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1

Sexual stimulation in male sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that the sexual performance of male goats is enhanced by viewing the mating activities of other males prior to being placed with sexually receptive females. This same experience has no effect on the sexual performance of male sheep. In the present experiment, 14 male goats and 17 rams were individually allowed to sniff and nuzzle the

Edward O Price; Reid Borgwardt; Agustin Orihuela; Martin R Dally

1998-01-01

2

Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy: an experimental study in male sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To describe a technique of laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy in male sheep. Experimental ani- mals: five healthy male sheep aged approximately nine months (mean weight: 39.6 ± 1.51 kg). Laparoscopy was performed on sheep placed under general anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency. A 10-mm laparoscope was inserted through the right paramedian region between the xiphoid and preputial orifice. After creation of a

S. Franz; A. M. Dadak; G. Schoffmann; J. L. Khol; W. Baumgartner; G. Dupre

3

Feeding value of different levels of malt sprout and katikala atella on nutrient utilization and growth performance of sheep fed basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.  

PubMed

Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4?±?0.74 kg (mean?±?SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella?+?25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella?+?50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella?+?75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P?sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P?sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P?Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P?>?0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P?sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P?nutrient characteristics. PMID:24390794

Nurfeta, Ajebu; Abdu, Yunus

2014-03-01

4

Nutrient Sensitivity of the Cost of Male Function in Gynodioecious Phacelia linearis (Hydrophyllaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation trade-offs should be measured as opportunity costs, estimating what individuals sacrifice in one function by allocating to others. We investigated opportunity costs of male function in gynodioecious Phacelia linearis, asking whether nutrient limitation contributes to them. This hypothesis predicts that hermaphrodites experience greater nutrient stress than females, and that hermaphrodite disadvantages in production might decrease with nutrient supply. We

Vincent M. Eckhart; F. Stuart Chapin

1997-01-01

5

Influence of Different Ratios of Cobalt and Copper Supplementation on Vitamin B 12 Status and Nutrient Utilization in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of different ratios of cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) supplementation on vitamin B12 status and nutrient utilization in sheep. Twenty wether lambs with an average weight (22.9 ± 0.8) kg were randomly divided into five groups and fed with the control diet which was supplied with 0.3 mg kg-1 DM (dry

Run-lian WANG; Wei ZHANG; Xiao-ping ZHU; Zhi-hai JIA

2010-01-01

6

Impact of sheep bedding on soil nutrient dynamics in the Centennial Mountains of Montana and Idaho  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep and lamb production is an important industry in the state of Idaho, with sheep grazing in the mountains during summer months a common practice. Sheep are concentrated in bedding areas at night to guard them from theft and predation which leads to concentrated grazing and manure and urine accu...

7

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports the Hypothesis of Male-Biased  

E-print Network

Comparison of Substitution Rates in ZFX and ZFY Introns of Sheep and Goat Related Species Supports ZFX and ZFY intron sequences in sheep and goat species (the tribe Caprini). The male-driven evolution -- Sex chromosomes -- Generation time -- Caprini -- Sheep -- Goat Introduction From observations

Alvarez, Nadir

8

Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention. PMID:22436162

Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

2012-01-01

9

Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.  

PubMed

The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) is a major pest of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. From the 1960s to the 1980s there was a major effort to develop "field female killing" or FFK strains of L. cuprina that could be used for a cost-effective genetic control program. The FFK strains carried eye color mutations that were lethal to females in the field but not under conditions in the mass rearing facility. Males did not die in the field as normal copies of the eye color genes had been translocated to the Y chromosome and an autosome. Although the FFK strains showed some promise in field tests, a genetic control program in mainland Australia was never implemented for several reasons including instability of the FFK strains during mass rearing. A stable transgenic strain of L. cuprina that carried one or more dominant repressible female lethal genes offered the potential for efficient genetic control of blowfly populations. Here I review our research on tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic systems, Lucilia germ-line transformation and sex determination genes that ultimately led to the successful development of transgenic "male-only" strains of L. cuprina. The technology developed for L. cuprina should be directly transferable to other blowfly livestock pests including L. sericata and the New World and Old World screwworm. 29. PMID:25472415

Scott, Maxwell J

2014-12-01

10

Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina  

PubMed Central

The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) is a major pest of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. From the 1960s to the 1980s there was a major effort to develop "field female killing" or FFK strains of L. cuprina that could be used for a cost-effective genetic control program. The FFK strains carried eye color mutations that were lethal to females in the field but not under conditions in the mass rearing facility. Males did not die in the field as normal copies of the eye color genes had been translocated to the Y chromosome and an autosome. Although the FFK strains showed some promise in field tests, a genetic control program in mainland Australia was never implemented for several reasons including instability of the FFK strains during mass rearing. A stable transgenic strain of L. cuprina that carried one or more dominant repressible female lethal genes offered the potential for efficient genetic control of blowfly populations. Here I review our research on tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic systems, Lucilia germ-line transformation and sex determination genes that ultimately led to the successful development of transgenic "male-only" strains of L. cuprina. The technology developed for L. cuprina should be directly transferable to other blowfly livestock pests including L. sericata and the New World and Old World screwworm. 29 PMID:25472415

2014-01-01

11

Rumen metabolism and duodenal nutrient flow as affected by ration composition and antimicrobials in sheep  

E-print Network

in sheep H Fébel, I Zsolnai Harczi, S Huszar Research Institute of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Dept in this 2 x3 factorial design experiment using six rumen and duodenal cannulated wether sheep. Diets were). Additives were provided at 0.75 mg/kg BW. Sheep were fed diets at a rate of 60 g DM/kg BW075 for 133 d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Nutrient sensitivity of the cost of male function in gynodioecious Phacelia linearis (Hydrophyllaceae).  

PubMed

Allocation trade-offs should be measured as opportunity costs, estimating what individuals sacrifice in one function by allocating to others. We investigated opportunity costs of male function in gynodioecious Phacelia linearis, asking whether nutrient limitation contributes to them. This hypothesis predicts that hermaphrodites experience greater nutrient stress than females, and that hermaphrodite disadvantages in production might decrease with nutrient supply. We cultivated hermaphrodites and females at two nutrient levels, scoring individuals for prereproductive leaf number at 5 wk, and biomass, nitrogen concentration, and fruit and seed production at 16 wk. Nutrient treatments caused final growth differences of two orders of magnitude. No gender difference appeared at 5 wk, but at 16 wk hermaphrodites produced less stem, leaf, and inflorescence biomass than females, and made fewer fruits. Hermaphrodites' shoot-size disadvantage was marginally significantly more severe at low nutrients than high nutrients. Significant gender x nutrient interactions for root fraction and whole-plant nitrogen concentration indicate greater nutrient stress in hermaphrodites than females. Hermaphrodites also acquired less total nitrogen than females. Nutrient limitation contributes to opportunity costs of male function, but there must be other contributors. Possibilities include limitations in other resources, gender effects on morphology, and genetic trade-offs not directly involving allocation or morphology. PMID:21708664

Eckhart, V; Chapin, F

1997-08-01

13

Nutrient intake and bone health status of Korean male college students as related to smoking situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: non smoker (n=42), light smoker (n=34), moderate smoker

Yun-Jung Bae; Hye-Kyung Cho; Mi-Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

14

Effect of prenatal androgens on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions in male and female sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were measured in male and female Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries). Some sheep had been administered androgens or estrogens during prenatal development, some were gonadectomized after birth, and some were allowed to develop normally. As previously reported for spotted hyenas, gonadectomy did not alter the OAEs for either sex; accordingly, the untreated/intact and the untreated/gonadectomized animals were pooled to form the control groups. The click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) exhibited by the female control group (N=12) were slightly stronger (effect size=0.42) than those in the male control group (N=15), which is the same direction of effect reported for humans and rhesus monkeys. Females administered testosterone prenatally (N=16) had substantially weaker (masculinized) CEOAEs than control females (effect size=1.15). Both of these outcomes are in accord with the idea that prenatal exposure to androgens weakens the cochlear mechanisms that underlie the production of OAEs. The CEOAEs of males administered testosterone prenatally (N=5) were not different from those of control males, an outcome also seen in similarly treated rhesus monkeys. Males administered dihydrotestosterone (DHT) prenatally (N=3) had slightly stronger (hypo-masculinized) CEOAEs than control males. No spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were found in any ears, a common finding in non-human species. To our knowledge, this is the first ruminant species measured for OAEs. PMID:18834887

McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G; Valero, Michelle D; Roberts, Eila K; Lee, Theresa M

2009-01-01

15

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific

Herman W Raadsma; Peter C Thomson; Kyall R Zenger; Colin Cavanagh; Mary K Lam; Elisabeth Jonas; Marilyn Jones; Gina Attard; David Palmer; Frank W Nicholas

2009-01-01

16

Sheep grazing vs. cutting: regeneration and soil nutrient exploitation of the grassland weed Rumex obtusifolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L., Polygonaceae) is an agronomically important perennial weed causing decreases in pasture yields and fodder quality. Non-chemical\\u000a control measures for dock are often limited to frequent pulling and cutting, additionally it is usually avoided by grazing\\u000a animals. Here, the regeneration of R. obtusifolius in a Rumex-infested grassland grazed by a sheep breed that explicitly feeds on

Johann G. Zaller

2006-01-01

17

Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.  

PubMed

Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549

Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

2013-04-01

18

Effects of inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion on the response to novel objects in young male and female sheep.  

PubMed

This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific). To determine the effects of agonist treatment on the reproductive axis blood samples were collected for measurement of testosterone in the males and progesterone in the females. In addition the volume of the scrotum was determined. The present study aimed to determine whether there are sexually differentiated behavioural responses to a novel object at different stages of brain development (8, 28 and 48 weeks of age) and whether these responses are altered by GnRHa treatment. Approach behaviour towards and interactions with the novel object were monitored as was the number of vocalisations per unit time during the test period. GnRHa treatment suppressed testosterone concentrations and testicular growth in the males and progesterone release in the females. Sheep vocalised significantly more prior to weaning (8 weeks of age) than post weaning (28 and 48 weeks of age) suggesting stress on separation from their dams. Our current study shows that males are more likely to leave their conspecifics to approach a novel object than females. As this behaviour was not altered by suppression of the reproductive axis we suggest that, although sex differences are more obviously expressed in the phenotype after puberty, these may be developed during adolescence but not primarily altered during puberty by sex hormones. PMID:24485485

Robinson, Jane E; Evans, Neil P; Dumbell, Rebecca; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Ropstad, Erik; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

2014-02-01

19

Effect of Mediterranean saltbush (Atriplex halimus) ensilaging with two developed enzyme cocktails on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2?L of ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) /1000?kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300?g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2(®) and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1(®) and ZAD2(®) (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P?nutrients intake (P?nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P?Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P?sheep. PMID:25228428

Alsersy, Haidy; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Borhami, Borhami E; Olivares, Jaime; Gado, Hany M; Mariezcurrena, Maria D; Yacuot, Mohamed H; Kholif, Ahmed E; El-Adawy, Mounir; Hernandez, Saul R

2014-09-16

20

Effect of subacute swainsonine (locoweed; Oxytropis sericea) consumption on immunocompetence and serum constituents of sheep in a nutrient-restricted state.  

PubMed

The subacute dose-response effects of swainsonine (SW) consumption on immunocompetence and serum constituents of sheep in a nutrient-restricted state were investigated. Sheep (23 wethers, 5 ewes) were assigned to 1 of 5 SW treatments (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg swainsonine/ kg bw/d). Swainsonine was delivered by feeding locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) with grama grass and alfalfa hays for a 28-d treatment period followed by a 21-d recovery period without locoweed. Body weights were measured weekly and behavioral changes were monitored for clinical signs of SW toxicity. Venous blood was collected weekly for lymphoblastogenesis and serum constituent analyses. Clinical signs (sluggishness, decreased responsiveness) of swainsonine toxicity were observed from d 14 to 35 in the 0.8 and 1.6 mg treatments. Subacute oral exposure did not appear to affect lymphoblastogenic analyses. Acute and subacute alterations in various serum constituents did indicate subclinical effects of SW ingestion. Linear, quadratic and cubic dose-response relationships were detected for some serum constituents (e.g., alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase). Subacute SW consumption at the levels investigated does not seem to affect the immunocompetence of nutrient restricted sheep. The lack of change in serum alkaline phosphatase at the 0.2 mg SW/kg bw/d dose indicates the potential for a no adverse effect level of SW consumption in nutrient restricted sheep. In combination with measurable SW in serum, rises in serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and declines in serum Fe and cholesterol during subacute exposure to SW establish these markers as potential indicators of subclinical SW toxicosis. PMID:10928681

Taylor, J B; Strickland, J; May, T; Hawkins, D E

2000-08-01

21

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

2013-01-01

22

Maternal nutrient restriction during early to mid gestation alters the relationship between insulin-like growth factor I and bodyweight at term in fetal sheep.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine whether altered placental size, as a consequence of maternal nutrient restriction in sheep between 28 and 77 days gestation, is associated with a modified relationship between fetal weight or dimensions and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I concentration or abundance of hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA close to term. Singleton-bearing ewes consumed either 1.2x (controls, n = 19) or 0.5x (nutrient restricted, n = 28) their metabolizable energy (ME) requirements from 28 to 77 days gestation, after which all ewes were fed in order to fully meet their ME requirements for maintenance and pregnancy. Close to term (145 +/- 1 days) plasma IGF-I concentration in cord blood was similar between groups, but only significantly correlated with fetal bodyweight, thoracic circumference, crown-rump length and lean body mass in lambs born to control (r2 0.38, 0.76, 0.33, 0.42; P<0.001), and not to nutrient-restricted (r2 = 0.01, 0.11, 0.01, 0.02) ewes. There were no differences in fetal hepatic expression of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA between groups close to term. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction in early to mid gestation followed by feeding to requirements up to term alters the relationship between fetal IGF-I, bodyweight and length. Increasing maternal nutrition in later gestation after a prolonged period of nutrient restriction may stimulate fetal nutrient supply such that fetal growth is enhanced without an increase in plasma IGF-I. As a result, there is a loss of the relationship between fetal weight and plasma IGF-I concentration observed in fetuses whose mothers are fed adequately throughout gestation. PMID:11545172

Heasman, L; Brameld, J; Mostvn, A; Budge, H; Dawson, J; Buttery, P; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

2000-01-01

23

Under-nutrition reduces spermatogenic efficiency and sperm velocity, and increases sperm DNA damage in sexually mature male sheep.  

PubMed

We tested whether the quality of spermatozoa from mature male sheep would be affected during nutrition-induced changes in testicular mass. Merino rams were fed for 65 days with diets that increased, maintained or decreased body and testis mass (n=8 per group). In semen collected on Days 56 and 63, underfed rams had less sperms per ejaculate than well-fed rams (P<0.05) and a lower sperm velocity (computer-assisted semen analysis) than well-fed or maintenance-fed rams (P<0.05). Sperm chromatin structure assay revealed more sperm DNA damage in underfed rams than in well-fed rams (P<0.05). The amount of sperm DNA damage was inversely correlated with change in scrotal circumference (r=-0.6, P<0.05), the percentages of progressive motile sperm (r=-0.8; P<0.01) and motile sperm (r=-0.6, P<0.05), and the numbers of sperms per gram of testis (r=-0.55, P<0.05). In testicular tissue collected on Day 65, underfed rams had fewer sperm per gram of testis than rams in the other two groups (P<0.001). We conclude that, in adult rams, underfeeding reduces spermatogenic efficiency and that this response is associated with a reduction in spermatozoal quality. PMID:25086661

Guan, Yongjuan; Malecki, Irek A; Hawken, Penelope A R; Linden, Matthew D; Martin, Graeme B

2014-10-01

24

Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

2013-12-01

25

Maternal selenium supplementation and timing of nutrient restriction in pregnant sheep: Impacts on maternal endocrine status and placental characteristics.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective was to determine the effects of dietary selenium and nutrient restriction (level and timing) on serum hormone and metabolite levels and placental characteristics in mid- to late-pregnancy ewes. Pregnant ewe lambs (n = 64) were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 facto...

26

Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Sun, Chengwen; O'Rourke, Stephen T

2014-07-15

27

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

28

Effects of temporary intensive feed restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of growing male Californian rabbits.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a temporary quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of rabbits. A total of 80 weaned male Californian rabbits (30 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments of 20 rabbits each. The Control group was fed ad libitum during the whole experimental period (days 30-72 of age). For the three restricted fed groups the feed intake was reduced by 15%, 30% and 45% compared to the Control group, respectively. The feed restriction was applied after weaning and lasted for 21 d. Thereafter, at 51 d of age, in all treatments the feed supply returned to ad libitum intake till 72 d of age (AL period). The feed restriction decreased the body weight gain of rabbits (during the restriction period and the whole experimental period, p < 0.001) and improved feed conversion ratio during all tested periods (p < 0.001). In the AL period, the daily body weight gain of all groups was similar. After the AL period, the digestibility of all measured nutrients was significantly higher for animals fed restrictively. Furthermore, feed restrictions significantly decreased the proportion of perirenal and scapular fat and increased relative weight and length of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it can be concluded that the applied feed restriction improved feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and reduced fat at the slaughter age of Californian rabbits, but the reduced body weight gain could not be compensated by a subsequent ad libitum feeding for 3 weeks. PMID:25588067

Abdel-Wareth, Ahmed A A; Kehraus, Saskia; Ali, Abdalla H H; Ismail, Zeinhom S H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

2015-02-01

29

Nutrient intake, acid base status and growth performance of growing male buffalo calves fed varying level of dietary cation anion difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of +110, +220 and +330 mEq\\/kg of dry matter (DM) dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on growth performance of growing male buffalo calves was examined in a randomized complete block design. Three DCAD diets were randomly allotted to three groups, ten calves in each group. A linear increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increased DCAD level. However, digestibilities of

M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Sarwar

2007-01-01

30

Experimental Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and necropsy findings of experimentally produced Panicum miliaceum poisoning in sheep. Ten native apparently healthy male crossbred sheep, aged about 6–8 months old were used in the experiment. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, five sheep as control and five as experimental group. Both groups were kept

K. Badiei; K. Mostaghni; S. Nazifi; A. Khodakaram Tafti; M. Ghane; S. A. Momeni

2009-01-01

31

Prevention of amiodarone-induced cardiac toxicity in male BALB/c mice by a nutrient mixture.  

PubMed

Amiodarone (Amio), a potent anti-arrhythmic drug, is associated with life-threatening pulmonary toxicity involving fibroses and inflammation. A unique nutrient mixture (NM) consisting of lysine, proline, ascorbic acid, N-acetyl cysteine and green tea extract has previously been shown to exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological, therapeutic, cardiovascular and chemopreventive properties. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the NM exhibits preventive effects on Amio-induced cardiac toxicity. Six-week-old male BALB/c mice were divided into four groups (A-D) of six animals per group. Mice in groups A and C were fed a regular diet for three weeks, while the diets of the mice in groups B and D were supplemented with 1% NM during that period. After three weeks, the mice in groups C and D received daily Amio injections of 50 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 4 days, whilst those in groups A and B received saline alone. At 24 h after the final dose, mice were sacrificed, blood was withdrawn and serum was collected for clinical chemistry of the heart enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In addition, livers, kidneys, hearts and lungs were excised and weighed. No significant differences in weight gain were identified among the groups and liver, kidney, heart and lung weights were comparable in all four groups. Administration of Amio to group C resulted in a significant increase in serum CPK levels, whereas in NM-fed group D, the CPK levels were comparable to those in the saline injection groups, A and B. Amio administration also resulted in a significant increase in serum AST levels in group C, but not in the group D animals which exhibited similar levels to those of groups A and B. Therefore, the results indicate that NM has the potential to protect against Amio-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:24669263

Roomi, M Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath Waheed; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Rath, Matthias; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra

2014-04-01

32

Butylsoyamide Protects Soybean Oil from Ruminal Biohydrogenation: Effects of Butylsoyamide on Plasma Fatty Acids and Nutrient Digestion in Sheep1t2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous results showing partial resistance of fatty acyl amides to ruminal biohydrogenation, butylsoyamide was added to sheep diets in an attempt to increase unsaturation of plasma fatty acids. Twelve wethers averaging 34 k 3.2 kg BW were randomly assigned to three diets containing either no added fat (control), 5% soybean oil, or 5% butylsoyamide. Dry matter intake was

T. C. Jenkins

2010-01-01

33

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

34

Parasitological characteristics of fleece?weight?selected and control sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sheep (aged 15 months) from a Massey University flock selected for increased fleece weight for 37 years (FW, n = 13) and unselected controls (C, n = 13), were infected with larvae of Haemonchus contortus (n = 4000), Ostertagia circumcincta (n = 22750), and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (n ? 25000). Some FW sheep (n = 7) and C sheep (n

J. F. Williamson; H. T. Blair; D. J. Garrick; W. E. Pomroy; P. G. C. Douch; R. S. Green

1995-01-01

35

Effects of long period feeding pistachio by-product silage on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters of Holstein male calves.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters. PMID:25322789

Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M

2014-11-01

36

Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physico-chemical characteristics of milk are related to its composition for a particular animal species. Sheep milk contains higher levels of total solids and major nutrient than goat and cow milk. Lipids in sheep and goat milk have higher physical characteristics than in cow milk, but physico-chemical indices (i.e., saponification, Reichert Meissl and Polenske values) vary between different reports. Micelle structures

Y. W. Park; M. Juárez; M. Ramos; G. F. W. Haenlein

2007-01-01

37

Testicular measurements and endocrine profiles (luteinizing hormone and testosterone) in young growing males as a measure of breeding value in sheep  

E-print Network

Measure of Breed)no Va)ue in Sheep. (August 1983) John William Campbell B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Or. J. W. Bassett Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, piss~a tes- tosterone levels, body weights, and testicular... for both years. Correlations be- tween testi cal measurements and body weights were . 70 or higher for both years. There were low correlations be- tweem plasma LH and testosterone values with body weights (. 24 or lover) and between hormone levels...

Campbell, John William

2012-06-07

38

Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P < 0.05) greater mean daily body weight gains (63.29 g) than the infected untreated control (41.10 g). This was also higher than the mean daily weight gain in other treated groups. Infected untreated sheep showed significantly (P < 0.01) reduced digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and total carbohydrate, but no significant differences for nitrogen-free extract. Treated sheep had significantly higher positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances compared with infested untreated sheep. Oil of J. curcas plus ascorbic acid (OJC-AA) treated group was better over all other treated groups with respect to nutrient digestibility. The BSP test revealed significant (P < 0.05) increase in BSP retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.01) higher water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.05) greater clean fleece weight and fleece yield than the untreated infected group. It is concluded that OJC was the better therapy for sarcoptic mange of sheep and ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy is advisable. OJC-AA therapy may be better from the point of view of improving two most important production parameters in sheep, that is, wool yield and meat production. PMID:15153077

Dimri, U; Sharma, M C

2004-03-01

39

Weaner sheep grazing dry summer pastures increased wool growth, liveweight and faecal dry matter output in response  

E-print Network

Weaner sheep grazing dry summer pastures increased wool growth, liveweight and faecal dry matter of young growing sheep to buffer against seasonal fluctuations in nutrient availability in Mediterranean changes in wool growth and quality than in mature sheep. Mata et al (1992, Proc Aust Soc Anim Prod, 19

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep,  

E-print Network

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep, Goats, and Swine A Cornell and Penn State Cooperative ..................................................................1 Sheep and Goats--General.........................................1 Sheep Keds (Ticks)................................................2 Lice..........................................................................2 Sheep Nose Bot

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

41

Semen variables of sheep ( Ovis aries) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of Toxoplasma gondii on semen variables and sperm morphology of sheep was evaluated in eight reproductive males distributed into three experimental groups: GI, three sheep inoculated with 2.0×105 of P strain oocytes; GII, three sheep infected with 1.0×106 of RH strain tachyzoites and; GIII two control sheep. Clinical (rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory frequencies), parasite and serology exams

W. D. Z. Lopes; A. J. Costa; F. A. Souza; J. D. F. Rodrigues; G. H. N. Costa; V. E. Soares; G. S. Silva

2009-01-01

42

Nutrients Differentially Regulate Nucleobindin-2/Nesfatin-1 In Vitro in Cultured Stomach Ghrelinoma (MGN3-1) Cells and In Vivo in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Nesfatin-1 is secreted, meal-responsive anorexigenic peptide encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 [NUCB2]. Circulating nesfatin-1 increases post-prandially, but the dietary components that modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 remain unknown. We hypothesized that carbohydrate, fat and protein differentially regulate tissue specific expression of nesfatin-1. NUCB2, prohormone convertases and nesfatin-1 were detected in mouse stomach ghrelinoma [MGN3-1] cells. NUCB2 mRNA and protein were also detected in mouse liver, and small and large intestines. MGN3-1 cells were treated with glucose, fatty acids or amino acids. Male C57BL/6 mice were chronically fed high fat, high carbohydrate and high protein diets for 17 weeks. Quantitative PCR and nesfatin-1 assays were used to determine nesfatin-1 at mRNA and protein levels. Glucose stimulated NUCB2 mRNA expression in MGN3-1 cells. L-Tryptophan also increased NUCB2 mRNA expression and ghrelin mRNA expression, and nesfatin-1 secretion. Oleic acid inhibited NUCB2 mRNA expression, while ghrelin mRNA expression and secretion was enhanced. NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the liver of mice fed a high protein diet compared to mice fed other diets. Chronic intake of high fat diet caused a significant reduction in NUCB2 mRNA in the stomach, while high protein and high fat diet caused similar suppression of NUCB2 mRNA in the large intestine. No differences in serum nesfatin-1 levels were found in mice at 7 a.m, at the commencement of the light phase. High carbohydrate diet fed mice showed significantly elevated nesfatin-1 levels at 1 p.m. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in mice fed high fat, protein or carbohydrate compared to the controls at 7 p.m, just prior to the dark phase. Mice that received a bolus of high fat had significantly elevated nesfatin-1/NUCB2 at all time points tested post-gavage, compared to control mice and mice fed other diets. Our results for the first time indicate that nesfatin-1 is modulated by nutrients. PMID:25506938

Mohan, Haneesha; Ramesh, Naresh; Mortazavi, Sima; Le, Anthony; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Unniappan, Suraj

2014-01-01

43

Counting Sheep in Basque  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

Araujo, Frank P.

1975-01-01

44

Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

2012-01-01

45

Abdominal Situs inversus in a sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam:— Transposition of thoracic and\\/or abdominal viscera is recognised in humans, rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, amphibians and fish, but does not appear to have been previously described in sheep. We report the finding of an apparently complete transposition of abdominal viscera in a nine-month-old castrated male lamb slaughtered at the Tomoana Freezing Works, Hastings

C. Larsen; E. J. Kirk

1987-01-01

46

Effect of Terminalia chebula and Allium sativum on in vivo methane emission by sheep.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate some plant parts (already tested for their antimethanogenic activity in in vitro gas production test in the authors' laboratory) as feed additive to combat methane emission from sheep. Sixteen male sheep with average body weight of 29.96±1.69 kg (22 months of age) were divided into four groups in a randomized block design. The animals were fed on a diet containing forage to concentrate ratio of 1:1. The concentrate fraction composed (in parts) of maize grain, 32; wheat bran, 45; deoiled soybean meal, 20; mineral mixture, 2 and common salt, 1. The four treatments were control (without additive), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (Harad), bulb of Allium sativum (Garlic) and a mixture (Mix) of the latter two in equal proportions at the rate of 1% of dry matter (DM) intake. There was no effect on DM intake due to the inclusion of these feed additives. The digestibilities of DM and organic matter tended to be higher (p<0.1) in the groups with T. chebula and A. sativum, whereas, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and cellulose digestibilities were higher (p<0.05) in all the three experimental groups compared with control. The nitrogen balance and plane of nutrition were not affected by inclusion of any of the feed additives. Methane emission (L/kg digested DM intake) as estimated by open circuit respiration chamber and methane energy loss as per cent of digestible energy intake tended to be lower in T. chebula (p=0.09) and Mix (p=0.08) groups compared with control. The data indicated that T. chebula showed antimethanogenic activity, whereas both T. chebula and A. sativum improved nutrient digestibility. Therefore, these two plants appear to be suitable candidates for use as feed additive to mitigate methane emission and to improve nutrient utilization by sheep. PMID:20666858

Patra, A K; Kamra, D N; Bhar, R; Kumar, R; Agarwal, N

2011-04-01

47

Foraging behaviour and sexual segregation in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many sexually dimorphic ungulates, bighorn sheep,Ovis canadensis, form sexually segregated groups. Nursery groups include females, lambs and subadult males, while adult males form bachelor groups. Previous hypotheses to account for sexual segregation in ungulates have suggested sexual differences in energy requirements, predation risk and social preferences. I tested the hypothesis that differing nutritional demands, due to sexual dimorphism in

KATHREEN E. RUCKSTUHL

1998-01-01

48

VEGETATIVE MANAGEMENT USING CONTROLLED SHEEP GRAZING - THE MONTANA SHEEP INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep may provide the most economical and environmentally sound alternative to chemical control of the encroachment of noxious weeds. The Montana Sheep Institute's objective is to develop, implement and evaluate controlled sheep grazing strategies for managing large infestations of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). Suitable sites located throughout Montana were identified, after which a sheep grazing

L. M. M Surber; R. W. Kott; J. D. Moore; B. L. Roeder; G. Hewitt; J. Smith; K. Williams

2006-01-01

49

Cows and Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solvers of this problem apply number sense and logical reasoning to determine the numbers of cows and sheep in each of five fields by using clues about how many cows and sheep can be seen by each animal. The problem includes questions for getting started, suggestions for implementation and differentiation, a printable student page, and sample solutions.

2014-01-01

50

Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on the Nutrient Adequacy and Health Status of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Male Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty male diabetic subjects (40 years) of middle income group were selected from Punjab Agricultural University, Hospital, Ludhiana and divided equally into three groups viz. E 1, E2 and C. Spirulina supplementation was given daily in the form of SUNOVA capsules with two capsules (lg) and four capsules (2g) to E 1 & E2 group respectively for a period of

Kamalpreet Kaur; Rajbir Sachdeva; Anita Kochhar

51

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium  

E-print Network

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium Integrating Advanced Concepts into Traditional Practices June 19 Professor and Sheep Extension Specialist, Montana State University Impact of Research on the Sheep Industry University in 1980. After receiving his PhD, Dr. Kott became the Extension Sheep Specialist at Montana State

Maxwell, Bruce D.

52

[A sheep herd management record].  

