Science.gov

Sample records for maler johann walter-kurau

  1. Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) gilt zurecht als einer der bedeutendsten Mathematiker und Astronomen der frühen Neuzeit, doch wurde das Philosophische in seinem Werk bislang kaum in angemessener Weise gewürdigt. Volker Bialas legt eine fundierte und anregende Einführung in Leben, Werk und Weltanschauung Keplers vor und setzt dabei durch die Akzentuierung des philosophisch-ganzheitlichen Denkens bewußt einen Kontrapunkt zum herkömmlichen Kepler-Bild.

  2. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  3. Jakob Johannes Sederholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, O.; Korsman, K.; Scheinin, B.

    2010-05-01

    Jakob Johannes Sederholm (1863-1934) was one of the more influential pioneers in Precambrian geology having introduced some fundamental insights and concepts which are still relevant today. Towards the end of the 19th century, he demonstrated how the principle of actualism can be applied to Precambrian terranes, while during the early part of the 20th century he undertook detailed studies on deformed magmatic rocks, both defining and interpreting the enigmatic mixed rocks now known as migmatites. He acted as the head of the Geological Survey of Finland for 40 years, which developed under his leadership into a modern progressive and versatile research organization. In addition, Sederholm also served as a diplomat with a number of international assignments, including appointments with the League of Nations in missions in Albania and a supervisory role relating to sovereignty and autonomy issues in the Åland Island. Several mountains in Greenland have been named after him and his family, and he was also appointed as honorary chief of two Indian tribes in Canada. To understand the driving forces behind a man of his kind, we focus here on Sederholm the person and some of the social and cultural background that influenced his career. This text is based on the book, published in Swedish, entitled "Jakob Johannes Sederholm, Geolog, humanist och sanningssökare" (Scheinin and Korsman, 2007), and an interview with J.J. Sederholm's granddaughter Barbro Scheinin by Eklund (2008). Other references are marked in the text. The first author is responsible for all translations from Swedish, Norwegian, German and Finnish.

  4. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. PMID:22339937

  5. Johann and Elizabeth Hevelius, astronomers of Danzig.

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2000-01-01

    Elizabeth Hevelius (1647-1693) was the second wife of Johann Hevelius, the renowned astronomer of Danzig, and assisted with his observations from the first years of her marriage. Hevelius wrote of her in his books as an able collaborator and she is portrayed in one of them observing with him. She brought out his final, posthumous work. With Johann, she received many notable visitors (including Edmond Halley) and observed with some of them at Danzig. She is the first woman astronomer of whom we have any record. PMID:10824438

  6. Johann Christoph Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (German Title: Johann Christoph Sturm und Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchovil, Stefan

    Johann Christian Sturm and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz were two well-known scholars of their time, who showed mutual attention and esteem. The history of their relation is described, based on the mutual mentions in letters and publications.

  7. [Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848)].

    PubMed

    Eikermann, Erika

    2012-01-01

    The article about the life and achievements of the apothecary Johann van Beethoven, the younger brother of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, depicts a vivid picture of life in the 18th, 19t century. Research on archived original documents in Bonn, Vienna and Linz on the Danube made it possible to reveal details about the relationship inside this famous family and describes the hurdles of life of a successful apothecary. In 1776 Johann van Beethoven was born as the fourth child of the Beethoven family, a family of Bonner musicians. In 1790 he began his apprenticeship to become an apothecary at the Bonner "Hofapotheke". Towards the end of 1795 he moved to join his older brothers Ludwig and Karl in Vienna. During his time there he worked as a "subject" in various Viennese pharmacies. However in 1808 he purchased the pharmacy "Zur Goldenen Krone" in Linz on the Danube. His new pharmacy flourished, supplying first the Napoleonic occupation troops, and later the Austrian Military with medicines and field dressing/bandage materials. When in 1812 he married his Housekeeper, his Brother Ludwig opposed harshly, on reasons of social status and on moral grounds. Four years later, in 1816 Johann sold the pharmacy in Linz and founded a new pharmacy in Urfahr, on the opposite bank of the Danube. In 1819 he became a squire (or landowner), when he purchased a manor estate in Gneixendorf, near Krems on the Danube. In spite of his numerous duties as an apothecary and squire, Johann was frequently resident in Vienna, supporting his brother both emotionally and pharmaceutically. At the end of his life Johann sold both his pharmacy and the Gneixendorf estate, and spent his last years as a private gentleman living a dazzling lifestyle in Vienna. He died on January 12th 1848 and was buried in Vienna's "Waldmüllerpark". PMID:23527448

  8. Johann Schroeter's 'Extremely Dark Spots Of Jupiter'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, T.; Sheehan, W.

    1997-06-01

    Physical observations of Jupiter from the 18th century are rare. The most diligent observer of the planet of that era was Johann Schroeter, who in 1785-86 recorded multiple short-term, transient dark spots. Schroeter's observations are discussed in detail. Though somewhat reminiscent of the recent Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact events, the authors conclude that Schroeter's observations furnish a unique record of SEBn activity in the 18th century.

  9. We Do Not Forget Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, B.

    2009-12-01

    Year 2009 was announced as the International Year of Astronomy. This was to mark 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo. From the other hand, this year marks 400th anniversary of Astronomia Nova, the famous work of Kepler published in Prague in 1609. Two laws of planetary motions opened human efforts to understand gravitational force; so the overall cosmic space conquest, with its great importance not only for astronomy, was developed thankful to Kepler's work. This contribution is thought to show the most inspiring ideas of Johannes Kepler, published in Astronomia Nova and in other his books.

  10. [Johannes Kepler's contributions to ophthalmologic optics].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1986-02-01

    Until the beginning of the 17th century it was held that an image is formed in the eye on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. Ophthalmological optics as a scientific discipline only began with a discovery made by Johannes Kepler. Without performing new experiments, and solely by application of the laws of light refraction, he analyzed the path of light through the eye and demonstrated that an image is formed on the retina and that it is inverted. Acceptance of this discovery was impeded by contemporary prejudices which could imagine nothing but an upright image in the eye, even though this attitude could not explain certain phenomena. Kepler's discovery of the path of light in the eye made it possible to explain the following physical phenomena: central visual acuity, visual field, dark adaptation, and errors of refraction. Physiological diplopia and the mechanism of accommodation were discovered later. The law stating that the intensity of light decreases with the square of distance was also formulated by Johannes Kepler; this law, too, could only be demonstrated after the path of light through the eye had been discovered. In recent years the Keplerian telescope has assumed a practical significance in ophthalmological optics. As a reading aid for individuals with impaired vision it offers a significantly higher magnification than any other optical visual aid. PMID:3520121

  11. Johann R. E. Lutjeharms (1944-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.; Reason, Chris; Ansorge, Isabelle; Roman, Raymond; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-09-01

    Johann R. E. Lutjeharms, South Africa's leading physical oceanographer, died at the age of 67 at his home in Stellenbosch on World Oceans Day, 8 June 2011, after a 10-year battle with a complicated form of cancer. His work was central in the process of enlightening the oceanographic and climate system community to the global importance of the complex, energetic, eddy-rich environment of the Agulhas Current. He aptly referred to this current system, including the transfer of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic, as the “Greater Agulhas System.” Johann was born on 13 April 1944 in Bloemfontein, South Africa, where he attended Grey College. At the University of Cape Town (UCT), he completed his bachelor's degree in physics followed by a M.Sc. (cum laude) in oceanography in 1971. His work there led to his first research article (on the variability of the water movement in the southwest Indian Ocean), which appeared in Nature. Many papers would follow, covering a broad range of aspects of the oceans around South Africa. His curriculum vitae lists 177 articles published in peer-reviewed international journals, many of them in AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) and Geophysical Research Letters, including his most frequently cited ones.

