affected sheep to demonstrate the use of the species for studying neurological function in a model of human disease. We show that electroencephalography can be used in sheep, and that longitudinal recordings spanning many months are possible. This is the first time such an electroencephalography study has been performed in sheep. We characterized sleep in sheep, quantifying characteristic vigilance states and neurophysiological hallmarks such as sleep spindles. Mild sleep abnormalities and abnormal epileptiform waveforms were found in the electroencephalographies of Batten disease affected sheep. These abnormalities resemble the epileptiform activity seen in children with Batten disease and demonstrate the translational relevance of both the technique and the model. Given that both spontaneous and engineered sheep models of human neurodegenerative diseases already exist, sheep constitute a powerful species in which longitudinal in vivo studies can be conducted. This will advance our understanding of normal brain function and improve our capacity for translational research into neurological disorders. PMID:25724202

  17. Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

  18. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; da Conceição Dos Santos, Rozilda; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain. PMID:26873156

  19. Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm2, P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm2, P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

  20. Prediction of nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations in fresh grass using nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Allen, M; Chen, X J; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-05-01

    Improved nutrient utilization efficiency is strongly related to enhanced economic performance and reduced environmental footprint of dairy farms. Pasture-based systems are widely used for dairy production in certain areas of the world, but prediction equations of fresh grass nutritive value (nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations) are limited. Equations to predict digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) used for grazing cattle have been either developed with cattle fed conserved forage and concentrate diets or sheep fed previously frozen grass, and the majority of them require measurements less commonly available to producers, such as nutrient digestibility. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop prediction equations more suitable to grazing cattle for nutrient digestibility and energy concentrations, which are routinely available at farm level by using grass nutrient contents as predictors. A study with 33 nonpregnant, nonlactating cows fed solely fresh-cut grass at maintenance energy level for 50 wk was carried out over 3 consecutive grazing seasons. Freshly harvested grass of 3 cuts (primary growth and first and second regrowth), 9 fertilizer input levels, and contrasting stage of maturity (3 to 9 wk after harvest) was used, thus ensuring a wide representation of nutritional quality. As a result, a large variation existed in digestibility of dry matter (0.642-0.900) and digestible organic matter in dry matter (0.636-0.851) and in concentrations of DE (11.8-16.7 MJ/kg of dry matter) and ME (9.0-14.1 MJ/kg of dry matter). Nutrient digestibilities and DE and ME concentrations were negatively related to grass neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents but positively related to nitrogen (N), gross energy, and ether extract (EE) contents. For each predicted variable (nutrient digestibilities or energy concentrations), different combinations of predictors (grass chemical composition) were found to be significant and increase the explained variation. For example, relatively higher R(2) values were found for prediction of N digestibility using N and EE as predictors; gross-energy digestibility using EE, NDF, ADF, and ash; NDF, ADF, and organic matter digestibilities using N, water-soluble carbohydrates, EE, and NDF; digestible organic matter in dry matter using water-soluble carbohydrates, EE, NDF, and ADF; DE concentration using gross energy, EE, NDF, ADF, and ash; and ME concentration using N, EE, ADF, and ash. Equations presented may allow a relatively quick and easy prediction of grass quality and, hence, better grazing utilization on commercial and research farms, where nutrient composition falls within the range assessed in the current study. PMID:25747838

  1. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep. PMID:24200569

  2. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  3. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  5. Treatment of mange infection in a weaner flock of sheep with ivermectin at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif; Baba, M Ashraf; Shah, Maroof; Mushtaq, Iram; Sakina, Abeen; Wani, Shamim

    2015-06-01

    An outbreak of Sarcoptes scabiei mange occured in a weaner flock that comprised of 74 animals including 31 male and 43 female at sheep breeding farm Hardishiva of Kashmir valley. All the animals in the flock were affected. Animals were very weak and emaciated skin lesions were confined to the lips, nostrils, ears, face, and were characterized by pruritus, erythema, papule formation, alopecia and scab formation. Microscopic examination of skin scraping revealed S. scabiei mange infestation. The affected animals were treated with ivermectin at 1ml/50kg b.wt. S/C, as single dose along with supportive therapy. 7th day post treatment scrapping examinations revealed absence of mites or their eggs in these scrapings. PMID:26063994

  6. Mass sperm motility is associated with fertility in sheep.

    PubMed

    David, Ingrid; Kohnke, Philippa; Lagriffoul, Gilles; Praud, Olivier; Plouarbou, Franck; Degond, Pierre; Druart, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    The study was to focus on the relationship between wave motion (mass sperm motility, measured by a mass sperm motility score, manually assessed by artificial insemination (AI) center operators) and fertility in male sheep. A dataset of 711,562 artificial inseminations performed in seven breeds by five French AI centers during the 2001-2005 time period was used for the analysis. Factors influencing the outcome of the insemination, which is a binary response observed at lambing of either success (1) or failure (0), were studied using a joint model within each breed and AI center (eight separate analyses). The joint model is a multivariate model where all information related to the female, the male and the insemination process were included to improve the estimation of the factor effects. Results were consistent for all analyses. The male factors affecting AI results were the age of the ram and the mass motility. After correction for the other factors of variation, the lambing rate increased quasi linearly from three to more than ten points with the mass sperm motility score depending on the breed and the AI center. The consistency of the relationship for all breeds indicated that mass sperm motility is predictive of the fertility resulting when sperm are used from a specific ejaculate. Nonetheless, predictability could be improved if an objective measurement of mass sperm motility were available as a substitute for the subjective scoring currently in use in AI centers. PMID:26364125

  7. Proteomic evaluation of sheep serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The applications of proteomic strategies to ovine medicine remain limited. The definition of serum proteome may be a good tool to identify useful protein biomarkers for recognising sub-clinical conditions and overt disease in sheep. Findings from bovine species are often directly translated for use in ovine medicine. In order to characterize normal protein patterns and improve knowledge of molecular species-specific characteristics, we generated a two-dimensional reference map of sheep serum. The possible application of this approach was tested by analysing serum protein patterns in ewes with mild broncho-pulmonary disease, which is very common in sheep and in the peripartum period which is a stressful time, with a high incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases. Results This study generated the first reference 2-DE maps of sheep serum. Overall, 250 protein spots were analyzed, and 138 identified. Compared with healthy sheep, serum protein profiles of animals with rhino-tracheo-bronchitis showed a significant decrease in protein spots identified as transthyretin, apolipoprotein A1 and a significant increase in spots identified as haptoglobin, endopin 1b and alpha1B glycoprotein. In the peripartum period, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein A1 levels rose, while transthyretin content dropped. Conclusions This study describes applications of proteomics in putative biomarker discovery for early diagnosis as well as for monitoring the physiological and metabolic situations critical for ovine welfare. PMID:22630135

  8. 4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Male Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Wieland; Wagner, Isabel V; Kratzsch, Jrgen; Krner, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Many cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal studies have examined the association between adiposity and pubertal development. In addition, the impact of an increased fat mass on reproduction and fertility in human obese men and in male animal models of obesity has been studied. A trend toward earlier pubertal development and maturation in both sexes has been shown, and the notion that obese boys might progress to puberty at a slower pace than their nonobese peers can no longer be substantiated. Impaired fertility markers and reduced reproductive functions have been observed in obesity. Obesity affects both pubertal development and fertility in men. PMID:26568491

  10. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  11. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  12. Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Biology and Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hofacre, Andrew; Fan, Hung

    2010-01-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a lung cancer in sheep known as ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The disease has been identified around the world in several breeds of sheep and goats, and JSRV infection typically has a serious impact on affected flocks. In addition, studies on OPA are an excellent model for human lung carcinogenesis. A unique feature of JSRV is that its envelope (Env) protein functions as an oncogene. The JSRV Env-induced transformation or oncogenesis has been studied in a variety of cell systems and in animal models. Moreover, JSRV studies have provided insights into retroviral genomic RNA export/expression mechanisms. JSRV encodes a trans-acting factor (Rej) within the env gene necessary for the synthesis of Gag protein from unspliced viral RNA. This review summarizes research pertaining to JSRV-induced pathogenesis, Env transformation, and other aspects of JSRV biology. PMID:21994634

  13. Elaeophorosis in bighorn sheep in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W; Fisher, A; Provencio, H; Rominger, E; Thilsted, J; Ahlm, M

    1999-10-01

    Two bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in New Mexico (USA) were found to be naturally infected with Elaeophora schneideri. An adult ram examined in 1997 in the Fra Cristobal Mountains had 26 nematodes in the carotid and iliac arteries, and microfilariae were present in the skin, nasal mucosa, brain, and lungs. This ram was markedly debilitated prior to euthanasia and extensive crusty, scabby lesions were observed on its head. In 1998, a yearling ewe found dead adjacent to Watson Mountain near the Gila Wilderness area was found to have 13 nematodes present in its heart. This is the first report of E. schneideri in bighorn sheep, and we suggest that bighorn sheep are susceptible to E. schneideri infection wherever they coexist with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and appropriate tabanid vectors. PMID:10574542

  14. [Assessment of noise exposure in sheep].

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Wechsler, B

    2013-02-01

    The behaviour of sheep was recorded as a reaction to the sound pressure levels caused by shooting with heavy machine guns. The reactions varied in intensity depending on the distance of the source of the noise from the fold. In the case of salvoes that were fired in the immediate vicinity of the fold and were associated with sound pressure levels higher than 120 dB (LCpeak), the sheep reacted with marked fright reactions, and no adaptation to the shooting noise was observed. It is concluded that the tolerable maximum noise level for sheep with this kind of noise source is likely to be less than 120 dB (LCpeak). PMID:23385071

  15. Update on trematode infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Vzquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcrcel, F; Martnez-Valladares, M

    2012-09-30

    Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. PMID:22521973

  16. Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic vasculitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, C A

    1994-01-01

    Lymphocytic enteritis and systemic lymphocytic vasculitis may be a new or previously unrecognized syndrome in sheep suffering from chronic wasting. Seven cases in three separate flocks were seen over an eight-year period at Veterinary Laboratory Services in Brighton, Ontario. Most of the animals were between five and twelve months of age and exhibited weight loss and inappetance, with or without diarrhea. All were Suffolks or crossbred Suffolks. In one of the flocks, there were also several sheep with lymphoma. Postmortem examination of carcasses and ancillary testing did not reveal an etiology; however, the intestinal and vascular lesions resembled those described in certain viral diseases, such as malignant catarrhal fever and Border disease, and immune-mediated diseases, such as polyarteritis nodosa. Submission for necropsy of sheep that exhibit signs of chronic wasting is encouraged, to help establish the etiology of the disease and its significance to the industry. Images Figure 1. PMID:7994703

  17. Drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J A

    1995-10-01

    Nutrition status plays a significant role in a drug's pharmacodynamics. Some disease states and other special conditions affect nutrient status and a drug's therapeutic efficacy. Many classes of drugs, including antimicrobials, hypoglycemics, and hypocholesterolemic agents, can be affected by the presence of food, with the geriatric patient particularly at risk. While a drug's pharmacokinetic profile can usually be predicted, it can be modified by nutrients and by certain pathophysiologic conditions, including aging, hepatic dysfunction, and micronutrients. PMID:8584285

  18. Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran.

    PubMed

    Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

  19. Antimicrobial use in the Alberta sheep industry

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Brent P.; Raji?, Andrijana; McFall, Margaret; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne E.; Irwin, Rebecca J.; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding antimicrobial use in sheep is scarce. In 2001, a scrapie surveillance program was initiated in Alberta that also provided a mechanism for collecting other sheep health data including antimicrobial use information between April 2001 and April 2002. A major objective of this study was to describe antimicrobial use in the Alberta sheep industry. This was done by obtaining qualitative antimicrobial use information from all flocks (n = 212) providing cull ewes to the program using a brief, primarily flock-level, questionnaire. The respondents flocks represented 13.6% of the total provincial flock in Alberta in 2001. By a substantial amount, the most frequent method of administering antimicrobials was through injection followed by in-feed, oral (liquids, pills, boluses), and in-water routes, respectively. Drug-specific use data were collected for injectable antimicrobials only, with the most commonly used antimicrobial classes being penicillins followed by tetracyclines. Producers rarely treated some or all of their flock with injectable antimicrobials after discovering an individual sick animal. Adult sheep were the most common age group treated with injectable antimicrobials and the most frequent reason for injectable antimicrobial use was mastitis followed by respiratory problems. This study provides some initial insight regarding antimicrobial use in Alberta sheep flocks. However, collection of more drug-specific data (drug type, dose/concentration, duration of treatment) for noninjectable routes of administration should be conducted in future studies. Assessing antimicrobial use in other sectors of the Alberta sheep industry (feedlots) and other provinces across Canada would also be beneficial. PMID:18505202

  20. Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paola A; Zeng, Bai Jin; Porter, Brian F; Alroy, Joseph; Horak, Fred; Horak, Joan; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2010-12-01

    Autopsy studies of four Jacob sheep dying within their first 6-8 months of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder suggested the presence of a neuronal storage disease. Lysosomal enzyme studies of brain and liver from an affected animal revealed diminished activity of hexosaminidase A (Hex A) measured with an artificial substrate specific for this component of β-hexosaminidase. Absence of Hex A activity was confirmed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Brain lipid analyses demonstrated the presence of increased concentrations of G(M2)-ganglioside and asialo-G(M2)-ganglioside. The hexa cDNA of Jacob sheep was cloned and sequenced revealing an identical number of nucleotides and exons as in human HexA and 86% homology in nucleotide sequence. A missense mutation was found in the hexa cDNA of the affected sheep caused by a single nucleotide change at the end of exon 11 resulting in skipping of exon 11. Transfection of normal sheep hexa cDNA into COS1 cells and human Hex A-deficient cells led to expression of Hex S but no increase in Hex A indicating absence of cross-species dimerization of sheep Hex α-subunit with human Hex β-subunits. Using restriction site analysis, the heterozygote frequency of this mutation in Jacob sheep was determined in three geographically separate flocks to average 14%. This large naturally occurring animal model of Tay-Sachs disease is the first to offer promise as a means for trials of gene therapy applicable to human infants. PMID:20817517

  1. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  2. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 NDL Home Food Search Nutrients List Ground Beef Calculator Documentation and Help API ...

  3. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  4. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  5. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  6. Protection of Sheep against Rift Valley Fever Virus and Sheep Poxvirus with a Recombinant Capripoxvirus Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Reuben K.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; McGuire, Travis C.; Rwambo, Paul M.; DeMartini, James C.; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an epizootic viral disease of sheep that can be transmitted from sheep to humans, particularly by contact with aborted fetuses. A capripoxvirus (CPV) recombinant virus (rKS1/RVFV) was developed, which expressed the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Gn and Gc glycoproteins. These expressed glycoproteins had the correct size and reacted with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to native glycoproteins. Mice vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV were protected against RVFV challenge. Sheep vaccinated with rKS1/RVFV twice developed neutralizing antibodies and were significantly protected against RVFV and sheep poxvirus challenge. These findings further document the value of CPV recombinants as ruminant vaccine vectors and support the inclusion of RVFV genes encoding glycoproteins in multivalent recombinant vaccines to be used where RVF occurs. PMID:20876822

  7. Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms Across Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Wolfson, Rachel L.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    For organisms to coordinate their growth and development with nutrient availability they must be able to sense nutrient levels in their environment. Here, we review select nutrient sensing mechanisms in a few diverse organisms. We discuss how these mechanisms reflect the nutrient requirements of specific species and how they have adapted to the emergence of multicellularity in eukaryotes. PMID:25815986

  8. Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Garcia, Rasmo; Pires, Aureliano Jos Vieira; Silva, Robrio Rodrigues; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB) of the indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) internal markers. The study used eight Santa Ins castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg) distributed in two 44 Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg) distributed in two 44 Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 m2 individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage), corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets) fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05), indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of ?9.12% (p<0.05) in the sheep evaluation and ?3.02% (p<0.05) in the goat evaluation. PMID:25049707

  9. Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Garcia, Rasmo; Pires, Aureliano José Vieira; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Detmann, Edenio; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB) of the indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) internal markers. The study used eight Santa Inês castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg) distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg) distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 m(2) individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage), corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets) fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05), indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of -9.12% (p<0.05) in the sheep evaluation and -3.02% (p<0.05) in the goat evaluation. PMID:25049707

  10. Sex-specific effect of antenatal betamethasone exposure on renal oxidative stress induced by angiotensins in adult sheep

    PubMed Central

    Contag, Stephen A.; Chen, Kai; Su, Yixin; Figueroa, Jorge P.; Chappell, Mark C.; Rose, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal glucocorticoid administration in clinically relevant doses reduces nephron number and renal function in adulthood and is associated with hypertension. Nephron loss in early life may predispose the kidney to other insults later but whether sex influences increases in renal susceptibility is unclear. Therefore, we determined, in male and female adult sheep, whether antenatal glucocorticoid (betamethasone) exposure increased 8-isoprostane (marker of oxidative stress) and protein excretion after acute nephron reduction and intrarenal infusions of angiotensin peptides. We also examined whether renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) could contribute to alterations in 8-isoprostane excretion in a sex-specific fashion. In vivo, ANG II significantly increased 8-isoprostane excretion by 49% and protein excretion by 44% in male betamethasone- but not in female betamethasone- or vehicle-treated sheep. ANG-(1-7) decreased 8-isoprostane excretion but did not affect protein excretion in either group. In vitro, ANG II stimulated 8-isoprostane release from PTCs of male but not female betamethasone-treated sheep. Male betamethasone-exposed sheep had increased p47 phox abundance in the renal cortex while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased only in females. We conclude that antenatal glucocorticoid exposure enhances the susceptibility of the kidney to oxidative stress induced by ANG II in a sex-specific fashion and the renal proximal tubule is one target of the sex-specific effects of antenatal steroids. ANG-(1-7) may mitigate the impact of prenatal glucocorticoids on the kidney. P47 phox activation may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress and proteinuria in males. The protection from renal oxidative stress in females is associated with increased SOD activity. PMID:25209867

  11. Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muoz-Guzmn, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.220.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

  12. Single Base-Resolution Methylome of the Dizygotic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Su, Rui; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Sheep is an important livestock in the world for meat, dairy and wool production. The third version of sheep reference genome has been recently assembled, but sheep DNA methylome has not been profiled yet. In this study, we report the comprehensive sheep methylome with 94.38% cytosine coverage at single base resolution by sequencing DNA samples from Longissimus dorsi of dizygotic Sunit sheep, which were bred in different habitats. We also compared methylomes between the twin sheep. DNA methylation status at genome-scale differentially methylated regions (DMRs), functional genomic regions and 248 DMR-containing genes were identified between the twin sheep. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG annotations of these genes were performed to discover computationally predicted function. Lipid metabolism, sexual maturity and tumor-associated categories were observed to significantly enrich DMR-containing genes. These findings could be used to illustrate the relationship between phenotypic variations and gene methylation patterns. PMID:26536671

  13. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A C; Bellworthy, Sue J; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  14. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Gillian; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin; Dexter, Glenda; Hawkins, Steve A. C.; Bellworthy, Sue J.; Thurston, Lisa; Algar, Lynne; González, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports. PMID:26968011

  15. SITE AND EXENT OF DIGESTION, DUODENAL FLOW, AND INTESTINAL DISAPPEARANCE OF TOTAL AND ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS IN SHEEP FED A HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of ...

  16. Salivary prions in sheep and deer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scrapie is a prion disease transmitted naturally within affected host populations of sheep and goats. Although milk and placenta have been identified as sources of contagion for scrapie prions, these sources seem insufficient to explain either indirect or interspecies scrapie transmission. Here we s...

  17. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    PubMed

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem. PMID:16458357

  18. Monensin toxicosis in 2 sheep flocks.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A

    2001-01-01

    Several lambs in 2 sheep flocks died suddenly and others were examined for generalized weakness and dyspnea. Postmortem findings were suggestive of degenerative myocardial and skeletal muscle myopathy, which was confirmed histologically. Feed analysis revealed toxic levels of monensin and ionophore toxicosis was diagnosed. PMID:11272459

  19. Pasture management for sheep and goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

  20. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  1. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments §...

  2. Sheep Grazing Effects on Tall Forb Vegetation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial tall forb (PTF) communities are productive, high elevation, grazinglands characterized by a short growing season (<90 d) and abundant 0.5- to 1.5-m tall perennial forbs. In a southwest Montana study area, domestic sheep have grazed these communities from July 1 to August 15 each year prior...

  3. Editor, Sheep Production Handbook, Chapter entitled Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive efficiency, or percentage of lamb crop raised and marketed, is the major factor affecting profitability of a sheep flock. Frequently, an increased reproductive rate will be the most efficient way to increase income rather than an increase in numbers of ewes. Consequently, increasing th...

  4. Differential gene expression in ovaries of Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep using RNA-Seq technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han Ying; Shen, Hong; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Yong Sheng; Wang, Xu Hai; Zeng, Xian Cun

    2015-01-01

    The Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep are two local breeds in the Northwest of China, which are characterized by high-fecundity and low-fecundity breed respectively. The elucidation of mRNA expression profiles in the ovaries among different sheep breeds representing fecundity extremes will helpful for identification and utilization of major prolificacy genes in sheep. In the present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to compare the difference in ovarian mRNA expression profiles between Qira black sheep and Hetian sheep. From the Qira black sheep and the Hetian sheep libraries, we obtained a total of 11,747,582 and 11,879,968 sequencing reads, respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the two libraries included 16,763 and 16,814 genes respectively. A total of 1,252 genes were significantly differentially expressed at Hetian sheep compared with Qira black sheep. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected for validation by real-time RT-PCR. This study provides a basic data for future research of the sheep reproduction. PMID:25790350

  5. Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on nutrient availability to the fetus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of maternal Se intake and plane of nutrition during mid and/or late gestation on AA concentrations and metabolite levels in the dam and fetus, pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array: Se level [initiated at breed...