PubMed

The importance of sheep farming is constantly increasing. Accordingly there is an urgent need for sheep flock health programmes. A simple administration is essential in monitoring the various sheep flock health variables and in calculating important indices. The Sheep Flock Management Chart provides a simple but efficient recording system. PMID:3363552

Sol, J; Logtenberg, H L

1988-03-15

53

Effect of elemental nano-selenium on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and purine derivatives in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of elemental nano-selenium (NS) on feed digestibility, rumen fermentation, and urinary purine derivatives in sheep. Eight male ruminally cannulated sheep (42.5±3.2kg of body weight, BW) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experiment in four 20 day periods. Depending on treatment designation, sheep were fed the basal diet supplemented

Liguang Shi; Wenjuan Xun; Wenbin Yue; Chunxiang Zhang; Youshe Ren; Qiang Liu; Qian Wang; Lei Shi

2011-01-01

54

Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

2013-01-01

55

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

56

The Management of Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes used to manage sheep in the broadest sense and the way these are perceived by the sheep will have a critical\\u000a impact on the welfare of individual animals. While these impacts may be difficult to assess and more difficult to quantify,\\u000a it is clear that the skilled stockperson has the ability to reduce the impact of some of

P. J. Goddard

57

Effect of nutrient intake on intramuscular glucose metabolism during the early growth stage in cross-bred steers (Japanese Black male × Holstein female).  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrient intake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNF? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle. PMID:22698257

Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T

2013-08-01

58

Semen variables of sheep (Ovis aries) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The influence of Toxoplasma gondii on semen variables and sperm morphology of sheep was evaluated in eight reproductive males distributed into three experimental groups: GI, three sheep inoculated with 2.0x10(5) of P strain oocytes; GII, three sheep infected with 1.0x10(6) of RH strain tachyzoites and; GIII two control sheep. Clinical (rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory frequencies), parasite and serology exams (IIF) were realized. Sperm variables (volume, motility, vigor and concentration) and semen morphology for each sheep were also evaluated. Thus, semen and blood collections were assessed on post-inoculation days (PIDs)-1,3,5,7,11,14 and weekly thereafter up to PID 70. Clinical alterations were observed (hypothermia and anorexia) in infected sheep from groups GI and GII. Parasitic outbreaks were detected in five sheep. All the infected sheep produced antibodies against T. gondii from PID 5 onwards, reaching a peak of 4096 and 8192 for group GI and GII sheep, respectively. Differences (P<0.05) were observed regarding the ejaculate volume between the inoculated groups (oocytes and tachyzoites) and control. Even though experimental toxoplasmic infection resulted in clinical symptomology in the inoculated sheep, the minimal alterations in sperm pathologies could not be directly attributed to T. gondii. PMID:18448278

Lopes, W D Z; Costa, A J; Souza, F A; Rodrigues, J D F; Costa, G H N; Soares, V E; Silva, G S

2009-04-01

59

Phosphorus metabolic disorder of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep.  

PubMed

Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep are affected by a disease, characterized by emaciation, lameness, stiffness in the gait, enlargement of the costochondral junctions, and abnormal curvature in the long bones. The objective of this study was to determine possible relationships between the disease and mineral deficiencies. Samples of tissue and blood were collected from affected and unaffected sheep. Samples of soil and forage were collected from affected and unaffected areas. The samples were used for biochemical analyses and mineral nutrient measurements. Results showed that phosphorus (P) concentrations in forage samples from affected areas were significantly lower than those from unaffected areas (P < 0.01) and the mean ratio of calcium (Ca) to P in the affected forage was 12:1. Meanwhile, P concentrations of blood, bone, tooth, and wool from the affected sheep were also significantly lower than those from the unaffected group (P < 0.01). Serum P levels of the affected animals were much lower than those of the unaffected ones, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase levels from the affected were significantly higher than those from the unaffected (P < 0.01). Inorganic P levels of the affected sheep were about half of those in the control group. Oral administration of disodium hydrogen phosphate prevented and cured the disease. The study clearly demonstrated that the disease of Guizhou semi-fine wool sheep was mainly caused by the P deficiency in forage, as a result of fenced pasture and animal habitat fragmentation. PMID:24586803

Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Renduo

2014-01-01

60

Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

61

Clinical, culture, serology, and histopathology outcomes of bighorn sheep experimentally infected with Brucella ovis.  

PubMed

Disease caused by Brucella ovis has not been previously reported in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis canadensis). Antibodies to B. ovis, however, are occasionally detected in free-ranging BHS, and this has been a concern for managers involved in translocation programs. To investigate the pathogenesis of B. ovis infection in this species, 20 BHS (10 male, 10 female) were inoculated intraconjunctivally (IC) with 5.4 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) B. ovis. Six BHS (three male, three female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline IC and served as in-contact control animals, and eight BHS (one male, seven female) received 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) IC and served as noncontact controls. In addition, 14 domestic sheep (Ovis aries, nine male, five female) were inoculated IC with 5.4 × 10(8) cfu B. ovis (positive controls), and five domestic sheep (three male, two female) received 1 mL PBS IC (contact controls). All domestic sheep were housed separately from BHS. Bighorn sheep experimentally infected with B. ovis became antibody and culture positive and developed clinical signs of B. ovis infection including abortion and epididymal and testicular swelling. Lesions in BHS were consistent with, and in some cases more severe, than those observed in domestic sheep. Antibodies against B. ovis were detected within 4 wk postinoculation and remained positive until the end of the study. These findings have important implications for BHS management. PMID:24502717

McCollum, Matt; Rhyan, Jack; Coburn, Sarah; Ewalt, Darla; Lahr, Carrie; Nol, Pauline; Keefe, Thomas; Kimberling, Cleon; Salman, Mo

2013-10-01

62

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry  

E-print Network

Sheep Are Not Goats Basic animal husbandry education for sheep owners January 15, 22, 29://www.events.unh.edu/RegistrationForm.pm?event_id=17229 Class I - January 15, 2015: Basic information about raising sheep in New Hampshire; behavior, ease and the sheep in mind. Class II - January 22, 2015: Nutrition and Health: Feeding your sheep and adding pasture

New Hampshire, University of

63

All we like sheep: Cloning as an  

E-print Network

All we like sheep: Cloning as an engineering tool Michael W. Godfrey University of Waterloo ICSM-07 been led astray? #12;ICSM-07: Myths in Sw Eng 9 Handel's Messiah All we like sheep All we like sheep All we like sheep All we like sheep ... have gone astraaaaaay ICSM-07: Myths in Sw Eng 10 Formula

Godfrey, Michael W.

64

Many eyes or many ewes: vigilance tactics in female bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis vary according to reproductive status  

E-print Network

Many eyes or many ewes: vigilance tactics in female bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis vary according patterns in bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis ewes. We also test whether the observed vigilance patterns according to group size in elk Cervus elaphus. In mixed groups of elk, adult males are only vigilant during

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

65

SFRSF: Nutrients  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.

66

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows  

E-print Network

Original article Rumen digestion and intestinal nutrient flows in sheep consuming pea seeds of pea protein were evalu- ated by in situ and in vivo measurements of rumen and intestine digestion the apparent digestion of OM in the rumen but increased it in the small intestine. Total tract OM digestibility

Boyer, Edmond

67

Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland  

PubMed Central

In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads. PMID:12071115

2002-01-01

68

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

2010-02-09

69

Farm Sheep Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

and aged ewes are available in the fall. These are the two most popular trading seasons and are suitable times for a farm flock operator to buy the sheep he needs. The most popular type in Texas is the fine-wool sheep (Rambouillet and Delaine Merino... at all times. To drench sheep, use one hand to insert the drench gun a t the side of the animal's mouth in the area between the incisor teeth and molars, Drench gun is inserted at the side of the sheep's mouth with the right hand; left hand shuts...

Jones, J. M.; Gray, James A.

1956-01-01

70

Sheep Brain Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sheep brain is used to teach about memory and where it takes place because its brain structure and functions are similar to the human brain. Students will be exposed briefly to the fact that electrochemical connections made between brain cells help us remember the thoughts, skills, experiences, and knowledge that make each of us unique. Through dissections, students will learn about the cortex, brain cells, and where the three main subdivisions of memory (working, long-term, and skill memory) take place.

Science NetLinks (The museum of science, art and human perception at the Palace of Fine Arts;)

2004-04-30

71

Cardiovascular effects of Adonis aestivalis in anesthetized sheep  

PubMed Central

Adonis aestivalis (summer pheasant-eye) is an annual plant with a crimson flower, distributed in southern Europe and Asia. The plant has large buttercup-like blossoms and soft, fern-like leaves. It blooms in spring and is often found as a weed in cereal fields. Like other Adonis spp., the plant produces cardiac glycosides. It is used in remedies for mild weakness of the heart, especially when accompanied by nervous complaints. Cardiovascular and toxic effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of A. aestivalis were investigated in sheep and mice. Six male sheep were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and arterial blood pressure was measured with a transducer connected to the left femoral artery. Heart rate and electrocardiogram (ECG) were registered from lead base-apex ECG derivatives connected to a Powerlab recorder. Three successive equal doses (75 mg kg-1) of the hydroalcoholic extract of A. aestivalis intravenously administered to anesthetized sheep. Adonis aestivalis extract induced a significant bradycardia and hypotension in sheep. Various ECG abnormalities in sheep included sinus arrhythmia, shortened and depressed S-T interval, and absence of P wave and flattened or inverted T wave. In addition, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation have also been observed. The acute intraperitoneal toxicity (LD50) of the extract in mice was 2150 mg kg-1. In conclusion, bradycardia and ECG alterations induced by the extract could explain the justification of traditional use of the of Adonis aestivalis in treating cardiovascular insufficiency.

Maham, Masoud; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

2014-01-01

72

Brucellosis in Captive Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Caused by Brucella abortus Biovar 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine (four female, five male) cap- tive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fe- tus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of

Terry J. Kreeger; Walter E. Cook; William H. Edwards; Todd Cornish

73

Brucellosis in captive Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4.  

PubMed

Nine (four female, five male) captive adult Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) contracted brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 4 as a result of natural exposure to an aborted elk (Cervus elaphus) fetus. Clinical signs of infection were orchitis and epididymitis in males and lymphadenitis and placentitis with abortion in females. Gross pathologic findings included enlargement of the testes or epididymides, or both, and yellow caseous abscesses and pyogranulomas of the same. Brucella abortus biovar 4 was cultured in all bighorn sheep from a variety of tissues, including testes/epididymides, mammary gland, and lymph nodes. All bighorn sheep tested were positive on a variety of standard Brucella serologic tests. This is the first report of brucellosis caused by B. abortus in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. It also provides evidence that bighorn sheep develop many of the manifestations ascribed to this disease and that infection can occur from natural exposure to an aborted fetus from another species. Wildlife managers responsible for bighorn sheep populations sympatric with Brucella-infected elk or bison (Bison bison) should be cognizant of the possibility of this disease in bighorn sheep. PMID:15362833

Kreeger, Terry J; Cook, Walter E; Edwards, William H; Cornish, Todd

2004-04-01

74

Scrapie resistance in ARQ sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Susceptibility of sheep to classical scrapie is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the ovine prion gene (PRNP), especially at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171. Sheep with the A136R154R171 haplotype are considered resistant, while those homozygous for A136R154Q171 are susceptible. How...

75

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PHAGOCYTES FROM ELK, DEER, BIGHORN SHEEP, AND DOMESTIC SHEEP TO PASTEURELLA HAEMOL YTICA CYTOTOXINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture super- natants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from

Ronald M. Silfiow; William J. Foreyt

76

New Hampshire 4-H Sheep Clinic  

E-print Network

New Hampshire 4-H Sheep Clinic July 11-13 2014 Youth Center New Boston, NH A Fun filled weekend with your sheep! Registration deadline is 6/20. Special Thanks to the following supporters of the NH4-H Sheep Clinic: · TheHillsboroughCountyYouthCenter · TheNewHampshireSheep

New Hampshire, University of

77

2014 SHEEP SHEARING SCHOOL University of Kentucky  

E-print Network

2014 SHEEP SHEARING SCHOOL University of Kentucky March 25 and 26, 2014 Sheep Unit, C. Oran Little Animal Research Center, Versailles, KY Sponsored by the Kentucky Sheep and Wool Producers Association is designed for beginner or experienced shearers. Professional sheep shearers, Steve and Colin Kennedy

Hayes, Jane E.

78

Dolly the Sheep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dolly, the world's first animal to be cloned from an adult cell, was put down February 14, 2003, due to a tumor in the lung. Her death has drawn increased attention to how little we really know about the potential health problems associated with genetic cloning. The journal Nature offers a special Web focus on "the life of this extraordinary sheep," including current and archived news articles and scientific papers. These resources offer a great way for readers to delve into this topic at depth and learn about the science behind the news.

2003-01-01

79

Sheep and goat grazing as a tool to manage encroachment of one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Engelm. Sarg.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of using prescribed grazing by sheep and goats to suppress one-seed juniper re-invasion could be improved by providing adequate nutrients to help animals detoxify plant terpenes. We analyzed the terpenoid chemistry of one-seed juniper leaves and conducted feeding trials with 12 Ramboull...

80

First identification of Sarcocystis tenella (Railliet, 1886) Moulé, 1886 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) by PCR in naturally infected sheep from Brazil.  

PubMed

Sarcocystis tenella is a dog-sheep protozoan parasite, causing a widespread enzootic muscle parasitosis and neurological disease mainly in lambs. This parasite is pathogenic to sheep and important to the economical production of sheep. The present study was initially aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii infection and the occurrence of co-infection with other Apicomplexa parasites in 602 Brazilian sheep. Twenty of these sheep were positive with antibodies to T. gondii by MAT and IFAT-IgG tests, positive with PCR-RFLP genotyping at multiple loci, and parasites were isolated from mice infected with sheep tissue samples. Two additional sheep born in Brazil, a 2-year-old female Polwarth (Ideal) sheep, a breed originated from Australia (#1), and a 1-year-old male Corriedale sheep, a breed originated from New Zealand and Australia (#2) were positive to T. gondii antibodies by serum tests, and PCR, but negative for bioassay in mice. In genotyping at 12 loci, sheep #1 sample and #2 presented positive results only for some markers. PCR-RFLP of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) was performed in all 22 animals to identify the possibility of co-infection of T. gondii with other Apicomplexa parasites, such as S. tenella, Neospora caninum and Hammondia hammondi, resulting in a T. gondii profile for the first 20 animals and a unique genotyping profile for sheep #1 and #2, identical to S. tenella. The 18S rRNA PCR products (approximately 310 bp) were sequenced and blasted to GenBank database at NCBI. Both samples were identical to S. tenella 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession number L24383-1). These results suggest the existence of co-infection of S. tenella with T. gondii in ewes from Brazil. PMID:19647370

da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Su, Chunlei; Langoni, Helio

2009-11-12

81

Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.  

PubMed

The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression. PMID:19016675

Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

2009-02-01

82

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Managing Internal Parasitism in Sheep and Goats Kate Hepworth, Animal Sciences Student; Mike Neary, Extension Sheep Specialist; Terry Hutchens, Extension Associate for Goat Production, University of Kentucky associated with parasites, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and goats can cause

83

Fullfoder fr fr TMR for sheep  

E-print Network

Fullfoder för får TMR for sheep Björn Johansson Examensarbete, 20 p Handledare: Gun Bernes SLU;1 SUMMARY Johansson, B. 2007. TMR for sheep. Undergraduate thesis. ISSN 0348-3851 During recent years used for cattle and hence the information and knowledge is vast, while the knowledge concerning sheep

84

Sheep Production Occupations. Skills and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of a national study to determine what skills and competencies are needed by beginning employees on sheep ranches and farms, lamb feedlots, and in the sheep shearing industry. The research procedure, which involved determining from the sheep industry the competencies needed by beginning employees in the thirteen…

Sabol, Joe

85

2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm  

E-print Network

2011 OHIO SHEEP DAY Blue Heron Farm 33068 Teegarden Road Lisbon, OH 44432 SATURDAY, JULY 16, 2011 9 A.M. - 3:30 P.M. All programs will be repeated twice during the day: · Rebuilding the Ohio Sheep Industry. · Increasing productivity of the sheep flock. · Watering Systems. · Grazing Systems

Jones, Michelle

86

Susceptibility of phagocytes from elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep to Pasteurella haemolytica cytotoxins.  

PubMed

Alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood neutrophils from elk (Cervus elaphus), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and domestic sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from Pasteurella haemolytica isolated from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. In a second experiment, peripheral blood neutrophils from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk, and bighorn sheep were exposed to culture supernatants from P. haemolytica isolated from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. Alveolar macrophages from elk, bighorn sheep and domestic sheep were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica supernatants from bighorn sheep and domestic sheep; susceptibility of neutrophils to cell death, as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase, differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the four species tested. Bighorn sheep and domestic sheep neutrophils were susceptible to cytotoxin damage by the P. haemolytica isolates used; bighorn sheep neutrophils were four- to eight-fold more susceptible to cytotoxin damage than domestic sheep neutrophils. Neutrophils from deer and elk were resistant to killing by P. haemolytica cytotoxins from any species tested. PMID:7760482

Silflow, R M; Foreyt, W J

1994-10-01

87

Photoperiodic and melatonin treatments for the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Photoperiodic and melatonin treatments for the control of seasonal reproduction in sheep and goats days, LD), followed by treatment with melatonin (equivalent to short days, SD). In autumn-born Ile breeding season by allowing males to reach their maximum testis volume and sperm production earlier than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

The effect of water availability on feed intake and digestion in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six castrated male Karagouniko sheep, offered three levels of water, were used in a 3×3 Latin Square design to study the effects of mild water restriction on roughage intake and digestion. The three treatments were offered water ad libitum throughout the day (A), made available to the animals for 1h daily (B) or 65% of the water consumed ad libitum

I Hadjigeorgiou; K Dardamani; C Goulas; G Zervas

2000-01-01

89

Effects of Dietary Cobalt Deficiency on Performance, Blood and Rumen Metabolites and Liver Pathology in Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to determine changes in serum vitamin B (VitB ) and folate concentrations, 12 12 live body weight development, haemogram and serum and rumen biochemistry as well as liver pathology in sheep fed on cobalt (Co) deficient diet and also to document the responses to Co supplementation. 14 male Egyptian Baladi lambs were assigned randomly into two

Hala A. A. Abou-Zeina; A. A. Zaghawa; Soad M. Nasr; H. G. E. Keshta

90

Freemartinism in a Captive Herd of Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freemartinism in two animals from a captive herd of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at the Denver Zoological Gar- dens (Denver, Colorado, USA) is described. A young ewe had female external genitalia, a mas- culine appearance, and demonstrated male be- havior as she matured. Another ewe with female external genitalia died as a yearling. Necropsy revealed a non-patent vagina

David E. Kenny; Richard C. Cambre; Michelle W. Frahm; Thomas D. Bunch; Denver Zoological

1992-01-01

91

NUTRIENT VARIABILITY IN MANURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR SAMPLING AND REGIONAL DATABASE CREATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The variability of manure nutrient levels within and across farms makes manure sampling and development of reliable tabular values challenging. The chemical characteristics of beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and chicken solid manures in Colorado were evaluated by sampling six to ten different livestock o...

92

Uterine biology in pigs and sheep  

PubMed Central

There is a dialogue between the developing conceptus (embryo-fetus and associated placental membranes) and maternal uterus which must be established during the peri-implantation period for pregnancy recognition signaling, implantation, regulation of gene expression by uterine epithelial and stromal cells, placentation and exchange of nutrients and gases. The uterus provide a microenvironment in which molecules secreted by uterine epithelia or transported into the uterine lumen represent histotroph required for growth and development of the conceptus and receptivity of the uterus to implantation. Pregnancy recognition signaling mechanisms sustain the functional lifespan of the corpora lutea (CL) which produce progesterone, the hormone of pregnancy essential for uterine functions that support implantation and placentation required for a successful outcome of pregnancy. It is within the peri-implantation period that most embryonic deaths occur due to deficiencies attributed to uterine functions or failure of the conceptus to develop appropriately, signal pregnancy recognition and/or undergo implantation and placentation. With proper placentation, the fetal fluids and fetal membranes each have unique functions to ensure hematotrophic and histotrophic nutrition in support of growth and development of the fetus. The endocrine status of the pregnant female and her nutritional status are critical for successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. This review addresses the complexity of key mechanisms that are characteristic of successful reproduction in sheep and pigs and gaps in knowledge that must be the subject of research in order to enhance fertility and reproductive health of livestock species. PMID:22958877

2012-01-01

93

Long-term observation of subclinical chronic copper poisoning in two sheep breeds.  

PubMed

Fourteen castrated male sheep of two breeds, the Mutton Merino (MMB) and Blackhead Suffolk cross breed (BSC), were exposed to an oral copper (Cu) intake of 3.7 mg/day per kg body weight for 84 days (high Cu group, HCu), and 11 castrated male sheep received a daily oral Cu intake of 0.16 mg/day per kg body weight (controls). Liver Cu concentration was measured in liver biopsies until 2.7 years after Cu overdose. Haematologic parameters, plasma Cu, enzymes and metabolites were analysed and post-mortem examinations were carried out. No haemolytic crises occurred. The highest liver Cu concentrations (133-677 mg/kg wet weight) were measured in HCu sheep around day 110 with significantly higher values in BSC than in MMB. The very slow decreases of liver Cu concentration of HCu sheep after day 215 showed individual half-life periods of 175 +/- 91 days. A progressive Cu retention in the liver of HCu sheep during Cu supplementation indicates strong Cu binding and storage in the liver. High values of glutamate dehydrogenase (20-940 U/l) measured frequently until day 700 and a diminished plasma clearance of bromosulphthalein as well as pathohistological findings of focal liver necrosis confirm the markedly chronic character of Cu poisoning. PMID:11599680

Humann-Ziehank, E; Coenen, M; Ganter, M; Bickhardt, K

2001-09-01

94

Impaired ability to modulate glomerular filtration rate in aged female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fetal uninephrectomy (uni?x) results in hypertension at a later age in female than male sheep. We hypothesized that dysregulation of tubular sodium handling contributes to the reduced ability to regulate extracellular fluid (ECF) homeostasis in older females born with a congenital nephron deficit. Following renal excretory balance studies, the response to inhibition of the Na+K+2Cl? cotransporter with furosemide (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 1 mg/kg per hour, i.v) or vehicle treatment was examined in conscious 5?year?old female uni?x (n = 7) and sham (n = 7) sheep. Balance studies in meal?fed sheep demonstrated that while average 24 h sodium excretion over 6 days was not different between the groups, the daily variation in sodium excretion was significantly greater in uni?x compared to sham sheep (31 ± 4% vs. 12 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal cortical cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) gene expression were lower in uni?x sheep (both, P < 0.01). The increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow observed in sham sheep in response to furosemide were significantly attenuated in uni?x sheep (both PGROUP×TREAT < 0.05). However, fractional sodium excretion increased by a greater extent in the uni?x (4.4 ± 1.0%) as compared to the sham sheep (2.0 ± 0.4%; PGROUP×TIME < 0.05) in response to furosemide. In conclusion, fetal uni?x was associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in aged females. The impaired ability to modulate PRA and GFR in the adults with a congenital nephron deficit may reduce the capacity of the kidney to respond to gains or losses in ECF to maintain a stable internal environment. PMID:24744887

Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Singh, Reetu R.; Hilliard, Lucinda M.; Moritz, Karen M.; Denton, Kate M.

2014-01-01

95

Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

Sam, Chris Lam

2005-01-01

96

Acute selenium toxicosis in sheep  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity, toxicokinetics, and progressive pathological changes produced by sodium selenite in sheep following parenteral administration were evaluated. In the intramuscular study, the LD/sub 50/ for sodium selenite was 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight. In the continuous intravenous infusion study, a gradient of tissue selenium/kg body weight with a standard error of 0.035 over a 192 hour observation period. The most evident clinical signs were dyspnea and depression . At necropsy, the most consistent lesions were edematous lungs and pale mottled hearts. Highest tissue selenium concentrations in declining order were found in the liver, kidney, and heart. Four sheep injected intravenously with 0.7 mg selenium/kg body weight survived the 192 hour post-injection observation period. Semilogarithmic plots of blood selenium concentration versus time were triphasic. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. rate constants of sheep administered a single dose of selenium intravenously were significantly greater than those obtained when sheep were injected intramuscularly with 0.7 mg selenium concentrations was attained with 4, 8, and 12 hour infusions at steady state concentrations of 2500, 3000, and 3500 ppb selenium in the blood. The heart was the target organ of acute selenium toxicosis. A dose-response relationship was observed in the heart with degeneration evident in all hearts and necrosis present in the 2 hearts with the highest concentrations of selenium.

Blodgett, D.J.

1983-01-01

97

NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

98

75 FR 75867 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural...and regulations establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC) program...and enhance production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United...

2010-12-07

99

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2010-01-01

100

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2011-01-01

101

Female desert bighorn sheep in the Sonora desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Desert bighorn sheep use a lot of energy to regulate their internal temperature in the desert. During the summer the sheep eat plants and drink water every few days. In the winter, desert plants contain enough water for sheep survival.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

102

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2012-01-01

103

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2013-01-01

104

9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419 Section 93...CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

2014-01-01

105

Factors influencing changes in articular cartilage following hemiarthroplasty in sheep  

E-print Network

Factors influencing changes in articular cartilage following hemiarthroplasty in sheep Marjolein C head size and position. Nineteen sheep received unilateral hip arthroplasties and were euthanized one. Keywords: Articular cartilage; Hemiarthroplasty; Sheep cartilage biochemistry; Cartilage material

Stanford University

106

75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. AMS-LS-08-0064] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center AGENCY: Agricultural...and regulations establishing a National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC) program...enhance the production and marketing of sheep or goat products in the United...

2010-07-23

107

Sex differences in the metabolic effects of testosterone in sheep.  

PubMed

Adiposity is regulated in a sexually divergent manner. This is partly due to sex steroids, but the differential effects of androgens in males and females are unclear. We investigated effects of testosterone on energy balance in castrated male (n = 6) and female sheep (n = 4), which received 3 × 200 mg testosterone implants for 2 wk or blank implants (controls). Temperature probes were implanted into retroperitoneal fat and skeletal muscle. Blood samples were taken to measure metabolites and insulin. In males, muscle and fat biopsies were collected to measure uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt. Testosterone did not change food intake in either sex. Temperature in muscle was higher in males than females, and testosterone reduced heat production in males only. In fat, however, temperature was higher in the castrate males compared with females, and there was no effect of testosterone treatment in either sex. Preprandial glucose levels were lower, but nonesterified fatty acids were higher in females compared with males, irrespective of testosterone. In males, the onset of feeding increased UCP1 and UCP3 mRNA levels in skeletal muscle, without an effect of testosterone. During feeding, testosterone reduced glucose levels in males only but did not alter the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase or Akt in muscle. Thus, testosterone maintains lower muscle and fat temperatures in males but not females. The mechanism underlying this sex-specific effect of testosterone is unknown but may be due to sexual differentiation of the brain centers controlling energy expenditure. PMID:22128020

Clarke, Scott D; Clarke, Iain J; Rao, Alexandra; Cowley, Michael A; Henry, Belinda A

2012-01-01

108

Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations  

PubMed Central

The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments. PMID:25126940

Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

2014-01-01

109

Brooding fathers, not siblings, take up nutrients from embryos  

PubMed Central

It is well known that many animals with placenta-like structures provide their embryos with nutrients and oxygen. However, we demonstrate here that nutrients can pass the other way, from embryos to the parent. The study was done on a pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, in which males brood fertilized eggs in a brood pouch for several weeks. Earlier research has found a reduction of embryo numbers during the brooding period, but the fate of the nutrients from these ‘reduced’ embryos has been unknown. In this study, we considered whether (i) the brooding male absorbs the nutrients, (ii) siblings absorb them, or (iii) a combination of both. Males were mated to two sets of females, one of which had radioactively labelled eggs (using 14C-labelled amino acids), such that approximately half the eggs in the brood pouch were labelled. This allowed us to trace nutrient uptake from these embryos. We detected that 14C-labelled amino acids were transferred to the male brood pouch, liver and muscle tissue. However, we did not detect any significant 14C-labelled amino-acid absorption by the non-labelled half-siblings in the brood pouch. Thus, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time, that males absorb nutrients derived from embryos through their paternal brood pouch. PMID:19939847

Sagebakken, Gry; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Gonçalves, Inês Braga; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

2010-01-01

110

FATAL PNEUMONIA FOLLOWING INOCULATION OF HEALTHY BIGHORN SHEEP WITH PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA FROM HEALTHY DOMESTIC SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of three experiments, isolates of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2, ribotype reference WSU-1, from healthy domestic sheep, were inoculated intratracheally into eight bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) and seven domestic sheep with doses of bacteria ranging from 5.3 x 10? to 8.6 x 10\\

William J. Foreyt; Kurt P. Snipes; Rick W. Kasten

1994-01-01

111

Nutrient efficiency along nutrient availability gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of nutrient use efficiency as a central concept in ecosystem ecology has recently been subject to challenge\\u000a based upon arguments over autocorrelation of data, interpretation of graphical approaches, and appropriate statistical analyses.\\u000a Much of the confusion on the measurement and interpretation of nutrient use efficiency results from the lack of a sound theoretical\\u000a basis with which to examine

John Pastor; Scott D. Bridgham

1999-01-01

112

Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers' perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n=45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L E

2013-11-01

113

Sheep farmer opinions on the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management on sheep farms: A qualitative study  

PubMed Central

A 2009 UK Government report on veterinary expertise in food animal production highlighted that there was insufficient herd health expertise among veterinarians and lack of appropriate business models to deliver veterinary services to the livestock sector. Approximately two thirds of sheep farmers only contact their veterinarian for emergencies and one fifth have all year round contact. The aim of the current study was to understand sheep farmers’ perception, the current and future role of veterinarians in flock health management using qualitative methodology. The eligibility criteria were male farmers with a flock size of at least 200 adult sheep. Seven focus groups of farmers (n = 45) stratified by three regions and two age groups (?50 and >50) were conducted. Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated that most farmers considered and used their veterinarian as a fire-fighter, whilst other advice was gathered free of charge when the veterinarian was on the farm for other reasons (typically seeing cattle) or by telephone. A small group of farmers were using their veterinarian or a sheep consultant proactively with regular contact and found this financially beneficial. Farmers indicated that the key barriers to using a veterinarian proactively were inconsistent service, high turnover of veterinarians, lack of expertise of sheep farming among veterinarians and concern about independence of advice. Although economics was also mentioned as a key barrier to using veterinarians more proactively, most farmers did not know where they gained and lost income from their flock; there was heavy reliance on the single farm payment scheme (SPS) and very few farmers kept records from which they could investigate where there were inefficiencies in production. Overall sheep farmers considered sheep farming complex and that each farm was unique and that they themselves were the experts to manage their flock. We conclude that there is an impasse: veterinarians might need to provide consistency and wide expertise beyond knowledge of disease and a model of how flock planning would be financially beneficial but until sheep farmers keep production records flock health planning cannot be rigorous and the financial benefits cannot be evaluated. Given the reliance on SPS by farmers an alternative model would be to require farmers to keep production records to comply with SPS. This might lead to flock health planning being adopted at a faster rate and so develop the UK sheep industry and make it more environmentally sustainable by reducing waste from disease and low productivity. PMID:24120236

Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, L.E.