  12. The eyes of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C

    2005-10-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach's only physical problem seems to have been his vision. Myopia seems most likely, and it is probable that he developed cataracts at an older age. In addition to the cataracts, his worsening vision may have been due in part to some other eye problem. During the last year of his life, Bach's vision became so poor that he decided to have his eyes operated on. Two operations were performed in 1750 by the traveling English eye surgeon John Taylor. Most likely the first operation was Taylor's standard couching procedure. About 1 week after the first operation, Bach had to be operated on again because of a reappearance of the cataract. Many painful and/or vision-reducing complications could have been induced by these intraocular operations: uveitis or endophthalmitis, secondary glaucoma, hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and even sympathetic ophthalmia. Bach was "completely blind" after the operations, and he died less than 4 months after the final operation. PMID:16219736

  13. [The eyes of Johann Sebastian Bach].

    PubMed

    Zegers, R H C

    2005-12-24

    Limited vision seems to have been Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) only physical problem. Myopia seems the most likely cause and he probably developed cataracts later in life. In addition to the cataracts, his worsening vision may have been due in part to some other eye problem. In 1750 Bach's vision became so poor that he had his eyes operated on by the travelling English eye surgeon John Taylor. Most likely the first operation was Taylor's standard couching procedure. About one week after the first operation, Bach was operated on again because of the reappearance of the cataract. Many painful and/or vision-reducing complications could have been induced by these intraocular operations: uveitis or endophthalmitis, secondary glaucoma, haemorrhage, retinal detachment, and even sympathetic ophthalmia. After the second operation Bach was blind. He died less than four months later. PMID:16402522

  14. Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans

    During the turn of the 17th to the 18th century, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau was the best-known astronomer in Nuremberg. He was a trained merchant, who busied himself in his free hours with astronomy. In the 1680s he became known for his accurate observations of lunar and solar eclipses. At the end of the 1680s he left his trade, and from 1691, he was completely occupied with astronomy. To that end, he constructed a small octagonal observing tower on the roof of his house at Spitzenberg 4. He took the measurement of the solar path and determined the geographical coordinates of Nuremberg. The calendar reform also played a major role in his life.

  15. Johann Christoph Sturm (1635-1703)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaab, Hans; Leich, Pierre; Löffladt, Günter

    Johann Christoph Sturm, who was born in Hilpoltstein, belonged to the most important scientists in Germany in the second half of the 17th century. He was the author of important writings in astronomy, mathematics and physics, as well as on the methodology of scientific research. As a professor at Altdorf University, Storm initiated a "collegium experimentale", which made him to one of the founders of experimental natural philosophy. His German books helped to improve the teaching of mathematics at schools, as well as mathematical knowledge in all circles of the population. This book describes Sturm's life, the different sides of his scientific activity, and includes a bibliography of his writings. All papers are written in German, and have English abstracts.

  16. Harmonical cosmology: Johannes Kepler and Athanasius Kircher. (German Title: Harmonikale Kosmologie: Johannes Kepler und Athanasius Kircher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohm, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The connection between musical theory and astronomy is an aspect of Pythagorean cosmology, which still played a role in the 17th century, and was advanced at that time in very different ways: while Johannes Kepler conceives a proper geometrical system of harmonics and tries to connect it with accurate astronomical data, Athanasius Kircher, harshly criticising Kepler's ideas, sets a qualitative system against it, which is based on analogies. The reason for this discrepancy is not only found in the basically different systems of harmonics of both researchers, but also in the different positions that were taken by both within the controversy about the heliocentric system of the world.

  17. Johannes Kepler and the Supernova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, P. J.

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant luminary that first appeared in October 1604 was considered by many contemporaries to be a new star of unrivalled magnitude. Shining forth near the historic conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the new star held important implications for several areas of interest, notably astrology, astronomy, chronology and theology. Addressing all of these areas in his comprehensive book, De stella nova (1606), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) studied the new star extensively under the aegis of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) in Prague. The focus of the following presentation is Kepler's theory of the new star's origins in the celestial ether. Describing the heavens poetically as a fertile expanse of "liquid fields", Kepler suggested that the new star sprung from the celestial ether much like the numerous living beings in the sublunary realm which were spontaneously generated from the Earth. As evidence for his claim, Kepler pointed to the conspicuous mathematical patterns similarly observed in earthly and celestial entities. Kepler's efficient cause for this explanation, known as the animate faculty, accounted for both the generation and form of new phenomena in the celestial and terrestrial realms. The new star of 1604 proved to be no exception.

  18. Johannes Kepler - And the New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, James R.

    1999-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is remembered as one of the greatest medieval astronomers in the tradition of Copernicus and Galileo, a man who made major contributions to physics, astronomy, and mathematics. Born in Germany and trained as a theologian, Kepler did not hesitate to challenge church doctrine by supporting the iconoclastic theory of a Sun-centered solar system. As Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor, he conducted careful observations of the night sky, which led to his discovery of the three Laws of Planetary Motion and the orbit of Mars. He also devised the Rudolphine Tables on planetary movements, and made key improvements to the telescope. Voelkel vividly describes the scientific achievements, providing enough background in physics and trigonometry so even beginners can enjoy this book. The author also gives us a captivating account of Kepler's tumultuous life, plagued by misery, disease, and fervent religious prosecution by the Catholic Church.Oxford Portraits in Science is an ongoing series of scientific biographies for young adults. Written by top scholars and writers, each biography examines the personality of its subject as well as the thought process leading to his or her discoveries. These illustrated biographies combine accessible technical information with compelling personal stories to portray the scientists whose work has shaped our understanding of the natural world.

  19. ["The piano trio" Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms].

    PubMed

    Albretsen, C S

    1998-12-10

    The relationship between the pianist and composer Clara Schumann and the composers Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms has for a century been an interesting topic. Clara and Robert Schumann both suffered separation from their mothers during early childhood. Johannes Brahms was intensely spoiled by his mother. Robert Schumann needed a structuring wife in his adult life, while Johannes Brahms turned to be afraid of intrusive women. Robert Schumann's psychotic breakdown in February 1854 had a complex background: a hypomanic state, some marital problems, a stressful journey with musical appearances, and possibly a difficulty in differentiating between himself and his new friend Johannes Brahms. As for Clara Schumann, who lost her mother before the age of five, musical activities became her way of overcoming the difficulties of life. She was able to support Robert in his lunatic asylum and their seven children growing up in three separate towns. The chronic diseases of the sons: schizophrenia, polyarthritis and tuberculosis made a deep impression on her and her fingers and hands were periodically immobilised with severe pain. For four decades Johannes was her able "son" and Clara was his "mother", at a safe distance. PMID:9914757

  20. The Kepler problem from Newton to Johann Bernoulli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiser, D.

    1996-08-01

    Newton solved what was called at the time "the direct Kepler problem": given a curve (e.g., an ellipse) and the center of attraction (e.g., the focus), what is the law of attraction, if Kepler's second law holds? The "inverse problem", the determination of all possible orbit solutions for a given central force field, was systematically treated later, first by Jacob Hermann, and then thoroughly and completely by Johann Bernoulli. This paper traces the history of work on the problem and of the accompanying scientific controversies until the time of Johann Bernoulli and his pupil Leonhard Euler.