  6. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  7. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Lovari, S; Fattorini, N; Boesi, R; Bocci, A

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso-genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats. PMID:26105047

  8. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cows milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5.6% of goat and 3.9% sheep milk samples, with 33.3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  9. The effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism in mammary tissue of sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Kouri, Evangelia-Diamanto; Sotirakoglou, Kyriaki; Zervas, George

    2015-05-01

    Glucose utilisation for lactose synthesis in the mammary gland involves expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. In this study, the effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes [glucose transporter 1: GLUT1, glucose transporter 3: GLUT3, Sodium glucose contransporter 1: SGLT1, two isoforms of ?- (1,4) galactosyltransferase: ?- (1,4) GAT1, ?- (1,4) GAT3 and ?-lactalbumin: LALBA] related to glucose metabolism in sheep mammary tissue (MT) was examined. Twenty-four lactating dairy sheep were divided into three homogenous sub-groups and fed the same ration in quantities which met 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed a significant reduction on mRNA of GLUT1 and LALBA gene in the MT of underfed sheep, compared with the respective controls and overfed and a significant reduction on mRNA level of SGLT1 and ?- (1,4) GAT1 in the MT of underfed sheep, compared with the overfed ones. A significant increase in the GLUT3 mRNA accumulation in the MT of both under- and over- fed sheep was found. Additionally, a trend of reduction on ?- (1,4) GAT3 mRNA level in the MT of the underfed sheep, compared with the overfed, was observed. A close positive relationship was obtained between the mRNA transcripts accumulation of GLUT1, SGLT1, ?- (1,4) GAT1 and LALBA gene with the milk lactose content and milk lactose yield respectively. In conclusion, feeding level and consequently nutrient availability, may affect glucose uptake and utilisation in sheep MT by altering the GLUT1, GLUT3, SGLT1, ?- (1,4) GAT1 and LALBA gene expression involved in their metabolic pathways. PMID:25704663

  10. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 56% of goat and 39% sheep milk samples, with 333 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  11. Nutrient profiling: the new environment.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A

    2009-08-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, in their Technical Report, called for more research to develop a valid and scientific method for defining the nutrient density of foods that can ultimately be useful on labels to help people build healthier diets [1]. Nutrient profiling is the science of ranking foods based on nutrient composition. Over the past years, numerous nutrient-profiling systems have emerged to provide guidance on improving diet quality, resulting in a heightened awareness of a need for a standardized definition of nutrient density. While nutrient-profiling systems are meant to help individuals make healthier food choices, their introduction to the marketplace leaves many unanswered questions regarding both the development of a scientific definition of nutrient density and its consumer application. The goal of this article is to review the roles of nutrient density and nutrient profiling in providing consumer guidance. Specifically, this review will summarize the current nutrition environment and address the need for future research around nutrient-profiling systems as a means to define nutrient density. PMID:20368381

  12. Seroprevalence survey for Salmonella Abortusovis infection in Swiss sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Dittus, Sophie; Belloy, Luc; Hüssy, Daniela; Waldvogel, Andreas S; Doherr, Marcus G

    2010-11-01

    Between 1976 and 2003, no infections with Salmonella Abortusovis had been officially recorded in Switzerland. Since then, however, several sheep flocks were infected and suffered massive fetal losses suggesting a re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of S. Abortusovis infection in sheep in this country. A representative serum sample collected in 2007 in the context of certifying Brucella freedom included sera from 578 flocks with a total of 8426 sheep from all regions in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies specific for S. Abortusovis. The cantonal seroprevalence was estimated at the sheep as well as the flock-level by taking into account (a) all flocks with one or more seropositive sheep (Flock 1+) and (b) only the flocks with two or more seropositive sheep (Flock 2+). Flocks with seropositive sheep were found throughout the country with an overall sheep-level prevalence of 1.7%. At the flock-level, overall prevalences of 16.3% and 5.0% were found for Flock 1+ and Flock 2+ definitions, respectively. Significant sheep-level clusters were located in the cantons of Bern, the Valais and Graubünden, while significant flock-level clusters (Flock 1+ and Flock 2+) were located in the canton of Graubünden only. Our results indicate that exposure of Swiss sheep flocks to S. Abortusovis is wide-spread. PMID:20870306

  13. Cache Valley virus infection in Texas sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Chung, S I; Livingston, C W; Jones, C W; Collisson, E W

    1991-08-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV), an arbovirus indigenous to the United States, has been implicated as an important teratogenic agent in sheep. The prevalence and distribution of Texas sheep with CVV-specific antibody were investigated. In 1981, 19.1% of 366 sheep located in 22 counties of Texas had antibodies specific for CVV. Of 50 flocks examined in the major sheep-producing counties in Texas, 34 had sheep with antibodies that reacted with CVV, including all sheep tested in 6 flocks that were seropositive. Sera obtained from sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo between 1986 and 1989 were also examined for CVV-specific antibody because this flock was the subject of the episode of CVV-associated congenital malformations during the 1986 and 1987 lambing season. Approximately 8.6% of 104 sheep in 1986, 63.4% of 164 in 1987, 11.3% of 44 in 1988, and 71.9% of 89 in 1989 from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station at San Angelo tested were seropositive. The data indicate that CVV infections in sheep were widespread in Texas in 1981 and that the virus is enzootic in sheep at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in San Angelo, where the episode of congenital malformations had initially been reported in 1987. PMID:1917638

  14. Male Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss, Male Pattern Baldness (Male Pattern Alopecia) Information for ... A A This man has worsening male-pattern hair loss resulting from the medication Tenormin. Overview Male pattern ...

  15. Collecting Water Nutrient Data

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

  16. Nutrient element interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of overall tree physiological processes for optimization of either orchard yield or profitability is an annual challenge facing orchard managers. Optimization of chemical nutrient element concentrations within this context is often far more challenging than first appears. Tree or or...

  17. Nutrient Criteria Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

  18. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  19. Detection of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus in Costa Rican sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    Villagra-Blanco, R.; Dolz, G.; Montero-Caballero, D.; Romero-Zúñiga, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 359 sheep samples from 15 flocks were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila abortus using a commercial Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 19 (5.29%) sheep from 12 (80%) flocks. Seropositive animals were found in all analyzed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar and Central Pacific) determining prevalence between 0.28% and 4.4%, and intra-flock positivity between 3.7% and 25.0%. The survey revealed two risk factors associated with seropositivity; introducing animals (males and females), embryos, or semen from other farms or from abroad without any sanitary certification, and flocks not having quarantine areas or separated boxes for diseased animals. No clinical signs of disease were observed in positive seroreactors. C. abortus seems to be present in Costa Rica in a very low prevalence in sheep flocks. Further studies, to isolate the bacteria are required. Finally, implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of C. abortus is recommended. PMID:26623377

  20. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  1. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  2. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  3. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  5. Dietary zinc treatment for chronic copper intoxication in palm kernel cake (PKC) fed sheep.

    PubMed

    Hair-Bejo, M; Alimon, A; Maria, J; Hass, M; Moonafizad, M

    1996-09-01

    Thirty, 4 month-old male Maim x Polled Dorset crossbred sheep were allocated into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Four groups of animals were stall-fed with basal diet of 90% palm kernel cake (PKC) and 10% grass (G) for 16 weeks. One group of the animal was slaughtered at the end of the 16 weeks feeding trial (PKC group), whilst the other three groups were further fed with either the same diet (PKC+PKC group) or fed with a new diet consisting of 30% corn and 10% fish meals (CF) and grass (60%) either with (PKC+CF+Zn group) or without (PKC+CF group) zinc supplementation (500 mg/g Zn as zinc sulfate) for another 16 weeks and were slaughtered at the end of the feeding trial, The other two groups which act as controls were fed with corn (30%) and fish meals (10%) and grass (60%), and were slaughtered at weeks 16 (CF group) and 32 (CF+CF group) of the trial. The blood, right and left liver, renal cortex and medulla, pancreas, bile and urine of all animals were analysed for copper and zinc contents using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The liver and kidney were also fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. The study showed that neither clinical signs nor gross lesions of copper or zinc toxicity were observed throughout the trial. However, the copper concentration in both the right and left liver of PKC fed sheep at weeks 16 and 32 rose to about 3 times that of the controls and remained high in both the PKC+CF and PKC+CF+Zn groups. A similar pattern of copper concentration was observed in the blood. The copper and zinc contents in the renal cortex and medulla, pancreas, bile and urine remained low in all groups. The zinc content in the liver of PKC+CF+Zn group was significantly increased. Histologically, moderate hepatic lesions were observed in the PKC fed sheep at week 32. The lesions were milder in the other groups especially in the PKC+CF+Zn group. No significant renal lesions was recorded in all groups. It was concluded that the usage of dietary zinc supplementation (500 mg/g) in the treatment of PKC toxicity in sheep was unsatisfactory. The ability of Malin x Polled Dorset crossbred sheep to tolerate the high copper content in PKC at least during the first 16 weeks of the feeding trial may provide more avenue in the utilization of PKC as a major feed ingredient in sheep. PMID:22692141

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

    2014-09-15

    Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population. PMID:25065982

  7. Treatment and control of respiratory disease in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, Philip R

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory diseases in sheep result in poor live weight gain and mortality, thus causing considerable financial losses for lamb producers. The disease is also an important animal welfare concern. Respiratory diseases in sheep and goats often result from adverse weather conditions and physiologic stress combined with viral and bacterial infections. It is essential to critically assess clinical diagnostic methods, treatment options, and control measures for the common respiratory diseases affecting sheep. PMID:21215901

  8. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 57% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success. PMID:23084976

  9. Oxidative stress during pregnancy in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Mutinati, M; Piccinno, M; Roncetti, M; Campanile, D; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, Rl

    2013-06-01

    During physiological pregnancy, all tissues and, mostly, placenta and foetus require high amounts of oxygen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated both by mother and foetus, are implicated in foetal growth because they promote replication, differentiation and maturation of cells and organs. Nevertheless, ROS excess, if not properly counterbalanced, may lead to an alteration in cell constituents, with harmful effects both on mother and foetus.ROS exert a biphasic effect because adequate ROS concentration is essential for embryo development, implant, foetal defence against uterine infections, steroidogenesis, pregnancy maintainance and partum. On the other hand, an uncontrolled ROS generation, beyond physiological antioxidant defences, may lead to embryo resorption, placental degeneration with subsequent alteration in maternal-foetal exchanges, delay in foetal growth, pregnancy interruption, stillbirths. This review investigates the mechanisms underlying ROS generation and effects, throughout physiological and pathological pregnancy in sheep, with a look to antioxidants and their importance in such a critical phase of the reproductive cycle of the sheep. PMID:23346938

  10. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Derakhshanfar, A; Mozaffari, A A

    2010-06-01

    Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep. PMID:21247018

  11. Diagnosing limb paresis and paralysis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, James Patrick; Rzechorzek, Nina; Scott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Paresis and paralysis are uncommon problems in sheep but are likely to prompt farmers to seek veterinary advice. A thorough and logical approach can aid in determining the cause of the problem and highlighting the benefit of veterinary involvement. While this may not necessarily alter the prognosis for an individual animal, it can help in formulating preventive measures and avoid the costs – both in economic and in welfare terms – of misdirected treatment. Distinguishing between central and peripheral lesions is most important, as the relative prognoses are markedly different, and this can often be achieved with minimal equipment. This article describes an approach to performing a neurological examination of the ovine trunk and limbs, the ancillary tests available and the common and important causes of paresis and paralysis in sheep. PMID:26752801

  12. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  13. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  14. 9 CFR 91.8 - Sheep.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-positive animal or an exposed animal, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79, or if it has ever been in an infected flock, source flock, or trace flock, as defined in 9 CFR parts 54 and 79; or if it is the progeny... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep. 91.8 Section 91.8 Animals...

  15. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  16. Valine Nutrient Recommendations for Ross Ross 308 Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies delineating dietary Val needs of modern commercial broilers are sparse. Three studies were conducted to determine the dietary Val nutrient minimum of Ross Ross 308 male broilers. Three time periods were evaluated independently, 0 to 14 d (starter), 14 to 28 d (grower) and 28 to 42 d (finis...

  17. Test of a modified habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Singer, F.J.; Gudorf, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Translocation of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is time, labor, and cost intensive and, therefore, high levels of success are desirable. We tested a widely used habitat suitability model against translocation success and then modified it to include additional factors which improved its usefulness in predicting appropriate translocation sites. The modified Smith habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep was 64% accurate in predicting success or failure of 32 translocations of bighorn sheep into the Rocky Mountains, Colorado Plateau desert, and prairie-badlands of six states. We had sheep location data for 13 populations, and the modified habitat model predicted the areas used by bighorn sheep with greater than 905 accuracy in eight populations, greater than 55% accuracy in four populations, and less than 55% accuracy in one population. Translocations were more successful when sheep were placed into discrete habitat patches containing a high proportion of lambing period habitat (>10% of suitable habitat, p = 0.05), where animals had a migratory tendency (p = 0.02), no contact with domestic sheep (p = 0.02), or greater distance to domestic sheep (>23 km, p = 0.02). Rate of population growth was best predicted by area of lambing period habitat, potential area of winter range, and distance to domestic sheep. We retested the model using these refined criteria and the refined model then predicted success or failure of these 32 translocated populations with 82% accuracy.

  18. Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2003-01-01

    Sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus Capripoxvirus. Strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. Those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and sheep pox and goat pox (sheep and goat pox); LSD is confined to Africa, while sheep and goat pox are present in Africa north of the equator, and throughout West Asia and India, as far East as China and Bangladesh. Occasionally sheep and goat pox spreads from Turkey into Greece. All strains of capripoxvirus so far examined are antigenically indistinguishable, and recovery from infection with one strain provides immunity against all other strains. Because of this antigenic homology among all strains, there is the potential to use a single vaccine strain to protect cattle, sheep and goats. PMID:14677686

  19. Nutrient profiling: the new environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends that individuals choose nutrient-dense foods to help meet nutrient needs without consuming excess calories, a concept that is supported by health professionals and nutrition organizations. With an increased emphasis on nutrient density, the ...

  20. Current topics in artificial insemination of sheep.

    PubMed

    Evans, G

    1988-01-01

    There have been developments in several aspects of artificial insemination (AI) in recent years, some of which have been directly responsible for proliferation of AI in the sheep-breeding industries of several countries. The most notable advances have probably been associated with the development of intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy. There is potential for refinement of some of the related techniques, particularly in the area of control of ovulation and definition of appropriate times and optimum doses of spermatozoa for insemination. It is unlikely that laparoscopic AI will be developed sufficiently that it will become readily affordable, and therefore widely practised, by commercial producers. Unfortunately, there has been little progress in the past few years in improvement of the methods of cryopreservation of ram semen. There is considerable potential for AI to have a significant impact on the genetic improvement of sheep, though this has yet to be evaluated in practice. However, if the full potential of AI in sheep is to be realized, it will likely only happen when methods of freezing semen are improved sufficiently that cervical or even vaginal insemination can be widely used with frozen-thawed semen, or when practicable methods of deep cervical or intrauterine insemination through the cervix are developed. PMID:3077737

  1. Genetic resistance to infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S C

    2015-12-14

    This paper considers genetic resistance to infectious disease in sheep, with appropriate comparison with goats, and explores how such variation may be used to assist in disease control. Many studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which host animals differ genetically in their resistance to infection or in the disease side-effects of infection, using either recorded animal pedigrees or information from genetic markers to quantify the genetic variation. Across all livestock species, whenever studies are sufficiently well powered, then genetic variation in disease resistance is usually seen and such evidence is presented here for three infections or diseases of importance to sheep, namely mastitis, foot rot and scrapie. A further class of diseases of importance in most small ruminant production systems, gastrointestinal nematode infections, is outside the scope of this review. Existence of genetic variation implies the opportunity, at least in principle, to select animals for increased resistance, with such selection ideally used as part of an integrated control strategy. For each of the diseases under consideration, evidence for genetic variation is presented, the role of selection as an aid to disease control is outlined and possible side effects of selection in terms of effects in performance, effects on resistance to other diseases and potential parasite/pathogen coevolution risks are considered. In all cases, the conclusion is drawn that selection should work and it should be beneficial, with the main challenge being to define cost effective selection protocols that are attractive to sheep farmers. PMID:26260859

  2. Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Karatzia, Maria A; Pourliotis, Konstantinos; Minas, Anastasios

    2011-06-30

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. Additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. The livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. All visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. Based on the macroscopical examination, 60 livers were normal, 40 were parasitized with Fasciola hepatica, 42 were parasitized with Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 28 were parasitized with both D. dendriticum and F. hepatica, 40 livers had abscesses and 44 had hydatid cysts. Biliary calculi were detected in 40 livers. Twenty livers had pigment stones and 20 livers had cholesterol stones. The percentage of cholelithiasis was significantly higher in livers parasitized with flukes compared with the others (P<0.05) and the parasitoses with F. hepatica and D. dendriticum were proven to be significant risk factors (P<0.05) for the presence of cholelithiasis in sheep. PMID:21330055

  3. PREVALENCE OF DICROCOELIUM DENDRITICUM INFECTION IN SHEEP AT TAIF PROVINCE, WEST SAUDI ARABIA.

    PubMed

    Albogami, Bandar M; Kelany, Abdul Hakeem M; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2015-08-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a common zoonotic parasite of sheep in many Regions of Saudi Arabia. In chronic infections, this parasite causes biliary cirrhosis in livers of cattle, sheep, or goats and leads to economic losses. This study compared the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum in local sheep and imported sheep in Taif Province, West Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in slaughterhouses in Taif Province. A total 2230 local sheep and 21383 imported sheep were studied. The number of injury in imported sheep was observed as 99 representing 0.46% of the number of animals examined, while no record of any injury was observed in local sheep. PMID:26485864

  4. Effect of clenbuterol on growth, nitrogen and energy balances and endocrine status in food-restricted sheep.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L A; Taveira, O

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the beta2-adrenoceptor clenbuterol on food-restricted sheep. Clenbuterol was administered as a dietary admixture (4 mg/ kg diet) to a group of male Serra da Estrela sheep (n = 6). The animals were housed individually in metabolic cages and fed for 45 days at 65% of estimated requirement for energy maintenance. An untreated group with the same energy intake level was included as a control. Changes in body mass, nitrogen and energy balances and insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and triiodothyronine (T3 ) levels in the experimental animals were monitored. During the 4th week of the trial, clenbuterol-treated sheep showed increased mass gains, greater energy retention and serum IGF-1 levels and decreased T3 serum concentrations. This study showed that clenbuterol may induce a protective effect in sheep subjected to periods of food deprivation, based on the body mass and digestible energy effects manifested by treated animals. PMID:12515300

  5. Bone nutrients for vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Ann Reed

    2014-07-01

    The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

  6. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 NDL Home Food ... Sort by: Measure by: * required field ? National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 Software v.2. ...

  7. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  8. Significant drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Kirk, J K

    1995-04-01

    Many nutrients substantially interfere with pharmacotherapeutic goals. The presence of certain nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract affects the bioavailability and disposition of many oral medications. Drug-nutrient interactions can also have positive effects that result in increased drug absorption or reduced gastrointestinal irritation. Knowing the significant drug-nutrient interactions can help the clinician identify the nutrients to avoid with certain medications, as well as the therapeutic agents that should be administered with food. This information can be used to educate patients and optimize pharmacotherapy. PMID:7709893

  9. PrP genotyping of Austrian sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Kraus, M; Schmoll, F; Achmann, R; Baumgartner, W

    2002-10-01

    Scrapie, an ovine and caprine transmissible spongiforme encephalopathy, is widely spread among sheep populations in many European countries. As it is known that susceptibility to scrapie is determined genetically, breeding programmes aiming at providing scrapie-resistant flocks have been established. Selection is based on the prion protein (PrP) genotype, which is used to classify animals into risk groups of susceptibility (R1-R5) according to the amino acids encoded by codons at positions 136, 154 and 171, respectively. At position 136 (136V-->136A) alanine and at position 154 (154H-->154R) as well as 171 (171Q-->171R) arginine are the favoured amino acids. Whereas PrP genotyping data are available for many of the European sheep breeds, comparable data for local Austrian sheep breeds are missing. The most known among these are Tyrolean mountain sheep, forest sheep. Tyrolean stone sheep and Carynthian sheep. The genotypes of 112 sheep from these four local breeds were determined. In terms of PrP genetics, Austrian breeds belong to the group of non-valine-breeds, with the exception of the Carynthian sheep, that exhibited a frequency of 136V of 4.2%. The most frequent allele was ARQ with 64.6-71.2% (depending on the breed), followed by ARR (14.8-25.8%). In contrast to the above-mentioned findings, scrapie has never been diagnosed in any of the Austrian sheep breeds. Native Austrian sheep breeds exhibit a very robust constitution, a pronounced adaptation to harsh climates and good reproduction parameters as well as a marked mother instinct. Therefore, these breeds are often used in crossbreeding programmes. Beside the above-mentioned characteristics, our results indicate that the investigated breeds may be effectively used in crossing-out breeding programmes for eliminating valine at position 136 of PrP. PMID:12450189

  10. Siletz River nutrients: Effects of biosolids application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stream water nutrients were measured in the Siletz River, Oregon, with the goal of comparing dissolved nutrient concentrations, primarily the nitrogenous nutrients nitrate and ammonium, with previously collected data for the Yaquina and Alsea Rivers for the nutrient criteria prog...