2013-01-01

114

Immunocompetence, Ornamentation, and Viability of Male Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocompetence (i.e., the ability to produce an immune response to pathogens) can be predicted to influence the chances that organisms have to survive and reproduce. In this study we simulated a challenge to the immune systems of male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) by injecting them intraperitoneally with a multigenic antigen, sheep red blood cells, and we analyzed long-term survival in

Nicola Saino; Anna Maria Bolzern; Anders Pape Moller

1997-01-01

115

Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep  

PubMed Central

The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of ten kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species. PMID:17222993

Silva, Éverton F.; Brod, Claudiomar S.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S.; Ko, Albert I.; Dellagostin, Odir A.

2007-01-01

116

5-Hydroxytryptamine metabolism in sheep  

PubMed Central

1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (10 mg) administered intravenously to sheep was mostly excreted in the urine as 5-HT-O-glucuronide (705±162 ?g, mean from six wethers±S.E.M.) and 5-hydroxyindolylacetic acid (5-HIAA) (6,850±1,538 ?g). Oral administration of 5-HT (100 mg) led to the excretion of 590±212 ?g 5-HT-O-glucuronide (mean from five wethers±S.E.M.) and 7,394±2,093 ?g 5-HIAA in the urine. 2. After administration of DL-5-hydroxytryptophan (DL-5-HTP) (20 mg i.v. or 200 mg orally) sheep excreted about 5 mg 5-HT in the urine together with 5-HT-O-glucuronide and 5-HIAA. The excretion of 5-HT suggests that some DL-5-HTP perfused the liver and the lungs before being decarboxylated. 3. Twenty-four hour specimens of control urine contained 335±45 ?g 5-HT, 909±90 ?g 5-HT-O-glucuronide and 3,352±362 ?g 5-HIAA (seven sheep in each instance). Thus endogenous 5-HT seemed to be conjugated with glucuronic acid to a greater extent than administered 5-HT. 4. Although urinary 5-HIAA was reduced after a single dose of isocarboxazid (20 mg/kg daily) the 5-HT-O-glucuronide content of the specimens was not increased until two or three doses of the drug had been given. 5. Carbon tetrachloride (4 ml orally) reduced the urinary excretion of 5-HT-O-glucuronide. Although the conjugation of 5-HT with glucuronic acid was inhibited after administration of carbon tetrachloride the excretion of 5-HT and 5-HIAA was not increased. This observation suggests that carbon tetrachloride impaired the formation or clearance of endogenous 5-HT in sheep. PMID:5314578

Bartlet, A. L.

1971-01-01

117

Male contraception.  

PubMed

To share contraceptive measures between partners is a goal which should be reached in the future. The possibilities on the male side are still limited in comparison with the techniques available for women. During the last 20 years many efforts have been undertaken to study and evaluate possible methods for fertility control in the male, based on interaction with the hormonal axis, sperm maturation and sperm transport. The requirements for such a method in the male are the same as in female: high efficacy, little or almost no side-effects, high practicability and compliance and the possibility for easy reversibility in a high percentage of men. Despite their increasing acceptability worldwide, the existing male methods, condom and vasectomy, do not fully meet these requirements and therefore a search for alternative male methods is warranted. At present, the following medical approaches to male fertility control have been tested or are under consideration: (i) selective inhibition of FSH: antibodies, inhibin; (ii) inhibition of pituitary-gonadal axis: steroids such as testosterone, progestin-testosterone combinations, LHRH analogues with and without testosterone substitution; and (iii) selective inhibition of spermatogenesis by gossypol, a phenolic compound from cotton plant. Whether one of these methods will reach the desired goal for male fertility control has yet to be determined. PMID:3281961

Frick, J; Aulitzky, W

1988-02-01

118

Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.  

PubMed

Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n?=?12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P?sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures. The saponin (protodioscin) concentrations in the pastures varied from 3.3 to 12.2 g/kg DM in B. decumbens, from 2.8 to 9.1 g/kg DM in B. brizantha, and from 1 to 1.5 g/kg DM in A. gayanus. No saponins were found in P. maximum. It is concluded that sheep from flocks reared in pastures of B. decumbens and B. brizantha were resistant to steroidal saponin poisoning and showed similar weight gains to those of sheep grazing in other tropical pastures. PMID:24557590

Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Castro, Márcio Botelho de

2014-06-01

119

Sheep as an important source of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in Turkey.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a globally important foodborne pathogen and has been mainly associated with cattle as the reservoir. However, accumulating data shows the importance of sheep as an E. coli O157:H7 vehicle. The presence of E. coli O157/O157:H7 in recto-anal mucosal swap and carcass sponge samples of 100 sheep brought to the slaughterhouse in Kirikkale were analyzed over a year. Molecular characteristics (stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, lpfA1-3, espA, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?, eae-?1, eae-?2, eae-?1, eae-?2/?, stx1c, stx1d, stx2c, stx2d, stx2e, stx2f, stx2g, blaampC, tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), sul1, sul2, floR, cmlA, strA, strB and aadA) of 79 isolates were determined and minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 different antibiotics were investigated. E. coli O157/O157:H7 was found in 18% of sheep included in the study and was more prevalent in yearlings than lambs and mature sheep, and male than female sheep, though none of the categories (season, sex or age range) had significant effect on prevalence. Furthermore, Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 was determined in 2% and 8% of sheep feces and carcasses, respectively. Additionally, lpfA1-3 and eae-?1 were detected in all isolates. None of the isolates showed resistance against investigated antibiotics, even though 4 sorbitol fermenting E. coli O157 isolates were positive for tet(A), sul1 and aadA. This is the first study in Turkey that reveals the potential public health risk due to the contamination of sheep carcasses with potentially highly pathogenic STEC O157:H7 strains. PMID:25042529

Gencay, Yilmaz Emre

2014-08-27

120

Male Sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The control of pollen fertility is central to the production of F1-hybrid seed in self-pollinating crops, and is potentially\\u000a applicable to the containment of transgenes deployed in crop plants. Pollen sterility can be achieved through cytoplasmic\\u000a male sterility (CMS) encoded by the plant mitochondrial genome, or through genic male sterility encoded by the nuclear genome.\\u000a Both routes have been exploited

C. D. Chase; A. Ribarits; E. Heberle-Bors

121

An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.  

PubMed

The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the Pasteurellaceae distribution between the White Mountains bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. PMID:19901369

Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

2009-10-01

122

The use of a concentrate containing Meskit ( Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial using twenty-four ten-month old Omani native male sheep (BW 31.4±1.10kg) was carried out to evaluate the use of a local by-product based concentrate to replace a commercial concentrate. Sheep were divided into three groups of eight animals each. One group was fed a concentrate pelleted feed made mainly from local by-products including Prosopis pods, wheat bran, date

Osman Mahgoub; Isam T. Kadim; Eugene H. Johnson; A. Srikandakumar; Naseeb M. Al-Saqri; Abdullah S. Al-Abri; Andrew Ritchie

2005-01-01

123

Climatic adaptation in recently shorn merino sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rates, respiratory rates, body temperatures, ad libitum ‘day’ and ‘night’ food consumption and body weight changes have been examined in 15 mature Merino wethers shorn in moderate environmental conditions. All sheep showed a depression in food consumption for two days after shearing. Sheep that gained weight during the next three weeks then increased their food consumption at night by

J. B. Donnelly; J. J. Lynch; M. E. D. Webster

1974-01-01

124

Tibiofemoral joint contact forces in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the sheep has become a standard model for understanding the mechanical conditions that occur after injury and investigating surgical treatments such as osteochondral defect healing and ligament reconstruction, no study has yet evaluated the contact forces that occur in the sheep tibio-femoral joint in vivo. In this study, bone pins, together with reflective markers, were used to measure the

William R. Taylor; Rainald M. Ehrig; Markus O. Heller; Hanna Schell; Petra Seebeck; Georg N. Duda

2006-01-01

125

Hemorrhagic Disease in Bighorn Sheep in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bighorn sheep from Arizona (USA) were submitted for necropsy. One was a Rocky Mountain bighorn (Ovis canadensis can- adensis) and the other was a desert bighorn (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Both had lesions consistent with those of hemorrhagic disease (HD). Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) type-2 and bluetongue virus (BTV) type-17, respectively, were isolated from the sheep tissues. To our

Ted H. Noon; Shannon Lynn Wesche; Dave Cagle; Daniel G. Mead; Edward J. Bicknell

126

Osteoarthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint in free-living Soay sheep on St Kilda.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative disease of synovial joints with the potential to cause pathology and welfare issues in both domestic and wild ruminants. Previous work has identified OA of the elbow joint in domestic sheep, but the prevalence of OA of the jaw and in particular the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has not been previously reported. Following up a previous report of a single case of TMJ OA in a free-living population of Soay sheep on St Kilda in the Outer Hebrides, an archive of 2736 jaw bones collected from this population between 1985 and 2010 was surveyed. Evidence of TMJ OA was found in 35 sheep. Of these, 15 cases were unilateral (11 right side, 4 left side) and the remaining 20 were bilateral. TMJ pathology was much more common in females than males: only 3/35 cases were in males, with overall prevalence at 2.3% for females and 0.2% in males. Radiographic examination of TMJ with OA revealed extensive bone re-modelling with osteophytosis, particularly of the condyle of the mandible. There was a highly significant age-dependence in TMJ OA incidence among age classes: 30/35 cases occurred in geriatric sheep (aged 7 years or more; 11.1% prevalence within this age class), four in adults (2-6 years old; 0.9% prevalence), one in yearlings (0.3% prevalence) and none in lambs. The low incidence in males was confounded by sex differences in longevity: while 18% of females sampled died in the geriatric age class, only 2% of males did so. Although the low prevalence of the pathology limited the ability to test its association with other traits, it was possible to examine relationships with reproductive performance measures amongst geriatric females with and without TMJ OA. Although there were trends towards lower fecundity and lower lamb birth weight in the breeding season prior to death, these were not statistically significant. PMID:25458883

Arthur, Colin; Watt, Kathryn; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Herman, Jeremy S; Timmons, Zena L; Clements, Dylan N; Scott, Philip R

2014-10-23

127

Use of probiotics to reduce faecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic, foodborne pathogens of humans. Ruminants, including sheep, are the primary reservoirs of STEC and there is a need to develop intervention strategies to reduce the entry of STEC into the food chain. The initiation of the majority of bacterial, enteric infections involves colonisation of the gut mucosal surface by the pathogen. However, probiotic bacteria can serve to decrease the severity of infection via a number of mechanisms including competition for receptors and nutrients, and/or the synthesis of organic acids and bacteriocins that create an environment unfavourable for pathogen development. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the administration of a probiotic mixture to sheep experimentally infected with a non-O157 STEC strain, carrying stx1, stx2 and eae genes, was able to decrease faecal shedding of the pathogen. The probiotic mixture contained Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The numbers of non-O157 STEC in faecal samples collected from sheep receiving daily doses of the probiotic mixture were significantly lower at the 3rd, 5th and 6th week post-inoculation when compared to the levels recorded in untreated animals. It was concluded that administration of the probiotic mixture reduced faecal shedding of non-O157 STEC in sheep, and holds potential as a pre-harvest intervention method to reduce transmission to humans. PMID:25380795

Rigobelo, E E C; Karapetkov, N; Maestá, S A; Avila, F A; McIntosh, D

2015-03-01

128

Male circumcision.  

PubMed

Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if the infant's condition is stable and healthy. Male circumcision should be performed by tra

2012-09-01

129

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Managers of pastures in the northern tallgrass prairie  

E-print Network

20 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 ©2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Summary;21 Sheep & Goat Research Journal, Volume 22, 2007 ©2007, Sheep & Goat Research Journal Introduction Western

130

Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

2006-01-01

131

4-H SHEEP LEAD LINE COMMENTARY Optional Form  

E-print Network

4-H SHEEP LEAD LINE COMMENTARY Optional Form Please Type or Print Neatly in Black or Blue Pen ______________________________, __________________________, the _______________________ Name of Sheep Breed of Sheep Yearling Ewe / Ewe Lamb is _______________________________ by description. Please remember: What you type here will be READ OUT LOUD as you are leading your sheep around

New Hampshire, University of

132

Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Delegate Score Sheet  

E-print Network

2/20/2012 Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Delegate Score Sheet Name by delegate (up to 5 points) _________ Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Sheep Score Sheet Name/Exhibitor # ___________________________________ Breed __________________ All items scored on a scale of 15 (5 being highest) 1. Sheep leads easily

New Hampshire, University of

133

SHEEP: The Shared Environment Entertainment Pasture Christian Sandor1  

E-print Network

SHEEP: The Shared Environment Entertainment Pasture Christian Sandor1 , Martin Wagner, Asa Mac of the game is a landscape with hills, fields, hedges, rivers and bridges, grazing sheep and stalking wolves a sheep or wolf in the game. The sheep and wolves are semi- autonomous, with a tendency to stay together

Bruegge, Bernd

134

Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Delegate Score Sheet  

E-print Network

2/20/2012 Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Delegate Score Sheet Name by delegate (up to 5 points) _________ Sheep Lead Line Competition Scorecard Sheep Score Sheet Name/Exhibitor # ___________________________________ Breed __________________ All items scored on a scale of 1-5 (5 being highest) 1. Sheep leads easily

New Hampshire, University of

135

Original article Expression of three intelectins in sheep and response  

E-print Network

Original article Expression of three intelectins in sheep and response to a Th2 environment Anne T; accepted 22 June 2009) Abstract ­ Sheep intelectin1 and sheep intelectin3 (sITLN1 and sITLN3) were cloned cloned sheep intelectin2 (sITLN2), respectively. Expression of sITLN1 and sITLN3 transcript

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  

PubMed

A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

2013-10-01

137

COMPARATIVE LEUKOTOXICITIES OF PASTEURELLA HAEMOLYTICA ISOLATES FROM DOMESTIC SHEEP AND FREE-RANGING BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight isolatesof Pasteurella haemolytica from domestic sheep (n = 14 isolates) and bighorn sheep (n = 14 isolates) were evaluated for leucotoxicity against peripheral blood neutrophils of bighorn sheep by adding bacterial culture supernatants to bighorn sheep neutrophils in vitro. Leukotoxic isolates of P. haemolytica, defined as causing >50% neutrophil death as measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase into culture

Steven J. Sweeney; Ronald M. Silflow; William J. Foreyt

1994-01-01

138

Description of Ostertagia ostertagi and Ostertagia leptospicularis hybrids in experimentally infected sheep.  

PubMed

Hybrids of Ostertagia ostertagi and Ostertagia leptospicularis, derived from experimental infections in sheep, are described. Morphometrics of the hybrids were intermediate between those of parental lines for a large range of parameters (distance from apex to cervical papillae and length of esophagus for males and females, length of spicules for males, and length of vestibule, distance from vulva to the end of tail, width of tail at anus). The morphological relationship between hybrids and their parent species was assessed by discriminant analysis based on the relative values of these parameters (actual value/length of the worm). Each parental line, either bred in sheep or in the natural host, was morphologically similar and differed from hybrids. PMID:8277380

Suarez, V H; Durette-Desset, M C; Cabaret, J

1993-12-01

139

Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.  

PubMed

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

2009-07-01

140

Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline plasma glucose, glucose tolerance and basal glucose uptake into isolated muscle strips were similar in male offspring at 210 ± 4 weeks. Vastus total myofiber density (HBCS, 343 ± 15; LBCS, 294 ± 14 fibers/mm2, P < .05) and fast myofiber density (HBCS, 226 ± 10; LBCS 194 ± 10 fibers/mm2, P < .05), capillary to myofiber ratio (HBCS, 1.5 ± 0.1; LBCS 1.2 ± 0.1 capillary:myofiber, P < .05) were lower in LBCS offspring. Vastus protein levels of Akt1 were lower (83% ± 7% of HBCS, P < .05), and total glucose transporter 4 was increased (157% ± 6% of HBCS, P < .001) in LBCS offspring, Despite the reduction in total myofiber density in LBCS offspring, glucose tolerance was normal in mature adult life. However, such adaptations may lead to complications in metabolic control in an overabundant postnatal nutrient environment. PMID:23420826

Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Green, Lucy R.

2013-01-01

141

Effects of dietary vitamin E on muscle vitamin E and fatty acid content in Aohan fine-wool sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and decreasing the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of mutton can help to improve its nutritional value for consumers. Several laboratories have evaluated the effects of vitamin E on the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in sheep. However, little information is available on wool sheep, even though wool sheep breeds are an important source of mutton, especially in northern China where sheep are extensively farmed. The present study was designed to address the effects of vitamin E on muscle FA composition in male Aohan fine-wool sheep. Methods Forty-two male Aohan fine-wool lambs (5 mo old) with similar initial body weight were randomly divided into seven groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group), 20, 100, 200, 1,000, 2,000, or 2,400 IU/sheep/d vitamin E for 12 mo. Three lambs from each group were slaughtered to measure vitamin E and FA content in the longissimus lumborum (LL) and gluteus medius (GM) muscles. Results Vitamin E concentrations in the LL and GM increased significantly after 12 mo of vitamin E supplementation (P < 0.05). However, this increase did not occur in a dose-dependent manner because the muscle vitamin E concentration was highest in the 200 IU/sheep/d group. Dietary vitamin E supplementation also caused a significant reduction in SFA content and an increase in monounsaturated FA (MUFA) content in the LL and GM (P < 0.05). All six doses of vitamin E significantly increased cis9 trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9t11-CLA) content in the LL compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased muscle vitamin E content and improved the nutritional value of mutton by decreasing SFA content and increasing MUFA and c9t11-CLA contents in Aohan fine-wool sheep. These effects were greatest in sheep fed a diet containing 200 IU/sheep/d vitamin E. PMID:23777843

2013-01-01

142

Toxoplasma gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, a cosmopolitan parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is frequently found in meat-producing animals and human beings. This review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep and goats in Iran. Data were systematically collected from 1977 to 2012 in Iran on the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID). Additionally, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations were included. A total of 34 articles in field of sheep and 18 articles about goat toxoplasmosis, totalizing to the examination of 14,372 sheep and 3,120 goats, reporting prevalence of toxoplasmosis from different regions of Iran fulfilled our eligibility criteria. The overall prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis in Iran was estimated to be 31 % (95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?0.259825 to 0.352382) in sheep and 27 % (95 % CI?=?0.140097 to 0.424782) in goats, respectively. There was no significant difference in infection rate between males and females among sheep (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.002, 95 % CI?=?0.59 to 1.696) and goats (OR?=?1.027, 95 % CI?=?0.685 to 1.541). Analysis revealed that infection rate in sheep over than 1 year old was 2.4 times more than that in less than 1 year old (OR?=?2.396, 95 % CI?=?1.050 to 5.467). This systematic review and meta-analysis study revealed that infection is widespread in Iran. Further studies are required to improve strategies for controlling infection among flocks and consequently in human population. PMID:25378258

Sharif, M; Sarvi, Sh; Shokri, A; Hosseini Teshnizi, S; Rahimi, M T; Mizani, A; Ahmadpour, E; Daryani, A

2015-01-01

143

Male Hypogonadism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Male hypogonadism results from the failure of the testes to produce an adequate amount of testosterone, spermatozoa, or both.\\u000a The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, and the reproductive and endocrine function of the\\u000a gonads through all phases of life. Hypogonadism can be classified according to the site involved (hypothalamus, pituitary\\u000a gland, or gonads) or by age at presentation (pre-

Aikaterini Theodoraki; Pierre-Marc Gilles Bouloux

144

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older ...

145

GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.  

PubMed

GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

2014-01-01

146

Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

147

Stomach Worms in Sheep and Goats.  

E-print Network

BUL TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ,LETIN NO. 448 APRIL, 1932 DIVISION OF VETERINARY SCIENCE Stomach Worms in Sheep and Goats - - T. 0. WALTON, President AGRICULTURAL.... The stomach worm, a round-worm parasite infesting the ourth stomach of sheep and goats, frequently causes heavy Isses in these animals. The females deposit eggs which pass out in the droppings to the ground, where they hatch. The young larvae reach...

Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree); Schmidt, H.

1932-01-01

148

Toxicity of Bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for Sheep.  

E-print Network

AND MECHANICMIJ COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Previous feeding tests and field observations* have established the toxicity of bitterweed (Actinea odorata) for sheep. The experi- ments reported herein prove that the minimum lethal dose of the fresh.... Feeding tests conducted with- healthy yearling sheep showed that the minimum lethal dose of fresh green bitterweed growing during a year of normal rainfall and range vegetation was approx- imately 1.3 per cent of the body weight of the animal. A similar...

Boughton, I. B (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

1937-01-01

149

Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition  

E-print Network

VII.5 Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition Christine W. Miller It is certain that amongst almost often the competing sex and females the choosy sex? 2. The processes of sexual selection 3. Male-male competition in plants 7. Total sexual selection 8. Sexual selection and ecological context Males commonly

Miller, Christine Whitney

150

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

151

Large interarcuate spaces in the cervical vertebral column of the tyrolean mountain sheep.  

PubMed

Large interarcual spaces have been described between the arcus vertebrae C5/C6 and C6/C7 in the cervical vertebral column of Nubian goats. This aperture enables direct access to spinal cord and rootlets without the need to perform a hemilaminectomy. The present study was performed in order to determine whether these large interarcual spaces can also be found in the vertebral column of the Tyrolean mountain sheep, as this small ruminant, which is anatomically very similar to the Nubian goat, is frequently used for experimental purposes at the Surgical University Clinic in Austria. The carcasses of 10 sheep (six females, four males; range of age: 2.5-6 years, range of weight: 52-89 kg) were dissected and the vertebral column was exposed. All 10 sheep showed elliptic openings between the fourth cervical and the first thoracal vertebrae. Three sheep had additional openings between the first and the second thoracal vertebrae. All openings were covered solitarily by the ligamentum flavum and under this ligamentum lay the spinal cord without any further osseous or ligamentous protection. These findings are not mentioned in the common textbooks of veterinary anatomy and deserve attention, as they can be a step forward towards non-traumatic experimental surgery on the spinal cord. PMID:12733266

Turkof, E; Jurasch, N; Grassberger, M; Schwendenwein, S; Habib, D; Knolle, E; Losert, U

2003-02-01

152

Male hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

Basaria, Shehzad

2014-04-01

153

Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.  

PubMed

We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant. PMID:3221717

Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

1988-06-01

154

39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

155

CONTROL OF SHEEP PESTS Ralph E. Williams, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

by the ked cause a condition in the skin known as "cockle". Hide buyers will downgrade sheep skins with cockle because it weakens the skin. Sheep Lice In America, several species of lice--one biting and four

Ginzel, Matthew

156

Effects of selenium supply and timing of nutrient restriction during gestation on maternal growth and body composition of pregnant adolescent ewes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives were to examine the effects of dietary Se supplementation and nutrient restriction during defined periods of gestation on maternal adaptation to pregnancy in sheep. Sixty-four pregnant Targhee ewe lambs were assigned to 1 of 8 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments ...

157

Cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep in Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 771 regularly slaughtered Sardinian breed sheep, 580 (75%) were found infected with Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts. Seventy-nine sheep (10.3%) had at least 1 fertile cyst. The prevalence of sheep infected with purulent\\/caseous cysts, calcified cysts and sterile cysts was 13, 59 and 28%, respectively. The age of sheep was positively associated with the probability of infection that increased 1.15

A. Scala; G. Garippa; A. Varcasia; V. M. Tranquillo; C. Genchi

2006-01-01

158

Genome edited sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Genome editing tools enable efficient and accurate genome manipulation. An enhanced ability to modify the genomes of livestock species could be utilized to improve disease resistance, productivity or breeding capability as well as the generation of new biomedical models. To date, with respect to the direct injection of genome editor mRNA into livestock zygotes, this technology has been limited to the generation of pigs with edited genomes. To capture the far-reaching applications of gene-editing, from disease modelling to agricultural improvement, the technology must be easily applied to a number of species using a variety of approaches. In this study, we demonstrate zygote injection of TALEN mRNA can also produce gene-edited cattle and sheep. In both species we have targeted the myostatin (MSTN) gene. In addition, we report a critical innovation for application of gene-editing to the cattle industry whereby gene-edited calves can be produced with specified genetics by ovum pickup, in vitro fertilization and zygote microinjection (OPU-IVF-ZM). This provides a practical alternative to somatic cell nuclear transfer for gene knockout or introgression of desirable alleles into a target breed/genetic line. PMID:25204701

Proudfoot, Chris; Carlson, Daniel F; Huddart, Rachel; Long, Charles R; Pryor, Jane H; King, Tim J; Lillico, Simon G; Mileham, Alan J; McLaren, David G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2015-02-01

159

Estimation of stream nutrient uptake from nutrient addition experiments  

SciTech Connect

Nutrient uptake in streams is often quantified by determining nutrient uptake length. However, current methods for measuring nutrient uptake length are often impractical, expensive, or demonstrably incorrect. We have developed a new method to estimate ambient nutrient uptake lengths using field experiments involving several levels of nutrient addition. Data analysis involves plotting nutrient addition uptake lengths versus added concentration and extrapolating to the negative ambient concentration. This method is relatively easy, inexpensive, and based on sound theoretical development. It is more accurate than the commonly used method involving a single nutrient addition. The utility of the method is supported by field studies directly comparing our new method with isotopic tracer methods for determining uptake lengths of phosphorus, ammonium, and nitrate. Our method also provides parameters for comparing potential nutrient limitation among streams.

Payn, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

2005-09-01

160

Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep in Canada  

PubMed Central

A survey of veterinary diagnostic laboratories revealed that intranasal tumors occur in sheep in most provinces of Canada. Tumors were diagnosed in 44 sheep of several breeds including Polled Dorset, Suffolk, Cheviot, Rambouillet and various crossbreeds. Twenty-seven percent of tumors occurred in sheep that were less than two years old. Most tumors were sporadic but 33% of cases occurred in six related flocks, indicating that this disease can be an enzootic problem. The clinical signs were persistent serous, mucous or mucopurulent nasal discharge and stridor. Affected sheep progressively developed anorexia, dyspnea and mouth breathing and most died from effects of asphyxia and inanition within 90 days of the onset of clinical signs. Tumors originated unilaterally or occasionally bilaterally in the olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid turbinates. They were expansive and sometimes locally invasive but metastases were not found. Histologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas or, more frequently, adenocarcinomas. The etiology was not established but retrovirus like particles were observed in tumor tissue from one affected sheep. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17422121

McKinnon, A.O.; Thorsen, J.; Hayes, M.A.; Misener, C.R.

1982-01-01

161

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

162

Molecular determination of abundance of infection with Sarcocystis species in slaughtered sheep of Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent parasites of domestic ruminants worldwide. This study was aimed to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis infection and molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis gigantea and Sarcocystis medusiformis infecting domestic sheep. Tissue samples from 638 sheep slaughtered at Urmia abattoir were randomly collected from February 2011 to January 2012. Genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a 964 bp fragment of nuclear 18S rRNA gene. The PCR products were subjected to digestion with endonuclease MboII and/or MvaI for discriminating S. medusiformis and S. gigantea. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis unspecified species was 36.83% (235/638) in which male (7.63%, 38/498) and female (35.00%, 49/140) sheep over 4 years-old had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between prevalence of macrosarcocysts and sex. Two macrosarcocysts forms were found as fat (27.90%, 178/638) and thin (8.93%, 57/638) in striated muscles. There was significant difference between frequency of macrosarcocysts and body distribution. Mixed infection with both fat and thin macrosarcocysts was also found in 11.13% (71/638) of infected sheep. There was no significant difference regarding the prevalence of mixed infection in both age classes. The PCR-RFLP patterns showed that fat sarcocysts were S. gigantea (29.31%, 187/638) and thin sarcocysts were S. medusiformis (7.52%, 48/638). It was concluded that ovine Sarcocystis infection was prevalent in Urmia and a combination of conventional methods and molecular study for sheep sarcocysts could be informative. PMID:25568716

Farhang-Pajuh, Farhad; Yakhchali, Mohammad; Mardani, Karim

2014-01-01

163

Comparing the Sheep Brain to the Human Brain - A visual guide to use during sheep brain dissection laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Power Point slides that can be used during the sheep brain dissection laboratory to visually compare the sheep brain to the human brain structures with the goal to learn the anatomy of the human brain.