  1. Johann Gottlieb Schrader and the construction of telescopes in Lilienthal. (German Title: Johann Gottlieb Schrader und der Lilienthaler Fernrohrbau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Hans-Joachim

    More than 200 years ago, the first large reflectors on the European continent were built at Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's observatory in Lilienthal near Bremen. Johann Gottlieb Friedrich Schrader, professor of physics and chemistry at Kiel University, developed a white reflecting metal alloy during his 10-month stay with Schroeter, and used it for the production of numerous telescope mirrors. The period of telescope making at Lilienthal started with Schrader. This paper describes the cooperation of the two astronomers and reports about the results of an optical and chemical analysis of three Herschel telescope mirrors.

  2. Obituary: Heinrich Johannes Wendker, 1938-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchtmeier, Walter; Altenhoff, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Heinrich Johannes Wendker, retired professor at Hamburg University, died on 3 April 2008 at the age of 69 at Reinbek near Hamburg, Germany. He was born on 30 June 1938 in Gimbte, near Munster, Westphalia, Germany. In 1958 he finished high-school and started his studies of mathematics, physics, and astronomy at Munster University. In 1960 Wendker joined the Astronomical Institute at the University and became attracted to the relatively new field of radio astronomy. In the same year he participated in a radio survey (at a wavelength of 11 cm) with the 25-m dish of Stockert observatory. In 1964 he joined the NRAO in Green Bank, Virginia, for one year and started with observations of the Cygnus area of the Galactic plane that would become a real passion for him (resulting in over twenty publications about the Cygnus X region, a deep study of the structure of the local spiral arm). Wendker was awarded the Ph.D. in 1966 (University of Munster), and in the same year he accepted an appointment at the University of Illinois at Urbana. There he participated in the All Sky Survey of the Vermilion Radio Telescope including the Cygnus region. In 1968 he joined the newly founded Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie at Bonn, Germany, where he got involved in planning the institute's new building among other things. In 1972 Wendker was appointed Professor of Astronomy at Hamburg University where he would spend most of his academic career. From 1985 to 1989 he was director of the observatory (Hamburger Sternwarte), and from 1989 to 1991 he was Dean of the physics department. Wenker's research activities concentrated on the radio structure of the Milky Way, especially on the Cygnus region, observing the radio continuum emission at different frequencies in order to separate thermal from nonthermal emission (i.e., HII-regions and SNRs). He identified foreground stars and extragalactic sources in the background. Additional observations of molecular lines and of the neutral atomic

  3. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  4. [Johannes de Laet and his vision of the New World].

    PubMed

    Vannini de Gerulewicz, M

    1992-06-01

    Highlighting the contribution of Johannes De Laet (1582-1649), naturalist, historian, researcher, to the knowledge of the New World history and geography, as well as its inhabitants, flora and fauna. Laet published his huge New World or Description of the Occidental Indies in Dutch (1625), Latin (1633) and French (1640). The first Spanish edition appeared in 1988 in Venezuela, edited by the author of this work. PMID:11636366

  5. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended. PMID:8666759

  6. Observations and inference: Johann Hieronymous Schroeter, 1745-1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, W.; Baum, R.

    1995-08-01

    Johann Hieronymous Schroeter was a pathfinder; a tireless, enthusiastic explorer of the moon and planets whose achievements inspired successive generations of observers, and induced Agnes Clerke in 1885 to call him 'the Herschel of Germany'. Since then however, his reputation has undergone eclipse. If mentioned at all, he is usually referred to in lowercase as someone who compromised his place in the observational history of solar system studies by subordinating observation to theory. He is in fact, a clear case of 'the evils that men do live after them; the good is oft interred with their bones'. Joseph Ashbrook summed him up as 'The Percival Lowell of his age', a not altogether inapt comparison. As August 1995 is the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of Schroeter's birth it is not unreasonable to ask, what is the reality of the man who laid the foundations of planetology and modern selenography?

  7. Johannes Kepler and his contribution to Applied Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Franz

    The worldwide renown of Johannes Kepler is based above all on his contribution to astronomy. The 3 Kepler's Laws relating to the planets are well known and will ensure that his name is remembered by future generations. Besides his astronomical work, Kepler also made important contributions in the fields of theology, physics, phylosophy and mathematics. The actual paper discusses the advances by Kepler in the application of mathematics to the solution of "real life problems". The author made a concise account of some of the disciples by Kepler: Klug, Wieleitner, Caspar, Hammer, paying particular attention to works published by Kepler while he was living in Linz (1612-1628). The Kepler's contribution to applied mathematics is an example supremely worthy of emulation, the author concludes.

  8. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton. PMID:19220191

  9. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  10. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, Pavel; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brüggmann, Ulf; Dräger, Günter; Fröba, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 μm thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5×1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  11. [An important son of Aub: the military surgeon and ophthalmologist Johann Adam Schmidt (1759-1809)].

    PubMed

    Krogmann, Frank; Vollmuth, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The following article gives you a review to the life and work of the military surgeon and ophthalmologist Johann Adam Schmidt who was born in Aub/Lower Franconia on the 12th of October 1759. He had got his surgical education in Würzburg and had worked as an Unterchirurgus in the War of the Bavarian succession. Later on he completed his education in Vienna where he, by joining different work places, had been appointed to a professorship at the Medico-Surgical Joseph's Academy and became a leading figure of the Austrian military medical service. Also as an ophthalmologist Johann Adam Schmidt obtained high credit for his practical activity and his academic work. Johann Adam Schmidt died on the 19th of February 1809 and left a multiplicity of publications. He got not least publicity as the doctor of Beethoven, who dedicated the trio for piano, clarinet or violin and violoncello (Es-major) Opus 38 to Schmidt. PMID:20509447

  12. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  13. [Themes of dying and death in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach].

    PubMed

    Peter, E

    2001-12-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach's music evokes feelings and provokes thoughts about the meaning of human existence, but also thoughts and feelings with regard to death and dying. By virtue of their earthliness and chimerical divinity, musical compositions by Bach are all-embracing, transporting the listener into a third dimension that reveals the unexplored depths of time and eternity. PMID:11771195

  14. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic). PMID:26740939

  15. Johann Hieronymus Schroeter: Beobachtungen über die sehr betraechtlichen Gebirge und Rotation der Venus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, D.

    On the occasion of the 250th birthday of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745 - 1816), a collection of reprints has been published containing his articles on mountains and the rotation of Venus, published between 1791 and 1811. The correspondence with William Herschel on this topic is also given.

  16. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  17. Remarks on a Johann spectrometer for exotic-atom research and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotta, Detlev E.; Simons, Leopold M.

    2016-06-01

    General properties of a Johann-type spectrometer equipped with spherically bent crystals are described leading to simple rules of thumb for practical use. They are verified by comparing with results from Monte-Carlo studies and demonstrated by selected measurements in exotic-atom and X-ray fluorescence research.