  11. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  12. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePLUS

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  13. Nutrient partitioning of Merino sheep divergently selected for genetic difference in resistance to Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Doyle, E K; Kahn, L P; McClure, S J

    2014-09-15

    This research was designed to determine if divergent genetic selection for resistance to Haemonchus contortus had produced correlated changes in the metabolism of amino-nitrogen in the absence or presence of H. contortus infection. Partitioning of amino acid-nitrogen between tissues was determined in 42 Merino weaner wethers from the CSIRO Haemonchus selection flock, increased resistance to Haemonchus (IRH), decreased resistance to Haemonchus (DRH) and random bred control (C) selection lines. Weaner wethers were fed a restricted diet (9.8 MJ ME/kgDM, 86 gMP/kg DM) calculated to allow a gain of 125 g/d bodyweight throughout the experimental period and were either worm-free or trickle infected with H. contortus. At 8 weeks post-infection animals were injected with (15)N-labelled duckweed directly into the abomasums. Animals were euthanased at either 6 or 24h after the injection to collect tissue samples for calculation of percentage recovery of (15)N in tissue and to determine abomasal worm counts. Worm egg count and worm counts at week 8 of infection were lower in animals from the IRH line. IRH animals had a lower N digestibility, increased oxidation of amino acids and lower N balance but whole-body protein flux was unaffected. Amino acid metabolism, as assessed from (15)N uptake and excretion in response to H. contortus infection, differed between IRH and DRH animals. In IRH animals a greater recovery of (15)N in the thymus and abomasal smooth muscle indicated greater partitioning of amino acids towards the immune response. In DRH animals an increased recovery of (15)N in the spleen, in response to infection, may be a possible adaptation. It appears that divergent selection for worm egg count has not been associated with symmetrical changes in amino acid metabolism, but rather the partitioning of amino acid resources reflects each selection line's independent response to infection. PMID:25027755

  14. Liquid residue of cassava as a replacement for corn in the diets of sheep.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Filho, Hilson Barretto; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Vasconcelos, Gustavo Araújo; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Cardoso, Daniel Barros

    2015-08-01

    The effect of the replacement of corn with the liquid residue of cassava was evaluated at levels of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in the diets of sheep on the intake and nutrient digestibility, weight gain, and carcass characteristics. Forty non-castrated crossbred Santa Ines sheep at 4 months of age and an initial body weight of 19.5 ± 2.5 kg were slaughtered after 90 days at the feedlot. A quadratic effect was found for intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and digestible OM, with estimated values of 1130, 1080, 558, and 777 g/day at 11.2, 11.9, 30.8, and 2.18% of replacing corn with liquid residue of cassava, respectively. However, the intake of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased linearly around 105 to 45.3 g CP/day and 413 to 284 g NDF/day. The same effect was found for digestibility of DM (715 to 649 g/kg), OM (725 to 669 g/kg), CP (801 to 759 g/kg), and NDF (486 to 379 g/kg), which decreased linearly as the dietary liquid residue of cassava increased. The maximum average daily gain (174 g/day) was estimated with a 22.4% replacement level. Liquid residue of cassava can replace up to 25% of the corn in the diets of sheep, since it was possible to obtain a gain above 100 g/day, which is considered to be satisfactory. PMID:25899663

  15. Discovery of a lentivirus susceptibility gene in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus targets the host immune system and causes persistent retroviral infections affecting millions of sheep worldwide. In primates, lentivirus resistance is attributed to mutant virus coreceptors that are not expressed. In sheep, some animals are resistant to lentivirus infection despit...

  16. Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...

  17. Staphylococcal alpha toxin: a study with chronically instrumented awake sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, S; Lefferts, P L; Snapper, J R

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo responses to staphylococcal alpha toxin are reported for 15 chronically instrumented awake yearling sheep. The data obtained from a total of 30 experiments are grouped into four categories of response: no response, noted in seven experiments done on 5 sheep; pressor response, obtained seven times in 4 sheep; fluid and solute exchange, noted on six occasions in 3 sheep; and acute heart failure and death, which occurred in 10 of the 15 sheep. "No response" denoted no change in any of the measured outcome variables. The group of sheep labeled as showing "pressor response" responded to alpha toxin infusion with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, unaccompanied by changes either in lung lymph flow or in lung mechanics. "Changes in lung fluid and solute exchange" involve increases in lung lymph flow. The harbinger of the last category, acute left heart failure leading to death, was a marked elevation in left atrial pressure. The threshold response dose in sheep is approximately 21 micrograms/kg. A very steep dose-response curve is observed, with only a narrow window of doses, 15 to 25 micrograms/kg, between the group showing no response and the group showing death from acute heart failure. The data obtained in these studies indicate that the lethal effects of alpha toxin in sheep include acute heart failure, which may be due to direct toxicity to heart muscle and/or the coronary vasculature endothelium. PMID:1500155

  18. Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

  19. Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.) poisoning causes serious economic loss to livestock producers that graze cattle on foothill and mountain ranges in western North America. In general, all Delphinium spp. are five times less toxic to sheep than to cattle. Because sheep are less suscepti...

  20. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  1. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic approaches, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), have previously been considered for control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina, a major pest of sheep. In an SIT program, females consume 50% of the diet but are ineffective as control agents and compete with females in the field for mating with sterile males, thereby decreasing the efficiency of the program. Consequently, transgenic sexing strains of L. cuprina were developed that produce 100% males when raised on diet that lacks tetracycline. However, as females die mostly at the pupal stage, rearing costs would not be significantly reduced. Here we report the development of transgenic embryonic sexing strains of L. cuprina. In these strains, the Lsbnk cellularization gene promoter drives high levels of expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in the early embryo. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA activates expression of the Lshid proapoptotic gene, leading to death of the embryo. Sex-specific RNA splicing of Lshid transcripts ensures that only female embryos die. Embryonic sexing strains were also made by combining the Lsbnk-tTA and tetO-Lshid components into a single gene construct, which will facilitate transfer of the technology to other major calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:26537204

  2. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Scott, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic approaches, including the sterile insect technique (SIT), have previously been considered for control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina, a major pest of sheep. In an SIT program, females consume 50% of the diet but are ineffective as control agents and compete with females in the field for mating with sterile males, thereby decreasing the efficiency of the program. Consequently, transgenic sexing strains of L. cuprina were developed that produce 100% males when raised on diet that lacks tetracycline. However, as females die mostly at the pupal stage, rearing costs would not be significantly reduced. Here we report the development of transgenic embryonic sexing strains of L. cuprina. In these strains, the Lsbnk cellularization gene promoter drives high levels of expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) in the early embryo. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA activates expression of the Lshid proapoptotic gene, leading to death of the embryo. Sex-specific RNA splicing of Lshid transcripts ensures that only female embryos die. Embryonic sexing strains were also made by combining the Lsbnk-tTA and tetO-Lshid components into a single gene construct, which will facilitate transfer of the technology to other major calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:26537204

  3. Kinematic parameters of sheep walking on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Essigbeck, Annika; Wolfram, Ines; Licka, Theresia

    2014-12-01

    Ovine locomotion studies are rare, despite their relevance for medical research. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate habituation and temporospatial parameters during treadmill walking of seven Austrian Mountain sheep. Sheep were naïve to treadmill exercise. During five treadmill sessions, movement cycle duration (MCD), vertical trunk movement (VTM), stride height (SH), stride length (SL), and percentage of movement cycle at stance (%St) were assessed. Two sheep were excluded from the study because they would not walk on the treadmill. From the end measurement session, MCD (0.95 s) and %St (62%) were similar to reported kinetics of sheep walking over ground, although stride length (1.05 m) was longer in this study. These findings suggest that sheep may require more than five sessions to become habituated to treadmill walking. PMID:25457259

  4. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes. PMID:25865947

  5. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  6. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  7. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  8. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices. PMID:25417648

  9. Kinematic parameters of sheep walking on a treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Essigbeck, Annika; Wolfram, Ines; Licka, Theresia

    2014-01-01

    Ovine locomotion studies are rare, despite their relevance for medical research. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate habituation and temporospatial parameters during treadmill walking of seven Austrian Mountain sheep. Sheep were nave to treadmill exercise. During five treadmill sessions, movement cycle duration (MCD), vertical trunk movement (VTM), stride height (SH), stride length (SL), and percentage of movement cycle at stance (%St) were assessed. Two sheep were excluded from the study because they would not walk on the treadmill. From the end measurement session, MCD (0.95 s) and %St (62%) were similar to reported kinetics of sheep walking over ground, although stride length (1.05 m) was longer in this study. These findings suggest that sheep may require more than five sessions to become habituated to treadmill walking. PMID:25457259

  10. Effects of increasing dietary levels of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on diet digestibility and ruminal kinetics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hannah, S M; Paterson, J A; Williams, J E; Kerley, M S; Miner, J L

    1990-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted with sheep to determine the effects of 1) increasing the dietary concentration of ergovaline and 2) environmental temperature on site of nutrient digestion and ruminal passage rates. Dietary ergovaline concentration, a measure of endophyte-alkaloid concentration, was modified by substituting ergovaline-infected for noninfected tall fescue seed. Ruminal and total tract OM, NDF and cellulose digestibilities were less (P less than .10) and ruminal fluid dilution rate (%/h) and fluid outflow (liters/h) were greater (P less than .05) when diets contained 3 ppm ergovaline than when diets contained 0 ppm ergovaline. An interaction (P less than .05) between dietary ergovaline concentration (0 vs 1.5 ppm) and environmental temperature (27 vs 34 degrees C) was found for OM intake and NDF and cellulose digestion. Ruminal fluid dilution and outflow rates decreased (P less than .01) even though water consumption increased (P less than .01) with increasing temperature. Rectal temperature increased (P less than .01) when ergovaline and ergotamine tartrate were fed and when sheep were exposed to increased environmental temperature. Under the dietary (and environmental) conditions described, our results suggest that alkaloid(s) present in infected tall fescue seed inhibit ruminal fiber digestion and increase the sensitivity of sheep to heat stress. PMID:2117003

  11. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 20102012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ?1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ?1 day of parturition (range?=?8083%) or females that were collared without VITs (range?=?6078%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 20012002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  12. Renal excretion of potassium in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Dewhurst, J. K.; Harrison, F. A.; Keynes, R. D.

    1968-01-01

    1. Observations were made on the daily intake and excretion of potassium and sodium in sheep housed in metabolism cages and fed once daily. 2. The diet of chaffed hay and crushed oats provided 400-600 m-moles K and 50-60 m-moles Na daily. About 90% of the K was excreted in the urine, and over 90% of the Na was found in the faeces. 3. In two groups of three experiments on each of three sheep, the urinary responses to intra-ruminal dosing just before feeding of (i) 1 l. distilled water, (ii) 1 l. 0·25 N-KCl, and (iii) 1 l. 0·125 N-NaCl, were studied. In the first group, urine was collected via the urine/faeces separator of the metabolism cage, whereas for part of the experiments in the second group it was collected by an indwelling bladder catheter. 4. In a third group of experiments with the same sheep, the effects on urinary excretion of K and Na of intra-ruminal dosing with (i) 1 l. distilled water, (ii) 1 l. 0·25 N-K acetate, and (iii) 1 l. 0·25 N-Na acetate were investigated. During part of these experiments urine was again collected via an indwelling bladder catheter. With chloride, 82% of the additional potassium was excreted in urine in the 24 hr after dosing, but with acetate only 65%. For sodium, the corresponding figures were 12-40% with chloride and 43% with acetate. 5. In most experiments, the administration of K salts produced a marked kaliuresis and, in spite of the low sodium intake, a natriuresis as well, which did not usually coincide with maximum K excretion. No adequately tested explanation appears to exist for the natriuresis observed in response to treatment with K salts. PMID:5649637

  13. A survey of sheep diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I R; Curtis, R A; Finley, G G

    1985-01-01

    A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates, incidence of a variety of lamb and ewe diseases and reasons for culling were obtained. At the same time a retrospective evaluation of records of diagnoses of sheep diseases recorded at diagnostic laboratories across the country was performed. Data from the years 1978 to 1982 were obtained and summarized. A lambing percentage of 153% (1.53 lambs live born per ewe lambing) was observed and an additional 0.05 lambs were stillborn. The major identified causes of mortality amongst lambs were starvation, pneumonia, scours and accidents. Pasteurella spp. were the etiological agents most commonly associated with pneumonia in lambs and Escherichia coli had the same predominant position with regards to nonparasitic scours. A large discrepancy existed between the proportional mortality rates for internal parasites and coccidiosis as determined from the farm survey data compared to diagnostic laboratory data. This suggests that clinical parasitism may not be adequately recognized at the farm level. Abortions in ewes occurred in approximately half the flocks, but generally at a low level and no severe abortion storms occurred. Pneumonia was the most commonly identified cause of mortality in ewes and although Pasteurella spp. appear to be the most important etiological agents, regional differences were apparent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3840053

  14. Anesthesia and analgesia in sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Galatos, Apostolos D

    2011-03-01

    Physical or chemical restraint, with or without local anesthesia, has been extensively used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical procedures in small ruminants. However, anesthetic and analgesic techniques are required when specific diagnostic procedures and painful surgery are to be performed. Apart from improving animal welfare standards, anesthesia and analgesia are essential to make the procedures easier and improve both animal and personnel safety. This article provides an overview of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and techniques commonly used in sheep and goats. PMID:21215889

  15. Streptococcus ovis sp. nov., isolated from sheep.

    PubMed

    Collins, M D; Hutson, R A; Hoyles, L; Falsen, E; Nikolaitchouk, N; Foster, G

    2001-05-01

    Seven strains of an unknown Gram-positive catalase-negative chain-forming coccus-shaped organism isolated from clinical specimens from sheep were characterized by phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the bacterium represents a new sub-line within the genus Streptococcus. The unknown bacterium was readily distinguished from recognized streptococcal species by biochemical tests and electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell proteins. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as Streptococcus ovis sp. nov. The type strain of Streptococcus ovis is CCUG 39485T (= LMG 19174T). PMID:11411683

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIPS OF HAIR SHEEP BREEDS OF THE AMERICAS: FIRST RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two major types of sheep in the Americas, wooled and hair sheep. Such phenotypic differences bring into question an African or European origin for these types of sheep. It has been commonly thought that hair breeds of sheep imported into the new world came from Africa via the Canary Island...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  19. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  20. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  1. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  2. Sheep grazing causes shift in sex ratio and cohort structure of Brandt's vole: Implication of their adaptation to food shortage.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Hou, Xianglei; Wan, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has been demonstrated to affect the population abundance of small rodents in grasslands, but the causative mechanism of grazing on demographic parameters, particularly the age structure and sex ratio, is rarely investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of sheep grazing on the cohort structure and sex ratio of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) in Inner Mongolia of China by using large manipulative experimental enclosures during 2010-2013. Our results indicated that sheep grazing significantly decreased the proportion of the spring-born cohort, but increased the proportion of the summer-born cohort. Grazing increased the proportion of males in both spring and summer cohorts. In addition, we found a negative relation between population density and the proportion of the overwinter cohort. Our results suggest that a shift in the cohort structure and the sex ratio may be an important strategy for small rodents to adapt to changes in food resources resulting from livestock grazing. PMID:26331731

  3. The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12g/kg DM) and P (1.7g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani Rambouillet) wethers (60??2.5kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4??4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P?nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep. PMID:23080339

  4. Males in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomer, Jerry E.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of the male sex role upon male behavior in psychotherapy, showing research results for both therapist and client behavior. The research suggested that male clients tended not to disclose as freely, and that male therapists were perceived as less expressive than females. (LPG)

  5. Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

  6. Nutrient antioxidants in oregano.

    PubMed

    Lagouri, V; Boskou, D

    1996-11-01

    Oregano and its various extracts have been studied as inhibitors of autoxidation but so far the research work has focused mainly on the polar non nutrient compounds. Very little is known about the non polar fraction extracted by hexane which is also antioxidant and has been reported to suppress the mutagenicity of Trp-P-2, a dietary carcinogen. In this work four different species of oregano, Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, Satureja thymbra, Origanum dictamnus and Origanum onites, were extracted with hexane. The extracts were saponified and in the unsaponifiable fraction thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were applied for the isolation, detection and determination of tocopherols. The four known homologues of tocopherol, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-, were found to be present in all the samples but the concentration of the gamma-homologue was significantly higher. Total tocopherol content ranged from 288 ppm to 672 ppm. PMID:8933203

  7. Nutrient Cycling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  8. Male mating behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Maureen M; Garcia, L Rene

    2006-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans male mating provides an excellent opportunity to determine how sensory perception regulates behavior and motor programs. The male-specific nervous system and muscles are superimposed over the general nervous system and musculature. Genetic screens and genomic approaches have identified male-specific and male-enriched genes as well as non-sex specific molecules specialized for mating sub-behaviors. In this chapter, we discuss the cellular, genetic, and molecular basis for male mating behavior. PMID:18050467

  9. Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D

    2011-06-01

    Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils. PMID:22440173

  10. A Sheep Model for Cancellous Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew Henry; Yu, Yan; Christou, Chris; Walsh, William Robert

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate well-characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14?mm) of fixed depth (25?mm) were compared in both skeletally immature (18-month-old) and aged sheep (5-year-old). In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at 4?weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using ?CT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction [bone volume (BV)/TV] significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11?mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research. PMID:25593961

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of coenurosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, P R

    2012-09-30

    Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a tapeworm, which infests the small intestine of carnivores. In 80-90% of cases, the cyst is located in one cerebral hemisphere, whilst in 5-10% of cases, it is localised in the cerebellum; rarely it involves two sites in the brain of the affected animal. Listeriosis, louping-ill, sarcocystosis and polioencephalomalacia and brain abscessation should be considered when formulating a diagnosis of acute coenurosis. In all cases, it is essential to carefully examine the animal and not simply rely on results of ancillary tests (mainly of cerebrospinal fluid examination), as disorders other than coenurosis can be responsible for changes in the results of these tests. Treatment is based on surgical removal of the coenurus cyst after general anaesthesia of the animal; the approach has a very good success rate, especially after accurate localisation of the lesion. Despite that, many farmers may choose to slaughter those sheep fit for marketing for economic reasons and euthanise those in poor condition. PMID:22503036

  12. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    PubMed

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen. PMID:26647464

  13. Nutrient loading alters the performance of key nutrient exchange mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Shantz, Andrew A; Lemoine, Nathan P; Burkepile, Deron E

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient exchange mutualisms between phototrophs and heterotrophs, such as plants and mycorrhizal fungi or symbiotic algae and corals, underpin the functioning of many ecosystems. These relationships structure communities, promote biodiversity and help maintain food security. Nutrient loading may destabilise these mutualisms by altering the costs and benefits each partner incurs from interacting. Using meta-analyses, we show a near ubiquitous decoupling in mutualism performance across terrestrial and marine environments in which phototrophs benefit from enrichment at the expense of their heterotrophic partners. Importantly, heterotroph identity, their dependence on phototroph-derived C and the type of nutrient enrichment (e.g. nitrogen vs. phosphorus) mediated the responses of different mutualisms to enrichment. Nutrient-driven changes in mutualism performance may alter community organisation and ecosystem processes and increase costs of food production. Consequently, the decoupling of nutrient exchange mutualisms via alterations of the world's nitrogen and phosphorus cycles may represent an emerging threat of global change. PMID:26549314

  14. COMPARATIVE ESTROGENICITY OF ESTRADIOL, ETHYNYL ESTRADIOL AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN AN IN VIVO, MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), VITELLOGENIN BIOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo bioassay for vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis was developed to screen individual chemicals or mixtures of chemicals for potentially estrogenic effects in a marine teleost model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to quantitate VTG synthesis in male sheep...

  15. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  16. Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

  17. Nutrient availability in rangeland soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil nutrient availability is a major factor influencing plant community composition and susceptibility to invasion by exotic plants. We used resin capsules to integrate, over time, soil nutrient availability at sagebrush-grassland elevation transects in the east Tintic range of Utah and in the Shos...

  18. New aspects on efficient anticoagulation and antiplatelet strategies in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medicine. Especially in cardiovascular, orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery, the sheep is an important in vivo model for testing innovative therapies or medical devices prior to clinical application. For a wide variety of sheep model based research projects, an optimal anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is mandatory. However, no standardised scheme for this model has been developed so far. Thus the efficacy of antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (sodium enoxaparin, dabigatran etexilate) strategies was evaluated through aggregometry, anti-factor Xa activity and plasma thrombin inhibitor levels in sheep of different ages. Results Responses to antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in different concentrations were studied in the sheep. First, a baseline for the measurement of platelet aggregation was assessed in 20 sheep. The effectiveness of 225 mg clopidogrel twice daily (bid) in 2/5 sheep and 150 mg bid in 3/5 lambs could be demonstrated, while clopidogrel and its metabolite carboxylic acid were detected in every plasma sample. High dose ticagrelor (375 mg bid) resulted in sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation in 1/5 sheep, while acetylsalicylic acid did not show any antiplatelet effect. Therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels were achieved with age-dependent dosages of sodium enoxaparin (sheep 3 mg/kg bid, lambs 5 mg/kg bid). Administration of dabigatran etexilate resulted in plasma concentrations similar to human ranges in 2/5 sheep, despite receiving quadruple dosages (600 mg bid). Conclusion High dosages of clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation merely in a low number of sheep despite sufficient absorption. Ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid cannot be recommended for platelet inhibition in sheep. Efficient anticoagulation can be ensured using sodium enoxaparin rather than dabigatran etexilate in age-dependent dosages. The findings of this study significantly contribute to the improvement of a safe and reliable prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in sheep. Applying these results in future translational experimental studies may help to avoid early dropouts due to thromboembolic events and associated unnecessary high animal numbers. PMID:24088206

  19. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by feeding only in areas where adequate forage remains.