PhD Margarita P Bracamonte (Northland Community & Technical College Biology)

2009-05-21

164

Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep. PMID:22247385

Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2012-01-01

165

4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. PHOTOGRAPH OF FRANK AUZA, A BASQUE SHEEP RANCHER, WHO PLAYED A PROMINENT ROLE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE AND MAINTAINED THE STRUCTURE FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS WHILE RAISING SHEEP IN THE AREA. February 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

166

A PROPOSAL FOR A CONSTANTLY ROTATING CAROUSEL FOR SHEEP MILKING  

E-print Network

A PROPOSAL FOR A CONSTANTLY ROTATING CAROUSEL FOR SHEEP MILKING M. MORAG R. SAGI* E. RUBIN* Y SUMMARY A proposal for sheep milking using a constantly rotating carousel is outlined. The system stripping. Such a machine is, however, not yet available. The inadequacy of existing sheep milking machines

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic measurements of duodenal digesta flow in cannulated sheep C. PONCET, M. IVAN M of duodenal digesta flow were made in sheep implanted with an electromagnetic flowmeter probe on the ascending and transverse duodenum and in sheep equipped in the ascending duodenum with a 'Y'-type or 'Ash'-type reentrant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2013-01-01

169

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP  

E-print Network

CARDIOVASCULAR LESIONS IN COBALT-VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENT SHEEP R. MOHAMMED M. LAMAND Laboratoire des to 0.10 mg/kg of dry matter is known to induce vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep (Marston, 1970; Smith (Underwood, 1977). Adult sheep are considered vitamin B 12 deficient when serum vitamin B12 levels attains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated  

E-print Network

Original article The urinary excretion of selenium in sheep treated with a vasopressin analogue of highly concentrated urine. Chronic stim- ulation of the urinary concentrating activity of sheep kidneys for 3 weeks. The vasopressin treated sheep (n = 11) were given subcutaneous injections of 12.5 µg of d

Boyer, Edmond

171

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2010-01-01

172

Youth Beef and Sheep Day June 14, 2014  

E-print Network

Youth Beef and Sheep Day June 14, 2014 Registration Form ­ Due June 1, 2014 Mail to: Tolland County: __________________________________Email: _______________________________ County: 4-H Club: Species: Beef ___ Sheep____ Name of Chaperone and Sheep Day, the chaperon accompanying the youth must have a 4-H Member/Volunteer health form in his

Alpay, S. Pamir

173

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2012-01-01

174

Herding Sheep: Live System Development for Distributed Augmented Reality  

E-print Network

Herding Sheep: Live System Development for Distributed Augmented Reality Asa MacWilliams, Christian been widely different and taylored to specific tasks. In this paper, we use the example of the SHEEP, debugging and altering a com- plex, distributed, highly interactive AR system. The SHEEP system was designed

Bruegge, Bernd

175

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2010-01-01

176

Original article The evaluation of selenium status of sheep  

E-print Network

Original article The evaluation of selenium status of sheep from the major production areas September 1989) Summary ― In order to evaluate the selenium status of sheep in the major raising selenium lev- els were determined. A total of 843 blood samples from sheep and 118 feed samples were ana

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2014-01-01

178

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student to production of both sheep and goats. Producers must observe animals closely to keep individual animals diseases affecting sheep and goats do not pose any human health risks, some are zoonotic

179

Review article Border disease of sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Review article Border disease of sheep and goats Peter F. Nettletona Janine A. Gilraya Pierre Russo January1998; accepted13 March 1998) Abstract - Border disease (BD) is a congenital virus disease of sheep. There are no defined serotypes but pestiviruses isolated from sheep exhibit considerable antigenic diversity and three

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

180

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2011-01-01

181

Original article In vitro cellular responses from sheep draining  

E-print Network

Original article In vitro cellular responses from sheep draining lymph node cells after is unknown. Immune responses were studied from prescapular lymph node (PSLN) cells of sheep infected of uninfected sheep. PSLN cell phenotypes were characterized by immunofluorescence staining associated with flow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Show Sheep Entry Form  

E-print Network

2012 Culpeper-Madison-Rappahannock Farm Show Sheep Entry Form Name_________________________________ If you do not have registration papers for your sheep (except pending for purebred lambs) they will show Number____________ Number of non sale Sheep______ X $2________ Junior Senior Novice _____ Number

Liskiewicz, Maciej

183

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2014-01-01

184

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2011-01-01

185

Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep  

E-print Network

Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep R Cordesse M Inesta, JL Gaubert ENSA of llamas to ingest and digest forages. We measured these capacities on 4 forages in comparison with sheep. The digestibility was measured by total col- lection of feces on the last 10 days of each period. Sheep had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats. 93.435 Section 93.435...Additional General Provisions § 93.435 Sheep and goats. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United...

2013-01-01

187

9 CFR 113.45 - Sheep safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep safety test. 113.45 Section 113.45 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.45 Sheep safety test. The sheep safety test provided in this section shall...

2012-01-01

188

Applied Sheep Behavior Prepared by: Warren Gill, Professor  

E-print Network

1 Applied Sheep Behavior Prepared by: Warren Gill, Professor Animal Science Department sheep behaviorally distinct in the animal kingdom. Behavior can be defined as the animal's response to being a ruminating herbivore (plant-eating animal). For example, contrast sheep feeding behavior

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

189

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds  

E-print Network

. Murray, and E. Frances Cassirer Abstract: Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations commonly experience sheep serving as reservoir hosts. Résumé : Les populations du Mouflon d'Amérique, Ovis canadensis] 1432 Monello et al.Introduction Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations often expe- rience

190

Ecological correlates of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations commonly experience pneumonia outbreaks caused by Pasteurella spp. that result in a partial or complete dieoff. Although several factors can contribute to Pasteurella spp. transmission or infectivity in bighorn sheep, to date the importance of such factors in population declines has not been rigorously examined. We evaluated the relationship between pneumonia-induced dieoffs in bighorn sheep

Ryan J. Monello; Dennis L. Murray; E. Frances Cassirer

2001-01-01

191

2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School Features Doug Rathke  

E-print Network

2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School Features Doug Rathke The 2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School will be on April 18 and 19, 2014, at the Tennessee Livestock Center on the Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) campus in Murfreesboro. The school is sponsored by the Tennessee Sheep Producers Association, Tennessee

Tennessee, University of

192

Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan  

E-print Network

Short note Liver biopsy in sheep M Hidiroglou M Ivan Centre for Food and Animal Research) Summary ― Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be anal- yzed for copper or vitamin E

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Nutrient Criteria Research  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

194

Nutrient Management What's New?  

E-print Network

- USDA NRCS cost share program NR 243 ­ WPDES permit federal CAFO regs June 2007 NR 151 - Water quality livestock to maintain cover near water · Control erosion to meet tolerable soil loss (T) · Apply nutrients and rill soil erosion rates ­ Gives a record keeping system for past and present applications ­ Calculates

Balser, Teri C.

195

SPARROW REGIONAL NUTRIENT MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second year of funding for the New England SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) model. Funds in the first year (along with funds allocated for projects supporting Nutrient-Criteria development) were used to analyze regional results ...

196

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

197

Collecting Water Nutrient Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

198

Do I turn left or right? Effects of sex, age, experience and exit route on maze test performance in sheep.  

PubMed

Brain development and function are susceptible to perturbation by environmental factors. Sheep are increasingly being used as a neurodevelopmental model due to timing similarities with humans, but effects of age, experience and sex on cognition are not well characterised in this species. We therefore studied memory and reversal learning in sheep using a modified Y-maze at two ages: naive 18weeks old (18N: 23 male, 17 female), experienced 40week old sheep that had previously been tested at 18weeks (40E: 22 male, 17 female), and naive 40weeks old (40N: 4 male, 10 female). Younger naive animals (18N) required more trials and time to solve the first reversal task (task R1) than 40E (P=0.007 and P<0.001 respectively). Experience also improved outcomes, with 40N sheep requiring more time to solve tasks L (P=0.034) and R1 (P=0.002) than 40E. Increasing age (40N cf. 18N) decreased bleat frequency in tasks R1, M2 and R2 (each P<0.05). In 40N females, outcomes also differed by exit method in task R1, with those that exited via an indirect route taking less time to pass tasks R1 (P=0.009) and R2 (P=0.015) than those that used a direct route. Age plus experience improved learning outcomes, demonstrating knowledge retention for 22weeks in this species, whilst age alone affected mostly behavioral responses. These results provide comparison data, and can be utilised to improve experimental design, for studies of neurodevelopment in the sheep. PMID:25449405

Hunter, Damien S; Hazel, Susan J; Kind, Karen L; Liu, Hong; Marini, Danila; Owens, Julie A; Pitcher, Julia B; Gatford, Kathryn L

2015-02-01

199

Sex-specific effect of antenatal betamethasone exposure on renal oxidative stress induced by angiotensins in adult sheep.  

PubMed

Prenatal glucocorticoid administration in clinically relevant doses reduces nephron number and renal function in adulthood and is associated with hypertension. Nephron loss in early life may predispose the kidney to other insults later but whether sex influences increases in renal susceptibility is unclear. Therefore, we determined, in male and female adult sheep, whether antenatal glucocorticoid (betamethasone) exposure increased 8-isoprostane (marker of oxidative stress) and protein excretion after acute nephron reduction and intrarenal infusions of angiotensin peptides. We also examined whether renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) could contribute to alterations in 8-isoprostane excretion in a sex-specific fashion. In vivo, ANG II significantly increased 8-isoprostane excretion by 49% and protein excretion by 44% in male betamethasone- but not in female betamethasone- or vehicle-treated sheep. ANG-(1-7) decreased 8-isoprostane excretion but did not affect protein excretion in either group. In vitro, ANG II stimulated 8-isoprostane release from PTCs of male but not female betamethasone-treated sheep. Male betamethasone-exposed sheep had increased p47 phox abundance in the renal cortex while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased only in females. We conclude that antenatal glucocorticoid exposure enhances the susceptibility of the kidney to oxidative stress induced by ANG II in a sex-specific fashion and the renal proximal tubule is one target of the sex-specific effects of antenatal steroids. ANG-(1-7) may mitigate the impact of prenatal glucocorticoids on the kidney. P47 phox activation may be responsible for the increased oxidative stress and proteinuria in males. The protection from renal oxidative stress in females is associated with increased SOD activity. PMID:25209867

Bi, Jianli; Contag, Stephen A; Chen, Kai; Su, Yixin; Figueroa, Jorge P; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

2014-11-01

200

Update on trematode infections in sheep.  

PubMed

Trematode parasites live in the liver, fore stomachs or blood vessels of a wide range of animals and humans. Most of them have a special economic and veterinary significance. Liver fluke disease of sheep and other animal species is caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Hepatic fasciolosis occurs throughout the world, where climatic conditions are suitable for the survival of aquatic intermediate host snails. Also of importance for ruminants, in some parts of the world, are Fasciola gigantica and Fascioloides magna. Other trematodes infecting ruminants include Dicrocoelium dendriticum; Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. Among the Paramphistomidae, some species can infect sheep and other ruminants. Finally, Schistosoma spp. are found in the blood vessels of ruminants and are of minor importance in temperate regions. The manuscript concentrates on trematode species of veterinary importance for domestic sheep. PMID:22521973

Rojo-Vázquez, F A; Meana, A; Valcárcel, F; Martínez-Valladares, M

2012-09-30

201

This information sheet is for the care and use of Sheep Potential Injury and Zoonotic Diseases: Sheep are large domestic  

E-print Network

This information sheet is for the care and use of Sheep Potential Injury and Zoonotic Diseases: Sheep are large domestic animals that are normally docile. However, they can become dangerous especially when isolated from their flock. Jumping is common in sheep and they can jump with enough force to break

Wood, Marcelo A.

202

Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

203

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES ARTICLE Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (? 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (? 2 alleles in a single

2009-01-01

204

Toxicity of Rhazya stricta to sheep.  

PubMed

The toxicity of Rhazya stricta leaves for Najdi sheep is described in 9 sheep assigned as untreated controls, Rhazya-treated at 0.25 g/kg/d and Rhazya-treated at 1 g/kg/d. The oral use of 1 g/kg/d caused body weight depression, ruminal bloat, diarrhea, dyspnea and weakness of the hind limbs. Enterohepatonephropathy, pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage and emphysema, lymphocytes in vital organs, and congestion of the blood vessels of the heart were associated with increases in serum AST and LDH, in elevated bilirubin and urea concentrations, and decreased total protein, albumin and calcium concentrations, and leucopenia and anemia. PMID:9554056

Adam, S E

1998-04-01

205

Copper toxicosis in sheep: a case report.  

PubMed

Two ewes died after being fed rabbit ration and mineral salts designated for cows. This food is known to contain copper levels above that indicated for sheep. Blood counts revealed anemia, and serological tests showed high blood urea nitrogen, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase values. At necropsy, the animals had hepatopathy and nephropathy. Hepatic copper levels were 414 ppm. Histological examination revealed chronic active hepatitis with bile casts and tubular nephrosis. The liver, spleen and kidneys had hemosiderosis. This was attributed to the massive hemolysis caused by the copper. The liver failure and hemolytic anemia caused death in these sheep. PMID:9554065

Maiorka, P C; Massoco, C O; de Almeida, S D; Gorniak, S L; Dagli, M L

1998-04-01

206

Nutrients In Chesapeake Bay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the US. Eleven rivers empty into the bay creating the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. From urban areas and cultivated fields in which wetlands were not preserved, runoff can run into the rivers unfiltered. This runoff can include nutrients that can cause uncontrolled growth of an abundance of algae which can eventually increase the turbidity of the river, not allowing light to reach the bottom of the river. This will result in the loss of sub-aquatic vegetation (SAV) as well as the organisms which rely on it for food and habitat. There are a variety of tests that can be conducted to determine the presence of algae in the rivers. Two of these tests include pH and turbidity. In this lesson which includes field work, students will measure water quality and use authentic satellite data to explore the effects of nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay and the rivers of its watershed.

207

Immune Responses Associated with Resistance to Haemonchosis in Sheep  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the known immunological and genetic factors associated with sheep resistance to infection by Haemonchus contortus. Such resistance is an inheritable genetic trait (h2, 0.22–0.63) associated with certain sheep breeds. Resistant sheep do not completely reject the disease; they only harbor fewer parasites than susceptible sheep and therefore have a lower fecal egg count. Protective immune response to haemonchosis is an expression of genetic resistance. Genes associated with resistance and susceptibility are described. Genetically resistant sheep have nonspecific mechanisms that block the initial colonization by Haemonchus contortus larvae. These sheep also have an efficacious Th2 type response (e.g., increases in blood and tissue eosinophils, specific IgE class antibodies, mast cells, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF?) that protects them against the infection; in contrast, susceptible sheep do not efficiently establish this type of immune response. Finally, the main reported antigens of H. contortus were reviewed. PMID:23509684

Alba-Hurtado, Fernando; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio

2013-01-01

208

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

of governmental and industrial organizations, including the Department for Environment, Food and Rural AffairsThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions High for Dairy Research, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire

Bequette, Brian J.

209

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions-Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, 5 Nutrition Department, and 6 Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA; 7 Food Science and Nutrition Department, California

Hammock, Bruce D.

210

Bone nutrients for vegetarians.  

PubMed

The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231

Mangels, Ann Reed

2014-06-01

211

Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions  

PubMed Central

Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow’s milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5.6% of goat and 3.9% sheep milk samples, with 33.3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

2014-01-01

212

Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.  

PubMed

Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

2014-01-01

213

Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retroviruses proliferation in the domestic sheep, mouflon and Pyrenean chamois.  

PubMed

The oncogenic exogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), responsible for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, has several endogenous counterparts termed enJSRVs. Although many of these elements have been inactivated over time by the accumulation of deleterious mutations or internal recombination leading to solo long terminal repeat (LTR) formation, several members of enJSRVs have been identified as nearly intact and probably represent recent integration events. To determine the level of enJSRV polymorphism in the sheep population and related species, we have undertaken a study by characterizing enJSRVs copies and independent integration sites in six domestic sheep and two wild species of the sheep lineage. enJSRVs copies were detected by amplifying the env-LTR region by PCR, and for the detection of the insertion sites, we used two approaches: (1) an in silico approach based on the recently published Sheep Reference Genome Assembly (OARv3.0) and (2) an experimental approach based on PCR suppression and inverse PCR techniques. In total, 103 enJSRV sequences were generated across 10 individuals and enJSRV integrations were found on 11 of the 28 sheep chromosomes. These findings suggest that there are still uncharacterized enJSRVs, and that some of the integration sites are variable among the different species, breeds of the same species, subspecies and geographic locations. PMID:24690757

Sistiaga-Poveda, M; Jugo, B M

2014-06-01

214

Pasture management for sheep and goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminant producers in Appalachia have many questions about forage management. Forage management decisions need to be keyed to the specific needs of the small ruminant t species to be grazed. Sheep and goats are different from each other and both are very different from cattle. Important con...

215

Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of a mineral survey completed in 1975 and 1976, the Sheep Mountain Wilderness study area, was determined to offer little promise for metallic mineral resources. There is a probable potential for oil and gas resources in a small part of the study area along its northeast margin.

Houston, R.S.; Patten, L.L.

1984-01-01

216

Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

1997-08-01

217

Pasteurellaceae from Colorado bighorn sheep herds.  

PubMed

We compared phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of 88 Pasteurellaceae isolates from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the course of exploring epizootiologic relationships. Based on our observations, adopting contemporary taxonomic conventions and using molecular methods to detect and compare Pasteurellaceae may help improve understanding of bighorn respiratory disease epizootiology and management. PMID:21719858

Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L

2011-07-01

218

Treatment of Fasciola gigantica in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anthelmintic field trials were carried out with rafoxanide, oxyclozanide and hexachlorophene againstFasciola gigantica in naturally infected sheep. Judged by faecal egg counts two or three weeks after treatment the best results (98.8–99.9 per cent efficacy) were obtained with rafoxanide, and good results were obtained with oxyclozanide and a high dose of hexachlorophene.

J. K. Kadhim; M. H. Jabbir; A. T. Ayoub

1973-01-01

219

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING  

E-print Network

SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING US EPA Project Meeting April 7 2011April 7, 2011/Titan Uranium, VP Development · Deborah LebowAal/EPA Region 8 Air Program Introduction to Titan Uranium USA;PROJECT OVERVIEW ·Site Location·Site Location ·Fremont , Wyoming ·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C

220

Phylogenetic diversity of Pasteurellaceae and horizontal gene transfer of leukotoxin in wild and domestic sheep  

E-print Network

and domestic sheep Scott T. Kelley a,*, E. Frances Cassirer b , Glen C. Weiser c , Shirin Safaee a a Department-transmission rates of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in populations of bighorn sheep, Dall's sheep, domestic sheep pneumonia known as ``pasteurellosis'', a particularly devastating disease for bighorn sheep. A phylogenetic

Kelley, Scott

221

Evaluation of mineral use in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) Jacquelyn Murray  

E-print Network

Evaluation of mineral use in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) BY Jacquelyn Murray A research paper of mineral use in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) INTRODUCTION Basic information on bighorn sheep Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) are an ecologically fragile species (Valdez and Krausman 1999). Bighorn sheep

222

Male pattern baldness  

MedlinePLUS

Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

223

Molecular Diversity of Rumen Methanogens from Sheep in Western Australia  

PubMed Central

The molecular diversity of rumen methanogens in sheep in Australia was investigated by using individual 16S rRNA gene libraries prepared from the rumen contents obtained from six merino sheep grazing pasture (326 clones), six sheep fed an oaten hay-based diet (275 clones), and five sheep fed a lucerne hay-based diet (132 clones). A total of 733 clones were examined, and the analysis revealed 65 phylotypes whose sequences (1,260 bp) were similar to those of cultivated methanogens belonging to the order Methanobacteriales. Pasture-grazed sheep had more methanogen diversity than sheep fed either the oaten hay or lucerne hay diet. Methanobrevibacter strains SM9, M6, and NT7 accounted for over 90% of the total number of clones identified. M6 was more prevalent in grazing sheep, and SM9, despite being found in 16 of the 17 sheep, was more prevalent in sheep fed the lucerne-based diet. Five new species were identified. Two of these species exhibited very little sequence similarity to any cultivated methanogens and were found eight times in two of the six sheep that were grazing pasture. These unique sequences appear to represent a novel group of rumen archaea that are atypical for the rumen environment. PMID:15006742

Wright, André-Denis G.; Williams, Andrew J.; Winder, Barbara; Christophersen, Claus T.; Rodgers, Sharon L.; Smith, Kellie D.

2004-01-01

224

Genetic selection, sex and feeding treatment affect the whole-body chemical composition of sheep.  

PubMed

Hypotheses on total body chemical composition were tested using data from 350 Suffolk sheep grown to a wide range of live weights, and fed in a non-limiting way, or with reduced amounts of feed, or ad libitum on feeds of reduced protein content. The sheep were from an experiment where selection used an index designed to increase the lean deposition rate while restricting the fat deposition rate. Ultrasound muscle and fat depths were the only composition measurements in the index. The animals were males and females from a selection (S) line and its unselected control (C). The protein content of the lipid-free dry matter was unaffected by live weight, sex or feeding treatment with only a very small effect of genetic line (0.762 kg/kg in S and 0.753 kg/kg in C; P < 0.05). The form of the relationship between water and protein was not affected by any of the factors; in the different kinds of sheep it was consistent with no effect other than through differences in mature protein weight. The water : protein ratio at maturity was estimated as 3.45. Over the whole dataset, lipid weight (L) increased with protein weight (P) according to L = 0.3135 × P1.850. Allowing for this scaling, fatness increased on low-protein feeds, was greater in females than in males and in C than in S (P < 0.001). Lipid content (g/kg fleece-free empty body weight) was reduced by restricted feeding only in males at the highest slaughter weight (114 kg). The lines differed in lipid content (P < 0.001) with means of 265.1 g/kg for C and 237.3 g/kg for S. Importantly, there was no interaction between line and feeding treatments. A higher proportion of total body protein was in the carcass in S than in C (0.627 v. 0.610; P < 0.001). For lipid, the difference was reversed (0.736 v. 0.744; P < 0.05). The total energy content increased quadratically with slaughter weight. At a particular weight, the energy content of gain was higher in females than in males and in C than in S. Genetic selection affected body composition at a weight favouring the distribution of protein to the carcass and lipid to the non-carcass. Once allowing for effects of genetic selection, sex and feeding treatment on fatness, simple rules can be used to generate the chemical composition of sheep. PMID:22444916

Lewis, R M; Emmans, G C

2007-11-01

225

Plasma Disposition of Conventional and Long-Acting Moxifloxacin in Sheep after Intravenous Administration  

PubMed Central

This study describes disposition of long-acting moxifloxacin and conventional formulations of moxifloxacin in sheep after intravenous administration in five male sheep. Long acting moxifloxacin solution (10% moxifloxacin in solution with L-arginine, N-butyl alcohol, and benzyl alcohol) and conventional moxifloxacin (10%) were injected in jugular vein. Blood samples were collected from contralateral jugular vein in test tubes containing 30–50?IU heparin (anticoagulant) periodically from 0.083 to 72?h of drug administration. Drug concentrations in plasma were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of buffer (10?gm of tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate per liter-deionised water) and acetonitrile (80?:?20). The buffer was 0.067M of disodium hydrogen phosphate with pH of 7.5. The flow rate was 1?mL·min?1 at ambient temperature. The effluent was monitored at 296?nm excitation and 504?nm emissions wavelength. HPLC with fluorescence detector method for plasma moxifloxacin assay was standardized with specific modification for plasma of sheep in the present study. After single-dose intravenous administration of long acting moxifloxacin the plasma concentration of 0.016 ± 0.001??g·mL?1 was maintained for up to 72?h. Conventional formulation of moxifloxacin remained in body for up to 24?h of drug administration with the level of 0.015 ± 0.005 ?g·mL?1. PMID:23738134

Modi, C. M.; Mody, S. K.; Modi, F. D.; Patel, H. B.

2012-01-01

226

Molecular cloning of sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 and localization in sheep testis.  

PubMed

Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 (PDIA3) is a member of the protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) family and is multifunctional in many processes. Recently, it has been confirmed as a sperm membrane component and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion under which the molecular mechanism is still obscure. Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 cDNA has been cloned in several mammals; however, goat and sheep counterparts have not been identified. To facilitate the studies on the potential function of PDIA3 protein in sperm-egg fusion in sheep and goat, we cloned the cDNA encoding for Pdia3 of sheep (Ovis aries) and cashmere goat (Capra hircus) and studied its transcript and protein localization in sheep testis. The cloned sheep and cashmere goat Pdia3 cDNA are 1660 bp and 1591 bp, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that sheep and goat Pdia3 cDNA both have a coding region of 1518 bp with the same nucleotides encoding the same 505 amino acids. The predicted peptide, with two typical motifs of Trp-Cys-Gly-His-Cys-Lys (WCGHCK) which is a hallmark of the PDI family, has high homology to that of bovine (99.21%), human (95.05%), rat (89.50%) and mouse (90.89%). Protein disulphide isomerase family A3 protein was observed in cells of various stages of spermatogenesis, from the primary spermatocyte to spermatozoa phases, as well as in the Leydig cells. It was observed in the entire sheep spermatozoa and mostly at the equatorial segment and the forepart of the flagellum. The Pdia3 mRNA was detected over the seminiferous epithelium in all stages of spermatogenesis. PMID:21382104

Lv, L X; Ujisguleng, B; Orhontana, B; Lian, W B; Xing, W J

2011-12-01

227

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...

2010-01-01

228

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals...AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended...

2011-01-01

229

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2011-01-01

230

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2011-01-01

231

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2013-01-01

232

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2014-01-01

233

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2014-01-01

234

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2010-01-01

235

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2010-01-01

236

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2014-01-01

237

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2013-01-01

238

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2012-01-01

239

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2013-01-01

240

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2010-01-01

241

75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension...conjunction with the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal Extension to protect and preserve bighorn sheep winter range and capital investments...

2010-05-14

242

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2013-01-01

243

9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico...CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation...

2014-01-01

244

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2011-01-01

245

9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.27...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The...

2012-01-01

246

The network of sheep movements within Great Britain: network properties and their  

E-print Network

The network of sheep movements within Great Britain: network properties and their implications to livestock movement, especially of sheep. In response, recording schemes to provide accurate data describing directed contact networks within the sheep industry and identify key epidemiological properties

Kiss, Istvan Zoltan

247

9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. 51.28...DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed....

2012-01-01

248

9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section...BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a)...

2012-01-01

249

Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms and Pathways  

PubMed Central

PREFACE The ability to sense and respond to fluctuations in environmental nutrient levels is a requisite for life. Nutrient scarcity is a selective pressure that has shaped the evolution of most cellular processes. Different pathways that detect intracellular and extracellular levels of sugars, amino acids and lipids, and surrogate metabolites, are then integrated and coordinated at the organismal level via hormonal signals. During food abundance, nutrient sensing pathways engage anabolism and storage, and scarcity triggers homeostatic mechanisms, like the mobilization of internal stores through mechanisms such as autophagy. Nutrient sensing pathways are commonly deregulated in human metabolic diseases. PMID:25592535

Efeyan, Alejo; Comb, William C.; Sabatini, David M.

2015-01-01

250

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Belgium.  

PubMed

Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population. PMID:25065982

Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E

2014-09-15

251

Sheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula's test piece mountain bike ride. It is  

E-print Network

Sheep Mountain, August 2011 It's fair to say that the Sheep Mountain loop is considered Missoula doing Sheep yet again, this time with my friend Greg Hood, because it was going to be a hot day, and I out. But Sheep wouldn't let go, so I decided mid-week to duck out of a morning's work and bang out

Bardsley, John

252

Vaccines for lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox.  

PubMed

Sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease (Neethling) are diseases of sheep, goats and cattle respectively, caused by strains of poxvirus, within the genus Capripoxvirus. Strains affecting sheep and goats are not totally host-specific; some cause disease in both sheep and goats while others may cause disease in only one species. Those causing disease in cattle appear to be specific for cattle, and this is reflected in the different geographical distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and sheep pox and goat pox (sheep and goat pox); LSD is confined to Africa, while sheep and goat pox are present in Africa north of the equator, and throughout West Asia and India, as far East as China and Bangladesh. Occasionally sheep and goat pox spreads from Turkey into Greece. All strains of capripoxvirus so far examined are antigenically indistinguishable, and recovery from infection with one strain provides immunity against all other strains. Because of this antigenic homology among all strains, there is the potential to use a single vaccine strain to protect cattle, sheep and goats. PMID:14677686

Kitching, R P

2003-01-01

253

Theileriosis of sheep and goats in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Theileriosis is an important disease of sheep and goats in West China. Its main distribution includes Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia,\\u000a Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and Sichuan. The epidemic period is from late March to July with April–May being the peak months.\\u000a This is the perid of most intensive tick attack byHaemaphysalis qinghaiensis (772–9924%) during the year. It has been proved that the

Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin

1997-01-01

254

Reproductive Efficiency of Fine-Wool Sheep.  

E-print Network

reproductive system: A. testis, R. hrad nl epididymis, C. body of epididymis, D. tail of epiditlynlic, E. deferent duct, F. spermatic vessel and nerves, G. amplllla, H vesicular gland, I. Cowpers gland, J. prostate clisseminate, P penis, S. retractor penis...B-1050 MAY 1966 REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF FIN 'E-WOOL SHEEP TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. E. Patterson, Director, College Station, Texas CONTENTS...

Shelton, Maurice; Morrow, John T.; Butler, O. D.

1966-01-01

255

Intoxication of Sheep with Quebracho Tannin Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of quebracho tannin extract (containing 760 g of condensed tannins [CTs] per kg), with the aim of validating its use as a feed additive for improving the digestive utilization of protein-rich feeds. Four groups (Q0, Q1, Q2 and Q3) of four sheep were dosed intra-ruminally once daily, for up to 21

G. Hervás; V. Pérez; F. J. Giráldez; A. R. Mantecón; M. M. Almar; P. Frutos

2003-01-01

256

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may exert strong impacts on the species composition of primary producers

Michael J. Vanni

257

Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep  

PubMed Central

Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

2010-01-01

258

Induction of ovarian cystic follicles in sheep.  

PubMed

Cystic follicles are a significant cause of infertility in women, dairy cattle and sheep. Sheep were used as a model to identify factors that may elicit formation of cystic follicles. Insulin resistance and elevated LH activity were tested in overweight ewes because of associations among these factors and the formation of cystic follicles. Sheep were synchronized using a progesterone-releasing pessary and insulin resistance was induced during the synchronization period through administration of bovine somatotropin. Following removal of pessaries follicular growth was stimulated by treatment with eCG or eCG and hCG (PG-600). Follicular growth was monitored via daily transrectal ultrasonography and blood samples were collected for hormonal analyses. Six of 18 ewes had a subnormal or absent preovulatory gonadotropin surge and developed cystic follicles. Neither insulin resistance nor elevated LH activity were associated with formation of cystic follicles. Ewes that developed cystic follicles were heavier (93 +/- 4 kg) than ewes that ovulated (81 +/- 3 kg; P = 0.02). Furthermore, following pessary removal and initiation of daily ultrasonography, ewes that developed cystic follicles lost body weight (-3 +/- 1%), while ovulatory ewes continued to gain body weight (1 +/- 1%; P = 0.005). It is speculated that in heavy ewes metabolic factors associated with acute body weight loss inhibit the positive feedback of estradiol and thereby suppress the preovulatory gonadotropin surge leading to formation of cystic follicles. PMID:11064217

Christman, S A; Bailey, M T; Head, W A; Wheaton, J E

2000-10-01

259

Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction  

E-print Network

to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent methods. Project Description This project will evaluate whether the new drying and nutrients extraction process. . Prototype innovative drying and nutrients extraction system Photo credit: Grimmway Enterprises

260

Operant analysis of chronic locoweed intoxication in sheep.  