  18. On Diversity, Empathy, and Community: The Relevance of Johann Gottfried Herder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Howard M.; Durrant, Marie B.; Evans, Matthew T.; Maughan, Suzanne L.

    2008-01-01

    The writings of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) foreshadowed several of the dominant theories of sociology, social psychology, aesthetics, linguistics and literary theory. His ideas impacted generations of thinkers, but today he is uncelebrated, mostly unknown. His writings on populism, expressionism, and pluralism are relevant to contemporary…

  19. Johannes Scultetus (1595-1645). Urologic aspects in the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum'.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Jonas, U

    1998-12-01

    Johannes Schultheiss (Latinized to 'Scultetus') was one of the first academically trained physicians and surgeons in Germany in the 17th century. After his studies at the University of Padua under Adrian van Spieghel and Fabricius ab Aquapendente he became official physician of his home town of Ulm. His remarkable textbook on surgery, the 'Armamentarium chirurgicum' was first published 10 years after his death and passed through many editions and translations all over Europe. This work contains a complete catalogue of surgical instruments, illustrated demonstrations of a variety of operative procedures and 100 case reports. The success of Scultetus' publication was responsible for an improved standard of the education of the nonacademic barber surgeons, who were treating the majority of the population, and was a significant milestone for the development of surgery as an academic speciality. The life and work of Johannes Scultetus, with reference to urologic aspects, is outlined in this article. PMID:9831796

  20. [Postal communications: medicine in the correspondence of Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672--1733)].

    PubMed

    Kempe, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article examines different aspects of the history of medicine in the correspondence of the Swiss physician and scientist Johann Jakob Scheuchzer (1672--1733) from Zurich. The focus is on three different levels: persons, contents and functions. On all three levels we can observe that "medicine" takes in some way part of the res publica litteraria. The international correspondence network of Scheuchzer can be seen as a crucial "multiplicator" of communication within the scientific community. PMID:15889704

  1. Post-Flight Analysis of Dynamic Data Acquired During the ATV-2 Johannes Kepler Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitzner, R.; Abdoly, K.; Newerla, A.

    2012-07-01

    An in-flight data acquisition system called TeleMesure Autonome (TMA) has been implemented on ATV-1 Jules Verne (launched in March 2008) and ATV-2 Johannes Kepler (launched in February 2011). The TMA served the main objective to measure dynamic responses on the ATV spacecraft for comparison with coupled load analysis predictions and to verify that the ATV mechanical flight environment has been sufficiently covered by the respective ATV design specifications. The acquired flight data included low frequency sinusoidal, random vibration and shock measurements. Whereas the TMA on ATV-1 Jules Verne failed to properly work after 17 seconds after liftoff the improved TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler performed its tasks successfully for all flight phases. The flight data have been subsequently evaluated by the ATV prime contractor Astrium. As first step of the performed analyses a correction of the acquired data was necessary to remove any artificial content (spikes, mean truncation, offset correction) followed by a visual inspection of the corrected data to ensure data quality. Then standard post processing methods were applied to the data consisting of generating equivalent sinusoidal responses and transfer functions for the low frequency data, power spectral densities for the random data and shock responses for the high frequency shock data. Although it was noted that the quality of the data was limited by the available transmission bandwidth and the amplitude resolution of the data acquisition system the implementation of the TMA on ATV-2 Johannes Kepler has nevertheless turned out successful and valuable data have been acquired for all relevant flight phases.

  2. The origins of heterogeneous catalysis by platinum: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner's contributions.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, G B

    1999-01-01

    A number of examples of what Jöns Jacob Berzelius was later (1835) to call catalysis, have been known from antiquity. One of the most prominent of these, dating from the early eighteenth century, was the action of platinum black on hydrogen observed in 1823 by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (1780-1849), Professor of Chemistry and Technology at the Universität Jena (1810-1849), who is regarded as the discoverer of platinum catalysis. His startling discovery led to his invention of the widely used pneumatic gas lighter (Döbereinersches Feuerzeug) and was cited by Berzelius in his formulation of the concept of catalysis. PMID:10672462

  3. [Johann Gottfried Bremser (1767-1827) as a protagonist of the cowpox vaccine].

    PubMed

    Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Stagl, Verena

    2014-04-01

    Vienna was the first city on the European continent where the cowpox vaccination was applied in 1799, shortly after Jenner's (1798) publication of his encouraging results in England. Nevertheless, substantial denial and distrust was evident among doctors and patients in Europe as well, particularly in Austria. The medical doctor Johann Gottfried Bremser remains well known even today among parasitologists as a pioneer of helminthological research in Austria. He founded, in Vienna, one of the richest parasitic worm collections worldwide and published perceptive papers about helminthology. But his role as a protagonist of the cowpox vaccine has been buried in oblivion. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Bremser worked as a medical doctor in Vienna and was influenced by the major proponents of the vaccine in Austria, Pascal Joseph Ferro, Jean de Carro, Johann Peter Frank and others. Beyond his practical contribution as vaccinator, he excelled as a propagandist, mainly through his publications on cow pox vaccination. Bremser used his expert knowledge and sophisticated argumentation to prompt people to accept the prophylactic treatment, especially for their children. He argued for an obligatory cowpox vaccination for all. On one hand, his argumentation summarizes the contrarian opinions of that time, on the other hand the discussion shows striking analogies with the controversies of today. In a way, Bremser's commitment was a forerunner for future health policies that led to vaccination laws and ultimately to the eradication of smallpox worldwide in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:24249318

  4. Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] and vision in neuroendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Waleed A.; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Johannes Vermeer of Delft [1632-1675] was one of the greatest Masters of the Dutch Golden Age who was intensely preoccupied with the behavior of light and other optical effects and was entitled “The Master of Light”. He fastidiously attended to the subtleties of visual expression through geometry, composition, and precise mastery of the rules of perspective. It has been our impression that some visual similarity does exist between neuroendoscopic images and some of Vermeer's paintings. Such a relation could be explained by the fact that optical devices are utilized in producing both types of display. Methods: We reviewed the pertinent medical and art literature, observed some video clips of our endoscopy cases, and inspected digital high resolution images of Vermeer's paintings in order to elaborate on shared optical phenomena between neuroendoscopic views and Vermeer's paintings. Results: Specific optical phenomena are indeed shared by Johannes Vermeer's works and neuroendoscopic vision, namely light and color effects as well as the rules of perspective. Conclusion: From the physical point of view, the possibility that a camera obscura inspired Vermeer's artistic creation makes the existence of a visual link between his paintings and the endoscopic views of the intracranial cavity comprehensible. PMID:25140282

  5. Contributions of Johann jacob Huber to the surface anatomy of the spinal cord and meninges.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Pelle, Dominic; Guthikonda, Murali