  20. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  1. Olfaction in the female sheep botfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

    2010-09-01

    The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animals nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the flys ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

  2. Noise induced hearing loss in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, S K; Pierson, L L; Gerhardt, K J; Abrams, R M; Peters, A J

    1994-04-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was recorded in utero from chronically instrumented fetal sheep prior to and following exposure of pregnant ewes to intense broadband noise (120 dB SPL for 16 h). ABRs were elicited by clicks and tone bursts (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) delivered through a bone oscillator secured to the fetal skull. Latency-intensity functions for most of the four vertex-positive waves (labelled I-IV) were prolonged and ABR thresholds were temporarily elevated by an average of 8 dB following the noise exposure. Results show that exogenous sounds can penetrate the uterus and result in alterations of the fetal ABR. PMID:8040092

  3. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  4. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  5. Characteristics of drug use on sheep farms in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Catherine S.; Berke, Olaf; Avery, Brent P.; McEwen, Scott A.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Scott, Lisa; Menzies, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examined characteristics of the use of drugs, especially antimicrobials, on Ontario sheep farms. Forty-nine sheep farms participated in a 12-month prospective study. Producers documented treatment events during the study period and drug use data from the records were summarized. The most frequently used drugs of the 15 drug categories used by producers belonged to the following categories: antimicrobial (40.7%, n = 2710), vitamin/mineral (12.0%), and biological (11.1%). Short-acting penicillin (27.2%, n = 1103), long-acting oxytetracycline (22.9%), and long-acting penicillin (21.9%) were the most frequently used antimicrobials. The drugs that were used most frequently on sheep farms were antimicrobials, of which 93% of treatments were extra-label. Extensive extra-label drug use may be the result of the limited number of drugs that are approved in Canada for use in sheep. PMID:21358930

  6. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    PubMed

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. PMID:24127821

  7. Vascular tracers alter hemodynamics and airway pressure in anesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Staub, N.C.

    1986-11-01

    The technique of vascular labeling was developed to mark sites of increased microvascular permeability. We used the vascular labeling technique in anesthetized sheep and found that hemodynamics and airway pressure were adversely affected by intraarterial infusions of two vascular tracers. Monastral blue (nine sheep) immediately caused systemic arterial hypotension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and bronchoconstriction. All three physiological responses were partially blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) but not by an H1-antihistamine (chlorpheniramine). Colloidal gold (nine sheep) caused immediate, but less dramatic, pulmonary arterial hypertension which was not attenuated by the blocking agents. We conclude that these two vascular tracers caused detrimental physiological side effects in sheep at the usual doses used to label injured microvessels in other species.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity and the origin of Chinese indigenous sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erhu; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Nanyang; Kong, Deying; Zhao, Yongju

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences data from previous studies were investigated to obtain genetic information which contributes to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and history of modern sheep. In this study, we analyzed mtDNA D-loop sequences of 963 individuals from 16 Chinese indigenous breeds that distributed seven geographic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all three previously defined haplogroups A, B, and C were found in all breeds among different regions except in Southwest China mountainous region, which had only the A and B haplogroups. The weak phylogeographic structure was observed among Chinese indigenous sheep breeds distribution regions and this could be attributable to long-term strong gene flow among regions induced by the human migration, commercial trade, and extensive transport of sheep. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that haplogroups A and B had at least one demographic expansion of indigenous sheep in China. PMID:23709123

  9. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913 ± 567 kcal/d) than females (1514 ± 458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8 ± 6.4%, Female: 73.9 ± 6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9 ± 6.1%, Female: 18.5 ± 5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6 ± 2.1%, Female: 10.9 ± 5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Abnormal Behaviours in Individually Housed Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lauber, Mariko; Nash, Judy A.; Gatt, Allan; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Concern has been raised in Australia about the welfare of individually penned sheep housed indoors. This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviours in 96 individually housed sheep. Almost three quarters of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these abnormal behaviours appears high, but without a comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animals biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, its difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours. Abstract This study examined the prevalence and incidence of abnormal behaviour in sheep housed individually indoors. Ninety-six castrated Merino sheep were observed using 15-min instantaneous sampling between 08:15 and 18:15 h for two consecutive days over a 3-week period. Sheep on average spent 62% of their time idle, 17% feeding, 1% drinking, 5% pacing, 10% chewing pen fixtures and 4% nosing pen fixtures. Pacing behaviour was predominantly seen in the morning with sheep on average spending 14% of their time pacing. Sheep on average spent 4% of their time in the morning and 13% of their time in the afternoon chewing pen fixtures. In the afternoon, the predominant behaviour was idle with sheep on average spending 71% of their time idle. Seventy-one percent of the sheep displayed one or more of the behaviours of pacing, and chewing and nosing pen fixtures for more than 10% of the day and 47% displayed one or more of these behaviours for more than 20% of the day. The prevalence and incidence of these abnormal behaviours appears high, especially in relation to that of sheep grazed outdoors on pasture, and raises the question of the welfare risk to these animals. However, without a more comprehensive appreciation of other aspects of the animals biology, such as stress physiology and fitness characteristics, it is difficult to understand the welfare implications of these behaviours. PMID:26486774

  11. Selective Brain Cooling Reduces Water Turnover in Dehydrated Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, W. Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S.; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  12. Selective brain cooling reduces water turnover in dehydrated sheep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, W Maartin; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Fuller, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In artiodactyls, arterial blood destined for the brain can be cooled through counter-current heat exchange within the cavernous sinus via a process called selective brain cooling. We test the hypothesis that selective brain cooling, which results in lowered hypothalamic temperature, contributes to water conservation in sheep. Nine Dorper sheep, instrumented to provide measurements of carotid blood and brain temperature, were dosed with deuterium oxide (D2O), exposed to heat for 8 days (40 ◦C for 6-h per day) and deprived of water for the last five days (days 3 to 8). Plasma osmolality increased and the body water fraction decreased over the five days of water deprivation, with the sheep losing 16.7% of their body mass. Following water deprivation, both the mean 24h carotid blood temperature and the mean 24h brain temperature increased, but carotid blood temperature increased more than did brain temperature resulting in increased selective brain cooling. There was considerable inter-individual variation in the degree to which individual sheep used selective brain cooling. In general, sheep spent more time using selective brain cooling, and it was of greater magnitude, when dehydrated compared to when they were euhydrated. We found a significant positive correlation between selective brain cooling magnitude and osmolality (an index of hydration state). Both the magnitude of selective brain cooling and the proportion of time that sheep spent selective brain cooling were negatively correlated with water turnover. Sheep that used selective brain cooling more frequently, and with greater magnitude, lost less water than did conspecifics using selective brain cooling less efficiently. Our results show that a 50 kg sheep can save 2.6L of water per day (~60% of daily water intake) when it employs selective brain cooling for 50% of the day during heat exposure. We conclude that selective brain cooling has a water conservation function in artiodactyls. PMID:25675092

  13. Nutrient biofortification of food crops.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Plant-based foods offer an array of nutrients that are essential for human nutrition and promote good health. However, the major staple crops of the world are often deficient in some of these nutrients. Traditional agricultural approaches can marginally enhance the nutritional value of some foods, but the advances in molecular biology are rapidly being exploited to engineer crops with enhanced key nutrients. Nutritional targets include elevated mineral content, improved fatty acid composition, increased amino acid levels, and heightened antioxidant levels. Unfortunately, in many cases the benefits of these "biofortified" crops to human nutrition have not been demonstrated. PMID:19400753

  14. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  15. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

  16. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves.

    PubMed

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-01

    After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6-0.9-0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations. PMID:25934219

  17. Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2014-06-01

    Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

  18. Potential environmental consequences of administration of ectoparasiticides to sheep.

    PubMed

    Beynon, S A

    2012-09-30

    Sheep ectoparasiticides, which include the synthetic pyrethroids, the organophosphates, the 'insect'-growth regulators, the formamidines and the spinocyns, enter into the environment primarily through disposal of dip or fleece scours, as well as with contaminated faeces and urine. Due to the large quantities of spent dip, risks associated with environmental contamination are high. Synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates pose risks to dung, soil and aquatic fauna; concerns over potential ecotoxicity to vertebrates and invertebrates have resulted in the cessation of their use in many countries. There is very little information regarding the ecotoxicity of 'insect'-growth regulators, formamidines or spinocyns, with no studies focussing on sheep. Here, the impact of sheep ectoparasiticides is discussed in terms of their potential to enter into the environment, their toxicity and their impact on ecosystem functioning. Where there are no data for excretion or toxicity of the ectoparasiticides used in sheep production, examples to demonstrate potential impacts are taken from laboratory ecotoxicity tests and the cattle literature, as well on work with foliar insecticides. Future research priorities are suggested to allow assessment of the environmental consequences of sheep ectoparasiticide treatments, which are essential for future sustainable sheep production. PMID:22538092

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  20. Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

  1. Selection of an immunohistochemical panel for cardiovascular research in sheep.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, Geofrey; Plusquin, Ruth; Mesure, Lindsay; Flameng, Willem

    2010-07-01

    Large animal research, often required as a final phase before commencing clinical trials for devices, has generally been hampered by the lack of appropriate tools to compare it with either initial small animal tests or to later evaluation in humans. Setting out to tissue engineer heart valves, we were particularly struck by the limited availability of immunohistochemical markers for sheep tissue, despite sheep being the FDA-approved animal for heart valve testing. This paper, therefore, aims to compile the available knowledge and extend the marker list with antibodies cross-reacting with sheep tissue. Thirty-seven antibodies attributed to 1 of these classes were found to be useful: (1) endothelium, (2) mesenchymal cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells, (3) immune response, (4) primitive cells, (5) extracellular matrix, and (6) miscellaneous. Twelve had already been used in sheep tissue, but to our knowledge, the remaining 25 have not been described for use in sheep. From this result, we can conclude that the immunohistochemical panel for sheep has been extensively expanded with respect to cardiovascular research. PMID:20090513

  2. Molecular evidence for chlamydial infections in the eyes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, A; Borel, N; Becker, A; Lu, Z H; Zimmermann, D R; Brugnera, E; Pospischil, A; Vaughan, L

    2009-03-16

    Ocular infections by chlamydiae are associated with ocular disease manifestations such as conjunctivitis and keratitis in humans and animals. Limited evidence exists that members of the order Chlamydiales can also cause ocular disease in sheep. In the current study, the prevalence of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep was investigated by using PCR methods. Data obtained in sheep by broad-range 16S rRNA order Chlamydiales-specific PCR were compared to the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydiae detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Flocks tested included a clinically healthy flock and two flocks suffering from ocular disease and with histories of Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA). PCR detected DNA of Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus and Cp. pecorum in the eyes of both healthy and sick animals but also identified Chlamydia (C.) suis and a variety of uncultured chlamydia-like organisms. Good correlation was found between the presence of Cp. abortus DNA in sheep conjunctival samples and seropositivity detected by cELISA. Despite these findings, no association was found between the presence of chlamydial DNA in the sheep conjunctival samples and the onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that the biodiversity of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep is greater than that previously thought. Further investigations are needed to determine whether a causal relationship between infection by chlamydiae and ocular disease exists in these animals. PMID:18945556

  3. Ancon sheep: a now disproven example of macroevolution.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The Ancon breed of sheep provided, for decades, a critical support for the existence of major evolutionary changes or jumps called "sports." Putative examples of sports have been used as evidence of rapid macroevolution since Darwin first discussed the Ancon sheep mutation in 1859. Ancon sheep had very short legs that were considered an advantage for shepherds because the sheep were less likely to escape over fences. Many textbooks and articles implied that the breed was an example of how a major new trait could evolve in a single generation. The Ancon sheep example has been used both to prove gradual Darwinism and also to argue for rapid evolution as opposed to gradualism. It now is recognized that Ancon sheep resulted from genetic diseases, and that they usually suffered from achondroplasia. The so-called new breed had so many major health problems that the condition caused the breed's extinction decades ago, yet was mentioned in textbooks as evidence for evolutionary jumps as recently as 2005. PMID:16440280

  4. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G; De Blasio, Miles J; Peura, Anita M; Heinemann, Gary K; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S; Wooldridge, Amy L; Kind, Karen L; Giles, Lynne C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Owens, Julie A; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-09-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents. PMID:26219868

  5. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

  6. Equine follicle-stimulating hormone action in cultured Sertoli cells from rat, sheep and pig.

    PubMed

    Monet-Kuntz, C; Guillou, F; Fontaine, I; Combarnous, Y

    1991-07-01

    Using a suspension of seminiferous tubule cells, we had previously shown that equine FSH is superactive in the male rat, i.e. that it exhibits a higher biological potency than expected from its binding activity. In this work we investigated equine FSH superactivity in rat, pig and sheep, by comparing in each species the equine FSH with the homologous FSH, both for their binding activities (in a radioreceptor assay using a testicular membrane fraction) and for their in vitro biological potencies (in a plasminogen activator assay using a Sertoli cell-enriched population cultured on plastic). In the rat, the binding activity of equine FSH was identical to that of rat FSH, and the biological potency of equine FSH was 47 times higher than that of rat FSH. Hence, superactivity of equine FSH was confirmed in the rat. In the pig, equine FSH was not superactive, since it exhibited binding activity and biological potency identical to those of porcine FSH. In the sheep, the binding activity of equine FSH was 6 times higher than that of ovine FSH, and its biological potency was also higher (14 times). Therefore, equine FSH cannot be considered superactive in this species. In conclusion, equine FSH superactivity is closely related to the species from which Sertoli cells are isolated. PMID:1908169

  7. In vivo and ex vivo assessment of the interaction between ivermectin and danofloxacin in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ballent, Mariana; Lifschitz, Adrián; Virkel, Guillermo; Sallovitz, Juan; Maté, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The impact of an efflux pump-related interaction between ivermectin and danofloxacin on their intestinal transport (ex vivo) and disposition kinetics (in vivo) was assessed. Eighteen male Corriedale sheep were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Animals in Group A received 0.2mg/kg ivermectin by SC injection, those in Group B were given 6 mg/kg danofloxacin SC on two occasions 48 h apart and those in Group C were treated with both compounds at the same rates. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin and danofloxacin were measured by HPLC using fluorescence detection. Ex vivo intestinal drug transport activity was measured by the use of the Ussing chamber technique. Plasma concentrations of ivermectin in the first 6 days after injection tended to be higher in Group C than Group A. Contemporaneous treatment with ivermectin significantly increased systemic exposure to danofloxacin (AUC values were 32-35% higher) and prolonged the elimination half-life of danofloxacin (40-52% longer). Ex vivo, incubation with ivermectin significantly decreased the efflux transport of rhodamine 123, a P-glycoprotein substrate, in sheep intestine, but no significant effect of danofloxacin on transport activity was observed. Evaluation of the interaction of danofloxacin with the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) showed that pantoprazole and ivermectin significantly decreased danofloxacin secretion in the rat intestine. Thus, the ivermectin-induced reduction of danofloxacin efflux transport observed in this study may involve BCRP activity but the involvement of P-glycoprotein cannot be ruled out. PMID:22079145

  8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a Male.

    PubMed

    Wakida, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yui; Kumasaka, Toshio; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mitani, Keiko; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Kamimura, Go; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-09-01

    We report a 17-year-old male with a histopathologic diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis after surgery for a pneumothorax. In general, lymphangioleiomyomatosis has been considered a female-specific disease. However, there are a few lymphangioleiomyomatosis cases reported in males, and our patient is the youngest case reported. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurs most commonly in males in their late teens and early twenties. Histopathologic diagnosis cannot always be performed in young males with pneumothorax. However, simple diagnosis should be avoided, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis should be considered as an underlying disease. This remarkable case provides new and valuable clinical insights into young male pneumothorax. PMID:26354644

  9. Contrasting effects of different levels of food intake and adiposity on LH secretion and hypothalamic gene expression in sheep.

    PubMed

    Archer, Z A; Rhind, S M; Findlay, P A; Kyle, C E; Thomas, L; Marie, M; Adam, C L

    2002-11-01

    Body reserves (long-term) and food intake (short-term) both contribute nutritional feedback to the hypothalamus. Reproductive neuroendocrine output (GnRH/LH) is stimulated by increased food intake and not by high adiposity in sheep, but it is unknown whether appetite-regulating hypothalamic neurons show this differential response. Castrated male sheep (Scottish Blackface) with oestradiol implants were studied in two 4 week experiments. In Experiment 1, sheep were fed to maintain the initial body condition (BC) score of 2.0+/-0.00 (lower BC (LBC), n=7) or 2.9+/-0.09 (higher BC (HBC), n=9), and liveweight of 43+/-1.1 and 59+/-1.6 kg respectively. LBC and HBC sheep had similar mean plasma LH concentration, pulse frequency and amplitude, but HBC animals had higher mean plasma concentrations of insulin (P<0.01), leptin (P<0.01) and glucose (P<0.01). Gene expression (measured by in situ hybridisation) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher in LBC than HBC sheep for neuropeptide Y (NPY; 486% of HBC, P<0.01), agouti-related peptide (AGRP; 467%, P<0.05) and leptin receptor (OB-Rb; 141%, P<0.05), but lower for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART; 92%, P<0.05) and similar between groups for pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In Experiment 2, sheep with initial mean BC score 2.4+/-0.03 and liveweight 55+/-0.8 kg were fed a liveweight-maintenance ration (low intake, LI, n=7) while sheep with initial mean BC score 2.0+/-0.03 and liveweight 43+/-1.4 kg were fed freely so that BC score increased to 2.5+/-0.00 and liveweight increased to 54+/-1.4 kg (high intake, HI, n=9). Compared with LI, HI sheep had higher mean plasma LH (P<0.05), baseline LH (P<0.01) and pulse amplitude (P<0.01) and showed a trend towards higher pulse frequency. Although there were no differences in final mean plasma concentrations, there were significant increases over time in mean concentrations of insulin (P<0.001), leptin (P<0.05) and glucose (P<0.001) in HI sheep. Gene expression for AGRP in the ARC was higher in HI than LI animals (453% of LI; P<0.05), but expression levels were similar for NPY, OB-Rb, CART and POMC. Thus, the hypothalamus shows differential responses to steady-state adiposity as opposed to an increase in food intake, in terms of both reproductive neuroendocrine activity and hypothalamic appetite-regulating pathways. Differences in hypothalamic gene expression were largely consistent with contemporary levels of systemic leptin and insulin feedback; however, increased nutritional feedback was stimulatory to GnRH/LH whereas constant high feedback was not. The hypothalamus therefore has the ability to retain a nutritional memory that can influence subsequent responses. PMID:12429036

  10. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; da Silveira, M. A. G.; Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  11. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPAR? (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1? (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P?sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. PMID:24267720

  12. Evaluation of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) hay as a basal diet for growing local sheep in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Bimrew; Demeke, Solomon; Tolemariam, Taye; Tegegne, Firew; Wamatu, Jane; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change of Washera sheep fed on desho grass and natural pasture hay as a basal diet and supplemented with concentrate mixtures. Twenty-five intact male sheeps with body weight of 19.4 ± 1.89 kg (mean ± SD) were used in randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were 100 % natural pasture hay (NPH) (T1), 75 % NPH + 25 % desho grass hay (DGH) (T2), 50 % NPH + 50 % DGH (T3), 25 % NPH + 75 % DGH (T4), and 100 % DGH (T5). Equal amount of concentrate mixture (CM) (300 g DM/day/h) was supplemented in all of the five treatments. The result of laboratory chemical analysis revealed that the CP content of the basal diets increased with increased proportion of desho grass hay inclusion in the treatments at the expense of natural pasture hay. Total DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF intake and digestibility was significant (P < 0.05) and in the increasing order of T1 < T2 < T3 < T4 < T5. The average daily body weight gain (ADG) of experimental sheep was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as proportion of desho grass increased from 0 to 100 % in the basal diet. The result indicated that desho grass can be used as a basal diet for local sheep with better performance than natural pasture hay-based diets. PMID:26970971

  13. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®) General Information about Male Breast Cancer Key Points Male breast cancer is a ...