PubMed

Five sheep were fed a 10% locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) pellet or alfalfa pellets for 3- to 5-wk periods to determine the effects of intermittent locoweed ingestion on operant responding; three controls were fed alfalfa pellets for 22 wk. Sheep were trained to respond to a multiple schedule with a fixed ratio (FR) 5 and fixed interval (FI) 50 s as major elements; performance was reinforced with rolled barley. Locoweed-treated sheep decreased (P < .05) FR response rate after 4 wk of locoweed feeding, but this decrease first appeared during the first recovery period (wk 6). The FR response rate of intoxicated sheep did not return to baseline during the remainder of the study and differed from controls during most of the study. Controls did not deviate (P > .05) from their FR baseline except during wk 2. Sheep did not stabilize on the FI component. As locoweed-treated sheep became progressively more intoxicated, they altered their pattern of FR responses, with longer post-reinforcement pauses, and a slower overall FR rate. Intoxicated sheep ingested an average of .21 mg swainsonine.kg-1.d-1. Overt signs of intoxication were noted when two sheep were stressed on wk 17. These two sheep had neuroviseral vacuolation typical of locoweed poisoning, whereas the three remaining locoweed-treated sheep that were euthanatized 5 wk later showed little histologic evidence of intoxication. Our findings indicate that "on-off" or cyclic grazing of locoweed ranges should be approached cautiously. Such a grazing program may be feasible because of the rapid resolution of histologic pathology; however, an initial toxic insult of 4 wk seems to be excessive, even at low doses, because sheep may exhibit persistent behavioral abnormalities that require > 6 wk to resolve. PMID:8923176

Pfister, J A; Stegelmeier, B L; Cheney, C D; James, L F; Molyneux, R J

1996-11-01

261

The phylogeographic system survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity and phylogenetic survey of native sheep breeds in the eastern and southern Central Asia were assessed in the present study. The clustering, principal components, structure and F statistics all demonstrate that the native sheep breeds in these regions be classified into two genetic groups: Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group and South-Southeast Asia sheep group. The Mongolia sheep group and the Tibetan sheep group had a certain degree of gene communication from the ancient times. In the present study we demonstrated that the Chinese native sheep populations belonged to Mongolia-Tibetan sheep group. However, the relationships among the sheep populations in Mongolia sheep group in China were not closely related to the geographical distance among sheep populations. PMID:20646118

Sun, W; Chang, H; Tsunoda, K; Musa, H H; Yang, Z P; Ma, Y H; Guan, W J

2010-08-01

262

Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program  

E-print Network

v.09.2013 Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Specialist Certification Training Program Certification must be enrolled in the Nutrient Management Certification Program administered by the Pennsylvania the Pennsylvania Nutrient Management Program website (http://panutrientmgmt.cas.psu.edu/). Click

Guiltinan, Mark

263

The nutritional value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) as an alternate forage source for sheep.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and feeding value of peanut hay (Arachis hypogaea L.) produced under tropical environment as an alternate forage resource for sheep. Peanut hay was appreciably high in crude protein [CP; 105 g/kg dry matter (DM)] and lower in neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 466 g/kg DM). Moreover, peanut hay was rich in Ca (12 g/kg DM) and P (1.7 g/kg DM). A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of substituting wheat straw with peanut hay on nutrient intake, digestibility, and N utilization. Four adult Ramghani (Kaghani × Rambouillet) wethers (60?±?2.5 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments according to a 4?×?4 Latin square design. The four rations were formulated on isonitrogenous and isocaloric bases and differed in the proportion (in grams per kilogram DM) of wheat straw/peanut hay, i.e., 700:0, 460:240, 240:460, and 0:700. The replacement of wheat straw with peanut hay increased the intakes of DM (P?nutrients intake, digestibility, and N retention in sheep. PMID:23080339

Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Bezabih, Melkamu; Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan; Rahman, Altafur

2013-03-01

264

Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to compile data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different phosphorous (P) sources for sheep. The database consisted of results from some experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA\\/USP, Piracicaba, Brazil), using sheep fed different sources of P: dicalcium phosphate (n = 14); monoammonium phosphate (n

I. C. S. Bueno; J. B. Lopes; S. M. A. Sallam; A. L. Abdalla; D. M. S. S. Vitti

265

Comparative Aspects of Glucose Tolerance in Camels, Sheep, and Ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to gain informations about factors responsible for the higher level of plasma glucose in camels as compared to sheep and ponies. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out with four camels, four ponies, and four sheep by infusing 1 mmol glucose per kg body weight intravenously within 3 min. Concentrations of glucose, insulin,

Barakat Elmahdi; Hans-Peter Sallmann; Herbert Fuhrmann; Wolfgang von Engelhardt; Martin Kaske

1997-01-01

266

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGIC VALUES IN CAPTIVE AND WILD BIGHORN SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for establishing physiologic values for a species was recognized and the many variables affecting these must be considered. The physiologic value differences and similarities between captive and wild bighorn sheep (Otis canadensis) was discussed from values obtained from 71 captive and 65 wild bighorns. Similar values between captive and wild sheep occurred with; calcium, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol,

ALBERT W. FRANZMANN

267

Operant Analysis of Chronic Locoweed Intoxication in Sheep1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sheep were fed a 10% locoweed ( Oxytropis sericea) pellet or alfalfa pellets for 3- to 5-wk periods to determine the effects of intermittent locoweed ingestion on operant respond- ing; three controls were fed alfalfa pellets for 22 wk. Sheep were trained to respond to a multiple schedule with a fixed ratio (FR) 5 and fixed interval (FI) 50

James A. Pfister; Bryan L. Stegelmeier; Carl D. Cheney; Lynn F. James; Russell J. Molyneux

2010-01-01

268

Glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep when placental growth is restricted  

SciTech Connect

The effect of restricting placental growth on glucose metabolism in pregnant sheep in late gestation was determined by primed constant infusions of D-(U-{sup 14}C)- and D-(2-{sup 3}H)glucose and antipyrine into fetuses of six control sheep and six sheep from which endometrial caruncles had been removed before pregnancy (caruncle sheep). In the latter, placental and fetal weights were reduced, as was the concentration of glucose in fetal arterial blood. Fetal glucose turnover in caruncle sheep was only 52-59% of that in controls, largely because of lower umbilical loss of glucose back to the placenta (38-39% of control) and lower fetal glucose utilization (61-74% of control). However, fetal glucose utilization on a weight-specific basis was similar in control and caruncle sheep. Significant endogenous glucose production occurred in control and caruncle fetal sheep. Maternal glucose production and partition of glucose between the gravid uterus and other maternal tissues were similar in control and caruncle sheep. In conclusion, when placental and fetal growth are restricted, fetal glucose utilization is maintained by reduced loss of glucose back to the placenta and mother and by maintaining endogenous glucose production.

Owens, J.A.; Falconer, J.; Robinson, J.S. (Univ. of Adelaide Medical School (Australia))

1989-08-01

269

Original article Intake and digestion in sheep given fresh  

E-print Network

Original article Intake and digestion in sheep given fresh or air-dried Acacia cyanophylla Lindl of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl foliage (acacia) on digestion in sheep was studied in November-dried acacia foliage ad libitum. Diets were offered dailyy in two equal meals (08.00 and 16.00 h

Boyer, Edmond

270

Pining in Sheep not Curable by Cobalt Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

WORK in Australia has shown that deficiency of cobalt in the diet is responsible for characteristic disorders of sheep and cattle. The view that a sheep disease known as `pining' results from cobalt deficiency was advanced by Corner and Smith1, who claimed that cobalt administration prevented and cured this disease north of the Scottish border. In our opinion these experiments

W. Lyle Stewart; A. Phyllis Ponsford

1940-01-01

271

Experiments in DNA Extraction and PCR Amplification from Bighorn Sheep  

E-print Network

materials used. For bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) fecal samples we compare different fecal pellet extraction procedures relative to reliability of genotypes obtained. Our example involves bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), an herbivore for which blood and tissue samples are mostly difficult and costly to obtain

Epps, Clinton Wakefield

272

Tools and Technology Techniques for Capturing Bighorn Sheep  

E-print Network

to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms, netgun, Ovis canadensis, vaginal implant transmitter. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations declined dramatically. These declines have been attributed

273

CHARACTERIZATION OF PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA ASSOCIATED WITH PNEUMONIA IN BIGHORN SHEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Pasteurella multocida is a highly diverse group of bacteria recognized as important pathogens. Although P. multocida is not ordinarily associated with disease in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), numerous isolates were cultured in high numbers from free-ranging bighorn sheep in the Hells Canyon area of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon (USA) during the winter of 1995?96. Animals captured

Glen C. Weiser; Walter J. Delong; Julia L. Paz; Bahman Shafii; William J. Price; Alton C. S. Ward

2003-01-01

274

Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz.) poisoning causes serious economic loss to livestock producers that graze cattle on foothill and mountain ranges in western North America. In general, all Delphinium spp. are five times less toxic to sheep than to cattle. Because sheep are less suscepti...

275

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep  

E-print Network

Original article Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. nematode / parasite / sheep / Syria / epidemiology Résumé ― Infestations des Ovins Awassi adultes par les nématodes parasites : distribution parmi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Antigenic Shift of Visna Virus in Persistently Infected Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visna viruses isolated from persistently infected sheep were antigenically distinct from the plaque-purified virus used for inoculation. The selection of antigenic variants under antibody pressure, thought to occur in vivo, was reproduced in sheep cell cultures inoculated with plaque-purified visna virus and maintained in antibody. Antigenic shift may be a mechanism for persistence of virus in slow or recurrent viral

O. Narayan; D. E. Griffin; J. Chase

1977-01-01

277

Cryptosporidium xiaoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in sheep (Ovis aries)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species, Cryptosporidium xiaoi, is described from sheep. Oocysts of C. xiaoi, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium bovis-like genotype and as the ovine genotype from sheep in Australia and the United States are recorded as such in GenBank (AY587166, EU203216, DQ182597, AY741309, and DQ...

278

Toxoplasmosis in sheep-the last 20 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep are important to the economy of many countries. Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite causes early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death, largely dependent on the stage of preg...

279

The effect of long term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in mammary tissue of sheep.  

PubMed

Milk fatty acid (FA) synthesis by the mammary gland involves expression of a large number of genes whose nutritional regulation remains poorly defined. In this study, we examined the effect of long-term under- and over-feeding on the expression of genes (acetyl Co A carboxylase, ACC; fatty acid synthetase, FAS; lipoprotein lipase, LPL; stearoyl Co A desaturase, SCD; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?2, PPAR?2; sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, SREBP-1c; and hormone sensitive lipase, HSL) related to FA metabolism in sheep mammary tissue (MT). Twenty-four lactating sheep were divided into three homogenous sub-groups and fed the same ration in quantities covering 70% (underfeeding), 100% (control) and 130% (overfeeding) of their energy and crude protein requirements. The results showed a significant reduction of mRNA of ACC, FAS, LPL and SCD in the MT of underfed sheep, and a significant increase on the mRNA of LPL and SREBP-1c in the MT of overfed compared with the control respectively. In conclusion, the negative, compared to positive, energy balance in sheep down-regulates ACC, FAS, LPL, SCD, SREBP-1c and PPAR?2 expression in their MT which indicates that the decrease in nutrient availability may lead to lower rates of lipid synthesis. PMID:25434377

Tsiplakou, Eleni; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Kouri, Evangelia-Diamanto; Sotirakoglou, Kyriaki; Zervas, George

2015-02-01

280

Male pattern baldness (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

281

Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

1975-01-01

282

Kinematic parameters of sheep walking on a treadmill.  

PubMed

Ovine locomotion studies are rare, despite their relevance for medical research. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate habituation and temporospatial parameters during treadmill walking of seven Austrian Mountain sheep. Sheep were naïve to treadmill exercise. During five treadmill sessions, movement cycle duration (MCD), vertical trunk movement (VTM), stride height (SH), stride length (SL), and percentage of movement cycle at stance (%St) were assessed. Two sheep were excluded from the study because they would not walk on the treadmill. From the end measurement session, MCD (0.95?s) and %St (62%) were similar to reported kinetics of sheep walking over ground, although stride length (1.05?m) was longer in this study. These findings suggest that sheep may require more than five sessions to become habituated to treadmill walking. PMID:25457259

Valentin, Stephanie; Essigbeck, Annika; Wolfram, Ines; Licka, Theresia

2014-12-01

283

Comparative epidemiology of scrapie outbreaks in individual sheep flocks.  

PubMed Central

Data recording the course of scrapie outbreaks in 4 sheep flocks (2 in Cheviot sheep and 2 in Suffolks) are compared. For each outbreak the data on scrapie incidence and sheep demography and pedigrees cover periods of years or decades. A key finding is that the incidence of clinical cases peaks in sheep 2-3 years old, despite very different forces-of-infection. This is consistent with age-specific susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, as has been reported for cattle to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and for humans to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Scrapie incidence was higher in ewes than rams and at certain times of years, though these effects were not consistent between flocks. There was no evidence for high levels of vertical transmission. PMID:12113497

Redman, C. A.; Coen, P. G.; Matthews, L.; Lewis, R. M.; Dingwall, W. S.; Foster, J. D.; Chase-Topping, M. E.; Hunter, N.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.

2002-01-01

284

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

E-print Network

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27 s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62 m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450 g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1 cm, impact time of roughly 2 ms).

Courtney, Michael

2007-01-01

285

Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis  

SciTech Connect

The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

1987-04-01

286

Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had ?13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had ?13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

2014-11-01

287

FACTORS AFFECTING VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE BY SHEEP W.L. GROVUM  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE BY SHEEP W.L. GROVUM Department of Biochemical Sciences act as signals of satiety and thus limit the amount of food that sheep would consume in a meal if the above treatment would suppress the intake of food by hungry sheep - sheep that had been deprived

Boyer, Edmond

288

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat  

E-print Network

Comparison of RBG-banded karyotypes of cattle, sheep and goat H Hayes E Petit Institut National de 1990) cattle / goat / sheep / RBG-bands / chromosomes Based on natural taxonomic criteria, the 3 main or cattle) and Caprinae (Capra hircus: goat, Ovis aries: domestic sheep). Cattle, goat and sheep karyotypes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAPLASMA OWS ISOLATE FROM DESERT BIGHORN SHEEP IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis, we recovered a field isolate from a suspected enzootic area in southern California (USA). Whole blood was collected from three desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and inoculated into a susceptible splenectomized domestic sheep, calf and a susceptible spleen-intact bighorn sheep. No infection occurred in the

Will Goff; David Stiller; David Jessup; Peter Msolla; Wafter Boyce; William Foreyt

290

? -galactosidase activity in fibroblasts and tissues from sheep with a lysosomal storage disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues and fibroblasts of sheep affected with an inherited, neuronal lysosomal storage disease expressed a deficiency of ß-galactosidase activity. Cerebrum, kidney, lung, spinal cord, and spleen from affected sheep had less than 8% of the ß-galactosidase activity present in the respective tissues of normal sheep. No evidence for the presence of an endogenous inhibitor in affected sheep was detected by

Amelia J. Ahern-Rindell; Robert D. Murnane; David J. Prieur

1988-01-01

291

Influence of Anionic Salts on Bone Metabolism in Periparturient Dairy Goats and Sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of diets supplemented with anionic salts on bone metabolism of dairy goats and sheep. Twelve Saanen goats and 12 Ostfrisean milk sheep (fourth lac- tation) were divided into 2 groups each (sheep control (SC), goat control (GC); sheep anionic salts (SA), goat anionic salts (GA)). Each group was fed

A. Liesegang

2008-01-01

292

Ventilation of sheep and goat barns.  

PubMed

Good ventilation is an important part of any livestock housing system. It may be accomplished by either natural or mechanical means. Generally, except for buildings that must be kept at warm, nonfluctuating temperatures, naturally ventilated cold housing is satisfactory for sheep and goats provided it is dry and draft-free in pen and resting areas, and air exchange is taking place at a rate high enough to remove moisture, gases, and airborne disease organisms from the building. Understanding the importance of site location, building orientation, and principles of ventilation design increases the likelihood of successful barn ventilation. PMID:2245366

Collins, E R

1990-11-01

293

Factors affecting prices of lamb and sheep  

E-print Network

&king Points . . VI. The Effects of Change in Prices Upon sheep Population on Farms ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 84 VIX. The Economic lelations Between Price and D%, 2)nd and ' Upp+ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 VXII ~ Ma)or Paotors . .ffeoting...X Of lheop marketed 1n X ine . 'a)OX ~Wrketa and Total Beceiyts 1n the lhIited Ctates (19"4 1955) ~ 15 average gonthly Rsosipta of Weep and Lambs at Pcb11c gtook Yards of 1994I'1955 CoxIparsd aith 1955 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ 19 heep and, Lomb Prices...

Coston, Ocie

2012-06-07

294

Selecting Sheep for Wool and Mutton Production.  

E-print Network

any of his selec- tions. Good Open Face Too Open Wool Blind In-between Kind (vmes down even with the When too much wool is taken This ewe is so woolly faced that This ewe probably will not be- ,;nd staple length does not off the face, it usually...-pro- partially covered faces weaned 8.6 percent 1 ducing ability of the sheep, but how well the more lambs and 7.7 more pounds of lamb per ; animal has done through the year. The fleece ewe bred than those with covered faces. This is used as the basis...

Gray, James A.

1957-01-01

295

Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen use, and ruminal fermentation in sheep and goats fed diets of different quality.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare N balance, microbial N flow (MNF) estimated from purine derivatives (PD) urinary excretion, and its variation when estimated using purine bases:N ratios in liquid associated bacteria (LAB) from models reported in the literature (MNF - response models) or measured ratios in liquid and solid-associated bacterial (SAB) pellets (MNF-LAB+SAB), diet digestibility, and rumen fermentation variables in sheep and goats fed 3 different practical, quality diets to study interspecies differences concerning N use as accurately as possible. Four mature female Merino sheep and 4 mature female Granadina goats, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design with an extra animal. Two experimental diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 70:30 (DM basis) with alfalfa hay (ALC) or grass hay (GRC) as forage, and the third diet contained 70% concentrate and 30% alfalfa hay (CAL). All animals were fed the diets at a daily rate of 56 g/kg BW(0.75) to minimize feed selection. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P = 0.16 to 0.88) in the 2 species, but some animal species × diet interactions (P = 0.01 to 0.04) were detected. There were small differences between the fermentation patterns of both animal species. Goats showed decreased VFA concentrations (P = 0.005) and butyrate proportions (P = 0.04), and greater acetate proportions (P = 0.02) compared with sheep, whereas N intake and percentage of N intake excreted in feces were similar in both species (P = 0.58 and 0.15, respectively), the percentage excreted via the urine was greater in goats compared with sheep (P < 0.001). As a consequence, sheep had greater (P < 0.001) N retention than goats (averaged across diets, 32.6% and 16.1% of N intake, respectively). There were no differences (P = 0.95) between animal species in total PD excretion, but goats showed a greater excretion of allantoin (P = 0.01) and decreased excretion of xanthine (P = 0.008) and hypoxanthine (P = 0.007) compared with sheep. In general, differences between sheep and goats were more pronounced for the medium-quality diet (GRC) compared with those of high-quality diet (ALC and CAL). The greater urinary losses in goats would indicate a greater contribution of goats to N environmental contamination compared with sheep. PMID:22585795

Carro, M D; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Ranilla, M J; Molina-Alcaide, E

2012-11-01

296

Nutrient solutions for soilless cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient solutions intended for plant growth are already used from the middle of the 19th century, when the importance of mineral elements for plant growth was made clear by Justus von Liebig. In advance, the nutrient solutions used to grow plants in so called “water cultures” had a simple composition and consisted of salts like KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, KHPO4, MgSO4, and

C. Sonneveld; W. Voogt

2007-01-01

297

Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics(1)[W  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Male fertility depends on the proper development of the male gametophyte, successful pollen germination, tube growth, and delivery of the sperm cells to the ovule. Previous studies have shown that nutrients like boron, and ion gradients or currents of Ca(2+), H(+), and K(+) are critical for pollen ...

298

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions  

E-print Network

Review article Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions in greenhouse horticulture David) Abstract ­ Recirculating nutrient systems offer a good method to control nutrient leaching from greenhouses of recirculating nutrient systems by the greenhouse industry. This review discusses and compares five broadly

Boyer, Edmond

299

Sensory receptors in the sheep's foot  

PubMed Central

1. Median and ulnar nerves of anaesthetized Soay sheep have been investigated in vivo. 2. The compound action potentials of these nerves indicate that the most rapidly conducting fibres had mean velocities of 87 m/sec in the median nerve and 57 m/sec in the ulnar nerve. The mean conduction velocities of the axons responsible for the Group A ?? wave in the median nerve were 23-30 m/sec and those responsible for the Group A ? wave in the ulnar nerve conducted at 23-26 m/sec. 3. Single myelinated afferents were isolated by microdissection of median and ulnar nerves in the metacarpal region, and action potentials were recorded from hair follicle units, cutaneous mechanoreceptors, deeply situated proprioceptors, and from units of unknown function which were spontaneously active. 4. The hair follicle units fell into two categories: `diffuse' units which innervated many hairs in an area of about 1-3 cm2 anywhere on the hairy skin above the hoof, and `localized' units which innervated a few hairs within small areas of the skin adjacent to the hoof. The `diffuse' units generally resembled the ordinary hair follicle units of other animals except that in the sheep the afferents had higher conduction velocities. The `localized' units also had large myelinated axons, but their physiological properties differed in several aspects from the guard hair, tylotrich and carpal hair units which have been studied in other animals. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4763994

Evans, M. H.

1973-01-01

300

Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. PMID:18092124

van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

2008-01-01

301

Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer’s patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrPSc accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrPSc accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrPSc was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7–L1. At subsequent time points, PrPSc was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrPSc involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord. PMID:18092124

Vromans, M. E. W.; Dolstra, C. H.; Bossers, A.; van Zijderveld, F. G.

2007-01-01

302

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats in Jammu, India.  

PubMed

Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in sheep and goats was studied using field and abattoir samples at Jammu, India. Abattoir examination revealed that 36.2 % of sheep and 30.9 % of goats were positive for paramphistomosis. The mean worm counts (±SEM) were 23.5 ± 5.7 in sheep and 19.9 ± 3.5 in goats. On coprological examination, 16.3 % of sheep and 13.6 % of goats were found positive for paramphistomosis. The mean egg counts (±SEM) were 4.4 ± 2.6 in sheep and 3.6 ± 2.1 in goats. Season was found to have a significant (p < 0.05) influence on the prevalence of paramphistomosis. A higher percentage of animals were found positive in rainy and post-rainy seasons as compared with summer and winter seasons. The distributions of eggs and adult flukes were significantly (p < 0.01) different among seasons. The prevalences observed according to age and sex of sheep and goats were not significant. The study conclude that the late summer months are major risk period for paramphistomosis in the pasture grazing sheep and goats and the administration of an efficient anthelmintic in May-June and September-October should be strongly recommended to reduce the infection and minimise the perpetuating financial losses to animal owners in the region. PMID:25320497

Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Rastogi, Ankur

2014-12-01

303

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

E-print Network

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8 th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27s which results in an unrealistically long stopping distance of 0.62m. Furthermore, the assertion that the horns provide necessary cushioning of the blow is inconsistent with the absence of concussions in domestic breeds of hornless sheep. Results from traumatic brain injury (TBI) research allow acceleration tolerance of sheep to be estimated as 450g facilitating an analysis of sheep collisions that is more consistent with available observations (stopping distance less than 1cm, impact time of roughly 2ms). I. ERRANT EXAMPLE IN POPULAR BOOK Sample problem 9-4 in a popular textbook stands out because the title page of Chapter 9 shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and asserts that the chapter will describe how the sheep can survive such violent clashes without falling to the ground with concussions.[1] Jearl Walker also uses this photo and example in speaking engagements entitled The Flying Circus of Physics.[2] However, the answer presented in Sample Problem 9-4 is incorrect. The physics seems sound, but the flaw in presuming

Michael Courtney; Amy Courtney

2008-01-01

304

Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.  

PubMed

A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep. PMID:25411822

Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

2015-04-01

305

Sheep Cervical Spine Biomechanics: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models are often used to make the transition from scientific concepts to clinical applications. The sheep model has emerged as an important model in spine biomechanics. Although there are several experimental biomechanical studies of the sheep cervical spine, only a limited number of computational models have been developed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a C2-C7 sheep cervical spine finite element (FE) model to study the biomechanics of the normal sheep cervical spine. Methods The model was based on anatomy defined using medical images and included nonlinear material properties to capture the high flexibility and large neutral zone of the sheep cervical spine. The model was validated using comprehensive experimental flexibility testing. Ten adult sheep cervical spines, from C2-C7, were used to experimentally ascertain overall and segmental flexibility to ±2 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The ranges of motion predicted by the computational model were within one standard deviation of the respective experimental motions throughout the load cycle, with the exception of extension and lateral bending. The model over- and under predicted the peak motions in extension and lateral bending, respectively. Nevertheless, the model closely represents the range of motion and flexibility of the sheep cervical spine. Discussion This is the first multilevel model of the sheep cervical spine. The validated model affords additional biomechanical insight into the intact sheep cervical spine that cannot be easily determined experimentally. The model can be used to study various surgical techniques, instrumentation, and device placement, providing researchers and clinicians insight that is difficult, if not impossible, to gain experimentally. PMID:25328473

DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Gandhi, Anup A; Fredericks, Doug C; Smucker, Joseph D; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

306

NUTRIENT CYCLING BY ANIMALS IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Animals are important,in nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Via excretory processes, animals can supply nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) at rates comparable to major nutrient sources, and nutrient cycling by animals can sup- port a substantial proportion of the nutrient demands of primary producers. In addition, animals may,exert strong impacts on the species composition,of primary producers via effects on

Michael J. Vanni

2002-01-01

307

[Effect of corn germ on digestion in sheep].  

PubMed

An experiment was carried out ascertain the effect of a corn embryo, derived in a wet method, on the process of digestion in sheep. It was established that sheep digestion was considerably better after the including of a corn embryo in their ration. The coefficient of the food substances digestion in the forage for the sheep, ration with the addition of a corn embryo increased at an average for fat with 25.04%, for mineral substances--12.4%, for the row protein--7.9%, for row fibrins--7.56%. The nitrogen utilisation in the animals during the second period was considerably better. PMID:3450086

Sto?kov, D; Mirenski, N; Girginov, D; Dzhuvinov, D

1987-01-01

308

New aspects on efficient anticoagulation and antiplatelet strategies in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background After addressing fundamental questions in preclinical models in vitro or in small animals in vivo, the translation into large animal models has become a prerequisite before transferring new findings to human medicine. Especially in cardiovascular, orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery, the sheep is an important in vivo model for testing innovative therapies or medical devices prior to clinical application. For a wide variety of sheep model based research projects, an optimal anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy is mandatory. However, no standardised scheme for this model has been developed so far. Thus the efficacy of antiplatelet (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, ticagrelor) and anticoagulant (sodium enoxaparin, dabigatran etexilate) strategies was evaluated through aggregometry, anti-factor Xa activity and plasma thrombin inhibitor levels in sheep of different ages. Results Responses to antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in different concentrations were studied in the sheep. First, a baseline for the measurement of platelet aggregation was assessed in 20 sheep. The effectiveness of 225 mg clopidogrel twice daily (bid) in 2/5 sheep and 150 mg bid in 3/5 lambs could be demonstrated, while clopidogrel and its metabolite carboxylic acid were detected in every plasma sample. High dose ticagrelor (375 mg bid) resulted in sufficient inhibition of platelet aggregation in 1/5 sheep, while acetylsalicylic acid did not show any antiplatelet effect. Therapeutic anti-factor Xa levels were achieved with age-dependent dosages of sodium enoxaparin (sheep 3 mg/kg bid, lambs 5 mg/kg bid). Administration of dabigatran etexilate resulted in plasma concentrations similar to human ranges in 2/5 sheep, despite receiving quadruple dosages (600 mg bid). Conclusion High dosages of clopidogrel inhibited platelet aggregation merely in a low number of sheep despite sufficient absorption. Ticagrelor and acetylsalicylic acid cannot be recommended for platelet inhibition in sheep. Efficient anticoagulation can be ensured using sodium enoxaparin rather than dabigatran etexilate in age-dependent dosages. The findings of this study significantly contribute to the improvement of a safe and reliable prophylaxis for thromboembolic events in sheep. Applying these results in future translational experimental studies may help to avoid early dropouts due to thromboembolic events and associated unnecessary high animal numbers. PMID:24088206

2013-01-01

309

Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.  

PubMed

Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines. PMID:24646818

Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-05-01

310

PAS kinase: Integrating nutrient sensing with nutrient partitioning  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggests that PAS kinase acts as a signal integrator to adjust metabolic behavior in response to nutrient conditions. Specifically, PAS kinase controls the partitioning of nutrient resources between the myriad of possible fates. In this capacity, PAS kinase elicits a pro-growth program, which includes both signaling and metabolic control, both in yeast and in mammals. We propose that, like other kinases possessing these properties—AMPK and TOR, PAS kinase might be target for therapy of diabetes, obesity and cancer. PMID:22245833

Cardon, Caleb M.; Rutter, Jared

2012-01-01

311

Genetic analysis of growth traits in Muzaffarnagari sheep.  

PubMed

Data on 4112 Muzaffarnagari sheep, maintained at the Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, Mathura, India, and recorded between 1976 and 1999, were analysed to study the growth-related traits and their genetic control. The average weights at birth, and at 12 months of age were 3.1 +/- 0.2 and 28.0 +/- 0.6 kg, respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains were 127.8 +/- 3.3 g and 49.4 +/- 1.6 g. and the associated growth efficiencies were 3.59 +/- 0.08 and 0.95 +/- 0.03. Significant differences associated with the year of lambing were observed in body weight, weight gain and efficiency in weight gain at different stages of growth. The lambs born in the dam's second parity were generally of heavier weight and higher daily weight gain than those born in other parities. Males were heavier and had a higher weight gain than females at almost all stages of growth and the differences tended to increase with age. Single-born lambs had a distinct advantage over those born in multiple births at all stages of growth. The heritabilities of all body weights, weight gains and efficiency in weight gains at different stages of growth were moderate (0.18-0.26), except for birth weight, which was of low heritability (0.068 +/- 0.01). The phenotypic and genetic correlations among the different body weights were positive and high, except for birth weight. The genetic correlation of the pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains with body weights were high and positive. PMID:12797416

Mandal, A; Pant, K P; Nandy, D K; Rout, P K; Roy, R

2003-06-01

312

Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep. PMID:20688676

Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

2010-07-01

313

Enhanced control of sheep ticks in upland sheep flocks: repercussions for red grouse co-hosts.  