    2008-06-01

    From prehistoric times, man has been aware that injury to the spine may result in paralysis of the limbs; this is reflected in bas-relief figures found at Nineweh in ancient Mesopotamia, in a hunting scene that depicts a lioness wounded by King Ashurbanipal. The Edwin Smith papyrus gives many case illustrations of spinal cord injury resulting in paralysis, yet early physicians were unaware of the anatomy of the spinal cord. Galen performed prospective studies in animals by sectioning the spinal cord at varying levels and observing the commensurate paralysis and sensory loss. Real advances in the understanding of spinal cord anatomy did not occur until human cadaveric dissections were undertaken; even then, the knowledge of the anatomy of the spinal cord lagged behind that of other body structures. Johann Jacob Huber appears to be the first anatomist to focus on the spinal cord almost exclusively. His descriptions, and especially his illustrations that depict spinal cord surface anatomy, are impressive with regard to their accuracy and their sense of photorealism. Indeed, his illustrations seem to compare well with the anatomic drawings in contemporary anatomic texts. Yet, we were unable to find a single article in the entire English-language literature depicting his illustrations. We conclude that the description and anatomic illustrations by Johann Jacob Huber remain a hidden gem in the history of human spinal anatomy. PMID:18825005

  6. Astronomical dilettante or misunderstood genius? On Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's image in the history of science. (German Title: Astronomischer Dilettant oder verkanntes Genie? Zum Bild Johann Hieronymus Schroeters in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    The paper deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works - especially by Wilhelm Olbers and Carl Friedrich Gauß - and also later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations voiced by astronomers and historians.

  7. The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jocher and Johann Heinrich Zedler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…

  8. 17TH Century Photometric Data in the Form of Telescopic Measurements of the Apparent Diameters of Stars by Johannes Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, Christopher M.

    The book Mercurius in Sole Visus Gedani published in 1662 by Johannes Hevelius contains a table of magnitudes and apparent telescopic diameters of nineteen stars. The data fit to a simple model, suggesting that Hevelius produced what is essentially a table of surprisingly precise photometric data.

  9. A Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer at the Rossendorf beamline.

    PubMed

    Kvashnina, Kristina O; Scheinost, Andreas C

    2016-05-01

    This paper gives a detailed description, including equations, of the Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer which has been recently installed and tested at the Rossendorf beamline (ROBL) of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The spectrometer consists of a single spherically bent crystal analyzer and an avalanche photodiode detector positioned on the vertical Rowland cycle of 1 m diameter. The hard X-ray emission spectrometer (∼3.5-25 keV) operates at atmospheric pressure and covers the Bragg angles of 65°-89°. The instrument has been tested at high and intermediate incident energies, i.e. at the Zr K-edge and at the Au L3-edge, in the second experimental hutch of ROBL. The spectrometer is dedicated for studying actinides in materials and environmental samples by high-energy-resolution X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. PMID:27140166

  10. Johann Hieronymus Schroeter: Beobachtungen über die Sonnenfackeln und Sonnenflecken. Samt beylaeufigen Bemerkungen ueber die scheinbare Flaeche, Rotation und das Licht der Sonne.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, D.

    On the occasion of the 250th birthday of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745 - 1816), a collection of reprints has been published. This collection contains articles on solar observations made by Schroeter and other astronomers of his time.

  11. Doctor and Hobby Astronomer in Stormy Times: The Book Legacy of Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, G.

    2011-06-01

    Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1941) was born in Vienna and graduated at Padua in the faculty of medicine in 1626. He became a Hofmedicus at the court and in the field of the Thirty Years War in 1627-1630 and then a Viertelmedicus at Mistelbach in Niederoesterreich in 1630 until 1641. His purchase of books had initially concentrated on medical topics but from 1636 to 1640 he bought some ten books on astronomy, including two by Johannes Kepler and one by Michael Mästlin, Kepler's tutor at Tübingen. The fact that he acquired the books by Mästlin and Kepler so soon after Galileo's trial shows him to have been a courageous independently minded thinker with wide ranging professional and intellectual interests. In his professional medical activities he sought to balance the medical practises of Galen and Paracelsus, and in his astronomy hobby he investigated the the new arguments of Mästlin, Kepler, and Galileo.

  12. ``Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler'' and its Institutional Pedagogical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Calil, M. R.; Perez, E. R.; Kanashiro, M.; Silva, L. C. P.; Calipo, F.

    2014-10-01

    This work relates the reception of schools, started on August 2012, in the astronomic laboratory of the "Planetário e Teatro Digital Johannes Kepler", located in the "Sabina - Escola Parque do Conhecimento" in Santo André, São Paulo. The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. They make reference to the System Sun - Earth - Moon (Tellurium), Solar System, Astronautic and Stars. On Tuesdays and Wednesdays the astronomic laboratory is used by Santo André municipal schools for focused lessons, being possible on Thursdays scheduling for private and public schools. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors. Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit. Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory. At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August 2012 to November 2012 were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the 4932 students attended, 92% belonged to the municipal network, 5% to the private network and 3% to the public network. From the 189 evaluations done by the teachers, 97.8% were satisfied, 2.1% partially

  13. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Falk

    2011-06-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the 1850s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field. Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (1824-1914), his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter. Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early 1860s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties. PMID:21879606

  14. [Creation of the first university chair in psychiatry: Johann Christian August Heinroth in Leipzig].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2004-03-01

    Much research has been done on the work of the alleged "psychicist" Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773-1843). However, his academic career has not yet been investigated in depth. For the first time, original archive material and other sources are quoted to illuminate his history and that of the first European chair of psychiatry at Leipzig University in Germany. Heinroth was first appointed associate professor (without a specific subject), and on 21 October 1811 he became the first associate professor of "psychic therapy". Despite his efforts, this chair was not transformed into a fellow professorship in 1815. In 1819, Heinroth succeeded in being appointed fellow professor, but for medicine in general and not psychiatry in particular. Thus his position was upgraded but his subject was not. After Heinroth's death in 1843, Justus Radius (1797-1884) took over psychiatry as a third, "part-time" chair. After several shifts in responsibilities, he ceased being explicitly referred to as professor of psychiatry. PMID:15021930

  15. The 25-foot Reflector of Johann H. Schröter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    In 1797 Johann Hieronymus Schröter (1745-1816), who was a keen amateur astronomer, built a 25-foot reflecting telescope which was at that time %highly regarded greatly admired in the astronomical world. Schröter, who had started his observations with minor instruments in 1782, was in correspondence with Sir William (Wilhelm) Herschel from whom he also got his first telescope mirrors. Later he began building copies of Herschelian telescopes. %[this means only one mirror]. Thus his biggest instrument, the 25-foot reflector, was in its optical parts largely inspired by Herschel, but the unusual mounting was developed by Schröter himself, who tried to find a new construction which seemed to him more practical for his purposes. Especially for the International Scientific Conference of the Astronomische Gesellschaft the author has built not only a 1:200 scale model of the former `Amtsgarten' in Lilienthal where Schröter had once erected his various instruments, but also a 1:25 scale reconstruction of the famous 25-foot reflector. With the help of these models the author in his lecture will give a description of the Schröter observatory, especially of the 25-foot telescope: how it was used, what observations were made with it, what defects it had and what improvements later became necessary.

  16. [Johann Sebastian Bach: life, oeuvre and his significance for the cardiology].

    PubMed

    Trappe, H-J

    2014-12-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 1685 in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents. After working in Weimar, Arnstadt, Mühlhausen, and Köthen Bach signed a contract to become the new organist and teacher at St. Thomas Church Leipzig in 1723 and stayed there until his death. In 1749, Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, 1750. In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music. In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) are influenced by music. Listening to classic music (Bach) leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music (Bach) has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health. PMID:25490749

  17. [Clarification of a political assassination in 1839: statesman Johannes Hegetschweiler shot during civil unrest in Zurich].