  14. Prenatal androgens time neuroendocrine puberty in the sheep: effect of testosterone dose.

    PubMed

    Kosut, S S; Wood, R I; Herbosa-Encarnacin, C; Foster, D L

    1997-03-01

    In sheep, prenatal exposure to androgens during a critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain (30-90 days of gestation; 145 days is term) can advance the timing of puberty in females and prevent the preovulatory LH surge. The present study tests the hypothesis that in sheep, the timing of neuroendocrine sexual maturation is related to the amount of prenatal steroid exposure. In addition, we determined if different steroid requirements exist for sexual differentiation of the tonic and surge modes of gonadotropin secretion. Testosterone was administered weekly to three groups of pregnant ewes from days 30-90 of gestation at doses of 200, 80, or 32 mg/week. The resulting androgenized female lambs together with control males and females (n = 5-7/group) were gonadectomized at 3 weeks of age, and gonadal steroids were replaced with a SILASTIC brand estradiol-filled capsule. LH concentrations were measured from biweekly blood samples. Sustained increases in circulating LH were considered to reflect the initiation of neuroendocrine puberty. In male lambs, LH secretion started to increase at 8.3 +/- 0.9 weeks of age (mean +/- SEM). The two highest doses of prenatal androgen advanced the onset of neuroendocrine sexual maturation in females. In the 200 mg androgenized females, the pubertal LH rise (10.2 +/- 2.0 weeks) began about the same time as in males. In the 80 mg treatment group, LH concentrations increased at 16.2 +/- 1.5 weeks, which was later than in males, but well before that in normal females (27.1 +/- 0.7 weeks). For females treated with the lowest dose of androgen (32 mg), the pubertal LH increase (24.6 +/- 1.9 weeks) began about the same time as in normal females. To test the function of the LH surge system, LH was measured every 2 h for 60 h after an acute increase in circulating estradiol was produced by implanting additional estrogen capsules. All control females produced a surge in response to acute estradiol stimulation. LH surges did not occur in males, 200 mg androgenized females, or 80 mg androgenized females. Of six females from the 32 mg treatment group, two produced LH surges in response to the stimulatory feedback action of estradiol. We conclude that the greater the amount of prenatal testosterone, the earlier the initiation of the pubertal LH rise. Moreover, the finding that low doses of testosterone (32 mg/week) are capable of abolishing the LH surge without significantly advancing the timing of puberty supports our hypothesis that different steroid requirements exist for sexual differentiation of tonic and surge modes of LH secretion. PMID:9048611

  15. Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The structural style exposed in the Palozoic reservoir rocks of Sheep Mountain may serve as a model for the other structural features in the Wind River Basin. As in the case of the Derby Dome and Winkleman Dome, Sheep Mountain is typically asymmetric to the southwest. Local east-directed thrusts exposed in the core of the anticline place Pennsylvania over Permian age rocks. A major change in the trend of the anticlinal crest within Sheep Mountain, suggests development of separate left-stepping en echelon closures at depth. The northwest end of Sheep Mountain also forms a left-stepping en echelon pattern with Derby Dome. The northwest plunge of Sheep Mountain is facilitated by compartmentalization across an east-northeast trending, high angle fault. North of this fault, Mesozoic rocks are thrust to the southwest along a low angle, northeast-dipping out of the basin thrust, which obscures the en echelon bypass with Derby Dome. Sheep Mountain is transected at the southeast end by the east-northeast trending Spring Creek fault which has possible left lateral offset. South of the Spring Creek Fault, the southwest vergent Beaver Creek thrust places Precambrian to Missisippian rocks over Cretaceous rocks, and may represent the fault which controls the entire fold trend at depth.

  16. Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

    2006-01-01

    Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

  17. Nutrient-sensing mechanisms across evolution.

    PubMed

    Chantranupong, Lynne; Wolfson, Rachel L; Sabatini, David M

    2015-03-26

    For organisms to coordinate their growth and development with nutrient availability, they must be able to sense nutrient levels in their environment. Here, we review select nutrient-sensing mechanisms in a few diverse organisms. We discuss how these mechanisms reflect the nutrient requirements of specific species and how they have adapted to the emergence of multicellularity in eukaryotes. PMID:25815986

  18. Estrous sheep serum enables invitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa while preventing caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Del Olmo, E; Garca-lvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Ramn, M; Jimnez-Rabadn, P; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Anel-Lopez, L; Martinez-Pastor, F; Soler, A J; Garde, J J; Fernndez-Santos, M R

    2016-01-15

    Estrous sheep serum (ESS) is considered the most efficient agent for invitro capacitation of ram spermatozoa. We have explored the relationship between caspase activation and capacitation in ram. Semen samples from 17 rams were cryopreserved. Invivo fertility was evaluated after intrauterine artificial insemination. Samples were submitted to four treatments: control, ESS (10%), caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK), and estrous ewe serum plus caspase inhibitor (I+E). Sperm samples were incubated for 30minutes at 38.5 C and 5% CO2 and analyzed with flow cytometry for mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoTracker deep red), sperm viability and apoptosis-like changes (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide), acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), membrane fluidity (merocyanine 540), and caspase activity (Vybrant FAM kits for polycaspases, caspase-8, and caspases 3-7). Estrous sheep serum induced changes compatible with capacitation, doubling the proportion of viable spermatozoa with increased merocyanine 540 and increasing YO-PRO-1(+) and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (P<0.05). Incubation increased the proportion of spermatozoa with activated caspases (P<0.05), which was abolished by the treatments. We detected a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of the viable and caspase(-) spermatozoa after the incubation, which was prevented by the presence of estrous ewe serum (P<0.05). The analysis of caspases 3/7 and 8 resulted in less marked differences. Fertility was positively related to viability and inactivated caspases and negatively to viable-capacitated spermatozoa and active caspases. Invitro induction of capacitation in thawed ram spermatozoa by using ESS suggests a downregulation in apoptotic pathways. However, males with the lowest fertility showed parameters similar to high-fertility males, suggesting that other factors were involved apart from capacitation and/or caspase activation. PMID:26474680

  19. Cellular and Hormonal Disruption of Fetal Testis Development in Sheep Reared on Pasture Treated with Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Catriona; Rhind, Stewart M.; Kyle, Carol E.; Scott, Hayley; McKinnell, Chris; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether experimental exposure of pregnant sheep to a mixture of environmental chemicals added to pasture as sewage sludge (n = 9 treated animals) exerted effects on fetal testis development or function; application of sewage sludge was undertaken so as to maximize exposure of the ewes to its contents. Control ewes (n = 9) were reared on pasture treated with an equivalent amount of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Treatment had no effect on body weight of ewes, but it reduced body weight by 1215% in male (n = 12) and female (n = 8) fetuses on gestation day 110. In treated male fetuses (n = 11), testis weight was significantly reduced (32%), as were the numbers of Sertoli cells (34% reduction), Leydig cells (37% reduction), and gonocytes (44% reduction), compared with control fetuses (n = 8). Fetal blood levels of testosterone and inhibin A were also reduced (36% and 38%, respectively) in treated compared with control fetuses, whereas blood levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were unchanged. Based on immunoexpression of anti-Mllerian hormone, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, and Leydig cell cytoplasmic volume, we conclude that the hormone changes in treated male fetuses probably result from the reduction in somatic cell numbers. This reduction could result from fetal growth restriction in male fetuses and/or from the lowered testosterone action; reduced immunoexpression of ?-smooth muscle actin in peritubular cells and of androgen receptor in testes of treated animals supports the latter possibility. These findings indicate that exposure of the developing male sheep fetus to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals can result in major attenuation of testicular development and hormonal function, which may have consequences in adulthood. PMID:16263515

  20. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  1. Insulin secretion in sheep exposed to cold.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Y; Takahashi, H

    1980-01-01

    1. Cold exposure caused a marked decrease in insulin response to intravenous injection of glucose, with a sharply declining response over the first 4 days of cold exposure followed by a constant low response up to 13 days of the experimental cold period. 2. The glucose-induced insulin response was unaffected by concomitant infusion of phentolamine in the warm environment. In contrast, the low response of insulin secretion to glucose during cold exposure was so augmented by concomitant infusion of phentolamine as to exceed the response observed in the warm environment. 3. Intravenous infusion of phentolamine caused an increase in the concentration of plasma insulin in the cold but not in the warm environment. 4. Adrenaline completely abolished the insulin response to glucose in the warm environment. 5. Exposure to cold environment brought about an increase in urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline and in heart rate, but rectal temperature was unchanged. 6. It is concluded that cold exposure insufficient to cause hypothermia produces a marked decrease in insulin secretion by the pancreas of sheep, mediated through adrenergic alpha-receptors stimulated by augmented sympatho-adrenomedullary activity. PMID:7007619

  2. Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, K J; Morris, B

    1978-01-01

    A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

  3. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  4. Nutrient influences on leaf photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Nobel, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake for leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. was reduced when the plants were grown at low concentrations of NO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, or K/sup +/. The water vapor conductance was relatively constant for all nutrient levels, indicating little effect on stomatal response. Although leaves under nutrient stress tended to be lower in chlorophyll and thinner, the ratio of mesophyll surface area to leaf area did not change appreciably. Thus, the reduction in CO/sub 2/ uptake rate at low nutrient levels was due to a decrease in the CO/sub 2/ conductance expressed per unit mesophyll cell wall area (g/sub CO/sup cell//sub 2/). The use of g/sub CO//sup cell//sub 2/ and nutrient levels expressed per unit of mesophyll cell wall provides a new means of assessing nutrient effects on CO/sub 2/ uptake of leaves. 14 figures, 1 table.

  5. Epithelial, metabolic and innate immunity transcriptomic signatures differentiating the rumen from other sheep and mammalian gastrointestinal tract tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Oddy, Victor Hutton; Archibald, Alan L.; Vercoe, Phillip E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ruminants are successful herbivorous mammals, in part due to their specialized forestomachs, the rumen complex, which facilitates the conversion of feed to soluble nutrients by micro-organisms. Is the rumen complex a modified stomach expressing new epithelial (cornification) and metabolic programs, or a specialised stratified epithelium that has acquired new metabolic activities, potentially similar to those of the colon? How has the presence of the rumen affected other sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants compared to non-ruminants? Methods. Transcriptome data from 11 tissues covering the sheep GIT, two stratified epithelial and two control tissues, was analysed using principal components to cluster tissues based on gene expression profile similarity. Expression profiles of genes along the sheep GIT were used to generate a network to identify genes enriched for expression in different compartments of the GIT. The data from sheep was compared to similar data sets from two non-ruminants, pigs (closely related) and humans (more distantly related). Results. The rumen transcriptome clustered with the skin and tonsil, but not the GIT transcriptomes, driven by genes from the epidermal differentiation complex, and genes encoding stratified epithelium keratins and innate immunity proteins. By analysing all of the gene expression profiles across tissues together 16 major clusters were identified. The strongest of these, and consistent with the high turnover rate of the GIT, showed a marked enrichment of cell cycle process genes (P = 1.4 E−46), across the whole GIT, relative to liver and muscle, with highest expression in the caecum followed by colon and rumen. The expression patterns of several membrane transporters (chloride, zinc, nucleosides, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and bile acids) along the GIT was very similar in sheep, pig and humans. In contrast, short chain fatty acid uptake and metabolism appeared to be different between the species and different between the rumen and colon in sheep. The importance of nitrogen and iodine recycling in sheep was highlighted by the highly preferential expression of SLC14A1-urea (rumen), RHBG-ammonia (intestines) and SLC5A5-iodine (abomasum). The gene encoding a poorly characterized member of the maltase-glucoamylase family (MGAM2), predicted to play a role in the degradation of starch or glycogen, was highly expressed in the small and large intestines. Discussion. The rumen appears to be a specialised stratified cornified epithelium, probably derived from the oesophagus, which has gained some liver-like and other specialized metabolic functions, but probably not by expression of pre-existing colon metabolic programs. Changes in gene transcription downstream of the rumen also appear have occurred as a consequence of the evolution of the rumen and its effect on nutrient composition flowing down the GIT. PMID:26989612

  6. Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

    2014-11-01

    Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed. PMID:25015875

  7. [Cloning and sequencing of four microsatellite loci in Small Tail Han Sheep].

    PubMed

    Chu, Ming-Xing; Wang, Ji-Zhen; Wang, Ai-Guo; Li, Ning; Fu, Jin-Lian

    2002-05-01

    Small Tail Han sheep is an excellent local sheep breed in China. Small Tail Han sheep has significant characteristics of high prolificacy. The lambing percentage averaged 260 percent in Small Tail Han sheep. The genetic detection of 4 microsatellite loci OarAE101, OarHH35, BM143 and BMS2508 which were closely linked to the fecundity gene FecB in Booroola sheep was conducted in 159 sheep in Small Tail Han sheep, Dorset sheep, F1 hybzids(Dorset x Small Tail Han sheep). The results confirmed the genetic characteristics of codominance of microsatellite DNA. The PCR amplified products of microsatellites were detected by non-denatured (natural) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sequences of PCR amplification fragment of 6 clones of 4 microsatellite loci in Small Tail Han sheep were accepted by GenBank of National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health in USA, the GenBank accession numbers were AF394445, AF394446, AF394447, AF394448, AF394449, AF394450, respectively. The sequence homogeneity between OarAE101 in Small Tail Han sheep in this study and the ovine OarAE101 in GenBank was 98 percent. The sequence homogeneity between OarHH35 in Small Tail Han sheep in this study and the ovine OarHH35 in GenBank was 99 percent. The sequence homogeneity between BM143 in Small Tail Han sheep in this study and the bovine BM143 in GenBank was 95 percent. The sequence homogeneity between BMS2508 in Small Tail Han sheep in this study and the bovine BMS2508 in GenBank was 95 percent. OarAE101, OarHH35, BM143 and BMS2508 in Small Tail Han sheep were all perfect microsatellites. These results could provide molecular basic data for the research on the germplasm characteristics of Small Tail Han sheep. PMID:12043566

  8. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  10. Chronic arsenic toxicity in sheep of Kurdistan province, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Seradj, Afsaneh; Akbari, Zahra; Moore, Farid; Shahraki, Alireza Rahmani; Pourjafar, Mehrdad

    2015-07-01

    After the detection of arsenic (As) toxicity in sheep from Ebrahim-abad and Babanazar villages in Kurdistan province, the concentration of this element in drinking water, cultivated soil, alfalfa hay, wool, and blood samples was evaluated. Total As concentrations ranged from 119 to 310 ?g/L in drinking water, 46.70-819.20 mg/kg in soil 1.90-6.90 mg/kg in vegetation 1.56-10.79 mg/kg in sheep's wool, and 86.30-656 ?g/L in blood samples. These very high As contents, in all parts of the biogeochemical cycle, exceed the recommended normal range for this element compared with a control area. Results indicate that As has moved through all compartments of the biogeochemical cycle by way of direct or indirect pathways. The present investigation illustrated decreased packed cell volume and hemoglobin in sheep from the As-contaminated zone. It was concluded that sheep from the contaminated areas suffer from anemia. Chronic As exposure of the liver was determined by liver function tests. For this purpose, blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. The results show that serum ALT and AST activities are increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the sheep population exposed to As in the contaminated zone. Moreover, chronic As exposure causes injury to hepatocytes and damages the liver. PMID:25943488

  11. The experimental osteoporosis in sheep--clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Z; Piątek, A; Bieżyński, J; Skrzypczak, P; Kuropka, P; Kuryszko, J; Nikodem, A; Kafarski, P; Pezowicz, C

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of new methods of oseoporotic therapy requires tests on an animal model. One of the best is the sheep, whose numerous advantages over other models are described in the literature. The aim of this study was induction of osteoporosis using steroids and ovariorectomy methods in sheep and description of the change in parameters with regard to healthy sheep. The study was performed on female "merino" breed sheep divided into three groups: Negative control (NC) healthy animals, positive control (PC) ovariorectomised animals and steroid group (SC) where methylprednisolone was implemented. Blood tests, diagnostic arthroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and X-Ray micro-tomography of bone were carried out. Blood tests revealed a decreased level of estrogens, progesterone and increased parathormone and cortisol levels in the SC group. A decrease in bone turnover markers and an increase in bone resorption markers in all groups were also noted. Diagnostic arthroscopy revealed osteoarthrosis in PC and SC groups. Radiological density tests showed a slight decrease in PC and NC groups whereas there was more than a triple decrease in SC. Results obtained from microCT showed quickly developing osteoporosis in the SC group, which is reflected in numerous parameters analysed in this study. The best effects for osteoporosis induction were obtained using ovariorectomised sheep with methylprednisolone injections. PMID:26618599

  12. Mitochondrial diversity and the origin of Iberian sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Susana; Arranz, Juan-Jos; Brito, Nuno; Molina, Antonio; San Primitivo, Fermn; Bayn, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA diversity was analysed in 19 Iberian and six foreign sheep breeds. Three mtDNA lineages (B, A and C) were found in the Iberian sheep, with type B clearly predominating over the others. The results were analysed for each of the morphologically determined breed groups in Iberian sheep: Merino, Entrefino, Churro and Iberian trunks. MtDNA lineage C was found only in the Iberian trunk composed of Montesina and Ojalada. These two populations had high mtDNA variability, and in the Iberian sheep only Merino Branco had more variation. The other three Merino types studied showed moderate variability, including the most authentic Merino, the Spanish Merino. These three Merinos clustered closely in a multidimensional scaling representation of distances, while the fourth breed (Merino Branco) showed a clear separation. As for the other two trunks, breeds from the Churro group showed greater maternal uniformity while results for populations included in the so-called Entrefino trunk seemed to have a more heterogeneous maternal origin. The results obtained are discussed with available data from nuclear markers and with morphological classifications, and all this information is analysed in relation to the origin of the different Iberian sheep breeds. PMID:17212950

  13. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandr Antonio; dos Santos, Joice Sifuentes; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels. PMID:26821492

  14. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  15. Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics(1)[W

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male fertility depends on the proper development of the male gametophyte, successful pollen germination, tube growth, and delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule. Previous studies have shown that nutrients like boron, and ion gradients or currents of Ca(2+), H(+), and K(+) are critical for pollen ...

  16. Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

  17. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  18. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  19. Empowering Young Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    The purpose of this book is to provide school counselors and related mental health professionals with important information to help them address the crisis of the Black male. The focus of the book is on Black male educational empowerment and how pupil personnel professionals can promote it in the school setting. The book examines important issues…

  20. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has

  1. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual

  2. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  3. Physiological and behavioural responses of sheep to simulated sea transport motions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The motion of ships can cause discomfort and stress in humans, but little is known about the impact on sheep welfare, despite many sheep travelling long distances by ship during live export. We tested whether exposing sheep to roll (side to side movement), heave (up and down movement) and pitch (fro...

  4. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  5. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  6. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  7. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  8. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interstate commerce. 79.2 Section 79.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.2 Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce. (a) No sheep..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce...

  9. Small ruminant lentivirus genetic subgroups associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are prevalent in North American sheep and a major cause of production losses for the U.S. sheep industry. Sheep susceptibility to SRLV infection is influenced by genetic variation within the ovine transmembrane 154 gene (TMEM154). Animals with either of two dist...

  10. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  11. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  12. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats, sheep... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  13. Sheep bedding in the Centennial Mountains of Montana and Idaho: effects on vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During summer months in western North America many bands of sheep are grazed in the mountains. At night a sheep band is concentrated in, often historic, bedding areas to guard them from theft and predation. We analyzed the impacts of sheep bedding on the vegetation in bedding areas compared to veget...

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....

  15. Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

  16. Genetic Structure and Diversity among U.S. sheep breeds: Identification of the major gene pools.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding existing levels of genetic diversity of sheep breeds facilitates in situ and ex situ conservation activities. A comprehensive evaluation of US sheep breeds has not been previously performed therefore we evaluated the genetic diversity among and within 28 US sheep breeds. Both major and...

  17. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentiviruses cause incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative diseases that affect millions of sheep worldwide. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been recently associated with lentivirus infections in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the two most common TMEM1...

  18. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants... and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico... Administrator may direct. (d) Certificates will not be required for wild ruminants, other than sheep and...

  19. Extensive Variation and Sub-Structuring in Lineage A mtDNA in Indian Sheep: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of Sheep in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin; Kumar Jr, Satish; Kolte, Atul P.; Kumar, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 0.005 to 0.01 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route. PMID:24244282

  20. Effects of different grazing intensities of sheep on accumulated particulate organic matter (POM) and organic matter mineralization in low-alpine grassland soils in Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinsen, V.; Mulder, J.; Austrheim, G.; Mysterud, A.

    2009-04-01

    Summer farming in mountain areas of Norway (e.g. livestock grazing and logging of fire wood) has reduced during the last century; however the number of sheep stayed relatively unchanged implying a translocation of grazing impact. Herbivores may affect both vegetation dynamics and nutrient cycling. Much information exists about the impact of cession of grazing, but little is known about the ecological effect of different grazing intensities. Using a controlled grazing experiment organized as total randomized block design (starting 2001), with three levels of grazing intensities by sheep (high, low and no sheep), effects of different grazing pressure on soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization and amount and quality of POM was studied in a low alpine region of Southern Norway. In a parallel study in situ measurements were conducted to determine biomass production rate and the quality of litter input. Soil samples from the O-horizon were incubated (determining C and N mineralization) and fractionated (free light POM fraction, density <1,8 g cm-3, size 20-2000 µm). It was hypothesized that high levels of grazing would induce (1) higher C and N mineralization rates and (2) less POM, due to physical (trampling) and chemical (input of faeces and urea) impact of sheep in addition to observed changes in vegetation cover. Results indicate that the amount of POM was in the order low>no sheep>high, indicating that low grazing intensity build up a potential larger mineralizable fraction compared with high and no sheep. The C content of POM was in the order no sheep>low>high and the N content of POM in the order low>no sheep>high. The C content of POM at high grazing intensity was significantly lower than at low grazing intensity and no sheep (ns. different). The low C content of POM at high grazing intensities (but not the N content) was the main reason for the observed CN ratios of the POM fraction being lowest at high densities (no sheep>low>high). Initial analysis of C and N mineralization suggest that the amount of CO2 evolved per g soil is highest in soil samples from low grazing pressure; however respiration rates expressed per g POM do not differ between treatments. Ammonium is the dominant form of inorganic N mineralized from SOM. By contrast, there is little or no accumulation of nitrate, suggesting low nitrification potentials in these soils. Differences between treatments in the amount and quality of POM and in mineralization rates indicate that there is a non linear response of grazing activity. Thus, change in management practice may have important consequences for feedback mechanisms controlling above and below ground productivity. At the conference more data on C and N mineralization in addition to a coupled stoichiometri of selected plants and SOM will be presented.

  1. Hungry for Nutrient Data? Navigating the USDA Nutrient Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States, providing the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors. Most nutrition professionals are familiar with the basics of the SR onlin...