PubMed

Sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases cause major economic losses in both upland sheep farming and moorland shoots of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Sheep were treated with acaricide four times between March and October and double-vaccinated against louping ill virus (LIV), instead of the conventional regime of two acaricide treatments and no vaccinations, on two moors in northern England. Enhanced treatment started at Westerdale Moor in 1995 and at Danby Moor in 2000; the latter had previously represented a spatial control site. From 1992 to 2003, grouse chick condition, tick burdens, reproductive success, shooting bags and LIV seroprevalence were measured. A total of 1297 grouse chicks from 398 broods were examined for ticks. Enhanced acaricide treatment reduced tick burdens by 90%, and LIV seroprevalence decreased in relation to the number of years since treatment began. Breeding success and post-breeding densities of grouse in the current sample area remained unrelated to acaricide treatment, tick burdens or LIV seroprevalence, but 25% and 60% more grouse were shot on Westerdale and Danby, respectively, after treatment enhancement than before. By improving shooting bags, tick management schemes help to maintain the economic viability of grouse moors, which, in turn, provide upland landscape and wildlife benefits. PMID:22112150

Newborn, D; Baines, D

2012-03-01

314

The development of male-oriented behavior in rams.  

PubMed

The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same-sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the biological determinants and underlying neural substrates of sexual attraction and mate selection are far from complete, compelling evidence is discussed that supports the idea that neural substrates regulating sexual partner preferences are organized during prenatal development. The challenge for future research will be to construct an integrated picture of how hormones, genes, and experience shape sexual partner preference. PMID:21215767

Roselli, Charles E; Reddy, Radhika C; Kaufman, Katherine R

2011-04-01

315

Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW) of 15.62±0.33 kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2), 4 h/d (G4), 8 h/d (G8) and 12 h/d (G12) access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05) increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05) decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance. PMID:25049843

Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yuwei; Liu, Kun; Jiao, Lijuan; Chang, Yanfei; Zuo, Zhaoyun

2013-01-01

316

Programming placental nutrient transport capacity  

PubMed Central

Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

2006-01-01

317

Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat  

SciTech Connect

Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (USA))

1990-11-01

318

Paranasal sinus masses of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).  

PubMed

This article describes 10 cases of paranasal sinus masses in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis). Among 21 bighorns that were examined from 11 herds in Colorado, 10 individuals (48%) from 4 herds (36%) had masses arising from the paranasal sinuses. Affected animals included 9 of 17 females (53%) and 1 of 4 males (25%), ranging in age from approximately 2 years to greater than 10 years. Defining gross features of these masses included unilateral or bilateral diffuse thickening of the respiratory lining of the maxillary and/or frontal sinuses, with abundant seromucinous exudate in the affected sinus cavities. Defining histologic features of these masses included chronic inflammation and proliferation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells of the mucosa and submucosa. Epithelial changes included hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium, hyperplasia of submucosal glands and ducts, and neoplasia (adenocarcinoma). Mesenchymal changes included submucosal myxedema, submucosal fibroplasia/fibrosis, bone destruction, and neoplasia (myxomatous fibroma). Specific immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and enzootic nasal tumor virus were performed with negative results. PMID:20926735

Fox, K A; Wootton, S K; Quackenbush, S L; Wolfe, L L; Levan, I K; Miller, M W; Spraker, T R

2011-05-01

319

INTRODUCTION Virginia is the largest sheep producing state in the  

E-print Network

Elbow joint Breast Shoulder Hock Stifle #12;2 PROJECT CALENDAR Day 1 - Acclimate your lambs to their new. Sheep play a key role in utilizing the vast amount of pasture forage available throughout Virginia

Liskiewicz, Maciej

320

Cougar predation on bighorn sheep in southwestern Alberta during winter  

E-print Network

. Jalkotzy, and Marco Festa-Bianchet Abstract: Predation by cougars (Puma concolor) upon bighorn sheep (OvisC : Nous avons mesurC la prCdation exercCe par les Cougars (Puma concolor) sur les Mouflons d

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

321

Vascular tracers alter hemodynamics and airway pressure in anesthetized sheep  

SciTech Connect

The technique of vascular labeling was developed to mark sites of increased microvascular permeability. We used the vascular labeling technique in anesthetized sheep and found that hemodynamics and airway pressure were adversely affected by intraarterial infusions of two vascular tracers. Monastral blue (nine sheep) immediately caused systemic arterial hypotension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and bronchoconstriction. All three physiological responses were partially blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) but not by an H1-antihistamine (chlorpheniramine). Colloidal gold (nine sheep) caused immediate, but less dramatic, pulmonary arterial hypertension which was not attenuated by the blocking agents. We conclude that these two vascular tracers caused detrimental physiological side effects in sheep at the usual doses used to label injured microvessels in other species.

Albertine, K.H.; Staub, N.C.

1986-11-01

322

A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile.  

PubMed

In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old. PMID:10932754

Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N

1999-01-01

323

An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. PMID:24127821

Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

2013-10-15

324

Experimental Photosensitization and Toxicity in Sheep Produced by Tetradymia glabrata  

PubMed Central

Factors affecting the phototoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata were investigated. Photosensitization, which occurs regularly in the field situation, was unpredictable and difficult to produce experimentally. In attempting to understand this unpredictability we concluded that the plant does not lose its toxicity after field collection either through volatility of the toxin, plant enzymatic degradation of the toxin or dehydration. The chlorophyll source, from which the suspected phototoxic agent phylloerythrin is derived, did not appear to be important. The single case of photosensitization produced gave no clues as to why it occurred. Some predisposing factors important to the production of tetradymia related photosensitization in sheep are unknown. In disagreement with previous reports the hepatotoxic response of sheep to Tetradymia glabrata was extremely variable. Also plants in comparable stages of growth, but from different locations, varied in their toxicity to sheep. Young budding plants are most toxic, however, toxicity of the plant remains through maturity. PMID:4279759

Johnson, A. E.

1974-01-01

325

Placental growth hormone in sheep : purification, properties and variations  

E-print Network

Placental growth hormone in sheep : purification, properties and variations J. MARTAL Laboratoire of a placental growth-promoting hormone, Ovine Chorionic Somatomammotropin (OCS), and its main physicochemical, serum concentrations of hypophyseal fetal growth hormone have been measured by radioimmunoassay (Bassett

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Olfaction in the female sheep botfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nasal botfly Oestrus ovis (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha: Oestridae) is a myiasis-causing insect species, which affects the health of sheep, goats and humans. Gravid females are viviparous and larviposit into the animal’s nostrils. Host-searching and larvipositing flies are visually guided and influenced by climatic conditions, whereas olfaction seemed to play no role in this process. However, here, we show that the antennae of adult O. ovis female flies are relatively small but well developed and inhabited by several types of olfactory sensilla. Further, we show that the antennal lobes of this species receive input from antennal afferents and consist of a clearly defined glomerular organisation. We also give the first evidence of the fly’s ability to detect several synthetic odour compounds. Our findings provide a morpho-functional basis for future investigations on olfactory-mediated behaviour of this insect pest.

Poddighe, Simone; Dekker, Teun; Scala, Antonio; Angioy, Anna Maria

2010-09-01

327

Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

2009-01-01

328

Pathogenesis of natural scrapie in sheep.  

PubMed

Although scrapie has been known for a long time as a natural disease of sheep and goats, the pathogenesis in its natural host still remains unclear. To study the pathogenesis of natural scrapie, we used immunohistochemistry to monitor the deposition of PrP(Sc) in various tissues, collected during a natural scrapie infection from sheep with the PrP(VRQ)/PrP(VRQ) genotype which were purposely bred for their short incubation period for natural scrapie. PrP(Sc) was present in the lymphoid tissues of all animals from the age of 5 months onwards. At this age, PrP(Sc) was detected in the neural tissues only in the enteric nervous system (ENS) at the level of the duodenum and ileum. At the age of 10 months, PrP(Sc) was not only found in the ENS but also in the ganglion mesentericum cranialis/coeliacum, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the intermediolateral column of the thoracic segments T8-T10. PrP(Sc) was detected for the first time in the nucleus tractus solitarius and ganglion nodosus at 17 months of age and in the ganglion trigeminale and several spinal ganglia at 21 months of age. Since the scrapie agent consists largely, if not entirely of PrP(Sc), these results indicate that the ENS acts as a portal of entry to the neural tissues for the scrapie agent followed by centripetal and retrograde spread through sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent fibers of the autonomic nervous system to the spinal cord and medulla oblongata respectively. PrP(Sc) accumulation in sensory ganglia occurs after infection of the CNS and is therefore probably due to centrifugal and anterograde spread of the scrapie agent from the CNS through afferent nerve fibers. PMID:11214935

van Keulen, L J; Schreuder, B E; Vromans, M E; Langeveld, J P; Smits, M A

2000-01-01

329

Choroid epithelial cells: source cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karahan S., Yarim G. F., Yarim M. Choroid epithelial cells: the source of cerebrospinal fluid progesterone in sheep? Summary The present study was conducted to immunolocalize 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD), an enzyme metabolizing pregnenolone to progesterone in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in sheep, as well as to measure progesterone concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma using radioimmunoassay

SIYAMI KARAHAN; GUL FATMA YARIM; MURAT YARIM

2007-01-01

330

A study of clean wool production in performance tested sheep  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF CLEAN WOOL PRODUCTION IN PERFORMANCE TESTED SHEEP A Thesis By GWYNN LLOYD WILLIAMS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Comm tee) (Head of Department) August, 1960 A STUDY OF CLEAN WOOL PRODUCTION IN PERFORMANCE... TESTED SHEEP A Thesis By GWYNN LLOYD WILLIAMS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: Animal...

Williams, Gwynn Lloyd

2012-06-07

331

Sheep Collisions: the Good, the Bad, and the TBI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The title page of Chapter 9 in Fundamentals of Physics (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 8th Edition, p. 201) shows a dramatic photograph of two Big Horn sheep butting heads and promises to explain how sheep survive such violent clashes without serious injury. However, the answer presented in sample problem 9-4 (p. 213) errs in presuming an interaction time of 0.27

Michael Courtneyand; Amy Courtney

2007-01-01

332

Density-dependent mother-yearling association in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-weaning mother-daughter associations are typical of many ungulates, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density, strong mother-yearling associations were found involving mostly ewes whose lamb-of-the-year died at or soon after birth. At low population density, there were no mother-yearling associations regardless of maternal reproductive status. Non-lactating ewes and most ewes caring

MAURO LUCHERINI; MARCO FESTA-BIANCHET; JON T. JORGENSON

333

Male child sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Up to 92,000 male children report sexual abuse each year, and as many as 31% of all male children under age 18 years experience sexual molestation. Male child sexual abuse is now believed to be a far more common occurrence than it once was. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a key position to prevent and recognize the sexual exploitation of male children. This article addresses the incidence of male child sexual abuse, the psychological and physical ramifications for the child, and the roles and responsibilities of the clinician, including interview, physical and psychological assessment, legal aspects of reporting, and referral. Prevention techniques in a primary care setting are also discussed. PMID:10531903

Moody, C W

1999-01-01

334

75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity...regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because...regulations for the payment of indemnity for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed...

2010-06-04

335

76 FR 43649 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...an Information Collection; Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement Restrictions...regulations for the interstate movement of sheep and goats and an indemnity program to control...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Scrapie in Sheep and Goats; Interstate Movement...

2011-07-21

336

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2013-01-01

337

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2012-01-01

338

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2014-01-01

339

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2011-01-01

340

78 FR 24380 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. AMS-LPS-13-0020] National Sheep Industry Improvement Center: Notice of...information collection 0581-0263: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center (NSIIC...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Sheep Industry Improvement Center. OMB...

2013-04-25

341

9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93...immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. The requirements for the importation of sheep and goats from Canada for...

2010-01-01

342

Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection. PMID:24703974

Koinari, M; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

2014-06-01

343

Chronic exposure of sheep to a zinc smelter in Peru  

SciTech Connect

Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were assessed in adult female sheep living in the vicinity of a zinc smelter in Peru. The study was conducted on a large sheep-raising cooperative divided into seven management units, operated under a standardized husbandry system. Soil samples were analyzed for the same metals at varying distances from the smelter. A gradient of concentration of heavy metals in soil was found between 1 and 56 km from the smelter. Soil concentrations for all metals except manganese decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. The strongest correlations were found for copper, lead, and zinc (P less than 0.001). Topographic features and prevailing wind direction appeared to play a role in the dispersion of pollutants. Liver samples were obtained from 153 sheep on five units of the cooperative. The centers of the units sampled were between 13 and 56 km from the smelter. Hepatic concentrations of arsenic, lead, manganese, and zinc decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Liver arsenic and liver zinc were significantly related to soil concentrations. Liver levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese in sheep from the cooperative were significantly higher than those detected in control sheep from southern Peru. Sheep populations may serve as biological monitors for heavy metal accumulation and environmental carcinogenesis.

Reif, J.S.; Ameghino, E.; Aaronson, M.J.

1989-06-01

344

Sheep monoclonal antibody fragments generated using a phage display system.  

PubMed

Monoclonal sheep antibodies have great potential for biomedical, veterinary and agricultural purpose. Although conventional sheep monoclonal antibodies can be generated by a modified hybridoma technology, the procedures are not routine. Here, we describe a method to generate recombinant sheep antibody fragments from immunised animals using a modified phage display system. Total RNA from pooled spleens of sheep immunised with the model antigens human serum albumin and conalbumin were used to amplify immunoglobulin V gene repertoires and an efficient two-step cloning method was employed to rapidly construct a phage display single-chain Fv (scFv) library. A total of 14 different scFvs were isolated and characterised. Sequence analysis indicated typical ovine immunoglobulin characteristics. Thirteen Vlambda and 11 VH genes were identified that could be grouped into the sheep Vlambda families I, II, VI and a single VH family. Soluble monomeric scFvs, produced in the periplasm of Escherichia coli, were subjected to affinity measurement via surface plasmon resonance analysis and affinities typical of the secondary immune response were observed. The method described here should be of value for the study of sheep immunology as well as for biorecognition in general. PMID:10699586

Li, Y; Kilpatrick, J; Whitelam, G C

2000-03-01

345

BIOENERGETICS OF BREEDING NORTHERN SHOVELERS: DIET, NUTRIENT RESERVES, CLUTCH SIZE, AND INCUBATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed food habits, digestive organs, and nutrient reserves (lipid, protein, and mineral) of male and female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata) nesting in southern Manitoba. We studied shovelers because, on an annual basis, they consume more animal matter than do other Anas spp. Thus, they are ideal subjects for testing the hypothesis that the inability of female ducks to obtain

C. DAVISON ANKNEY; ALAN D. AFTON

1988-01-01

346

DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

347

Regulating nutrient allocation in plants  

DOEpatents

The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

2014-12-09

348

Nutrients for the aging eye  

PubMed Central

The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

2013-01-01

349

Feed intake of sheep as affected by body weight, breed, sex, and feed composition.  

PubMed

The hypotheses tested were that genetic size-scaling for mature BW (A, kg) would reduce variation in intake between kinds of sheep and that quadratic polynomials on u = BW/A with zero intercept would provide good descriptions of the relationship between scaled intake (SI, g/A(0.73) d) and degree of maturity in BW (u) across feeds of differing quality. Both sexes of Suffolk sheep from 2 experimental lines (n = 225) and from 3 breed types (Suffolk, Scottish Blackface, and their cross; n = 149) were recorded weekly for ad libitum feed intake and BW; recording of intake was from weaning through, in some cases, near maturity. Six diets of different quality were fed ad libitum. The relationship between intake and BW on a given feed varied considerably between kinds of sheep. Much, but not all, of that variation was removed by genetic size-scaling. In males, the maximum value of SI was greater than in females (P = 0.07) and was greater in Suffolk than in Scottish Blackface, with the cross intermediate (P = 0.025); there was no difference between the 2 Suffolk lines used (P = 0.106). The quadratic polynomial model, through the origin, was compared with a split-line (spline) regression for describing how SI varied with u. For the spline model, the intercept was not different from zero in any case (P > 0.05). The values of u at which SI achieved its maximum value (u* and SI*) were calculated. Both models fit the data well; the quadratic was preferred because it predicted that SI* would be achieved within the range of the long-run data, as was observed. On a high quality feed, for the spline regression, u* varied little around 0.434 (SD = 0.020) for the 10 different kinds of sheep used. For the quadratic, the mean value of 0.643 (SD = 0.066) was more variable, but there were no consistent effects of kind of sheep. The values of u* and SI* estimated using the quadratic model varied among the 6 feeds: 0.643 and 78.5 on high quality; 0.760 and 79.6 on medium protein content; 0.859 and 73.3 on low protein content; 0.756 and 112 on a low energy content feed; 0.937 and 107 on ryegrass; and 1 (forced, as the fitted value of 1.11 was infeasible) and 135 on Lucerne. The value of u* tended to increase as feed digestibility decreased. We conclude that genetic size-scaling of intake is useful and that a quadratic polynomial with zero intercept provides a good description of the relationship between SI and u for different kinds of sheep on feeds of different quality. Up to u congruent with 0.45, intake was directly proportional to BW. PMID:19897642

Lewis, R M; Emmans, G C

2010-02-01

350

Male Pronuclear Formation using Dog Sperm Derived from Ectopic Testicular Xenografts, Testis, and Epididymis  

PubMed Central

Background Testis tissue xenografting and the resultant sperm in a xenograft may provide a unique approach to rescue the genetic material of males that die prematurely and is a model for the study of human spermatogenesis and can represent an alternative approach for fertility preservation in cancer patients. This study was aimed to evaluate the xenogenic dog sperm in formation of male pronucleus following injection into the sheep oocytes. Methods The in vitro matured slaughterhouse derived sheep oocytes were subjected to Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) with epididymal, testicular, and xenogenic dog sperm. The ICSI was performed after scoring of the sperm midpiece using an IX71-Olympus inverted microscope with Nomarsky optics. Within 1 hr after injection, the injected oocytes in activated group were exposed to 5 µM ionomycin for 5 min. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and ANOVA using SigmaStat, version 3.5, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The formation of female pronucleus after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was higher than epididymal and testicular sperm in non-activated oocytes. The corresponding rate in activated oocytes was higher or comparable with testicular and epididymal sperm. The rate of male pronucleus formation after ICSI of xenogenic sperm was comparable with injection of two other sperm sources. Oocyte activation had an inductive role in female and male pronuclear formation. Conclusion Dog xenogenic sperm was capable to induce oocyte activation and proportion of male pronucleous formation was comparable to the testicular and epididymal sperm. PMID:25215177

Shirazi, Abolfazl; Khadivi, Asma; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser

2014-01-01

351

lake nutrients terc.ucdavis.edu 8  

E-print Network

,contributingapproximately25 percentoftheinflow.Heretheriver's contribution(load)ofdissolvedinor- ganicnitrogen(nitrate+ammonium,theriver'sloadofsolublereac- tivephosphorusandtotalphosphorus areshown.Dissolvedinorganicnitro- gen(nitrate+ammonium,abbreviated DIN nitrate concentration yearly since 1980 L ake nutRIents Nutrients,whichpromotealgal growth

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

352

Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 3 decades, nutrient spiraling has become a unifying paradigm for stream biogeochemical research. This paper presents (1) a quantitative synthesis of the nutrient spiraling literature and (2) application of these data to elucidate trends in nutrient spiraling within stream networks. Results are based on 404 individual experiments on ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and phosphate (PO4) from 52

Scott H. Ensign; Martin W. Doyle

2006-01-01

353

Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall ...

354

Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

355

Nutrient Management Behavior on Wisconsin Dairy Farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management plans for livestock operations should account for rates and timing of manure application to cropland, as well as how manure is integrated with other nutrient sources. Little is known, however, about actual farmer nutrient management practices and what changes may be needed for fa...

356

NUTRIENT CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT FOR R10 ECOREGIONS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Excess nutrients in waters of the northwest are one of the top contributors to water quality impairment. EPA, states and Tribes lack quantifiable targets for nutrients in the water quality standards. Water quality standards for nutrients usually use narrative language, such as ...

357

NutrientManagementaself-studycoursefromtheMSUExtensionServiceContinuingEducationSeries Nutrient Management Module No. 9  

E-print Network

as a diagnostic tool? Plant analysis consists of testing nutrient concentrations in specific plant parts during 2009 CCA 1.5 NM CEU Nutrient Management Module No. 9 Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency in-depth information about plant nutrient functions and deficiency and toxicity symptoms. Objectives

Lawrence, Rick L.

358

Male Gametophyte Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The highly reduced haploid gametophyte generation in seed plants occupies a short but vital phase in the plant life cycle.\\u000a The male gametophytes of flowering plants are highly specialized two- or three-celled pollen grains that nurture and deliver\\u000a twin male gametes or sperm cells to the female gametes at fertilisation. This functional specialization is highly developed\\u000a and a key innovation

D. Twell

359

Thyroid and male reproduction.  

PubMed

Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

2014-01-01

360

Thyroid and male reproduction  

PubMed Central

Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction. PMID:24701426

Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

2014-01-01

361

Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The structural style exposed in the Palozoic reservoir rocks of Sheep Mountain may serve as a model for the other structural features in the Wind River Basin. As in the case of the Derby Dome and Winkleman Dome, Sheep Mountain is typically asymmetric to the southwest. Local east-directed thrusts exposed in the core of the anticline place Pennsylvania over Permian age rocks. A major change in the trend of the anticlinal crest within Sheep Mountain, suggests development of separate left-stepping en echelon closures at depth. The northwest end of Sheep Mountain also forms a left-stepping en echelon pattern with Derby Dome. The northwest plunge of Sheep Mountain is facilitated by compartmentalization across an east-northeast trending, high angle fault. North of this fault, Mesozoic rocks are thrust to the southwest along a low angle, northeast-dipping out of the basin thrust, which obscures the en echelon bypass with Derby Dome. Sheep Mountain is transected at the southeast end by the east-northeast trending Spring Creek fault which has possible left lateral offset. South of the Spring Creek Fault, the southwest vergent Beaver Creek thrust places Precambrian to Missisippian rocks over Cretaceous rocks, and may represent the fault which controls the entire fold trend at depth.

Abercrombie, S.

1988-01-01

362

Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

2006-01-01

363

Bicarbonate transport in sheep parotid secretory cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular pH (pH1) was measured by microfluorimetry in secretory endpieces isolated from sheep parotid glands and loaded with the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe 2', 7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). 2. Stimulation with 1 microM acetylcholine (ACh) caused a large, transient decrease in pH1 of 0.37 +/- 0.02 pH units followed by a slower recovery. The transient, which was reduced by 60% in the absence of HCO3-, could be attributed mainly to HCO3- efflux. During sustained stimulation, pH1 increased to a value that exceeded the resting value by 0.083 +/- 0.023 pH units after 20 min. 3. The anion channel blocker NPPB (0.1 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 48% and raised pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of NPPB and ACh accelerated the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that NPPB inhibits HCO3- efflux. 4. The stilbene derivative H2DIDS (0.5 mM) reduced the transient acidification in response to ACh by 76% but caused a marked decrease in pH1 during sustained stimulation. Simultaneous application of H2DIDS and ACh slowed the re-alkalinization following the initial acidification, indicating that the main effect of H2DIDS was to inhibit HCO3- accumulation. 5. In the absence of HCO3-, the recovery from an acid load was unaffected by ACh stimulation. Acid extrusion, although dependent on Na+, was not inhibited by amiloride (1 mM), clonidine (1 mM) or H2DIDS (0.5 mM) and was therefore provisionally attributed to a Na(+)-H+ exchanger isoform other than NHE1 or NHE2. 6. In the presence of HCO3-, the rate of recovery from an acid load was reduced during ACh stimulation, probably as a result of the increased efflux of HCO3-. Acid extrusion was dependent on Na+ and was significantly inhibited by H2DIDS. 7. We conclude that ACh-evoked HCO3- secretion in the sheep parotid gland differs from that in many other salivary glands by being driven predominantly by basolateral Na(+)-HCO3- cotransport rather than by Na(+)-H+ exchange. PMID:8865077

Steward, M C; Poronnik, P; Cook, D I

1996-01-01

364

Effects of exposure to male goat hair extracts on luteinizing hormone secretion and neuronal activation in seasonally anestrous ewes.  

PubMed

In sheep and goats, exposure of seasonally anestrous females to males or their fleece/hair activates the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator leading to pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Pheromones emitted by sexually mature males are thought to play a prominent role in this male effect. In the present study, we first aimed to clarify whether the male goat pheromone is effective in ewes. Seasonally anestrous St. Croix ewes were exposed to hair extracts derived from either intact or castrated (control) male Shiba goats. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased LH secretion compared to the control, suggesting that an interspecies action of the male pheromone occurs between sheep and goats. Using the male goat-hair extract as the pheromone source, we then aimed to clarify the neural pathway involved in the signal transduction of the male pheromone. Ewes were exposed to either the goat-hair extract or the control and sacrificed 2 hr after the exposure. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was immunohistochemically examined. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased the c-Fos expression compared to the control in regions of the vomeronasal system, such as the accessory olfactory bulb and medial amygdala, and the arcuate nucleus. The main olfactory bulb did not exhibit any significant increase in the c-Fos expression by the male goat-hair extract. This result suggests that the neural signal of the male pheromone is conveyed to the GnRH pulse generator through the activated regions in ewes. PMID:24942115

Ohara, Hiromi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Toru; Ohkura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

2014-10-01

365

Effects of Exposure to Male Goat Hair Extracts on Luteinizing Hormone Secretion and Neuronal Activation in Seasonally Anestrous Ewes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In sheep and goats, exposure of seasonally anestrous females to males or their fleece/hair activates the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator leading to pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Pheromones emitted by sexually mature males are thought to play a prominent role in this male effect. In the present study, we first aimed to clarify whether the male goat pheromone is effective in ewes. Seasonally anestrous St. Croix ewes were exposed to hair extracts derived from either intact or castrated (control) male Shiba goats. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased LH secretion compared to the control, suggesting that an interspecies action of the male pheromone occurs between sheep and goats. Using the male goat-hair extract as the pheromone source, we then aimed to clarify the neural pathway involved in the signal transduction of the male pheromone. Ewes were exposed to either the goat-hair extract or the control and sacrificed 2 hr after the exposure. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was immunohistochemically examined. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased the c-Fos expression compared to the control in regions of the vomeronasal system, such as the accessory olfactory bulb and medial amygdala, and the arcuate nucleus. The main olfactory bulb did not exhibit any significant increase in the c-Fos expression by the male goat-hair extract. This result suggests that the neural signal of the male pheromone is conveyed to the GnRH pulse generator through the activated regions in ewes. PMID:24942115

OHARA, Hiromi; MOGI, Kazutaka; ICHIMARU, Toru; OHKURA, Satoshi; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji; OKAMURA, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

366

Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding canvasbacks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared nutrients in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues of breeding Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) to assess the relative importance of endogenous reserves and exogenous foods. Fat reserves of females increased during rapid follicle growth and varied more widely in size during the early phase of this period. Females began laying with ca. 205 g of fat in reserve and lost 1.8 g of carcass fat for every 1 g of fat contained in their ovary and eggs. Females lost body mass (primarily fat) at a declining rate as incubation advanced. Protein reserves increased directly with dry oviduct mass during rapid follicle growth. This direct relationship was highly dependent upon data from 2 birds and likely biased by structural size. During laying, protein reserves did not vary with the combined mass of dry oviduct and dry egg protein. Between laying and incubation, mean protein reserves decreased by an amount equal to the protein found in 2.1 Canvasback eggs. Calcium reserves did not vary with the cumulative total of calcium deposited in eggs. Mean calcium reserve declined by the equivalent content of 1.2 eggs between laying and incubation. We believe that protein and calcium were stored in small amounts during laying, and that they were supplemented continually by exogenous sources. In contrast, fat was stored in large amounts and contributed significantly to egg production and body maintenance. Male Canvasbacks lost fat steadily--but not protein or calcium--as the breeding season progressed.

Barzen, J.A.; Serie, J.R.

1990-01-01

367

Quantitative genetics and sex-specific selection on sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep  

E-print Network

mass) in a wild population of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and quantified sex-specific selection sheep (Ovis canadensis; figure 1) have attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists (Geist 1966

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

368

Automated nutrient analyses in seawater  

SciTech Connect

This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

1981-02-01

369

Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

370

Phylogenetic Position of a Copper Age Sheep (Ovis aries) Mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSheep (Ovis aries) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region about 9,000-8,000 years ago. Currently, few mitochondrial (mt) DNA studies are available on archaeological sheep. In particular, no data on archaeological European sheep are available.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere we describe the first portion of mtDNA sequence of a Copper Age European sheep. DNA was extracted from hair shafts which were part of

Cristina Olivieri; Luca Ermini; Ermanno Rizzi; Giorgio Corti; Stefania Luciani; Isolina Marota; Gianluca De Bellis; Franco Rollo

2012-01-01

371

Estrous cycle detection, superovulation and interspecies embryo transfer in Iranian Red Sheep  

E-print Network

Red Sheep and interspecies transfer of Iranian Red Sheep embryos to domestic sheep was obtained from this study. Ewes were observed for detection of estrus twice daily, morning and evening, during the 1988/89 breeding season, using an intact ram... estrous cycle patterns in Iranian Red Sheep by correlating behavioral estrus with circulating reproductive hormones. 2. Study the response to superovulation by exogenous follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). 3. Develop methods for collection...

Shrestha, Sunder Prasad

1989-01-01

372

Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted with aged nuclear-free homogenate of sheep liver and aged mitochondria in an attempt to measure both the extent of oxidation of propionate and the distribution of label from [2-14C]propionate in the products. With nuclear-free homogenate, propionate was 44% oxidized with the accumulation of succinate, fumarate, malate and some citrate. Recovery of 14C in these intermediates and respiratory carbon dioxide was only 33%, but additional label was detected in endogenous glutamate and aspartate. With washed mitochondria 30% oxidation of metabolized propionate occurred, and proportionately more citrate and malate accumulated. Recovery of 14C in dicarboxylic acids, citrate, ?-oxoglutarate, glutamate, aspartate and respiratory carbon dioxide was 91%. The specific activities of the products and the distribution of label in the carbon atoms of the dicarboxylic acids were consistent with the operation solely of the methylmalonate pathway together with limited oxidation of the succinate formed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle via pyruvate. In a final experiment with mitochondria the label consumed from [2-14C]propionate was entirely recovered in the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamate, aspartate, methylmalonate and respiratory carbon dioxide. PMID:6048786

Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

1967-01-01

373

Humoral immune responses in foetal sheep.  