    PubMed

    Mörgeli, C

    1992-05-26

    The death by violence of the scientist and statesman Johannes Hegetschweiler (1789-1839), M.D., constituted a double tragedy: just previously, at the instigation of his friends, he had withdrawn an already submitted petition to be relieved of all his public functions. And from the outset he declared himself an opponent to the appointment of the theologian Friedrich David Strauss to the Zurich Professorship for Dogmatics, an appointment leading to political unrest ('Züriputsch'). On September 6, 1839, Hegetschweiler dashed, as a member of the Cantonal Government, between the militia of the Government and the advancing insurrectionists with instructions to effect a cease-fire. While doing so, he was wounded in the head by a deliberately aimed discharge of a shot, succumbing after three days of suffering. The general turbulence occasioned by the Züriputsch, the unprecedented animosity among the political misdemeanors and felonies rendered any legal prosecution impossible. It is here proven that one of the insurrectionists from the Zurich Oberland is the only person who can be considered as the murderer of Hegetschweiler. PMID:1604083

  18. Ernest Everett Just, Johannes Holtfreter, and the Origin of Certain Concepts in Embryo Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    BYRNES, W. MALCOLM

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ernest E. Just (1883–1941) is best known for his discovery of the “wave of negativity” that sweeps of the sea urchin egg during fertilization, and his elucidation of what are known as the fast and slow blocks to polyspermy. Just’s contemporary Johannes Holtfreter (1901–1992) is known for his pioneering work in amphibian morphogenesis, which helped to lay the foundation for modern vertebrate developmental biology. This paper, after briefly describing the life and scientific contributions of Just, argues that his work and ideas strongly influenced two of the concepts for which Holtfreter is best known: tissue affinity and autoneuralization (or autoinduction). Specifically, this paper argues that, first, Just’s experiments demonstrating developmental stage-specific changes in the adhesiveness of the blastomeres of cleavage embryos helped lay the foundation for Holtfreter’s concept of tissue affinity and, second, Just’s notion of the intrinsic irritability of the egg cell, which is evident in experimental parthenogenesis, strongly informed Holtfreter’s concept of the nonspecific induction of neural tissue formation in amphibian gastrula ectoderm explants, a phenomenon known as auto-induction. Acknowledgment of these contributions by Just in no way diminishes the importance of Holtfreter’s groundbreaking work. It does, however, extend the impact of Just’s work into the area of embryo morphogenesis. It connects Just to Holtfreter and positions his work as an antecedent to embryo research that continues to this day. PMID:19610071

  19. A Simultaneous Discovery: The Case of Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo; Paoletti, Alessandro; Robotti, Nadia

    2004-09-01

    In 1913 the German physicist Johannes Stark (1874 1957) and the Italian physicist Antonino Lo Surdo (1880 1949)discovered virtually simultaneously and independently that hydrogen spectral lines are split into components by an external electric field. Both of their discoveries ensued from studies on the same phenomenon, the Doppler effect in canal rays, but they arose in different theoretical contexts. Stark had been working within the context of the emerging quantum theory, following a research program aimed at studying the effect of an electric field on spectral lines. Lo Surdo had been working within the context of the classical theory, and his was an accidental discovery. Both discoveries, however, played important roles in the history of physics: Stark’s discovery contributed to the establishment of both the old and the new quantum theories; Lo Surdo’s discovery led Antonio Garbasso (1871 1933)to introduce research on the quantum theory into Italian physics. Ironically, soon after their discoveries, both Stark and Lo Surdo rejected developments in modern physics and allied themselves with the political and racial programs of Hitler and Mussolini.

  20. Heinrich Johann Kessels (1781-1849). An important manufacturer of chronometers and precision pendulum clocks. (German Title: Heinrich Johann Kessels (1781-1849). Ein bedeutender Verfertiger von Chronometern und Präzisionspendeluhren)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestmann, Günther

    In the first half of the 10th century, Heinrich Johann Kessels was one of the most important precision clock makers outside of England. He worked with Abraham Louis Breguet in Paris, and afterwards settled in Altona. Kessels was well known among the astronomers of his time, and he supplied numerous observatories in Europe and America with his pendulum clocks and chronometers. Besides scattered biographical information and numerous letters, some products of his workshop, which count among the big rarities of clock manufacturing, have survived upon this day. Numerous original sources, unknown until today, have been consulted for the present biography. A catalogue of his works has been established for the first time.

  1. [Discourse of music and inscription of the father's name in the "Wohltemperierten Klavier" by Johann Sebastian Bach].

    PubMed

    Leikert, S

    1996-03-01

    The author tries to develop a comprehension of music based on a difference between the two systems of writing in music and language. Music offers no fixed connection between signifier and signification as they are brought about in language by sequences of letters. Therefore the name-of-the-father, whose recognition guarantees psychic stability, cannot be introduced into the discourse of music. The "Welltempered Piano" by Johann Sebastian Bach shows how the composer reacts to this dilemma: in a biographical and music-historical difficult situation, Bach, in a cryptographical way, interweaves his proper name with the score and thereby replaces the missing name-of-the-father. PMID:8839100

  2. Doktor Johannes Häringshauser - Was seine Bücher über ihn erzählen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feola, Vittoria

    2009-06-01

    Die Bibliothek des Dr. Johannes Häringshauser (1603-1642) weist ihren Besitzer als Arzt und Gelehrten mit großem geistigen Horizont aus. Hervorzuheben ist sein Interesse für Astronomie und Astrologie. Neben Werken, die unmittelbar mit seinen Studien in Wien und Padua und den Erfordernissen eines Arztes in Zusammenhang zu bringen sind (Klassiker der Heilkunde genauso wie aktuelle medizinische Publikationen), wird in seiner Büchersammlung eine reiche Palette an Themen abgedeckt: Theologie, Philosophie, Philologie, Politik, Geschichte und Länderkunde.

  3. ["I am rather satisfied with this interpretation of my dreams." -- real-life and work-related encounters between psychiatrist Johann Christian August Heinroth and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe].