  2. An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Studies on the effects of total nephrectomy in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J; Singh, A P; Peshin, P K; Singh, M; Sharma, S K

    1983-01-01

    Effects of total nephrectomy were studied in six sheep. There was no marked deterioration in the clinical condition of the animals except anorexia and reduced water intake. Three sheep survived the period of observation of 120 hours when they were euthanized. One animal suddenly died at each of 76, 80 and 100 hours. Progressive increase of blood urea nitrogen concentration was accompanied by severe metabolic acidosis in the later stages. Plasma creatinine rose significantly but the change was not marked. Plasma inorganic phosphorous and calcium decreased significantly. Unaffected plasma sodium levels were accompanied by hyperkalemia and hypochloremia. Plasma total proteins and albumin decreased significantly in the later stages. Results showed markedly different responses to total nephrectomy in sheep as compared to changes reported in cattle and nonruminants. PMID:6883188

  4. Characterization of pulmonary surfactant from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, J L; Desai, R; Hext, P; Tetley, T; Richards, R

    1975-01-01

    1. Pulmonary surfactants from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep were isolated and analysed. 2. All preparations had a high anenoic phosphatidylcholine content and would produce stable surface tensions of 0.01 Nm-1 or less. 3. Protein content was 8-18% of the dry weights. A number of proteins were observed; their overall composition were high in hydrophobic amino acid residues. 4. Lipid content varied from 79% (ox) to 90% (rabbit) with phosphatidylcholine representing from 58% (sheep) to 83% (rabbit) of the total lipid. The surfactant preparations were rather similar in lipid composition except that sheep surfactant contained about 10% lysophosphatidylcholine. 5. Hexadecanoic acid was the principal fatty acid. It was particularly high in phosphatidylcholine. 6. Phosphatidylglycerol was a minor constituent of all surfactants but phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine was not detected. PMID:1243652

  5. [In vivo reduction of radiocesium with modified clinoptilolite in sheep].

    PubMed

    Jandl, J; Novosad, J

    1995-08-01

    The efficiency of the sorbent prepared by immobilization of [Iron(II)hexacyanoferrate(II)] on clinoptilolite--marked as ZEOFe--in reduction of the radiocaesium Cs-137 has been in vivo investigated in sheep. It was found that an application of this modified clinoptilolite affected both primary and secondary resorption of Cs-137 also by interrupting the enteral cycle of radiocaesium in sheep. It was proved that ZEOFe accelerated approx. twice the excretion of Cs-137 from sheep's body. The whole effect resulted in 15 to 50 times lowering of the equilibrium concentration of radiocaesium in the case of constant intake of the contaminated feed and simultaneous application of 50 grams of ZEOFe daily. The actual reduction depends mainly on the way of administration. The reduction of Cs-137 by non-modified clinoptilolite--ZEO--has been investigated, too. More than 10x lower sorption efficiency has been observed in comparison with ZEOFe. PMID:8585136

  6. [Cell count of the milk from sheep in machine milking].

    PubMed

    Vitkov, M; Vitanov, S

    1980-01-01

    A number of microbiological and parallel direct and indirect cytological studies were carried out on sheep milk, obtained by machine-milking. It was established that the sheep milk containing up to 183,000 somatic cells per cm3 showed a negative reaction if Bernburg's mastite test was applied. Samples of cellular elements from 200,000 up to 400,000 per cm3 showed a weak positive reaction of the test, and above 420,000 per cm3 proved to be strongly positive. Polynuclear heterophils and a high percentage of infected samples were found in a quantity of cells above 500,000 per cm3. The data obtained showed good correlation between the bacterial find and the cell contents and are a reliable prerequisite for the application of Bernburg's test in studying sheep milk. PMID:7193942

  7. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

  8. Investigation of immunity in sheep following footrot infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vidya; Dhungyel, Om; de Silva, Kumudika; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Ovine footrot is a major disease affecting sheep welfare and production. The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential transmitting agent. Monovalent or bivalent vaccines induce high levels of D. nodosus antibodies and are the basis of several successful footrot treatment, control and eradication programs. Due to the rapid rate of disease transmission within a flock, the presence of therapeutic vaccination non-responders has major implications for a control program. The aim of this study was to assess the immunological basis of a therapeutic vaccination non-response. Sheep (n=120) were infected with D. nodosus in an artificial pen challenge. Once disease had established, animals were vaccinated with a serogroup specific D. nodosus fimbrial vaccine. Based on the response to therapeutic vaccination, animals were allocated into one of three groups: (i) TVNR where disease persisted despite vaccination (ii) non-diseased, where disease never established and (iii) TVR, where disease was established but resolved with vaccination. Factors related to both the innate and adaptive immune pathways were assessed. These included antigen-specific serum antibodies, interferon-γ, interleukin-10, proliferation of lymphocyte subsets and phagocytic activity of leukocytes. There was no significant difference between the three groups of sheep for any of these parameters. All three groups of sheep produced antibody in excess of a previously published minimum antibody titre required for protection. Opsonising activity in sera from the three groups of sheep was also not significantly different and phagocytic cells from sheep from all three groups were able to destroy D. nodosus intracellularly. These findings show that the measured systemic adaptive and innate immune responses were unlikely to be the cause of a therapeutic vaccination non-response. They also show that the accepted minimum protective titre may be incorrect and may need further examination. PMID:25454866

  9. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; OBrien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  10. Some hepatotoxic actions of hexachloroethane and its metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Fowler, J S

    1969-03-01

    1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep.2. Concentrations of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in blood, bile, faeces, urine and tissues after oral administration of hexachloroethane emulsions to sheep.3. Increased blood concentrations of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were found to follow oral administration of hexachloroethane or pentachloroethane.4. The rate of bromsulphthalein transfer from liver cells to bile was found to decrease after oral administration of hexachloroethane. PMID:5809742

  11. Some hepatotoxic actions of hexachloroethane and its metabolites in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J. S. L.

    1969-01-01

    1. Pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were major metabolites of hexachloroethane in sheep. 2. Concentrations of hexachloroethane, pentachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene were determined by gas-liquid chromatography in blood, bile, faeces, urine and tissues after oral administration of hexachloroethane emulsions to sheep. 3. Increased blood concentrations of sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were found to follow oral administration of hexachloroethane or pentachloroethane. 4. The rate of bromsulphthalein transfer from liver cells to bile was found to decrease after oral administration of hexachloroethane. PMID:5809742

  12. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Rebecca E; Lee, Caroline; McGill, David M; Mendl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12), an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12), or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11). Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a 'runway task' (moving down a raceway for a food reward), response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001), a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02), a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001), and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001) than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of positive affective states, as well as dosage studies, so conclusions on the efficacy of diazepam as a model of low anxiety can be drawn. PMID:26713255

  13. Evaluating pharmacological models of high and low anxiety in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Caroline; McGill, David M.; Mendl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    New tests of animal affect and welfare require validation in subjects experiencing putatively different states. Pharmacological manipulations of affective state are advantageous because they can be administered in a standardised fashion, and the duration of their action can be established and tailored to suit the length of a particular test. To this end, the current study aimed to evaluate a pharmacological model of high and low anxiety in an important agricultural and laboratory species, the sheep. Thirty-five 8-month-old female sheep received either an intramuscular injection of the putatively anxiogenic drug 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP; 1 mg/kg; n = 12), an intravenous injection of the putatively anxiolytic drug diazepam (0.1 mg/kg; n = 12), or acted as a control (saline intramuscular injection n = 11). Thirty minutes after the treatments, sheep were individually exposed to a variety of tests assessing their general movement, performance in a ‘runway task’ (moving down a raceway for a food reward), response to startle, and behaviour in isolation. A test to assess feeding motivation was performed 2 days later following administration of the drugs to the same animals in the same manner. The mCPP sheep had poorer performance in the two runway tasks (6.8 and 7.7 × slower respectively than control group; p < 0.001), a greater startle response (1.4 vs. 0.6; p = 0.02), a higher level of movement during isolation (9.1 steps vs. 5.4; p < 0.001), and a lower feeding motivation (1.8 × slower; p < 0.001) than the control group, all of which act as indicators of anxiety. These results show that mCPP is an effective pharmacological model of high anxiety in sheep. Comparatively, the sheep treated with diazepam did not display any differences compared to the control sheep. Thus we suggest that mCPP is an effective treatment to validate future tests aimed at assessing anxiety in sheep, and that future studies should include other subtle indicators of positive affective states, as well as dosage studies, so conclusions on the efficacy of diazepam as a model of low anxiety can be drawn. PMID:26713255

  14. Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

  15. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures. PMID:26523589

  16. Stillage processing for nutrient recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

    1983-06-01

    Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

  17. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  18. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

  20. Hunting Nutrients and Trapping Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fertility is enhanced directly by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) efficiently absorbing the maximum amount of nutrients available and indirectly by formation of stabilized soil aggregates. Glomalin is sticky, not easily soluble substance, on AMF hyphae and provides a protective coating to b...

  1. Nutrients for the aging eye.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45-65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

  2. Effects of challenge with trichostrongylid nematode larvae on immunologically resistant grazing yearling sheep in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Pullman, A L; Beveridge, I; Martin, R R

    1991-03-01

    Paddocks near Gawler, South Australia, were grazed by newly weaned sheep which received either no anthelmintic treatment, regular 3-weekly treatment or a single treatment in February. A decline in the faecal egg count of untreated sheep in autumn associated with the ingestion of infective larvae indicated that the sheep had developed a resistance to reinfection. At the end of the experiment, 10 sheep were experimentally infected with Trichostrongylus vitrinus larvae to demonstrate this resistance. Untreated sheep grew less wool and had lower body weights when compared with treated animals and were extremely 'daggy'. A single treatment in February did not prevent production losses or scouring. PMID:1858285

  3. Determination of energy and protein requirement for maintenance and growth and evaluation for the effects of gender upon nutrient requirement in Dorper Hu Crossbred Lambs.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hai Tao; Zhang, Hao; You, Ji Hao; Wang, Feng

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine energy and protein requirement of Dorper??Hu crossbred lambs and further to evaluate the effect of gender upon nutrient requirement parameters. Forty-two female lambs (18.60??1.57kg) and 42 male lambs (18.30??1.28kg) were used. In comparative slaughter trial, 30 of animals from each gender group were randomly selected and assigned to ad libitum (AL), low restriction (LR) and high restriction (HR) group, and then were slaughtered when lambs under AL treatment reached target BW of 20, 28, and 35kg, to determine body energy and nitrogen retained. In digestibility trial, remaining 12 female (18.01??1.66kg) and 12 male lambs (18.43??1.17kg) were randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm; 400.61??20.31 vs. 427.24??18.70kJkg(-1) of shrunk BW(0.75); SBW(0.75)), partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (k m; 0.64??0.02 vs. 0.65??0.03), partial efficiency of ME utilization for growth (k g ; 0.42??0.03 vs. 0.44??0.02), and net protein (NP) requirement for maintenance (NPm; 1.83??0.17 vs. 1.99??0.28gkg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) did not differ (P?>?0.05) due to gender; although not statistically different, the mean value of Net energy (NE) requirement for maintenance (NEm) for male lambs (260.62??13.21kJkg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) were 5% greater than that (274.16??11.99kJkg(-1) of SBW(0.75)) of female lambs. Additionally, rams have greater amounts of NP requirement for growth (NPg, 15.94 to 44.32g d(-1)) than those of ewes (13.07 to 32.95g d(-1)) at the similar condition of BW and ADG. In conclusion, we suggested that our results of energy and protein requirement for growth ranged between the NRC recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep, and the effect of gender upon energy requirement parameters was similar in tendency but was less evidently than those frequently recommended previously. PMID:25791878

  4. Exposure to sheep dip and the incidence of acute symptoms in a group of Welsh sheep farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the exposure of a group of farmers to organophosphate pesticide in sheep dip, and to record the incidence of symptoms after exposure. DESIGN: A prospective study of the autumn 1992 dipping period. Working methods were assessed by questionnaire. Absorption of organophosphate pesticide was estimated before, immediately after, and six weeks after dipping by measuring plasma cholinesterase, erythrocyte cholinesterase, and dialkylphosphate urinary metabolites of organophosphates. Symptoms were recorded by questionnaire at the same time as biological monitoring. Possible confounding factors were identified by medical examination of the subjects. SETTING: Three community council electoral wards in Powys, typical of hill sheep farming areas in Wales. SUBJECTS: All (38) men engaged in sheep dipping living in the three community council electoral wards. RESULTS: 23 sheep farmers and one dipping contractor completed the study--a response rate of 63%. A sample of seven men who refused to enter the full study had similar working practices to the 24 subjects. Subjects reported inadequate handling precautions, and significant skin contamination with dip. Two men reported under diluting dip concentrate for use. Both had significant depression of erythrocyte cholinesterase after dipping. This indicated some absorption of organophosphate pesticide--but this did not reach levels usually associated with toxicity. It was not clear whether the symptoms of these two mens were caused by organophosphate exposure. Measurement of dialkylphosphate urinary metabolites in a single specimen of urine voided shortly after the end of dipping could not be correlated with individual exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Sheep dipping is strenuous and dirty work and sheep farmers find it difficult to wear personal protective equipment and avoid skin contamination with dip. In this limited study, farmers did not seem to have significant organophosphate toxicity, despite using inadequate handling precautions. PMID:8664964

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of PCR for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus using field data from 125 Scottish sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F I; Brlisauer, F; Cousens, C; McKendrick, I J; Gunn, G J

    2011-01-01

    Using a representative sample of Scottish sheep comprising 125 flocks, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) was estimated. By combining and adapting existing methods, the characteristics of the diagnostic test were estimated (in the absence of a gold standard reference) using repeated laboratory replicates. As the results of replicates within the same animal cannot be considered to be independent, the performance of the PCR was calculated at individual replicate level. The median diagnostic specificity of the PCR when applied to individual animals drawn from the Scottish flock was estimated to be 0.997 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.996-0.999), whereas the median sensitivity was 0.107 (95% CI 0.077-0.152). Considering the diagnostic test as three replicates where a positive result on any one or more replicates results in a positive test, the median sensitivity increased to 0.279. Reasons for the low observed sensitivity were explored by comparing the performance of the test as a function of the concentration of target DNA using spiked positive controls with known concentrations of target DNA. The median sensitivity of the test when used with positive samples with a mean concentration of 1.0 target DNA sequence per 25?L was estimated to be 0.160, which suggests that the PCR had a high true (analytical) sensitivity and that the low observed (diagnostic) sensitivity in individual samples was due to low concentrations of target DNA in the blood of clinically healthy animals. PMID:19931475

  6. Bighorn sheep domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHSDS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. PMID:24629771

  7. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  8. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  9. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePLUS

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  10. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... has reached sexual maturity, the two testicles (or testes) produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells. ... first stage of male puberty, the scrotum and testes grow larger. Next, the penis becomes longer and ...

  11. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  12. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  13. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  14. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... espaol Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  15. Differences in growth, fillet quality, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression between juvenile male and female rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation occurs at the expense of stored energy and nutrients, including lipids; however, little is known regarding gender effects on nutrient regulatory mechanisms in rainbow trout prior to maturity. Thirty-two, 14 month old, male and female rainbow trout were sampled for growth, carcass ...

  16. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  17. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8].

    PubMed

    Worwa, G; Thr, B; Griot, C; Hofmann, M; MacLachlan, J N; Chaignat, V

    2008-10-01

    Clinical disease of bluetongue (BT) in sheep may differ depending on breed, age and immunity of infected sheep and may also vary between serotype and strain of BT virus (BTV). Since there are no data available on the susceptibility of Swiss sheep breeds for BT, we performed experimental infection of the 4 most common Swiss sheep breeds and the highly susceptible Poll Dorset sheep with the BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) circulating in Northern Europe since 2006. Clinical signs were assessed regarding severity, localisation, progression and time point of their appearance. The results clearly show that the Swiss sheep breeds investigated were susceptible to BTV-8 infection. They developed moderate, BT-characteristic symptoms, which were similar to those observed in Poll Dorset sheep. Regardless of breed, the majority of infected animals showed fever, swelling of the head as well as erosions of the mouth and subcutaneous haemorrhages. PMID:18821508

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global change. PMID:26519911

  19. Nutrient enrichment and nutrient regeneration stimulate bacterioplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Chrzanowski, T H; Sterner, R W; Elser, J J

    1995-05-01

    Bacterial abundance results from predatory losses of individuals and replacement of losses through growth. Growth depends on sustained input of organic substrates and mineral nutrients. In this work we tested the hypothesis that bacterial growth in two oligotrophic Canadian shield lakes was limited by nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). We also determined whether consumer-regenerated resources contributed substantially to net bacterial growth. Two types of dilution assays were conducted to determine the response of bacteria to nutrient enrichment: diluted whole water (DWW, 1:9 whole/filtered with 0.2 ?m of filtered lake water) and diluted fractionated water (DFW, 1.0 ?m prefiltered then diluted as above). Replicate bottles in each dilution assay received either N (50 ?M), P (10 ?M), or both N and P enrichments. Controls received no nutrients. Resource-saturated growth rates and grazing rates were estimated from a standard dilution-growth approach. Bacterial growth was stimulated by addition of P alone and in combination with N. Consumers regenerated sufficient resources to support up to half the bacterial growth rate, but the benefit derived from consumers was minor when compared to mortality. PMID:24185342

  20. Melatonin treatment in spring and reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score and age.

    PubMed

    Luridiana, S; Mura, M C; Daga, C; Farci, F; Di Stefano, M V; Zidda, F; Carcangiu, V

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to evaluate the effect of melatonin treatment on the advanced reproductive recovery in sheep with different body condition score (BCS) and age, 800 ewes were selected from two farms. These ewes (3-6 years old, multiparous and with BCS 2.5-4.0) were subdivided into two Groups (200 M and 200 C), balanced on their BCS and age. On 20 March, Group M was treated with one melatonin implant (18 mg). Group C was untreated. Males were introduced to the groups 35 days after treatment. Gestation was diagnosed between day 45 and 90 after mating by transabdominal ultrasonography. From day 150 to 190 after rams introduction, lambing date and newborns' number were recorded. The average time in days between male introduction and lambing resulted shorter in treated than in control ewes (166.4 0.48 vs. 172.5 0.50) (P < 0.05). At day 160 and 170 from ram introduction the fertility rate was higher in Group M than in C (P < 0.05). The overall fertility at day 190 from rams introduction showed no differences between Group M and C (337 and 339, respectively). At day 170 from male introduction the number of the 5-6 years-old lambed ewes were 2-fold higher than the youngers (P < 0.05). The animals with a BCS 3.5-4.0 had a faster response to male effect, and a shorter mean distance in days from rams introduction to lambing, compared to those scored 2.5-3.0 (166.1 0.48 vs. 174.8 0.51) (P < 0.05). We concluded that the ewes with BCS 3.5-4.0 and aged 5-6 years showed a better response to melatonin treatment in spring. PMID:26220680

  1. ERD Research on Nutrient and Pathogen Dynamics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation giving an overview on the ERD research on nutrient and pathogen dynamics. Focus is on characterizing the dynamics of pathogen and nutrient stressors in the environment to support water quality objectives.

  2. DNA methylation Landscape of body size variation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxue; Wei, Caihong; Liu, Dongming; Wang, Huihua; Wu, Mingming; Xie, Zhiyuan; Capellini, Terence D.; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Li, Li; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Lu, Jian; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Shifang; Du, Yongfei; Zhang, Hongping; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-populations of Chinese Mongolian sheep exhibit significant variance in body mass. In the present study, we sequenced the whole genome DNA methylation in these breeds to detect whether DNA methylation plays a role in determining the body mass of sheep by Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation – sequencing method. A high quality methylation map of Chinese Mongolian sheep was obtained in this study. We identified 399 different methylated regions located in 93 human orthologs, which were previously reported as body size related genes in human genome-wide association studies. We tested three regions in LTBP1, and DNA methylation of two CpG sites showed significant correlation with its RNA expression. Additionally, a particular set of differentially methylated windows enriched in the “development process” (GO: 0032502) was identified as potential candidates for association with body mass variation. Next, we validated small part of these windows in 5 genes; DNA methylation of SMAD1, TSC1 and AKT1 showed significant difference across breeds, and six CpG were significantly correlated with RNA expression. Interestingly, two CpG sites showed significant correlation with TSC1 protein expression. This study provides a thorough understanding of body size variation in sheep from an epigenetic perspective. PMID:26472088

  3. Sheep: The First Large Animal Model in Nuclear Transfer Research

    PubMed Central

    Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

  4. TRUNCATED GAMMA-GLUTAMYL CARBOXYLASE IN RAMBOUILLET SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A flock of Rambouillet sheep was examined because of lamb mortality due to ineffective hemostasis at parturition. Decreased activities of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, severely reduced hepatic gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity and adequate vitamin K 2,3 epoxide reductase activity was det...

  5. First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Travera, G.E.; Zumarraga, M.; Etchechoury, I.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.; Pinedo, M.F. Alvarado; Pavlik, I.; Pribylova, R.; Romero, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. PMID:24516458

  6. Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veratrum californicum was discovered to be teratogenic in sheep over 50 years ago. The alkaloids in V. californicum responsible for terata induction are jervine, 11-deoxojervine (cyclopamine), and cycloposine (the glycoside of cyclopamine). Current research objectives are to better describe cyclop...

  7. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

  8. DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 FROM SHEEP TO BISON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is potentially devastating to American bison. Virtually all bison MCF cases in North America are caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, which is carried almost exclusively by sheep. In this communication, we report transm...