PubMed Central

A total of fifty-two foetal sheep between 49 and 126 days gestation were injected with polymeric and monomeric flagellin, dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin, chicken red blood cells, ovalbumin, ferritin, chicken gamma-globulin and the somatic antigens of Salmonella typhimurium in a variety of combinations. Immune responses were followed in these animals by taking serial blood samples from them through indwelling vascular cannulae and measuring the circulating titres of antibody. Of the antigens tested, ferritin induced immune responses in the youngest foetuses. A short time later in gestation, the majority of foetuses responded to chicken red blood cells, polymeric flagellin, monomeric flagellin and dinitrophenylated monomeric flagellin. Only older foetuses responded regularly to chicken gamma-globulin and ovalbumin. However, antibodies to all these antigens were first detected over the relatively short period of development between 64 and 82 days gestation and this made it difficult to define any precise order in the development of immune responsiveness. Of the antigens tested only the somatic antigens of S. typhimurium failed to induce a primary antibody response during foetal life. The character and magnitude of the antibody responses in foetuses changed throughout in utero development. Both the total amount of antibody produced and the duration of the response increased with foetal age. Foetuses younger than 87 days gestation did not synthesize 2-mercaptoethanol resistant antibodies or IgG1 immunoglobulin to any of the antigens tested, whereas most foetuses older than this regularly did so. PMID:711249

Fahey, K J; Morris, B

1978-01-01

374

Insulin secretion in sheep exposed to cold.  

PubMed Central

1. Cold exposure caused a marked decrease in insulin response to intravenous injection of glucose, with a sharply declining response over the first 4 days of cold exposure followed by a constant low response up to 13 days of the experimental cold period. 2. The glucose-induced insulin response was unaffected by concomitant infusion of phentolamine in the warm environment. In contrast, the low response of insulin secretion to glucose during cold exposure was so augmented by concomitant infusion of phentolamine as to exceed the response observed in the warm environment. 3. Intravenous infusion of phentolamine caused an increase in the concentration of plasma insulin in the cold but not in the warm environment. 4. Adrenaline completely abolished the insulin response to glucose in the warm environment. 5. Exposure to cold environment brought about an increase in urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline and in heart rate, but rectal temperature was unchanged. 6. It is concluded that cold exposure insufficient to cause hypothermia produces a marked decrease in insulin secretion by the pancreas of sheep, mediated through adrenergic alpha-receptors stimulated by augmented sympatho-adrenomedullary activity. PMID:7007619

Sasaki, Y; Takahashi, H

1980-01-01

375

Experimental T-2 toxicosis in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Lambs received T-2 toxin at a rate of 0.6 or 0.3 mg/kg body weight per day in a protein reduced diet for 21 days to study the immunological and pathological effects of T-2 toxin in sheep. Blood was collected before T-2 treatment and on days 7, 14 and 21 of the trial for hematological and biochemical examination and for the separation of peripheral blood lymphocytes for the mitogen assay. Myeloid:erythroid ratios were determined from sternal bone marrow samples taken a day before T-2 treatment began, on day 12 and at death (day 22). Lambs treated with 0.6 mg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin daily were leukopenic on day 7 and lymphopenic on days 7 and 14. Also, on day 7, the mitogenic responses of these lambs to the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide, were significantly depressed and prothrombin times were prolonged. At necropsy, lymphoid atrophy of mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens was most marked in lambs treated with 0.6 mg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin per day. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of leukopenia, lymphopenia and lymphoid depletion in ruminants fed T-2 toxin. Images Fig. 3a. Fig. 3b. Fig. 5a. Fig. 5b. Fig. 6a. Fig. 6b. PMID:6640413

Friend, S C; Hancock, D S; Schiefer, H B; Babiuk, L A

1983-01-01

376

Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

1996-01-01

377

Ultrasound as a monitoring tool for cystic echinococcosis in sheep.  

PubMed

An ultrasound-based survey for cystic echinococcosis (CE) in sheep was carried out in Sardinia in 2012. The study was done on three farms (A, B, C) which had been pre-selected for different CE prevalence levels (A: >80%, B: 50-80%, C: <50%). In total, 129 sheep were examined on the farms using portable ultrasound equipment (A: n=51, B: n=30, C: n=48). Within a period of 20 days after ultrasound examination, all sheep were slaughtered and underwent a parasitological post-mortem examination for cysts in the liver and lungs. With post-mortem as gold standard, ultrasonography gave a test sensitivity of 88.7% and a specificity of 75.9%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 81.8% and 84.6%, respectively. When only sheep with fertile cysts were considered, the sensitivity of the test increased to 100%. We conclude that the ultrasound examination of the liver in sheep - using state-of-the-art technology - is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool, which is cost-effective, highly appropriate for field use and requires only moderate time (no shaving required). The method can also be applied to other livestock species and will be useful tool in epidemiological studies, monitoring schemes and vaccination/control trials. PMID:24704343

Dore, F; Varcasia, A; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Corda, A; Romig, T; Scala, A

2014-06-16

378

Daily rhythm of salivary and serum urea concentration in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background In domestic animals many biochemical and physiological processes exhibit daily rhythmicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmic pattern of salivary and serum urea concentrations in sheep. Methods Six 3-year-old female sheep kept in the same environmental conditions were used. Sheep were sampled at 4 hour intervals for 48 consecutive hours starting at 08:00 of the first day and finishing at 04:00 of the second day. Blood samples were collected via intravenous cannulae inserted into the jugular vein; saliva samples were collected through a specific tube, the "Salivette". Salivary and serum urea concentrations were assayed by means of UV spectrophotometer. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. The single Cosinor procedure was applied to the results showing significant differences over time. Results ANOVA showed a significant effect of time on salivary and serum urea concentrations. Serum and salivary urea peaked during the light phase. In the dark phase serum and salivary urea concentrations decreased, and the diurnal trough occurred at midnight. Cosinor analysis showed diurnal acrophases for salivary and serum urea concentrations. Daily mean levels were significantly higher in the serum than in the saliva. Conclusion In sheep both salivary and serum urea concentrations showed daily fluctuations. Urea is synthesized in the liver and its production is strongly influenced by food intake. Future investigation should clarify whether daily urea rhythms in sheep are endogenous or are simply the result of the temporal administration of food. PMID:17123442

Piccione, Giuseppe; Foà, Augusto; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Caola, Giovanni

2006-01-01

379

Population dynamics of scrapie in a sheep flock.  

PubMed Central

A detailed analysis of an outbreak of natural scrapie in a flock of Cheviot sheep is described. A total of 137 cases was reported over 13 years among 1307 sheep born into the flock. The epidemiology of scrapie can only be understood with reference to sheep demography, the population genetics of susceptibility to scrapie, pathogenesis during a long incubation period, and the rate of transmission (by both vertical and horizontal routes), all of which interact in complex ways. A mathematical model incorporating these features is described, parameter values and model inputs are derived from available information from the flock and from independent sources, and model outputs are compared with the field data. The model is able to reproduce key features of the outbreak, including its long duration and the ages of cases. The analysis supports earlier work suggesting that many infected sheep do not survive to show clinical signs, that most cases arise through horizontal transmission, and that there is strong selection against susceptible genotypes. However, important aspects of scrapie epidemiology remain poorly understood, including the possible role of carrier genotypes and of an environmental reservoir of infectivity, and the mechanisms maintaining alleles giving susceptibility to scrapie in the sheep population. PMID:10365400

Woolhouse, M E; Matthews, L; Coen, P; Stringer, S M; Foster, J D; Hunter, N

1999-01-01

380

Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep  

SciTech Connect

Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

1986-03-01

381

Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep  

SciTech Connect

We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

1987-01-01

382

Experimental infection of bighorn sheep with liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica).  

PubMed

Nine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were each inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the time of inoculation and at 5, 10, 14, and 20 wk after inoculation. Numbers of fluke eggs in feces, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and eosinophil values were determined. Five of the bighorn sheep were treated with triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight 14 wk after inoculation. Based on fecal evaluations, all bighorns developed patent infections. Six weeks after treatment, fluke eggs were not detected in feces from the five treated animals but were present in two of four untreated animals. One untreated bighorn sheep was euthanized 20 wk after inoculation, and 57 adult F. hepatica were recovered from the liver. Results from this experiment indicated that bighorn sheep are efficient hosts for F. hepatica. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight was safe and, based on fluke egg recovery in feces, apparently an effective treatment. To my knowledge, this is the first published report of F. hepatica in bighorn sheep. PMID:19901401

Foreyt, William J

2009-10-01

383

Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective  

PubMed Central

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

2013-01-01

384

Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

385

Anim. Behav., 1995, 49, 901910 Density-dependent motheryearling association in bighorn sheep  

E-print Network

, but their existence among sheep is controversial. In bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, at high population density in red deer, Cervus elaphus (Guinness et al. 1979; Albon et al. 1992), zebu cattle, Bos indicus 1987). Bighorn, Ovis canadensis, and domestic sheep, O. aries, however, do not seem to fit this pattern

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

386

The effect of carbon monoxide on oxygen metabolism in the brains of awake sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight conscious chronically instrumented sheep were exposed to 1% inspired carbon monoxide (CO) for 35 min. In all sheep, carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels at the end of the exposure were approximately 65%. Mean arterial blood pressure was unchanged with the exception of 2 sheep in which administration was stopped at 25 min following the sudden onset of hypotension. Oxygen delivery to

Peter Langston; Des Gorman; William Runciman; Richard Upton

1996-01-01

387

The preference of adult sheep and goats grazing ryegrass and white clover  

E-print Network

The preference of adult sheep and goats grazing ryegrass and white clover PD Penning JA Newman AJ Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6501, USA Sheep and goats have been shown to select different (50 x 40 m of clover alongside 50 x 10 m grass). Prior to the test the sheep and goats grazed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing in a landscape mosaic  

E-print Network

Ingestive behaviour of sheep and goats grazing in a landscape mosaic M Trabalza-Marinucci V during the years prior to the experiment by sheep, goats, cattle, and horses. The animals used in the experiment were 18 Heidschnucken sheep and 16 Alpine and Spanish-type goats, distributed in three homogeneous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Supplementary protein and gastro-intestinal parasitism in young grazing sheep  

E-print Network

Supplementary protein and gastro-intestinal parasitism in young grazing sheep MFJ van Houtert IA the debilitating effect of Trichostrongylus colubriformis (TRICH) on young sheep, in contrast to infusion sheep fed hay. Fish meal also enhanced the rate of expulsion of TRICH. Much less is known about

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Effect of tannins on nitrogen balance and microbial activity of rumen fluid in sheep and goats H balance in sheep and goats and on potentially related parameters such as plasma urea nitrogen (PUN on the fermentation capacity of sheep and goat rumen fluid were also investigated. Results indicate that the infusion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Comparative study of the muralytic activity of rumen microbes measured in situ in Ilamas and sheep  

E-print Network

Comparative study of the muralytic activity of rumen microbes measured in situ in Ilamas and sheep of a wheat straw in 3 llamas and 3 sheep fed on a mixed diet (grass hay / bar- ley = 88/12) at 90% ad libitum containing the wheat straw were incubated for 72 h in the rumen of each sheep or each llama, after which 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

EFFECTS OF DIET ON THE MOTILITY OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AND PLASMA INSULIN LEVELS IN SHEEP  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DIET ON THE MOTILITY OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AND PLASMA INSULIN LEVELS IN SHEEP L. BUENO monogastriques. Introduction In adult sheep a major pattern of electrical activity of the small intestine of hay in sheep (Grivel and Ruckebusch, 1972) or ruminant calves (Ruckebusch and Bueno, 1973). Recently

Boyer, Edmond

393

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats  

E-print Network

Third International Workshop on Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and Goats 8­11 December 2003, Toulouse WORKSHOP ON MAJOR GENES AND QTL IN SHEEP AND GOATS This is the third international meeting dealing on ovulation rate and prolificacy in sheep was totally unsuspected at this time and a number of research teams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

A new sheep shed which overcomes heat stress and disease losses in the Malaysian humid tropics  

E-print Network

A new sheep shed which overcomes heat stress and disease losses in the Malaysian humid tropics MP Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Sheep imported to the Malaysian humid tropics adapt very sheep also suffer from the same biological constraints but are much better adapted. However, their low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Mixed grazing by sheep and steers of irrigated Digitaria decumbens pastures in Martinique (FWI)  

E-print Network

Mixed grazing by sheep and steers of irrigated Digitaria decumbens pastures in Martinique (FWI) M the effects of mixing Brahman heifers and growing "Martinik hair sheep" lambs from weaning to slaughter lambs grazing with heifers (4 lambs for 1 heifer), heifers alone. Stocking rate in sheep and cattle body

Boyer, Edmond

396

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats  

E-print Network

Comparative effect of diets on microbial activity of the rumen in sheep and goats C. MASSON, W/kg po.To varied between 55 and 74 in goats and 35 and 72 in sheep. Dry matter intake of goats was higher (110 to 140 p. 100) than that of sheep and more especially when the protein content of the diet was low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Original article Feeding-associated gene expression in sheep scab mites  

E-print Network

Original article Feeding-associated gene expression in sheep scab mites (Psoroptes ovis) Carol M ­ The mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab. Although not usually fatal, the disease can the mite to identify a host. Psoroptes / sheep / gene / protein / feeding 1. INTRODUCTION The mite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Acute In Vivo Testing of a Respiratory Assist Catheter: Implants in Calves Versus Sheep  

E-print Network

Acute In Vivo Testing of a Respiratory Assist Catheter: Implants in Calves Versus Sheep HEIDE J. In this study, the CO2 removal performance of our catheter was assessed in acute sheep implants and compared with calf implants, primarily because sheep have cardiac outputs (CO) that are more comparable with human CO

Federspiel, William J.

399

Evolution of the 2n = 54 karyotype of Domestic sheep(1) (Ovis aries).  

E-print Network

Evolution of the 2n = 54 karyotype of Domestic sheep(1) (Ovis aries). T. D. BUNCH W. C. FOOTE International Sheep and Goat Institute and Departments of Animal, Dairy and Veterinaty Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, 8¢322, U.S.A. Summary The diploid chromosome number of domestic sheep (Ovis aries

Boyer, Edmond

400

ATP measurement in sheep rumen digesta using dimethyl sulfoxide as an extraction reagent  

E-print Network

ATP measurement in sheep rumen digesta using dimethyl sulfoxide as an extraction reagent Sylvie the rumen contents of sheep fed with three different diets : beet pulp, semi- purified and grass-hay. After commercial reagents, NRB (1) and Nucleoline (2). The studies were conducted on sheep fed three different

Boyer, Edmond

401

Fetal transabdominal pulse oximeter studies using a hypoxic sheep SHOKO NIOKA1,4  

E-print Network

Fetal transabdominal pulse oximeter studies using a hypoxic sheep model SHOKO NIOKA1,4 , MELTEM using a sheep fetal hypoxia model with fetal arterial hemoglobin saturation. Methods. Four pregnant ewes, sheep, fetus, hypoxia Introduction Pulse oximetry (arterial oxygen saturation monitor- ing), developed

402

Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control  

E-print Network

Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy for Leader-Based Containment Control G. Ferrari-Trecate1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006 #12;Laplacian Sheep: A Hybrid, Stop-Go Policy 213 algebraic graph of the followers violate the containment property. This strategy also explains the title "Laplacian Sheep" since

Egerstedt, Magnus

403

Rangeland Ecol Manage 60:125135 | March 2007 Assessment of Expert Opinion: Seasonal Sheep Preference  

E-print Network

Rangeland Ecol Manage 60:125­135 | March 2007 Assessment of Expert Opinion: Seasonal Sheep. Abstract Expert opinion was sought on 2 issues relating to herbivory: seasonal sheep preferences for plant individually interviewed. The experts ranked sheep preferences for species in 4 rangeland vegetation types

Theobald, Chris

404

Intake and digestibility of different forages in Hamas compared to sheep  

E-print Network

Note Intake and digestibility of different forages in Hamas compared to sheep Jean-Pierre Dulphy mea- sured, were pooled to make a comparison between llamas and sheep fed dry forages. Llamas and sheep ingest, on average, similar levels of dry matter: 15.8 against 17.7 g DM/kg LW, or 49.2 against 51

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Existence of Bistability and Correlation with Arrhythmogenesis in Paced Sheep Atria  

E-print Network

797 Existence of Bistability and Correlation with Arrhythmogenesis in Paced Sheep Atria 1 ROBERT A. Durham, North Carolina | Bistability and Arrhythmogenesis in Paced Sheep Atria. Introduction: Studies. This study uses high-frequency pacing to investigate the dynamics of sheep atria. Methods and Results: A 504

Bahar, Sonya

406

Micropuncture study on urea movements in the kidney cortical tubules of low protein fed sheep  

E-print Network

sheep Islamey Tebota Stephan Faix Marika Szanyiovab Alberto Cirio Lubomir Lengb !Departamento de were car- ried out on kidneys of normal (NP) and low (LP) protein fed sheep in order to investigate difference in the proximal tubule functions between both groups of sheep. In distal cortical tubules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Congurational coding, familiarity and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition in sheep  

E-print Network

Con®gurational coding, familiarity and the right hemisphere advantage for face recognition in sheep of familiar and unfamiliar faces in sheep using a 2-way discrimination task. Of particular interest were eects face a series of stimuli were presented to the sheep, designed to test for the use of each visual hemi

Nottingham, University of

408

The Development and Testing of a Revised Dynamic Model of Radiocaesium Transfer to Sheep Tissues  

E-print Network

1 The Development and Testing of a Revised Dynamic Model of Radiocaesium Transfer to Sheep Tissues/8/95 Abbreviation Key: #12;2 ECF: Extra-Cellular Fluid GIT: Gastro-Intestinal Tract Keywords: Radiocaesium, sheep, model #12;3 ABSTRACT The model of radiocaesium transfer to sheep presented by Galer et al [1] provides

Crout, Neil

409

Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

2007-01-01

410

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium Integrating Advanced Concepts into Traditional Practices  

E-print Network

WERA-39-WSASAS Sheep Symposium Integrating Advanced Concepts into Traditional Practices June 19) 994-7952, Email: hatfield@montana.edu The Sheep Symposium is sponsored by the following: *WERA-39 Western Extension, research, and academic coordinating committee, sheep *WSASAS Western Section American

Maxwell, Bruce D.

411

Thinking Like a Wolf 1 RUNNING HEAD: Thinking Like a Wolf, a Sheep, or a Firefly  

E-print Network

Thinking Like a Wolf 1 RUNNING HEAD: Thinking Like a Wolf, a Sheep, or a Firefly Thinking Like a Wolf, a Sheep, or a Firefly: Learning Biology Through Constructing and Testing Computational Theories, a Sheep, or a Firefly: Learning Biology Through Constructing and Testing Computational Theories

Wilensky, Uri

412

Inability of protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach to establish in the rumen of sheep  

E-print Network

Inability of protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach to establish in the rumen of sheep SK Baker BA forestomach would establish in the ovine rumen. Two groups each of 10 wether sheep were housed in separate and supplementary minerals (59.4, 10.4, 14, 14, 2.2), offered once daily. Five sheep in each group were offered

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

EFFECT OF GENES AFFECTING TAN COLOUR ON PRODUCTIVITY IN ICELANDIC SHEEP  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF GENES AFFECTING TAN COLOUR ON PRODUCTIVITY IN ICELANDIC SHEEP S. ADALSTEINSSON of the effect, within the Icelandic Sheep breed, of pelt class of sire and pelt class of daughter on lambing The research work to be described here has been aimed at improving the Icelandic sheep breed with respect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Evidence for the Presence of Calsequestrin in Both Peripheral and Interior Regions of Sheep Purkinje  

E-print Network

267 Evidence for the Presence of Calsequestrin in Both Peripheral and Interior Regions of Sheep in sheep Purkinje fibers was determined by indirect immunofluorescence labeling of cryostat sections of sheep myocardium from the intraventricular wall. The results presented show that calsequestrin

Campbell, Kevin P.

415

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection  

E-print Network

Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection E conducted to test the hypothesis that goats eat more than sheep and that goats are more selective feeders than sheep. In Experiment 1 with long lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay over 14 days, intake of dry matter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Helical myofiber orientation after myocardial infarction and left ventricular surgical restoration in sheep  

E-print Network

in sheep Joseph C. Walker, BSa Julius M. Guccione, PhDb,c Yi Jiang, MDd,e Peng Zhang, MD, PhDc Arthur W ventricular surgical restoration re- stores normal helix angles. Methods: Thirteen sheep underwent sheep (n 5) were also harvested and imaged. Primary eigenvectors of the diffusion tensors from magnetic

Duncan, James S.

417

2003 DESERT BIGHORN COUNCIL TRANSACTIONS: VOLUME 4720 Status of bighorn sheep in  

E-print Network

2003 DESERT BIGHORN COUNCIL TRANSACTIONS: VOLUME 4720 Status of bighorn sheep in California Clinton Sheep Recovery Program, California Department of Fish and Game, 407 West Line Street, Bishop, CA 93514, USA Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 47:20­35 Successful management of bighorn sheep requires

Silver, Whendee

418

Comparison of the hydrolytic activity of microorganisms in the forestomachs of dromedaries and sheep  

E-print Network

and sheep C Kayouli1 JP Jouany2 1 INAT Laboratoire de Nutrition, 43, av C Nicolle, f 002 Tunis Belvédère, Theix, 63122 Ceyrat, France Two adult dromedaries (430 and 320 kg) and 2 sheep (44 and 52 kg), fitted) of the less digestible substrates was higher in camels than in sheep. In sacco degradation, corrected

Boyer, Edmond

419

Comparison of the intake and digestibility of different diets in Ilamas and sheep  

E-print Network

Note Comparison of the intake and digestibility of different diets in Ilamas and sheep llamas and 3 sheep. The 2 species ingested the same quantity of hay, but llamas ingested 14% more straw was higher in llamas (32 h against 25 h for sheep). Reticulo rumen pH was more stable in llamas and also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Using sheep preference, near infrared reflectance and laboratory tests for predicting voluntary intake  

E-print Network

Using sheep preference, near infrared reflectance and laboratory tests for predicting voluntary grown in 8 years, and measured VDMI (mean = 17.3, SD = 7.29 g/kg body weight) in Awassi sheep. We (1236, 1606, 1668, 1680 nm). We also offered straw to sheep in pair-preference tests lasting between 2

Boyer, Edmond

421

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....

422

Fecal counts of lungworm larvae and reproductive effort in bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis  

E-print Network

Fecal counts of lungworm larvae and reproductive effort in bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis Fanie lungworm (Protostrongylus spp.) larvae counts in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) over four years to examine. 1994). In mammals, a study on bighorn sheep ewes (Ovis canadensis), revealed a positive association

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

423

Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline  

E-print Network

Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline Joshua B causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding, Klaver RW (2014) Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline

424

Group size, foraging, and antipredator ploys: An analysis of bighorn sheep decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Several aspects of the foraging behavior of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) were studied in homogeneous habitats in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. The manner in which an individual sheep foraged was based upon the size of group within which it was found.2.In small groups (five or less individuals) sheep foraging efficiency was poor and interruptions of foraging

Joel Berger

1978-01-01

425

Sheep bedding in the Centennial Mountains of Montana and Idaho: effects on vegetation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During summer months in western North America many bands of sheep are grazed in the mountains. At night a sheep band is concentrated in, often historic, bedding areas to guard them from theft and predation. We analyzed the impacts of sheep bedding on the vegetation in bedding areas compared to veget...

426

Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Michoacán State, Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep is of public health and economic importance. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and correlates were determined in 405 sheep from 7 farms in 4 geographical regions in Michoacán State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). General sheep and environ...

427

Increased density and male–male interactions reduce male longevity in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of adult density on male and female longevity and behavioural interactions in a mass-reared strain of the medfly. Male survival decreased significantly, and male–male behavioural interactions increased significantly, with increasing male density (males were kept at 1, 2, 6 and 10 flies per 285cm2in pots of 5.5cm in diameter and 12cm high). No such effects were

Tom Gaskin; Peter Futerman; Tracey Chapman

2002-01-01

428

[The cell count in sheep and goat milk].  

PubMed

The udder health of 404 sheep from 23 flocks and 397 goats from 15 herds in Lower Austria was examined. In order to determine cell levels, the Schalm Test (equivalent to the California mastitis test) and a fluoroscopic "Fossomatic" cell count appliance were employed. The resultant physiological median levels of somatic cell content were established as 71,000 cells/ml for sheep milk and 415,000 cells/ml for goat milk. Significant factors influencing the cell count levels were the milking technique in both species and age in sheep but not in goats. The pathogens most frequently isolated as causes of chronic or latent mastitis were coagulase-positive and -negative cocci. PMID:1796462

Pernthaner, A; Deutz, A; Schlerka, G; Baumgartner, W

1991-12-01

429

An autosomal genetic linkage map of the sheep genome  

SciTech Connect

We report the first extensive ovine genetic linkage map covering 2070 cM of the sheep genome. The map was generated from the linkage analysis of 246 polymorphic markers, in nine three-generation full-sib pedigrees, which make up the AgResearch International Mapping Flock. We have exploited many markers from cattle so that valuable comparisons between these two ruminant linkage maps can be made. The markers, used in the segregation analyses, comprised 86 anonymous microsatellite markers derived from the sheep genome, 126 anonymous microsatellites from cattle, one from deer, and 33 polymorphic markers of various types associated with known genes. The maximum number of informative meioses within the mapping flock was 22. The average number of informative meioses per marker was 140 (range 18-209). Linkage groups have been assigned to all 26 sheep autosomes. 102 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Crawford, A.M.; Ede, A.J.; Pierson, C.A. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [and others

1995-06-01

430

Helminth infections of sheep in North Sumatra, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal tracts of 73 indigenous sheep were obtained from the Medan abattoir in North Sumatra, Indonesia, and examined for the presence of helminths. A total of 13 species of helminths, eight nematodes, one cestode and four trematodes were encountered. All sheep were infected by more than one species of nematodes. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei and Haemonchus contortus were the most common species. The intensity of the nematode infections was very high: the average burden was over 7500 worms. Trichostrongylus spp. accounted, on average, for 81.5% of the total nematode burden. No influence of age on total nematode burden could be shown. Eurytrema pancreaticum and Schistosoma spindale were found in 23.3% and 4.1% of the examined sheep, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to common management and helminth control systems. PMID:8720574

Dorny, P; Batubara, A; Iskander, M; Pandey, V S

1996-02-01

431

Lymphocytic hypophysitis in males.  

PubMed

Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland that typically affects women in the peripartum period. We describe two male patients (ages 43 years and 36 years), who presented with headaches, visual disturbance and hypopituitarism. MRI revealed a heterogeneous pituitary lesion that extended into the suprasellar region and with a thickened pituitary stalk. In both patients a histopathological diagnosis of LH was made after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. LH in males, although rare, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in those with hypopituitarism and a heterogeneous pituitary fossa mass, extending into pituitary stalk. PMID:23485405

Hindocha, Akshay; Chaudhary, B Roy; Kearney, Tara; Pal, Piyali; Gnanalingham, Kanna

2013-05-01

432

Detection probability and Pasteurellaceae surveillance in bighorn sheep.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of detection probability (i.e., the probability of detecting the disease or organism of interest) on the repeatability of results reported from bacterial culture tests used to demonstrate the presence of species in the Pasteurellaceae family that infect bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). We also estimated occupancy probabilities (i.e., the probability an individual bighorn in a herd is infected) for each cultured biovariant and examined the effects of detection probability on the number of samples needed to detect the Pasteurellaceae biovariants from within an individual sheep as well as from within a herd. We collected 5-15 samples from free-ranging bighorns in Colorado, using oropharyngeal swabs or swabs of lungs, and submitted these swabs either immediately or after 2 days for bacterial culture. We saw significant variability in results for repeated samples from each of the sheep, and detection probabilities were ? 0.71 for all Pasteurellaceae biovariants cultured. The delayed (? 2 days) sample submission reduced both the microbial diversity detected and the detection probability for the biovariants characterized when compared to samples submitted immediately. Oropharyngeal sampling had higher detection probabilities of the individual biovariants than did lung swabs, and there was a difference in the biovariants detected between oropharyngeal and lung sampling. Depending on the biovariant of interest, estimates of occupancy probabilities ranged from 0.37-0.89, and we estimated that three to >30 swab samples were necessary to obtain a 95% confidence of detecting the cultured biovariants if they were present in an individual sheep. We estimated that the optimal sample sizes to detect the observed biovariants within a sheep herd with a 95% confidence ranged from sampling two bighorns twice to sampling 40 individuals once. Detection probability impacts the results reported from bacterial cultures for Pasteurellaceae in bighorn sheep, and confounding effects of the detection process should be addressed to improve the rigor of surveillance. PMID:22740525

Walsh, Daniel P; Wolfe, Lisa L; Vieira, Mark E P; Miller, Michael W

2012-07-01

433

Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?sheep. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

2012-01-01

434

Alternative male reproductive tactics and the immunocompetence handicap in the Azorean rock-pool blenny, Parablennius parvicornis  

PubMed Central

In the Azorean rock-pool blenny (Parablennius parvicornis) reproductively active males display alternative morphotypes, which differ in the expression of secondary sexual characters (SSC). Males expressing SSC, the M+ morphotype, have high androgen levels and compete for crevices that will be visited by females to spawn. M+ males holding nests court females and care for the eggs. Males with low expression of SSC, the M? morphotype, have low levels of androgens and reproduce by stealing fertilizations from the M+ males. Based on the hypothesis that androgens are immunosuppressive, we expected these morphotypes to differ in immunocompetence. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a field study in which we collected repeated blood samples to monitor leukocyte populations (blood smears), and to measure the primary antibody response of males that were experimentally challenged with a foreign non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells). Circulating levels of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were higher in M+ males than in M? males. Neither granulocyte nor thrombocyte counts did covariate with androgens or male tactic. In contrast, lymphocyte counts and humoral antibody response were negatively correlated with body size, and as expected, both were lower in M+ than in M? males. Interestingly, in M+ males androgen levels decreased after immunization, and this was less in nest-holder males than in M+ males that were floating around in the pools. Within each morphotype we found no relationship between androgens and immunocompetence. The latter result is not supportive for androgen regulated immunosuppression in M+ males. A possible alternative is enhancement of immunity in M? males. These males had relatively high levels of injuries in comparison with M+ males. High immunity might be a consequence of high infection rate because of such injuries. PMID:16627274

Ros, Albert F.H; Bouton, Niels; Santos, Ricardo S; Oliveira, Rui F

2006-01-01

435

Unstable pyrethroid resistance in sheep body lice Bovicola ovis (Schrank), (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) and its implications for lice control on sheep.  