    PubMed

    Schmideler, S; Steinberg, H

    2004-09-01

    Apart from being a major pioneer of modern psychiatry, Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773 - 1843) is foremost famous as the first academic teacher, professor of this subject at Leipzig University. Despite his theoretical concepts being thoroughly investigated by medical historians, the fact that his scientific work also brought him in contact with Weimar poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) has up to now not been acknowledged. This paper analyses for the first time the manifold points of contact between the two geniuses. Starting off with a retrospective on Goethe's relationship towards psychiatry in his day, this paper investigates the mutual interconnections and influences between the two. This is achieved by an analysis of yet unknown primary sources as well as Goethe's literary and scientific works. A main emphasis is also placed on Heinroth's Textbook of Anthropology of 1822 in which the psychiatrist laid out his understanding of 'relational thinking' (gegenständliches Denken), a key concept for both. This theory developed from Heinroth's dealing with Goethe's concept of "anschauung" and was to gain major importance not only for his way of gaining knowledge in general but also for his psychiatric concept. Goethe's influence on Heinroth is particularly revealed in the latter's holistic views on mental illnesses. Heinroth's visit to Goethe on 15 September 1827 can be earmarked as a sign of their mutual esteem. PMID:15365915

  4. ATV Engineering Support Team Safety Console Preparation for the Johannes Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, R.; Oliefka, L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the improvements to be implemented in the Safety console position of the Engineering Support Team(EST) at the Automated Transfer Vehicle(ATV) Control Centre(ATV-CC) for the upcoming ATV Johannes Kepler mission. The ATV missions to the International Space Station are monitored and controlled from the ATV-CC in Toulouse, France. The commanding of ATV is performed by the Vehicle Engineering Team(VET) in the main control room under authority of the Flight Director. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. One of the EST positions is the Safety console, which is staffed by safety engineers from ESA and the industrial prime contractor, Astrium. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2. The following steps have been taken or are in process, and will be described in this paper: • review of the implementation of Operations Control Agreement Documents(OCADs) that record the way operational hazard controls are performed to meet the needs of the Hazard Reports(typically in Flight Rules and Crew Procedures), • crosscheck of operational control needs and implementations with respect to ATV's first flight observations and post flight evaluations, with a view to identifying additional, obsolete or revised operational hazard controls, • participation in the Flight Rule review and update process carried out between missions, • participation in the assessment of anomalies observed during the first ATV mission, to ensure that any impacts are addressed in the ATV 2 safety documentation, • preparation of a Safety console handbook to provide lists of important safety aspects to be

  5. Stubborn Mars is in search of a domicile. Johannes Kepler to Christian II. elector of Saxony - a rediscovery. (German Title: Der halsstarrige Mars sucht sich eine Wohnung. Johannes Kepler an Kurfürst Christian II. von Sachsen - Eine Wiederentdeckung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothmann, Hella

    2011-08-01

    The rediscovery of a missing autograph of Johannes Kepler - a dedication letter presenting his "New Astronomy" to the elector of Saxony - was possible through a series of fortunate coincidences. Kepler's most important work "Astronomia Nova", in which he proclaimed the first two planetary laws, has been published at the end of 1609. According to the Latin dedication to emperor Rudolf II., Kepler compares the long period of calculations and observations as a crusade against the planet Mars. Finally he succeeds in defeating him, now he supports his opponent to find a new home. The letter is an extraordinary document of Kepler's ingenious and humorous language, it also proofs the relationship to Dresden and the Saxon court.

  6. Johann Flögel (1834-1918) and the birth of comparative insect neuroanatomy and brain nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2008-09-01

    Johann H.L. Flögel (1834-1918) was an amateur scientist and self-taught microscopist in Germany who 130years ago pioneered comparative arthropod neuroanatomy. He was fascinated by innovations in optical instrumentation, and his meticulous studies of the insect supraoesophageal ganglia were the first to use serial sections and photomicrographs to characterize the architecture of circumscribed regions of brain tissue. Flögel recognized the interpretative power resulting from observations across various species, and his comparative study of 1878, in particular, provided a baseline for subsequent workers to evolve a secure nomenclature of insect brain structures. His contributions stand out from contemporary accounts by virtue of their disciplined descriptions and emphasis on identifying comparable elements in different taxa. Here we give a biographical sketch of his life and summarize his remarkable achievements. PMID:18541456

  7. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  8. [Johannes Jacobus van Loghem, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Medicine 1947-1949 and 1954].

    PubMed

    van't Hof, S E

    2007-12-01

    Johannes Jacobus van Loghem (1878-1968) had a multifaceted career in which he combined microbiology, immunology, genetics, epidemiology and hygiene. He first became a professor of Tropical Hygiene and later a professor of Hygiene and Medical Enforcement. He discovered the role of house rats in the dissemination of the plague, which contributed to the fight against an epidemic on Java, then the Netherlands' East Indies, in 1911. He was rector of the University of Amsterdam at the outbreak of the Second World War and was fired because of his anti-German stance. From the offices of the Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine), he developed plans for reconstructing the university after the war; he later became the university's first post-war rector. Van Loghem contributed to columns in this journal for over 40 years and twice acted as interim editor-in-chief. PMID:18225796

  9. Medical care in free-beseiged Missolonghi (1822-1826). Johann Jacob Meyer and the first military hospital.

    PubMed

    Balanika, Alexia P; Baltas, Christos S; Leone, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    During the siege of Missolonghi by the Ottomans the conditions of hygiene living, clothing and feeding of the vast majority of enslaved Greeks could be assessed as deprived and miserable. The humid climate and geophysical environment favored the outbreak of epidemics that further darkened an already unfavorable situation of the fighters and their families. Necessarily, the priority was to meet the military and economic needs and secondarily tackling public health issues, health care and medicine - social welfare. The inadequate infrastructure of nursing care, the limited number of health personnel and serious shortages into pharmaceutical material revealed the resolution of those doctors who provided their services during the siege. Johann Jacob Meyer, a famous Swiss philhellene, a man known as the first journalist in Greece, along with his Greek wife, contributed to the founding and organization of the first military hospital and to the improvement of the general health care during the siege of Missolonghi (1822-1826). PMID:27598956

  10. Optimizing the Operation of a Vertical Johann Spectrometer Using a High Energy Fluorescer X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, Michael; Stewart, Richard

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the operation and testing for a Vertical Johann Spectrometer (VJS) operating in the 13 keV range. The spectrometer is designed to use thin curved mica crystals or thick germanium crystals. The VJS must have a resolution E/ΔE=3000 or better to measure Doppler broadening of highly ionized krypton and operate at a small X-ray angle in order to be used as a diagnostic in a laser plasma target chamber. The VJS was aligned, tested, and optimized using a fluorescer type high energy X-ray (HEX) source located at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), in Livermore, California. The HEX uses a 160 kV X-ray tube to excite fluorescence from various targets. Both rubidium and bismuth fluorescers were used for this effort. This presentation describes the NSTec HEX system and the methods used to optimize and characterize the VJS performance.

  11. Optimizing the operation of a high resolution vertical Johann spectrometer using a high energy fluorescer x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, Michael; Stewart, Richard

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes the operation and testing for a vertical Johann spectrometer (VJS) operating in the 13 keV range. The spectrometer is designed to use thin curved mica crystals or thick germanium crystals. The VJS must have a resolution of E/{Delta}E=3000 or better to measure the Doppler broadening of highly ionized krypton and operate at a small x-ray angle in order to be used as a diagnostic in a laser plasma target chamber. The VJS was aligned, tested, and optimized using a fluorescer type high energy x-ray (HEX) source located at National Security Technologies (NSTec), LLC, in Livermore, CA. The HEX uses a 160 kV x-ray tube to excite fluorescence from various targets. Both rubidium and bismuth fluorescers were used for this effort. This presentation describes the NSTec HEX system and the methods used to optimize and characterize the VJS performance.