  9. Genome-Wide Specific Selection in Three Domestic Sheep Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jiaxve; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Xiaomeng; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Ruizao; Zhao, Fuping; Wei, Caihong; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial sheep raised for mutton grow faster than traditional Chinese sheep breeds. Here, we aimed to evaluate genetic selection among three different types of sheep breed: two well-known commercial mutton breeds and one indigenous Chinese breed. Results We first combined locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical methods to detect candidate regions targeted by selection in the three different populations. The results showed that the genetic distances reached at least medium divergence for each pairwise combination. We found these two methods were highly correlated, and identified many growth-related candidate genes undergoing artificial selection. For production traits, APOBR and FTO are associated with body mass index. For meat traits, ALDOA, STK32B and FAM190A are related to marbling. For reproduction traits, CCNB2 and SLC8A3 affect oocyte development. We also found two well-known genes, GHR (which affects meat production and quality) and EDAR (associated with hair thickness) were associated with German mutton merino sheep. Furthermore, four genes (POL, RPL7, MSL1 and SHISA9) were associated with pre-weaning gain in our previous genome-wide association study. Conclusions Our results indicated that combine locus-specific branch lengths and di statistical approaches can reduce the searching ranges for specific selection. And we got many credible candidate genes which not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel candidate genes in defined breeds to guide hybridization breeding. PMID:26083354

  10. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-04-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.

  11. A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Sue

    1992-01-01

    Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

  12. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  13. 7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Study of gastrointestinal nematodes in Sicilian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Torina, A; Dara, S; Marino, A M F; Sparagano, O A E; Vitale, F; Reale, S; Caracappa, S

    2004-10-01

    Parasitic gastroenteritis is one of the major causes of productivity loss in sheep and goats. This report records two studies of the helminth fauna from post-mortem examination. The first study, performed on the digestive tract of 72 sheep from a central part of Sicily in a high hill village (1,360 meters above sea level), between April 1996 and March 1997, showed an infection rate of 78%. The second study targeted goats from the western part of Sicily and showed an infection rate of 90%. For sheep, a total of 23 species of helminths were identified belonging to the family of Trichostrongyloidea, with the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia), Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, and Nematodirus; Strongilolidea with the genera Oesophagostomum and Chabertia: Ancylostomidea with Bunostomum; and Tricuridea with Tricuris. Teladorsagia circumcincta was the most common in the sheep abomasum, Bunostomum trigonocephalum and Trichostrongylus spp. in the small intestine, and Chabertia ovina and Trichuris ovis in the large intestine. For goats, a total of 12 species were isolated in the abomasum with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus axei the most common species. In the small intestine, five species were isolated and Trichostrongylus capricola was the dominant species. T. ovis and O. venulosum were dominant in large intestine and in the cecum. We also found species belonging to other ruminants such as O. ostertagi (in cattle) and S. kolchida and O. leptospicularis (in wild ruminants). PMID:15604491

  15. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  16. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    PubMed

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  17. DNA methylation Landscape of body size variation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiaxue; Wei, Caihong; Liu, Dongming; Wang, Huihua; Wu, Mingming; Xie, Zhiyuan; Capellini, Terence D; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Fuping; Li, Li; Zhong, Tao; Wang, Linjie; Lu, Jian; Liu, Ruizao; Zhang, Shifang; Du, Yongfei; Zhang, Hongping; Du, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-populations of Chinese Mongolian sheep exhibit significant variance in body mass. In the present study, we sequenced the whole genome DNA methylation in these breeds to detect whether DNA methylation plays a role in determining the body mass of sheep by Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation - sequencing method. A high quality methylation map of Chinese Mongolian sheep was obtained in this study. We identified 399 different methylated regions located in 93 human orthologs, which were previously reported as body size related genes in human genome-wide association studies. We tested three regions in LTBP1, and DNA methylation of two CpG sites showed significant correlation with its RNA expression. Additionally, a particular set of differentially methylated windows enriched in the "development process" (GO: 0032502) was identified as potential candidates for association with body mass variation. Next, we validated small part of these windows in 5 genes; DNA methylation of SMAD1, TSC1 and AKT1 showed significant difference across breeds, and six CpG were significantly correlated with RNA expression. Interestingly, two CpG sites showed significant correlation with TSC1 protein expression. This study provides a thorough understanding of body size variation in sheep from an epigenetic perspective. PMID:26472088

  18. 75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...This interim rule promulgates rules and regulations establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC) program, consistent with the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill). This rule establishes the NSIIC and a Board of Directors (Board) that will manage and be responsible for the general supervision of the activities of the NSIIC, with oversight from the U.S.......

  19. Spotting of Dall Sheep, Denali National Park, Alaska

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barry Middleton (left) and Ed Pfeifer (right) of the USGS Southwest Geographic Science Team engaged in field observations of Dall sheep in Denali National Park, Alaska, on July 27, 2009. The study employs satellite remote sensing and field observations to investigate the effect of variable and chang...

  20. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  1. Comparison of Genetic Diversity Between US and Kazak Sheep Breeds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To secure US genetic diversity it is beneficial to compare US and non-US breeds. Such information may also be used to identify areas of sampling for diverse genetic resources. Kazakhstan (KZ) provides an interesting comparison due to its history of sheep production and proximity to the Silk Route, w...

  2. DETERMINATION OF RACTOPAMINE IN CATTLE AND SHEEP URINE USING BIOSENSOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biosensor method, using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) principle, was developed for the determination of ractopamine in cattle and sheep urine. A monoclonal antibody was used to compete with ractopamine in the sample and ractopamine immobilized on the sensor chip. Addition of bovine serum a...

  3. In vitro metabolism of aniline by sheep intestine.

    PubMed

    Turner, J C; Green, R S; Kelly, W J

    1976-09-01

    1. The major metabolite after incubating aniline with sheep intestine was acetanilide. 2. Other metabolites detected in smaller amounts were 2-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, 2-acetamidophenol and 4-acetamidophenol. 3. The rumen, abomasum duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were all able to acetylate aniline. 4. 4-Aminophenol, 4-aminobenzoic acid, 4-anisidine and 4-nitroaniline were also acetylated. PMID:976743

  4. Sheep: the first large animal model in nuclear transfer research.

    PubMed

    Loi, Pasqualino; Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto; Ptak, Grazyna

    2013-10-01

    The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

  5. Genetic improvement of overall reproductive success in sheep: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction is an economically important complex composite trait in sheep. Genetic improvement of composite traits can occur by selection for individual components traits, some combination of individual component traits, or by direct selection for the composite trait. This review discusses the re...

  6. Validation of behavioural indicators used to assess unconsciousness in sheep.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, M T W; Gerritzen, M A; Kluivers-Poodt, M; Hellebrekers, L J; Kemp, B

    2015-08-01

    The validity of behavioural indicators to assess unconsciousness under different slaughter conditions is under (inter)national debate. The aim of this study was to validate eyelid-, withdrawal-, threat reflex and rhythmic breathing as indicators to assess unconsciousness in sheep. Sheep were monitored during repeated propofol anaesthesia (n=12) and during non-stunned slaughter (n=22). Changes in the EEG and behavioural indices of consciousness/unconsciousness were assessed and compared in sheep. Threat reflex and rhythmic breathing correlated with EEG activity during propofol anaesthesia whilst absence of non-rhythmic breathing or threat reflex indicated unconsciousness. None of the behavioural indicators correlated with EEG activity during non-stunned slaughter. Absence of regular breathing and eyelid reflex was observed 00:2700:12 min and 00:5900:17 min (meanSD) respectively after animals were considered unconscious, indicating that absence of regular breathing and eyelid reflex are distinctly conservative indicators of unconsciousness during non-stunned slaughter in sheep. PMID:26267105

  7. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  8. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  9. Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, D. J.

    1993-02-01

    Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

  10. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  11. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  12. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program (see 9 CFR part 54, subpart B) and: (1) The flock or herd qualifies as a “Certified” flock... 9 CFR part 54, subpart B.” (1) The Administrator will determine, based upon information supplied by... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats....

  13. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the U.S., is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine g...

  14. Pasteurellosis Transmission Risks between Domestic and Wild Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease has contributed significantly to the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations throughout much of western North America, decreasing their abundance and imperiling some native populations and subspecies. According to historical accounts (e.g., Grinnell 1928; Honess and Frost 1942...

  15. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND...

  16. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93.419 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND...

  17. TESTICULAR MATURATION IN THE SHEEP BOT FLY OESTRUS OVIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of testicular maturation in relation to intrapuparial development was studied in the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae). After formation of the puparium during larval-pupal apolysis and the cryptocephalic pupal stage (=24-72 h), spermatogonia had undergone mitotic...

  18. Development of a sheep challenge model for Rift Valley fever.

    PubMed

    Faburay, Bonto; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Liu, Qinfang; Davis, A Sally; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Ruder, Mark; Drolet, Barbara; Scott McVey, D; Ma, Wenjun; Wilson, William; Richt, Juergen A

    2016-02-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease that causes severe epizootics in ruminants, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in younger animals. The development of a reliable challenge model is an important prerequisite for evaluation of existing and novel vaccines. A study aimed at comparing the pathogenesis of RVF virus infection in US sheep using two genetically different wild type strains of the virus (SA01-1322 and Kenya-128B-15) was performed. A group of sheep was inoculated with both strains and all infected sheep manifested early-onset viremia accompanied by a transient increase in temperatures. The Kenya-128B-15 strain manifested higher virulence compared to SA01-1322 by inducing more severe liver damage, and longer and higher viremia. Genome sequence analysis revealed sequence variations between the two isolates, which potentially could account for the observed phenotypic differences. We conclude that Kenya-128B-15 sheep infection represents a good and virulent challenge model for RVF. PMID:26748334

  19. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Brbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Ins sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88??2.85kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710g/kg) and ground corn (290g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150g/kg), ground corn (30g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160g/kg), ground corn (150g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280g/kg), ground corn (190g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p?=?0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  20. Assessment of gastrointestinal permeability by lactulose test in sheep after repeated indomethacin treatment.

    PubMed

    Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Bani, P

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the small intestine permeability by using lactulose as a sugar probe and blood metabolites in sheep after a challenge with repeated indomethacin injections. According to a changeover design, 7 adult sheep (4 males and 3 females) were subjected to 4 intramuscular injections (every 12 h) of saline [control (CRT); 7 animals] or indomethacin (INDO; 7 animals). Two hours after the last injection, 30 g of lactulose were administered orally to both CTR and INDO. Blood samples were collected daily for the analysis of the metabolic profile and 5 samples were collected at 2-h intervals following lactulose ingestion to monitor changes in blood levels of lactulose as an index of intestinal permeability. The INDO challenge induced clinical symptoms such as lack of appetite, dullness, weakness, depression, and diarrhea with traces of blood in the feces. In INDO group, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin increased (P < 0.01) after INDO challenge whereas a decrease (P < 0.05) of negative acute phase reactants (e.g., cholesterol, albumin, and paraoxonase) was observed. Reactive oxygen metabolites increased (P < 0.01) from 60 to 204 h after the INDO challenge start, with a decrease of vitamin E concentration from 12 (P < 0.01) to 132 h (P < 0.05). Blood lactulose concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in INDO animals and the highest mean values (17.67 µg/mL in INDO vs. 0.17 µg/mL in CRT; P < 0.01) were observed 6 h after oral dosage of lactulose. These changes indicate that the INDO challenge led to severe inflammatory responses with oxidative stress by enhancing small intestinal permeability in sheep that allowed lactulose to enter in blood. The results of this experiment demonstrate that lactulose can be used as a probe to assess gastrointestinal permeability in adult ruminants to test the consequences of stressing conditions on animal welfare. For this purpose, the most suitable time for blood sampling is between 2 and 8 h after the oral dosage of lactulose. PMID:24126268

  1. [The effect of supermethrin, an insecticide, on health status indicators in sheep during subchronic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neuschl, J; Legth, J; Kacmr, P; Kna, E; Konrd, V; Sly, J

    1995-12-01

    The effect of supermethrin on the overall health with respect to weight gains, diet intake, triad values (body temperature, pulse rate and breathing rate) and potential intoxication signs was investigated in sheep of the Slovak Mertino breed (age of 8 months, males and females) during 6-week feeding of the insecticide supermethrin (Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Bratislava). This insecticide supermethrin contains a cyanide group in its molecule and can be included in the group of type II pyrethroids. It is an analog of cypermethrin and it has a different proportion of cis- and trans-isomers. Supermethrin mixed with molasses feed M was administered daily at a dose of 50 mg/kg (about 1/70 of LD50) to five sheep of experimental group I, at a dose of 200 mg/kg (about 1/15 of LD50) to five sheep of experimental group II, and the dose increased from 200 mg to 300 mg/kg l.w. (about 1/20 of LD50) since the fourth week of trial. The main signs of its toxic action involved depressive effects on weight gains (Fig. 4) Over the whole period of trial, the live weight rose by 5.44 +/- 1.94 kg in control group, by 2.66 +/- 1.48 kg in experimental group I, which equates a significant decrease by 51.10% and only 0.34 +/- 0.95 kg in experimental group II, which equates a decrease in weight gains by up to 93.75% against the control. We do not believe that the growth depression can be related to diet intake. There were no larger differences in feed intake between the experimental groups and the control. The growth depression was caused by incessant diarrhea. The patho-morphological examination did not reveal hyperemia and/or intestinal inflammation, the histological examination did not show any lesions of epithelium in the intestinal mucosa. An increase in supermethrin dose from 200 to 300 mg/kg l.w. resulted in signs coming from the CNS. Hypersensibility manifested by moderate unrest, head and neck shaking after auditory, and especially after touch stimuli was observed. This tremor was increasing to became spontaneous 3-4 days before trial termination. The above findings clearly suggest that supermethrin administration at lower doses has harmful effects primarily on the digestive tract, but at higher doses these effects are more intensive accompanied by the effects on the CNS. No negative effects on pulse rate (Fig. 1), breathing rate (Fig. 2) and internal body temperature (Fig. 3) were recorded. PMID:8659091

  2. The Nutrient and Energy Sensor Sirt1 Regulates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis by Altering the Production of the Prohormone Convertase 2 (PC2) Essential in the Maturation of Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) from Its Prohormone in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Toorie, Anika M; Cyr, Nicole E; Steger, Jennifer S; Beckman, Ross; Farah, George; Nillni, Eduardo A

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hormones in energy balance is paramount in the search for approaches to mitigate the obese state. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity leads to increased levels of glucocorticoids (GC) that are known to regulate body weight. The axis initiates the production and release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Levels of active CRH peptide are dependent on the processing of its precursor pro-CRH by the action of two members of the family of prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2). Here, we propose that the nutrient sensor sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) regulates the production of CRH post-translationally by affecting PC2. Data suggest that Sirt1 may alter the preproPC2 gene directly or via deacetylation of the transcription factor Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1). Data also suggest that Sirt1 may alter PC2 via a post-translational mechanism. Our results show that Sirt1 levels in the PVN increase in rats fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks. Furthermore, elevated Sirt1 increased PC2 levels, which in turn increased the production of active CRH and GC. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence supporting the hypothesis that PVN Sirt1 activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and basal GC levels by enhancing the production of CRH through an increase in the biosynthesis of PC2, which is essential in the maturation of CRH from its prohormone, pro-CRH. PMID:26755731

  3. Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C.; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A.; Peagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E.; Khatib, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67??3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130??1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distillers grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues. PMID:23577020

  4. Nutrient effects of broodstocks on the larvae in Patinopecten yessoensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yucen; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Tianlong; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang

    2015-07-01

    Patinopecten yessoensis is a commercial valuable species. This study deals with the effect of nutrient effects of the broodstock (mainly ovaries) on the larvae. Concentrations of total carbohydrate, total protein and total lipid in the gonads of P. yessoensis from three Hatcheries (Hatchery 1, Hatchery 2, and Hatchery 3) were determined before and after spawning. The relationship between the nutrient concentration in ovaries before spawning (BC) and that of larvae (LC) was assessed as well as the change in nutrient levels in ovaries after spawning (DC). Results indicate that the BC of total carbohydrate (7.66%) and total lipid (14.48%) in ovaries were significantly higher than in testes (5.20%, 5.20% respectively), whereas the BC of total protein in the ovaries was lower (61.76%) than in the testes (81.67%). The different gonadal composition suggests the different nutrient demands between male and female broodstocks in breeding season. Patinopecten yessoensis gonads contained a higher proportion of lipids, in comparison to other bivalves, which might be a response to the low ambient water temperatures. Further analysis of fatty acids showed that the concentrations of n-3PUFA, EPA and DHA in larvae (LC) were positively correlated with BC and DC, indicating the significant nutrient influence of broodstocks on the larvae. As these fatty acids are important in metabolism, and have been demonstrated to be influential to the viability of the larvae, larval growth and the settlement, spat growth, and juvenile survival in many bivalves, they could possibly be used as indexes to evaluate, and predict condition of broodstocks and larvae.

  5. Nutrient Content of Single Muscle Pork Cuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient profiles of four fresh pork cuts (fabricated from individual muscles extracted from subprimals) for dissemination in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and determine cooking yields and nutrient retention fac...

  6. Silage and whole-farm nutrient management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of forage-based livestock farms is complex. A selected silage system can affect nutrient management by influencing the type, amount, and nutrient content of feeds fed. Manure handling procedures used on a farm can also affect the yield and nutrient contents of the forages produced. So...

  7. Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

  8. Nutrient Management Behavior on Wisconsin Dairy Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management plans for livestock operations should account for rates and timing of manure application to cropland, as well as how manure is integrated with other nutrient sources. Little is known, however, about actual farmer nutrient management practices and what changes may be needed for fa...

  9. NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

  10. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  11. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  12. Nutrient control of Drosophila longevity

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Marc; Post, Stephanie; Yu, Kweon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan of many animals including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with flies shows longevity is controlled by the ratio of consumed protein relative to carbohydrates. Since reduced insulin/IGF and TOR signaling increase Drosophila lifespan, these pathways are candidate mediators of DR. This idea, however, has ambiguous experimental support. The Nutritional Geometric Framework, which dissects the impact of nutrient protein relative to carbohydrates, may provide an approach to resolving the roles for these pathways in DR. Nutrient sensing of protein and carbohydrate may occur in the fat body through signals to hypothalamic-like neurons in the fly brain, and thus control secretion of insulin-like peptides that regulate longevity. PMID:24685228

  13. Nutrient control of Drosophila longevity.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Marc; Post, Stephanie; Yu, Kweon

    2014-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends the lifespan of many animals, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with flies shows that longevity is controlled by the ratio of consumed protein relative to carbohydrates. Given that reduced insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling increase Drosophila lifespan, these pathways are candidate mediators of DR. However, this idea has ambiguous experimental support. The Nutritional Geometric Framework (NGF), which dissects the impact of nutrient protein relative to carbohydrates, may provide an approach to resolving the roles for these pathways in DR. Nutrient sensing of protein and carbohydrate may occur in the fat body through signals to hypothalamic-like neurons in the fly brain and, thus, control secretion of insulin-like peptides that regulate longevity. PMID:24685228

  14. Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bonelli, Francesca; Barsotti, Giovanni; Attili, Anna Rita; Mugnaini, Linda; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Preziuso, Silvia; Corazza, Michele; Preziuso, Giovanna; Sgorbini, Micaela

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to identify conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora in clinically normal sheep. Design Prospective study. Setting Tuscany. Participants 100 eyes from 50 adult Massese female sheep were examined. The sheep included in the study were considered free of anterior ophthalmic abnormalities. Primary and secondary outcome measures Bacteria were identified by morphological assessment, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Identification of filamentous fungi was achieved at the genus level, and Aspergillus species were identified based on keys provided by other authors. Yeast colonies were highlighted, but not identified. Results Positive cultures were obtained from 100/100 eyes for bacteria, and from 86/100 eyes for fungi. A total of 14 types of bacteria and 5 types of fungi were isolated. Yeasts were isolated from 13/100 eyes. The most frequent fungal isolates were saprophytic fungi. Conclusions Conjunctival bacterial and fungal flora of clinically normal eyes were reported in sheep. The positivity obtained for conjunctival bacteria was higher compared to findings in the literature by other authors in the same species (100 per cent v 40 per cent), while our results were in line with a recent work performed on mouflons (Ovis Musimon) with a 100 per cent positivity for bacterial conjunctival fornix. In our survey, Gram-positive species were prevalent, as reported by other authors in different species. Few data are available in the literature regarding conjunctival fungal flora in healthy small ruminants. The prevalence of conjunctival fungal flora in this study was higher than findings reported in mouflons (86 per cent v 45 per cent). Differences in fungal prevalence may be due to different methods of managing herds, though further studies are required to verify this hypothesis. The similarities in bacterial and fungal isolates between sheep and mouflons suggest a genera pattern of conjunctival colonisation by bacteria and fungi. PMID:26392873

  15. The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenxi; Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi ; Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng; Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi; Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi ; Ge, Yubin; Liu, Mingjun; Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi; Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

  16. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  17. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  18. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

  19. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  20. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  1. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  2. Important drug-nutrient interactions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Pamela

    2010-11-01

    Drugs have the potential to interact with nutrients potentially leading to reduced therapeutic efficacy of the drug, nutritional risk or increased adverse effects of the drug. Despite significant interest in such interactions going back to over more than 40 years, the occurrence and clinical significance of many drug-nutrient interactions remains unclear. However, interactions involving drugs with a narrow therapeutic margin such as theophylline and digoxin and those that require careful blood monitoring such as warfarin are likely to be those of clinical significance. Drugs can affect nutrition as a result of changes in appetite and taste as well as having an influence on absorption or metabolism of nutrients. Moreover, foods and supplements can also interact with drugs, of which grapefruit juice and St John's wort are key examples. Significant numbers of people take both supplements and medication and are potentially at risk from interactions. Professionals, such as pharmacists, dietitians, nurses and doctors, responsible for the care of patients should therefore check whether supplements are being taken, while for researchers this is an area worthy of significant further study, particularly in the context of increasingly complex drug regimens and the plethora of new drugs. PMID:20509982

  3. Nutrients in the Atlantic thermocline

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.