PubMed

A retrospective study in which the 18 years treatment history of a mob of sheep hosting a pyrethroid resistant strain of sheep body lice was compared with the coincidental changes in that strain's response to cypermethrin, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the stability of pyrethroid resistance in this species. Resistance levels remained very high (resistance factors (RF)=75-145) for at least five years following the cessation of pyrethroid treatments but within ten years had dropped to only 5, a level similar to many normal field strains and certainly not indicative of high-level resistance. Resumption of pyrethroid treatment of sheep infested with these lice caused a coincidental increase in resistance to an extreme level (RF=321) within two years. Wool producers considering a return to pyrethroid use to control louse infestations should be aware that such a strategy may not be sustainable in the long term and that in Australia effective registered alternative treatments are available. PMID:22004914

Levot, Garry

2012-04-30

436

Empowering Young Black Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

Kafele, Baruti K.

2012-01-01

437

Male breast tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the breast is rare and tuberculosis of the male breast is not a recognised entity. We describe a man with tuberculosis of the breast which was clinically thought to be a malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9338032

Jaideep, C.; Kumar, M.; Khanna, A. K.

1997-01-01

438

Male mating biology  

PubMed Central

Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

2009-01-01

439

More males run fast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in competitiveness are well established, but it is unknown if they originate from sociocultural conditions or evolved predispositions. Testing these hypotheses requires a quantifiable sex difference in competitiveness and the application of a powerful sociocultural manipulation to eliminate it. Study 1 reviews previous work showing that more male distance runners are motivated by competition and maintain large training

Robert O. Deaner

2006-01-01

440

Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

2001-01-01

441

Understanding African American Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

Bell, Edward Earl

2010-01-01

442

Lycopene and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

2014-01-01

443

Regeneration of large bone defects in sheep using bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Bone repair was addressed in a critical-sized defect model in sheep, combining a ceramic biomaterial and mesenchymal progenitor cells. The defects in the tibial mid-diaphysis were treated with autologous bone or with a silicon-stabilized tricalcium phosphate biomaterial, implemented or not by the addition of expanded bone marrow stromal cells. An internal locking compression plate and an external fixator were applied for stabilization. Radiographies were taken during the 8 months follow-up: the pixel grey levels of the lesion areas were determined to evaluate the repair process radiologically. Microradiography, histology and vascular density tests were performed. The autologous bone-treated group performed best, as assessed radiologically, within 20-24 weeks after surgery. Very limited healing was detected in the other experimental group: a partial bone deposition occurred at the periphery of the bony stumps only in the cell-seeded scaffolds. Interestingly, this effect ended within 20-24 weeks, as for the autologous bone, suggesting similar kinetics of the repair processes involved. Moreover, bone deposition was located where a significant reduction of the ceramic scaffold was detected. Faxitron microradiography and histology data confirmed these results. Vascular density analysis evidenced that cell-seeded scaffolds supported an increased vascular ingrowth. Thus, the interactions with the proper microenvironment and the oxygen and nutrient supply in the inner part of the constructs seem fundamental to initiate scaffold substitution and to improve cell performance in tissue-engineered approaches to bone repair. PMID:18537203

Giannoni, P; Mastrogiacomo, M; Alini, M; Pearce, S G; Corsi, A; Santolini, F; Muraglia, A; Bianco, P; Cancedda, R

2008-07-01

444

Managing urban nutrient biogeochemistry for sustainable urbanization.  

PubMed

Urban ecosystems are unique in the sense that human activities are the major drivers of biogeochemical processes. Along with the demographic movement into cities, nutrients flow towards the urban zone (nutrient urbanization), causing the degradation of environmental quality and ecosystem health. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of nutrient cycling within the urban ecosystem compared to natural ecosystems. The dynamic process of nutrient urbanization is then explored taking Xiamen city, China, as an example to examine the influence of rapid urbanization on food sourced nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism. Subsequently, the concept of a nutrient footprint and calculation method is introduced from a lifecycle perspective. Finally, we propose three system approaches to mend the broken biogeochemical cycling. Our study will contribute to a holistic solution which achieves synergies between environmental quality and food security, by integrating technologies for nutrient recovery and waste reduction. PMID:24746891

Lin, Tao; Gibson, Valerie; Cui, Shenghui; Yu, Chang-Ping; Chen, Shaohua; Ye, Zhilong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2014-09-01

445

Response of bighorn sheep to clear-cut logging and prescribed burning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prescribed burning and timber harvesting have been used to restore and maintain Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (avis canadensis) ranges. Intensive study of a bighorn sheep herd in northeastern Utah indicated a need for range improvements. To evaluate the effectiveness of clear-cut logging and prescribed burning, we documented sheep responses to these treatments. Although bighorn sheep exhibited strong fidelity to pre-treatment areas (P>0.05), they significantly altered use patterns to include logged and burned areas (P<0.001). Treated habitats experienced 148% increases in bighorn sheep activity, whereas use in untreated areas declined by 45%. Bighorn sheep responded more favorably to logged units than to burned areas. We conclude that carefully planned clear-cut logging and range burning may be effective to enhance and expand bighorn sheep populations.

Smith, T.S.; Hardin, P.J.; Flinders, J.T.

1999-01-01

446

Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.  

PubMed

Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle. PMID:24629771

Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

2014-06-01

447

Assessment of gastrointestinal permeability by lactulose test in sheep after repeated indomethacin treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the small intestine permeability by using lactulose as a sugar probe and blood metabolites in sheep after a challenge with repeated indomethacin injections. According to a changeover design, 7 adult sheep (4 males and 3 females) were subjected to 4 intramuscular injections (every 12 h) of saline [control (CRT); 7 animals] or indomethacin (INDO; 7 animals). Two hours after the last injection, 30 g of lactulose were administered orally to both CTR and INDO. Blood samples were collected daily for the analysis of the metabolic profile and 5 samples were collected at 2-h intervals following lactulose ingestion to monitor changes in blood levels of lactulose as an index of intestinal permeability. The INDO challenge induced clinical symptoms such as lack of appetite, dullness, weakness, depression, and diarrhea with traces of blood in the feces. In INDO group, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin increased (P < 0.01) after INDO challenge whereas a decrease (P < 0.05) of negative acute phase reactants (e.g., cholesterol, albumin, and paraoxonase) was observed. Reactive oxygen metabolites increased (P < 0.01) from 60 to 204 h after the INDO challenge start, with a decrease of vitamin E concentration from 12 (P < 0.01) to 132 h (P < 0.05). Blood lactulose concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in INDO animals and the highest mean values (17.67 µg/mL in INDO vs. 0.17 µg/mL in CRT; P < 0.01) were observed 6 h after oral dosage of lactulose. These changes indicate that the INDO challenge led to severe inflammatory responses with oxidative stress by enhancing small intestinal permeability in sheep that allowed lactulose to enter in blood. The results of this experiment demonstrate that lactulose can be used as a probe to assess gastrointestinal permeability in adult ruminants to test the consequences of stressing conditions on animal welfare. For this purpose, the most suitable time for blood sampling is between 2 and 8 h after the oral dosage of lactulose. PMID:24126268

Minuti, A; Ahmed, S; Trevisi, E; Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Bertoni, G; Bani, P

2013-12-01

448

Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Induces Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Changes in Fetal Tissues in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Studies in rats and mice have established that maternal nutrition induces epigenetic modifications, sometimes permanently, that alter gene expression in the fetus, which in turn leads to phenotypic changes. However, limited data is available on the influence of maternal diet on epigenetic modifications and gene expression in sheep. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of different maternal dietary energy sources on the expression of imprinted genes in fetuses in sheep. Ewes were naturally bred to a single sire and from days 67?±?3 of gestation until necropsy (days 130?±?1), they were fed one of three diets of alfalfa haylage (HY; fiber), corn (CN; starch), or dried corn distiller’s grains (DG; fiber plus protein plus fat). A total of 26 fetuses were removed from the dams and longissimus dorsi, semitendinosus, perirenal adipose depot, and subcutaneous adipose depot tissues were collected for expression and DNA methylation analyses. Expression analysis of nine imprinted genes and three DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) genes showed significant effects of the different maternal diets on the expression of these genes. The methylation levels of CpG islands of both IGF2R and H19 were higher in HY and DG than CN fetuses in both males and females. This result is consistent with the low amino acid content of the CN diet, a source of methyl group donors, compared to HY and DG diets. Thus, results of this study provide evidence of association between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and transcriptomic and epigenomic alterations of imprinted genes and DNMTs in the fetal tissues. PMID:23577020

Lan, Xianyong; Cretney, Evan C.; Kropp, Jenna; Khateeb, Karam; Berg, Mary A.; Peñagaricano, Francisco; Magness, Ronald; Radunz, Amy E.; Khatib, Hasan

2013-01-01

449

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Agricultural Research Service has announced Release 12 of the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (discussed in the October 15, 1997 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). The data can be searched and viewed from the home page or downloaded in several different formats. The Database contains information on food groups, nutrient content, weights, measures and source footnotes. Over 5,900 foods are included and full file documentation is available.

450

Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

Evans, R. D.

1994-11-01

451

Rhizosphere Priming: a Nutrient Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. We postulate that rhizosphere priming on soil C may occur in nitrogen (N) limited but not in phosphorus (P) limited systems. Under N limitation, root exudates may be utilised by microbes stimulating oxidation of soil C thereby releasing N. On the other hand, under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for P hydrolysis, desorption, dissolution and mobilisation processes without affecting C decomposition. We illustrate this hypothesis with results from two field experiments in semiarid grasslands (Colorado and Wyoming study) affected by elevated atmospheric CO2. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming under elevated CO2 enhanced the release of N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in the Colorado study, but not in the Wyoming study. This contrast in N cycling may have been caused by N limitation in the Colorado and P limitation in the Wyoming study. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

Dijkstra, F. A.; Carrillo, Y.; Pendall, E. G.; Morgan, J. A.

2013-12-01

452

Nutrient content of whole cottonseed.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if the nutrient and gossypol contents and in vitro digestibility of 3 types of genetically modified whole cottonseed differed from traditional whole cottonseed. Samples of seed from traditional (no genetic modifications) and genetically modified varieties of cotton grown in 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. Genetic modifications included the insertion of genes to protect cotton from insect pests (Bt), and damage from glyphosate herbicides (RR), and from both (Bt/RR). Year effects were significant for in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility, gossypol, DM, crude protein (CP), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and ash. Higher rainfall resulted in higher CP, fat, and ash and lower NDF and gossypol. There were no differences among seed types for ground or whole seed digestibility, DM, CP, fat, NDF, ADF, ash, lignin, net energy for lactation, amino acids, total fatty acids, or seed index. Overall, the nutrient content and digestibility of varieties of genetically modified seed were similar to that of varieties of traditional whole cottonseed. PMID:15778316

Bertrand, J A; Sudduth, T Q; Condon, A; Jenkins, T C; Calhoun, M C

2005-04-01

453

Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.  

PubMed

Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

2008-01-01

454

Impact of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation on Nutrient-Induced GLP-1 Secretion In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Increases in L-cell release of GLP-1 are proposed to serve as a negative feedback signal for postprandial changes in gastric emptying and/or motility. Previous ex vivo data suggests that direct electrical stimulation (E-stim) of ileal segments stimulates secretion of GLP-1. This suggests potential feed-forward increases in GLP-1 driven by intestinal neuronal and/or motor activity. To determine if E-stim could increase GLP-1 levels in an in vivo setting, we administered E-stim and nutrients to male Long-Evans rats (300–350g) under general anesthesia. Nutrient infusion into the duodenum or ileum significantly increased plasma GLP-1 levels, but E-stim applied to these locations did not (p<0.05). However, the combination of E-stim and nutrient infusion, in either the ileum or duodenum, significantly increased plasma GLP-1 when compared to nutrient infusion alone (p<0.05), and this effect was not blocked by either norepinephrine or atropine. To test the impact of intestinal motor activity, the effect of extra-luminal mechanical stimulation (M-stim) on GLP-1 levels was assessed. In the duodenum, but not the ileum, M-stim plus nutrient infusion significantly increased GLP-1 over nutrient infusion or M-stim alone (p<0.05). Thus, both E- and M-stim of the duodenum, but only E-stim of the ileum augmented nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release. These data demonstrate that factors beyond enteral nutrients could contribute to the regulation of GLP-1 secretion. PMID:23663526

Sandoval, Darleen; Dunki-Jacobs, Adam; Sorrell, Joyce; Seeley, Randy J.; D’Alessio, David D.

2013-01-01

455

NUTRIENT UPTAKE: A Microcomputer Program to Predict Nutrient Absorption from Soil by Roots.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of a computer program designed to solve the mathematical model associated with soil nutrient uptake by plant roots and to predict the nutrient uptake. Describes a user-friendly personal computer version of this program. (TW)

Oates, Kenneth; Barber, S. A.

1987-01-01

456

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling  

E-print Network

Persistence in variable-yield nutrient-plankton models with nutrient recycling Sophia Jang1 the internal reserves are exhausted. Ketchum [19] was among the first to document such a biological phenonemon

Baglama, James

457

Louisiana's Nutrient ManagementLouisiana's Nutrient Management Educational/Research ProgramsEducational/Research Programs  

E-print Network

. Reducing Fecal Nutrient Content Through Diet Manipulation 2. Constructed Wetlands for Row Crop Runoff 3 by Agents 5. Mass Media #12;Regulatory History Agriculture is basically free from nutrient related

458

Methane production by sheep and cattle in Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using methane production rates from Australian feeds and local estimates of the quantity of feed eaten by different classes of animal, it was estimated that sheep and cattle in Australia produce 2.66 Tg methane in 1990. This value is 43% higher than previous estimates and indicates a need to reassess the methane production of ruminants in other countries.

Minson, D. J.

1993-02-01

459

Early development, adult mass, and reproductive success in bighorn sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable empirical and theoretical work on the individual and population consequences of early development, little is known about the correlations between early mass and adult size or lifetime reproductive success of free-ranging mammals. Using a 26-year study of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), we examined how mass as a lamb and mass gain as a yearling affected adult mass for

Marco Festa-Bianchet; Jon T. Jorgenson; Denis Realea

2000-01-01

460

FEEDING AND GROWTH HORMONE AFTER CEREBROVENTRICULAR CARBACHOL IN SHEEP  

E-print Network

FEEDING AND GROWTH HORMONE AFTER CEREBROVENTRICULAR CARBACHOL IN SHEEP P.M. DRIVER J.M. FORBES Department of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, England. Intracerebroventricular. The resumption of feeding coinci- ded with the fall in GH. Normal peaks of plasma GH are associated with periods

Boyer, Edmond

461

Pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in sheep: effects of altered hemodynamics.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of elevated left atrial pressure and reduced cardiac output on pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in the sheep. Sheep neutrophils were isolated, labeled with 111In-oxine, and reinfused. Erythrocytes were labeled with [99mTc]pertechnetate. A gamma camera measured the lung activities of the labeled neutrophils and erythrocytes. The results indicated that 38.5% of the total injected neutrophils marginated in the lung. Pulmonary hemodynamics were altered by inflating a left atrial balloon three times in each sheep for 15-30 min to achieve 5- to 25-mmHg increments in pulmonary arterial wedge pressure. At least a 30-min recovery period was allowed between inflations. After each left atrial balloon inflation, neutrophil uptake remained unchanged from base line, despite decreased mean cardiac output to 0.67 +/- 0.24 (+/- SD) 1/min and increased pulmonary blood volume. The absence of pulmonary neutrophil uptake was confirmed by arterial-venous measurements. Increased pulmonary blood volume had little effect on lung neutrophil uptake, suggesting that most of the pulmonary neutrophils are marginated. We conclude that the lungs have a large marginated neutrophil pool compared with the circulating pool and that reduced cardiac output and elevated left atrial pressure have no effect on pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in the sheep. PMID:3001016

Cooper, J A; Bizios, R; Malik, A B

1985-12-01

462

Sheep: The First Large Animal Model in Nuclear Transfer Research  

PubMed Central

Abstract The scope of this article is not to provide an exhaustive review of nuclear transfer research, because many authoritative reviews exist on the biological issues related to somatic and embryonic cell nuclear transfer. We shall instead provide an overview on the work done specifically on sheep and the value of this work on the greater nuclear transfer landscape. PMID:24033140

Czernik, Marta; Zacchini, Federica; Iuso, Domenico; Scapolo, Pier Augusto

2013-01-01

463

Effect of previous experience on sheep grazing leafy spurge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores develop preferences for certain plant species in several ways. One way is to learn from role models, another is through postingestive feedback. In this study we determined (1) whether yearling sheep exposed to leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) as lambs graze it more readily than yearlings that were not exposed to it as lambs, and (2) whether this difference,

B. E. Olson; R. T. Wallander; V. M. Thomas; R. W. Kott

1996-01-01

464

Fingerprinting Persistent Turbidity in Sheep Creek Reservoir, Owhyee, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep Creek Reservoir near Owyhee, NV is historically a quality rainbow trout fishery. Persistent high-turbidity has been an issue since a major storm event in 2005 resulted in surface water runoff into the Reservoir. The high turbidity is adversely impacting the quality of the fishery. Initial turbidity measurements in 2005 were upwards of 80NTU and these numbers have only decreased

R. N. Ransom; R. L. Hooper; D. Kerner; S. Nicols

2007-01-01

465

Reducing stress in sheep by feeding the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum  

E-print Network

to determine which, if any, were responsible for the treatment effects in the dose response trial. After 14d supplementation, the salt and ANOD sheep had a depressed IgG and IgM antibody response to ovalbumin and an increase in white blood cell counts...

Archer, Gregory Scott

2005-11-01

466

The effect of repeated testing on judgement biases in sheep.  

PubMed

Testing judgement biases of animals may provide insight into their affective states; however important questions about methodologies need to be answered. This experiment investigated the effect of repeated testing using unreinforced, ambiguous cues on the response of sheep to a go/no-go judgement bias test. Fifteen sheep were trained to differentiate between two locations, reinforced respectively with feed (positive) or with the presentation of a dog (negative). The responses to nine ambiguous locations, positioned between the positively and negatively reinforced locations, were tested repeatedly over 3 weeks. Sheep exhibited a symmetrical gradation in response to ambiguous locations between the positive and negative reinforcers. There was a significant decline (P=0.001) in the total number of approaches to the ambiguous positions over time (weeks). This effect of time suggests that sheep learnt that the ambiguous locations were unrewarded. This result supplies evidence of a limitation identified in current judgement bias methodology, due to repeated testing, which has the potential to provide misleading results. PMID:20117188

Doyle, Rebecca E; Vidal, Stephanie; Hinch, Geoff N; Fisher, Andrew D; Boissy, Alain; Lee, Caroline

2010-03-01

467

Spotting of Dall Sheep, Denali National Park, Alaska  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barry Middleton (left) and Ed Pfeifer (right) of the USGS Southwest Geographic Science Team engaged in field observations of Dall sheep in Denali National Park, Alaska, on July 27, 2009. The study employs satellite remote sensing and field observations to investigate the effect of variable and chang...

2009-12-08

468

Footrot in Sheep and Goats Lynn Pezzanite, Animal Sciences Student  

E-print Network

they release, which determines their ability to digest the connective tissue between the horn and flesh such as that in dry lots can cause irritation to the soft tissue, and create ideal conditions for footrot when tissue. #12;Purdue Extension · Knowledge to Go 2 Common Diseases and Health Problems in Sheep and Goats

469

BROWN BEAR PREDATION ON DOMESTIC SHEEP REGISTERED WITH MORTALITY TRANSMITTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1989, 291 lambs in 3 herds of domestic sheep were tagged with silent mortality transmitters prior to release onto open, coniferous forest range in southeast Norway. Twenty-six lamb carcasses were recovered. Lamb mortality was attributed to disease (19%), accidents (22%), and predation (59%). In addition to the dead lambs, the carcasses of 21 ewes were also recovered. Of these,

IVAR MYSTERUD; JERRY T. WARREN

470

Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Veratrum californicum was discovered to be teratogenic in sheep over 50 years ago. The alkaloids in V. californicum responsible for terata induction are jervine, 11-deoxojervine (cyclopamine), and cycloposine (the glycoside of cyclopamine). Current research objectives are to better describe cyclop...

471

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

472

Induced udder orf infection in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical orf lesions were successfully produced (experimently) on the udder dermis of lactating sheep and goats. The animals were subjected to daily clinical examination and the developing lesions were monitored and recorded. The lesions involved were erythema, papules, pustules and firm irregular scabs on the skin of the udders. One goat developed unilateral moderate udder fibrosis and two of the

Fadhel Housawi; El Tayb; Abu Elzein; Abdul Mohsen Al-Naeem; Ahmad Gameel; Abdul Qader Homaida

473

Diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens intestinal infections in sheep and goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium perfringens produces disease in sheep, goats and other animal species, most of which are generically called enterotoxemias. This micro-organism can be a normal inhabitant of the intestine of most animal species including humans, but when the intestinal environment is altered by sudden changes in diet or other factors, C. perfringens proliferates in large numbers and produces several potent toxins

F. A. Uzal

2004-01-01

474

Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the U.S., is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine g...

475

A Potential Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: The Ambiguity of "Cooperation."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the meanings constructed around the concept of cooperation by a teacher and her fifth-grade students during cooperative learning. Their experiences indicate that cooperative learning has the potential to be a wolf in sheep's clothing, promising much but actually stifling the empowerment of students for proactive social action. (SLD)

Holloway, Sue

1992-01-01

476

Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.

Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

1988-04-01

477

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP  

E-print Network

COPPER AND ZINC DEFICIENCIES TREATMENT BY INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS IN SHEEP M. LAMAND Claudine LAB Beaumont, France. Résumé TRAITEMENT DES CARENCES EN CUIVRE ET EN ZINC PAR INJECTION INTRAMUSCU- LAIRE CHEZ d'oxyde de zinc par voie intramusculaire, en suspension dans l'huile d'olive. Dans chaque expérience

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)  

SciTech Connect

Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

2008-05-01

479

Use of analgesic drugs for pain management in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of pain and its effects is increasing within the veterinary profession, but pain management in food animals has been neglected. Sheep seldom receive analgesics despite various conditions, husbandry practice and experimental procedures being known to be painful, e.g. footrot, mastitis, vaginal prolapse, castration, vasectomy, penis deviation, and laparoscopy. The evidence supporting use of analgesic drugs in this species is

I Lizarraga; JP Chambers

2012-01-01

480

Use of analgesic drugs for pain management in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Awareness of pain and its effects is increasing within the veterinary profession, but pain management in food animals has been neglected. Sheep seldom receive analgesics despite various conditions, husbandry practice and experimental procedures being known to be painful, e.g. footrot, mastitis, vaginal prolapse, castration, vasectomy, penis deviation, and laparoscopy. The evidence supporting use of analgesic drugs in this species is

I Lizarraga; JP Chambers

2011-01-01

481

Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Sheep scrapie susceptibility or resistance is a function of genotype with polymorphisms at codon 171 playing a major role. Glutamine (Q) at 171 contributes to scrapie susceptibility while arginine (R) is associated with resistance. In some breeds, lysine (K) occurs at 171, but its affe...

482

What parasites are commonly found in sheep and goats?  

E-print Network

parasites in sheep and goats are: lung worms (Dictyocaulus spp. or Muellerius capillaris); stomach worms that live in those environments are at high risk of becoming infested. · Lung worms and liver flukes grow of an organ when there are too many worms. Lung worms Lung worms irritate the bronchioles inside the lung

Tullos, Desiree

483

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR Isolation of a sheep placental hormone inducing lactation and growth J, LN.72.A., 78350 Jo2cy-en-Josas (France) An ovine lactogenic hormone (Ovine Placental Lactogen: OPL localization of its cellular synthesis shown. The patterns of prolactin-like and growth hormone-like activities

Boyer, Edmond

484

First identification of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis sheep strain in Argentina  

PubMed Central

We here identified for the first time the presence of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) sheep (S) strain in Argentina. IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive. The S strain was compared with MAP cattle (C) strains by using IS1311 PCR-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA), multiplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. PMID:24516458

Travería, G.E.; Zumarraga, M.; Etchechoury, I.; Romano, M.I.; Cataldi, A.; Pinedo, M.F. Alvarado; Pavlik, I.; Pribylova, R.; Romero, J.R.

2013-01-01

485

Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to

B. F. Tillman; J. E. Loyd; A. W. Malcolm; B. A. Holm; K. L. Brigham

1989-01-01

486

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION  

E-print Network

COPPER DEFICIENCY PROPHYLAXIS IN GRAZING SHEEP BY COPPER OXIDE INJECTION M. LAMAND Claudine LAB R of insoluble and non ionized form of injected copper has been shown in a previous paper (Lamand, 1978 it appeared that copper oxide was preferable to metallic copper, being slightly less caustic. Inflammation

Boyer, Edmond

487

TESTICULAR MATURATION IN THE SHEEP BOT FLY OESTRUS OVIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The process of testicular maturation in relation to intrapuparial development was studied in the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae). After formation of the puparium during larval-pupal apolysis and the cryptocephalic pupal stage (=24-72 h), spermatogonia had undergone mitotic...

488

Interface between bone and nacre implants in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the interface between bone and chronic implants of nacre in sheep. There was no foreign body reaction over the period of 10 months and the implants were not broken down. Light microscopy indicated activity within an osteoprogenitor cellular layer lining the implant, resulting in a complete sequence of new bone formation. Nacre appeared to bind directly to

G. Atlan; O. Delattre; S. Berland; A. LeFaou; G. Nabias; D. Cot; E. Lopez

1999-01-01

489

Advances in Male Contraception  

PubMed Central

Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

2008-01-01

490

Eutrophication of Buttermilk Bay, a cape cod coastal embayment: Concentrations of nutrients and watershed nutrient budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient concentrations in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment on the northern end of Buzzards Bay, MA, are higher in the nearshore where salinities are lower. This pattern suggests that freshwater sources may contribute significantly to nutrient inputs into Buttermilk Bay. To evaluate the relative importance of the various sources we estimated inputs of nutrients by each major source into the

Ivan Valiela; Joseph E. Costa

1988-01-01

491

Comparison of nutrient density and nutrient-to-cost between cooked and canned beans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of nutrient rich foods such as beans and peas is recommended because these foods provide key nutrients and relatively little energy. Many consumers are unfamiliar with dried beans or do not have the time to prepare them. The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient density and nutri...

492

The critical role of myostatin in differentiation of sheep myoblasts  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the effective and specific shRNA to knockdown MSTN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of MSTN reversibly suppressed myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer shRNA knockdown of endogenous MSTN promoted ovine myoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSTN inhibits myogenic differentiation through down-regulation of MyoD and Myogenin and up-regulation of Smad3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Provides a promise for the generation of transgenic sheep to improve meat productivity. -- Abstract: Myostatin [MSTN, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8)], is an inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Blockade of MSTN function has been reported to result in increased muscle mass in mice. However, its role in myoblast differentiation in farm animals has not been determined. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of MSTN in the differentiation of primary sheep myoblasts. We found that ectopic overexpression of MSTN resulted in lower fusion index in sheep myoblasts, which indicated the repression of myoblast differentiation. This phenotypic change was reversed by shRNA knockdown of the ectopically expressed MSTN in the cells. In contrast, shRNA knockdown of the endogenous MSTN resulted in induction of myogenic differentiation. Additional studies revealed that the induction of differentiation by knocking down the ectopically or endogenously expressed MSTN was accompanied by up-regulation of MyoD and myogenin, and down-regulation of Smad3. Our results demonstrate that MSTN plays critical role in myoblast differentiation in sheep, analogous to that in mice. This study also suggests that shRNA knockdown of MSTN could be a potentially promising approach to improve sheep muscle growth, so as to increase meat productivity.

Liu, Chenxi [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China) [College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi (China); Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Li, Wenrong; Zhang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ning; He, Sangang; Huang, Juncheng [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China); Ge, Yubin [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China)] [The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Liu, Mingjun, E-mail: xjlmj2004@yahoo.com.cn [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China) [Xinjiang Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Urumqi (China); Laboratory of Grass-fed Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Agriculture, Urumqi (China); Animal Biotechnological Research Center, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Urumqi (China)

2012-06-08

493

Population structure of pierid butterflies IV. Genetic and physiological investment in offspring by male Colias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structure encompasses all the rules by which a population's gametes come together, including genetic and physiological investment in offspring. We document female use of nutrients donated by males at mating, and complete sperm precedence, in Colias eurytheme Boisduval. The effect of these phenomena on the population structure of this species is discussed.

Carol L. Boggs; Ward B. Watt

1981-01-01

494

Evidence for the role of the sheep biting-louse Bovicola ovis in producing cockle, a sheep pelt defect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and severity of cockle, a sheep pelt defect characterised by raised lumps, was assessed on lambs that were either louse-infested (Bovicola ovis) or louse-free at birth. Assessments were made on pickled pelts, 10 months after the lambs had entered the trial. Lambs kept free of lice did not develop cockle, whereas the defect was common in lambs (about

A. C. G. Heath; S. M. Cooper; D. J. W. Cole; D. M. Bishop

1995-01-01

495

Mechanistic simulation models of nutrient uptake: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic models of nutrient uptake consider diffusion and mass flow acting simultaneously to supply nutrients to the sorbing root surface. Plant parameters that determine nutrient uptake include those describing changes in root geometry and size due to root growth and others describing kinetics of the nutrient uptake process. Mechanistic models generally assume that nutrient uptake occurs evenly along the roots

Zdenko Rengel; Glen Osmond

1993-01-01

496

Procedures for Estimating Nutrient Values for Food Composition Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When used to assess the nutrient content of diets, recipes, or commercial food products, a nutrient database should provide a complete nutrient profile for each food in the database. Chemical analyses for a wide range of nutrients in the many foods included in a database are not always practical. Therefore, some nutrient values must be estimated. Common methods for estimating

Sally F. Schakel; I. Marilyn Buzzard; Susan E. Gebhardt

1997-01-01

497

Recovery of dairy manure nutrients by benthic freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass on wastewater nutrients could provide a holistic solution to nutrient management problems on dairy farms. The production of algae from a portion of manure nutrients to replace high-protein feed supplements which are often imported (along with considerable nutrients) onto the farm could potentially link consumption and supply of on-farm nutrients. The objective of

Ann C. Wilkie; Walter W. Mulbry

2002-01-01

498

Knockdown of Myostatin Expression by RNAi Enhances Muscle Growth in Transgenic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Myostatin (MSTN) has been shown to be a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. MSTN dysfunction therefore offers a strategy for promoting animal growth performance in livestock production. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using RNAi-based technology to generate transgenic sheep with a double-muscle phenotype. A shRNA expression cassette targetin