    1985-09-20

    A set of maps are presented of nutrient distribution on isopycnal surfaces in the North and tropical Atlantic Ocean main thermocline. The data used in producing these maps are from the Transient Tracers in the Oceans (TTO) North Atlantic Study and Tropical Atlantic Study, an associated German study (Meteor 56/5), two cross-Atlantic sections from cruise 109 of the Atlantis II, and the GEOSECS program. The nutrient distributions reflect primarily the sources at the northern and southern outcrops of the isopycnal surfaces, the in situ regeneration due to decomposition of sinking organic materials, and the interior physical processes as inferred from thermocline models and the distribution of conservative properties such as salinity. However, silica also exhibits behavior that cannot be explained by in situ regeneration. A simple phenomenological model suggests that cross-isopycnal advection and mixing in the equatorial region may play an important role in the nutrient dynamics. These data should prove of great value in constraining models of physical as well as biogeochemical processes. 43 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  4. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  5. Nutrient Cycling in Piermont Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, K.; Reyes, N.; Gribbin, S.; Newton, R.; Laporte, N.; Trivino, G.; Ortega, J.; McKee, K.; Sambrotto, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the cycling of nutrients through a brackish tidal wetland about 40 km north of Manhattan in the Hudson River estuary. As part of a long-term ecological study of Piermont Marsh, a NOAA reference wetland managed by the NY State DEC, we are measuring dissolved inorganic nutrients on the Marsh surface and its drainage channels. The marsh occupies 400 acres along the southwest corner of Haverstraw Bay with approximately 2 km frontage to the estuary. It is supplied with nutrient-rich water and drained primarily along several tidal creeks and the hundreds of rivulets that feed them. During most tidal cycles the silty berm bounding the marsh is not topped. Human influence in the marsh's surrounding area has had profound effects, one of the most fundamental of which has been the shift from native grass species, predominantly Spartina alterniflora, to an invasive genotype of common reed, Phragmites australis. Along with this shift there have been changes in the root bed, the effective marsh interior and berm heights, the hydroperiod and, as a result, the ability of the marsh to be utilized by various types of Hudson estuary fish. The vegetative shift is believed to be anthropogenic, but the connection is not well understood, and it is not known what role biogeochemical perturbations are playing. We present two field seasons of nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements from Sparkill Creek, a freshwater stream draining the surrounding highlands constitutes the northern boundary, two tidally driven creeks transect the Marsh from West to East: the Crumkill and an unnamed creek we have dubbed the "Tidal", Ludlow Ditch, a no-longer-maintained drainage channel grading gently from the northern part of the marsh to the South terminates in a wide tidal outlet that is its southern boundary. Net tidal cycle fluxes and fluxes resulting from runoff events are presented. Deviations from Redfield ratios and limiting nutrients are analyzed. Piermont Marsh data is compared to prior studies of the other three NOAA-managed reference marshes in the Hudson Valley. The data supplements carbon content data (presented in a companion poster) to estimate the carbon cycling and sequestration capacity of the Marsh sediments. Nutrient data is being collected as one component of a broad ecological and geochemical study of the Marsh and its adaptation to human influence (see companion posters on carbon cycling and habitat utilization in the Marsh). All data were collected and analyzed as part of Lamont-Doherty Secondary School Field Research Program, which engages NYC high school teachers and students in research in the Hudson/Raritan estuarine environment.

  6. Epigenetic modification of fetal baboon hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase following exposure to moderately reduced nutrient availability

    PubMed Central

    Nijland, Mark J; Mitsuya, Kozoh; Li, Cun; Ford, Stephen; McDonald, Thomas J; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Cox, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Decreased maternal nutrient availability during pregnancy induces compensatory fetal metabolic and endocrine responses. Knowledge of cellular changes involved is critical to understanding normal and abnormal development. Several studies in rodents and sheep report increased fetal plasma cortisol and associated increased gluconeogenesis in response to maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) but observations in primates are lacking. We determined MNR effects on fetal liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (protein, PEPCK1; gene, PCK1 orthologous/homologous human chromosomal region 20q13.31) at 0.9 gestation (G). Female baboon social groups were fed ad libitum (control, CTR) or 70% CTR (MNR) from 0.16 to 0.9G when fetuses were delivered by caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Plasma cortisol was elevated in fetuses of MNR mothers (P < 0.05). Immunoreactive PEPCK1 protein was located around the liver lobule central vein and was low in CTR fetuses but rose to 63% of adult levels in MNR fetuses. PCK1 mRNA measured by QRT-PCR increased in MNR (2.3-fold; P < 0.05) while the 25% rise in protein by Western blot analysis was not significant. PCK1 promoter methylation analysis using bisulfite sequencing was significantly reduced in six out of nine CpG-dinucleotides evaluated in MNR compared with CTR liver samples. In conclusion, these are the first data from a fetal non-human primate indicating hypomethylation of the PCK1 promoter in the liver following moderate maternal nutrient reduction. PMID:20176628

  7. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Spi?ic, Silvio; Ra?i? Ivana; Andrijani?, Milan; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Stepani?, Maja; Cvetni?, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus. PMID:26054222

  8. Emerging cases of chlamydial abortion in sheep and goats in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Spi?ic S; Ra?ić Ivana; Andrijanić M; Duvnjak S; Zdelar-Tuk M; Stepanić M; Cvetnić Z

    2015-05-01

    In a recent lambing season (2012/2013), the seroprevalence of ovine chlamydiosis was monitored in small ruminant abortion cases in Croatia. Blood samples of 93 sheep and 69 goats were examined. In addition, 50 sheep and 61 goat samples were tested using molecular methods. Furthermore, 14 sheep blood samples, one goat blood sample and one sheep placenta sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH) were also tested as a part of inter-laboratory cooperation. Overall high seroprevalence was detected in sheep, 19.6% with the ELISA IDEXX kit and 20.5% with the ClVTEST kit. Seroprevalence in goats was 11.4%. In BIH, four sheep and one goat blood sample were seropositive for chlamydiosis. The disease causing agent, Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) was confirmed using molecular methods in two sheep flocks in continental Croatia and in one sheep flock in BIH. In this study, C. abortus infection in sheep was identified for the first time in Croatia using species specific molecular methods. Ovine chlamydiosis is present in national sheep and goat flocks in Croatia and BIH. Thus should be subject to ongoing controls in the case of abortion. A combination of serological and molecular methods should be used for optimal laboratory diagnostics of C. abortus.

  9. [Genetic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Van Steirteghem, A; Liebaers, I; Camus, M

    1999-06-15

    Several etiological factors in male infertility have been identified and it is now clear that a proportion of these factors have a genetic basis. This implies that using assisted reproductive technology procedures and especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection these genetic factors may be transmitted to the children. The following genetic factors involved in severe male infertility will be discussed: the presence of numerical and structural chromosomal anomalies, the occurrence of microdeletions on the long arm of the Y chromosome and the relation between cystic fibrosis and congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. PMID:10488663

  10. Male infertility microsurgical training

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Akanksha; Li, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility. Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills. Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence, and reduces stress and operating time, benefiting both the patient and the surgeon. This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models. The role of emerging techniques, such as robotic-assisted microsurgery, is also discussed. PMID:23160265

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a resu...

  12. Transmission of mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) : Unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protien-tagged organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bighorn sheep (BHS) die of pneumonia when they commingle with domestic sheep (DS). However, these studies did not conclusively prove the transmission of pathogens from DS to BHS. The objective of this study was to determine unambiguously whether Mannheimia hae...

  13. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    PubMed

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. PMID:25241653

  14. Drug-nutrient interactions: a review.

    PubMed

    Maka, D A; Murphy, L K

    2000-11-01

    Concurrent administration of medications and nutrients can lead to interactions that change the absorption or metabolism of the medication or nutrient. Some of these interactions have little or no impact on the patient while others may be fatal. The objective of this article is to review the mechanisms of various drug-nutrient interactions. Topics to be discussed include specific populations at risk of interactions, nutrients that have a positive and negative effect on drug absorption, nutrients that result in alterations of drug metabolism, and a variety of pharmacologic interactions of medications with nutrients. It is vital that healthcare providers are familiar with drug-nutrient interactions and continue to educate themselves and their patients to optimize the effectiveness and minimize the toxicities of medications. PMID:11288420

  15. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  16. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there

  17. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  18. The Competent Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, John O.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    1978-01-01

    The article attempts to piece together a conceptualization of the competent male using a model that centers upon achievement and affiliation. Using transactional analysis, it expounds upon sex role communication between men and women, then discusses specific personality traits of men, and what they imply for the future. (LPG)

  19. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school

  20. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American

  1. Lycopene and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  2. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertilitylipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 48 mg of lycopene daily for 312 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  3. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. PMID:22195293

  4. Reduced Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep with TMEM154 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Michael P.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G.; Leymaster, Kreg A.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Harhay, Gregory P.; White, Stephen N.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10−9). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 5–1,100). In a combined analysis of nine cohorts with 2,705 sheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-value<0.0001, 95% CI 2.36–3.43). Although rare, some sheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection. PMID:22291605

  5. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Anawalt, B D; Amory, J K

    2001-09-01

    As the world human population continues to explode, the need for effective, safe and convenient contraceptive methods escalates. Historically, women have borne the brunt of responsibility for contraception and family planning. Except for the condom, there are no easily reversible, male-based contraceptive options. Recent surveys have confirmed that the majority of men and women would consider using a hormonal male contraceptive if a safe, effective and convenient formulation were available. Investigators have sought to develop a male hormonal contraceptive based on the observation that spermatogenesis depends on stimulation by gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH). Testosterone (T) and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis and have been studied as potential male contraceptives. Results from two large, multi-centre trials demonstrated that high-dosage T conferred an overall contraceptive efficacy comparable to female oral contraceptives. This regimen was also fully reversible after discontinuation. However, this regimen was not universally effective and involved weekly im. injections that could be painful and inconvenient. In addition, the high dosage of T suppressed serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, an effect that might increase atherogenesis. Investigators have attempted to develop a hormonal regimen that did not cause androgenic suppression of HDL cholesterol and that was uniformly effective by suppressing spermatogenesis to zero in all men. Studies of combination regimens of lower-dosage T and a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue have demonstrated greater suppression of spermatogenesis than the WHO trials of high-dosage T but most of these regimens cause modest weight gain and suppression of serum HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, the data suggest that we are close to developing effective male hormonal contraceptives. The focus is now on developing effective oral regimens that could be safely taken daily or long-acting depot formulations of a male hormonal contraception that could be conveniently injected every 3 - 6 months. In this article, we shall review the exciting new developments in male hormonal contraception. PMID:11585019

  6. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

  7. Brucella abortus antibody response of white Leghorn chickens selected for high and low antibody responsiveness to sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Scott, T R; Dunnington, E A; Siegel, P B

    1994-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted with lines of chickens selected for high (HA) and low (LA) antibody response to sheep erythrocytes to determine their antibody responses following primary immunization with Brucella abortus. In Experiment 1, HA chicks responded to immunization with a higher total titer than LA chicks at 7 d postimmunization. At both 5 and 7 d following immunization 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant (IgG) titers were higher in HA than LA chicks. There also was a significant sex effect at 7 d in the first experiment, with males having higher total titers than females. In the second experiment, HA chicks had higher total titers at 5 d postimmunization than LA chicks, but IgG titers were similar for both lines. Total and IgG titers of HA chicks used in Experiment 3 were significantly higher than those of LA chicks at 5 and 7 d postimmunization. Both HA and LA chicks exhibited divergent antibody responses to B. abortus although they had originally been selected for antibody responsiveness to sheep erythrocytes. PMID:8146083

  8. TSE detected in a Belgian ARR-homozygous sheep via active surveillance.

    PubMed

    De Bosschere, Hendrik; Roels, Stefan; Dechamps, Pierre; Vanopdenbosch, Emmanuel

    2007-03-01

    It is commonly accepted that scrapie-resistance and -susceptibility in sheep are genetically controlled. Consequently, the selection of sheep with scrapie-resistant genotypes is currently one of the most important objectives of the sheep breeding associations. However, during the last two years, new data have become available on transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) cases in TSE-resistant sheep in several European Union member states. The present paper describes the first Belgian natural "atypical" TSE case in a sheep with a scrapie-resistant genotype (ARR/ARR) detected via active surveillance. No other infections or diseases were detected in the source flock. The continued finding of new "atypical" TSE cases in sheep with scrapie-resistant genotypes undermines the purpose and efficacy of the breeding programs. PMID:16169265

  9. Mnage Trois: The Evolutionary Interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Armezzani, Alessia; Varela, Mariana; Spencer, Thomas E.; Palmarini, Massimo; Arnaud, Frdrick

    2014-01-01

    Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium. PMID:25502326

  10. Regional mapping of loci from human chromosome 2q to sheep chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, H.A.; Pearce, P.D.; Maher, D.W.; Malcolm, A.A.; Wood, N.J.; Phua, S.H.; Broad, T.E. )

    1994-03-01

    The human chromosome 2q loci, fibronectin 1 (FN1), the [alpha]1 chain of type III collagen (COL3A1), and the [delta] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRND) have been regionally assigned to sheep chromosome 2q by in situ hybridization. COL3A1 is pericentromeric (2q12-q21), while FN1 and CHRND are in the subterminal region at 2q41-q44 and 2q42-qter, respectively. The mapping of FN1 assigns the sheep synthenic group U11, which contains FN1, villin 1 (VIL1), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and [gamma] subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (CHRNG), to sheep chromosome 2q. Inhibin-[alpha] (INHA) is also assigned to sheep chromosome 2q as FN1 and INHA compose sheep linkage group 3. These seven loci are members of a conserved chromosomal segment in human, mouse, and sheep. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

    1999-01-01

    Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

  12. Plant and pathogen nutrient acquisition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Urooj; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients are indispensable elements required for the growth of all living organisms including plants and pathogens. Phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, phloem, xylem, and cell organelles are the nutrient niches in plants that are the target of bacterial pathogens. Depending upon nutrients availability, the pathogen adapts various acquisition strategies and inhabits the specific niche. In this review, we discuss the nutrient composition of different niches in plants, the mechanisms involved in the recognition of nutrient niche and the sophisticated strategies used by the bacterial pathogens for acquiring nutrients. We provide insight into various nutrient acquisition strategies used by necrotrophic, biotrophic, and hemibiotrophic bacteria. Specifically we discuss both modulation of bacterial machinery and manipulation of host machinery. In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant’s growth and development. Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies. The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant–pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective. PMID:26442063

  13. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males

  14. Secondary cytotoxicity of cross-linked dermal sheep collagens during repeated exposure to human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    van Luyn, M J; van Wachem, P B; Olde Damink, L H; Dijkstra, P J; Feijen, J; Nieuwenhuis, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e. enzymatic actions. To develop dermal sheep collagen for clinical applications, we focused in this study on the release, e.g. elimination, of secondary cytotoxicity over time. We used the universal 7 d methylcellulose cell culture with human skin fibroblasts as a test system. Hexamethylenediisocyanate-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen were tested, with intervals of 6 d, over a culture period of 42 d. With hexamethylenediisocyanate-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen, cytotoxicity, i.e. cell growth inhibition and deviant cell morphology, was eliminated after 18 d of exposure. When testing glutaraldehyde-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen, the bulk of cytotoxic products was released after 6 d, but a continuous low secondary cytotoxicity was measured up to 42 d. As a control, non-cross-linked dermal-sheep collagen was tested over a period of 36 d, but no secondary cytotoxic effects were observed. The differences in release of secondary cytotoxicity between hexamethylenediisocyanate-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen, glutaraldehyde-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen and non-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen are explained from differences in cross-linking agents and cross-links obtained. We hypothesize that secondary cytotoxicity results from enzymatic release of pendant molecules from hexamethylene-diisocyanate-cross-linked dermal sheep collagen, e.g. formed after reaction of hydrolysis products of hexamethylenediisocyanate with dermal sheep collagen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1472588

  15. Objects in Contact with Classical Scrapie Sheep Act as a Reservoir for Scrapie Transmission.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timm; Hawkins, Stephen A C; Thurston, Lisa C; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C; Duarte, Anthony; Simmons, Hugh A

    2015-01-01

    Classical scrapie is an environmentally transmissible prion disease of sheep and goats. Prions can persist and remain potentially infectious in the environment for many years and thus pose a risk of infecting animals after re-stocking. In vitro studies using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) have suggested that objects on a scrapie-affected sheep farm could contribute to disease transmission. This in vivo study aimed to determine the role of field furniture (water troughs, feeding troughs, fencing, and other objects that sheep may rub against) used by a scrapie-infected sheep flock as a vector for disease transmission to scrapie-free lambs with the prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ, which is associated with high susceptibility to classical scrapie. When the field furniture was placed in clean accommodation, sheep became infected when exposed to either a water trough (four out of five) or to objects used for rubbing (four out of seven). This field furniture had been used by the scrapie-infected flock 8?weeks earlier and had previously been shown to harbor scrapie prions by sPMCA. Sheep also became infected (20 out of 23) through exposure to contaminated field furniture placed within pasture not used by scrapie-infected sheep for 40?months, even though swabs from this furniture tested negative by PMCA. This infection rate decreased (1 out of 12) on the same paddock after replacement with clean field furniture. Twelve grazing sheep exposed to field furniture not in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for 18?months remained scrapie free. The findings of this study highlight the role of field furniture used by scrapie-infected sheep to act as a reservoir for disease re-introduction although infectivity declines considerably if the field furniture has not been in contact with scrapie-infected sheep for several months. PMCA may not be as sensitive as VRQ/VRQ sheep to test for environmental contamination. PMID:26664961

  16. Alternative male reproductive tactics and the immunocompetence handicap in the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius parvicornis

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Albert F.H; Bouton, Niels; Santos, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Rui F

    2006-01-01

    In the Azorean rock-pool blenny (Parablennius parvicornis) reproductively active males display alternative morphotypes, which differ in the expression of secondary sexual characters (SSC). Males expressing SSC, the M+ morphotype, have high androgen levels and compete for crevices that will be visited by females to spawn. M+ males holding nests court females and care for the eggs. Males with low expression of SSC, the M? morphotype, have low levels of androgens and reproduce by stealing fertilizations from the M+ males. Based on the hypothesis that androgens are immunosuppressive, we expected these morphotypes to differ in immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a field study in which we collected repeated blood samples to monitor leukocyte populations (blood smears), and to measure the primary antibody response of males that were experimentally challenged with a foreign non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells). Circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were higher in M+ males than in M? males. Neither granulocyte nor thrombocyte counts did covariate with androgens or male tactic. In contrast, lymphocyte counts and humoral antibody response were negatively correlated with body size, and as expected, both were lower in M+ than in M? males. Interestingly, in M+ males androgen levels decreased after immunization, and this was less in nest-holder males than in M+ males that were floating around in the pools. Within each morphotype we found no relationship between androgens and immunocompetence. The latter result is not supportive for androgen regulated immunosuppression in M+ males. A possible alternative is enhancement of immunity in M? males. These males had relatively high levels of injuries in comparison with M+ males. High immunity might be a consequence of high infection rate because of such injuries. PMID:16627274

  17. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  18. Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; Gonzlez, L; Dagleish, M; Prez, V

    2015-12-14

    Post-mortem examination is a key step in the diagnostic process of infectious diseases in sheep and goats. Diagnostic pathology deals with identification and study of lesions, at the same time providing also significant clues regarding pathogenesis of the diseases. This article reviews the salient pathological findings associated with the most significant infectious diseases of sheep and goats present in countries where small ruminants are a relevant agricultural industry. Lesions are reviewed according to the different organ systems where they occur. Emphasis has been given in the description of the salient lesional patterns than can be identified in each organ and which can be of help in the differential diagnosis of the lesions caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions. Finally, a review of the usefulness of ancillary tests that may be used on various tissue samples for performing an aetiological diagnosis, is included; the application of various techniques, from immunohistochemistry to molecular biology-based tests, is described. PMID:26275854

  19. Clinical Signs and Pathology of Accidental Monensin Poisoning in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. N.; Crowe, S. P.; Harries, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical signs and postmortem findings in sheep from two flocks accidentally poisoned with monensin are described. Clinical signs began within 24 hours of exposure to monensin. In the acute stages they consisted of lethargy, stiffness, muscular weakness, a stilted gait and recumbency. Feed refusal was seen in one flock but not in the second. Subacute to chronic clinical signs were decreased muscle volume of the rump and thigh. When forced to run, chronically affected sheep had a stilted, stiff legged, rocking horse gait. Gross postmortem changes were not always visible. Where visible, they affected skeletal muscles and consisted of pale streaking, with atrophy in the chronic stages. Lesions were most severe in muscles of the rump and hind limbs. Microscopically myofiber swelling and hyalinization were seen with interstitial mononuclear cell reaction and extensive sarcoplasmic mineralization in some cases. Chronic lesions consisted of fibrosis and myofiber atrophy. In lambs less than one month old, diffuse gastrointestinal hemorrhage was the only finding. PMID:17422198

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of domestic sheep, Ovis aries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-di; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the Texel ewe, Ovis aries. The total genome is 16,615?bp in length and its overall base composition was estimated to be 33.68% for A, 27.36% for T, 25.86% for C, and 13.10% for G indicating an AT-rich (61.04%) feature in the O. aries mtgenome. It contains a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a control region (D-loop region). Comparisons with other publicly available sheep mitogenomes revealed a bunch of nucleotide diversity. This complete mitgenome sequence would enlarge useful genomic information for further studies on sheep evolution and domestication that will enhance germplasm conservation and breeding programs of O. aries. PMID:25163015