  12. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  13. The history of Vienna University Observatory - illustrated by its historical instruments and by a typoscript by Johann Steinmayr. (Original Title: Die Geschichte der Universitätssternwarte Wien - Dargestellt anhand ihrer historischen Instrumente und eines Typoskripts von Johann Steinmayr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    The present Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University comprises an important collection of historical instruments. They originate, among others, from the holdings of historical observatories, starting from the Jesuit observatory of the first half of the 18th century. The present volume offers a presentation of all instruments in photos and descriptions. Among those are telescopes from two centuries, angle measuring devices, clocks, globes, as well as various auxiliary instruments for positional astronomy and for astrophysical researches. Also instruments from Vienniese workshops, which document the high level of local instrument construction, are included in the collection. The second part of the book contains the first publication of the history of the Viennese observatories by Johann Steinmayr, written in 1932-1935, and preceded by a biographical essay by Nora Pärr. His text is based on an extensive study of sources and is until now the most complete of its kind, Steinmayr, who was a member of the Society of Jesus, was sentenced to death in 1944 by the national socialist People's Court because of his involvement in the Austrian resistance movement.

  14. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    PubMed Central

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer (∼5–18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators – Si(111) and Si(311) – as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88°–74°) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4π sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal}\\begin{document}$\\frac{E}{\\Delta E} \\sim 10\\,000$\\end{document}EΔE∼10000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments. PMID:23742527

  15. Facts and philosophy in neurophysiology. The 200th anniversary of Johannes Müller (1801-1858).

    PubMed

    Lohff, B

    2001-12-01

    Johannes Müller was the founder of the first school of physiology in Germany. His anatomical, morphological and physiological research as well as his epistemological view of scientific medicine opened the way to a deeper understanding of the structure and the function of the organism. With important discoveries like the law of sense energy, the reflex movement and the definition of different organic stimuli, he enriched the knowledge of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and sensory physiology and smoothed the way to an experimental physiology. All his famous students like Hermann von Helmholtz, Emil Du Bois-Reymond, Ernst Brücke, Jakob Henle, Robert Remak, Rudolf Virchow and Ernst Haeckel solved many crucial research problems, which Müller identified and pointed out to them as open questions, due to the insufficient methods of investigation. Müller's research method, epistemological view of biological sciences, and his open-minded personal style encouraged the development of new methods adapted to particular problems. PMID:11770194

  16. [Peace policy by accusations of heresy against Johannes Crato (1519-1585) and denunciation of Paracelcius followers as Arians].

    PubMed

    Bröer, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    Since 1563 the Paracelsians were publicly denounced as Arians who denied the full divinity of Christ. A work of Alexander von Suchten, who was personal physician of the Polish King, triggered the polemic. The "Propositiones" of Suchten outlined a doctrine of salvation based on chemistry and medicine. As can be proved the pamphlet was influenced by heterodox christologies and doctrines of justification. But there are no indications of contacts between Suchten and Polish antitrinitarians of his time. Actually the public denunciation of the Paracelsians as Arians was a clever political move of the Emperor's personal physician Johannes Crato who aimed at the reformation of medicine in a humanistic sense. This aim was threatened by the fundamental opposition of the Paracelsians, exactly as his irenic religious policy was jeopardized by the growing confessional dogmatism. In this situation Crato used the instrument of denunciation as a means to dissociate himself from medical and theological extremists. The Zurich naturalist Konrad Gessner supplied him with the basic idea. Thomas Erastus, medical professor in Heidelberg, worked out the accusation in detail. PMID:12522916

  17. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the Name In Space project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The Kepler Star Wheel (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AGU. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://Kepler.NASA.gov.

  19. Johann August Philipp Gesner (1738-1801). A review of his essay "The language amnesia" in the bicentennial anniversary of his death.

    PubMed

    Luzzatti, Claudio

    2002-03-01

    On the 200th anniversary of Johann August Philipp Gesner's death, this paper summarizes and discusses a paper on language amnesia published in 1770. The author had clear knowledge of selective mental impairments resulting from brain diseases, and of separate mental representations for words and their underlying concepts. However, to explain the language impairment, Gesner suggested that it would not be caused by focal damage to a specific anatomic and functional unit of the mind, but is the consequence of a general sluggishness of the mental processes. PMID:12012573

  20. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  1. Auβ Quecksilber und Schwefel Rein: Johann Mathesius (1504-65) and Sulfur-Mercurius in the Silver Mines of Joachimstal.

    PubMed

    Norris, John A

    2014-01-01

    The Sarepta, oder Bergpostill (1562) by Johann Mathesius is a book of sermons on mining and mineral subjects in which the composition and generation of metals in ore veins are discussed in terms of the sulfur-mercurius theory. Gur was an embodiment of mercurius or of sulfur and mercurius. Sulfur was evident in the sulfurous odor of the mines, in the supposed effects of subterranean heat, and in the deposition of mineral sulfur during the roasting of the ores. The toxic smoke given off during smelting was considered to be an additional manifestation of mercurius. Mathesius's sermons offer a glimpse of the ways miners' understanding of ores overlapped with alchemists' theories. PMID:26103746

  2. The first demonstration of lactic acid in human blood in shock by Johann Joseph Scherer (1814–1869) in January 1843

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, T. C.; van der Hoven, B.; Bakker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Lactic acid was first found and described in sour milk by Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786) in 1780. The German physician–chemist Johann Joseph Scherer (1841–1869) demonstrated the occurrence of lactic acid in human blood under pathological conditions in 1843 and 1851. In this article we honour the forgotten observations by Scherer and describe the influence of Scherer's finding on further research on lactic acid at the end of the 19th century. We conclude that Scherer's 1843 case reports should be cited as the first description of lactic acid in human blood after death and also as the first demonstration of lactic acid as a pathological finding in septic and haemorrhagic shock. Carl Folwarczny was, in 1858, the first to demonstrate lactic acid in blood in a living patient. PMID:17661014

  3. ["Purified empiricism": Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) attempts at a foundation of medicine in relation to its tradition, kantianism, and speculative philosophy].

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Johann Christian Reil's (1759-1813) importance lies in his theoretical approach to medicine. Following Kant in his early work, he attempts to combine medical experience with an underlying conceptual structure. This attempt is directed against both the chaotic empiricism of traditional medicine and speculative theories such as vitalism. The paper starts from his early reflections on the concept of a life force, which he interprets in the way of a non-reductive materialism. In the following, the basic outlines of his Theory of Fever will be shown. The Theory is a systematic attempt at finding a new foundation for diagnosis and therapy on the basis of the concept of fever, which is understood as modification of vital processes. The paper ends with a discussion of his later work, which has remained controversial so far. It shows that the combination of practical empiricism and scientific theory remained rather unstable in this early phase of the development of modern medicine. PMID:25188999

  4. [Medicine, music, friendship and prejudices: Billroth I and Billroth II, the string quartets Opus 51, N° 1 and N° 2 by Johannes Brahms].

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-06-01

    The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests. Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. 1 and 2, known in the musical milieu as Billroth I and II, to his physician friend. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer. This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. PMID:23282623

  5. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  6. Johannes Kepler and Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2004-02-01

    How many dimensions are there? The answer used to be four — three spatial and one time dimension. Maybe it still is, though nowadays we hear that the answer may be more, perhaps many more. Many of our students have heard about this on television or read about it. They want to know more. Why do physicists think we need more than three spatial dimensions? What's the point of it all?

  7. Bayer, Johann (1572-1625)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Lawyer and astronomer, born in Rhain, Germany. His catalog and atlas Uranometria (1603) depicts the positions of double the thousand stars in Tycho Brahe's catalog on which it is based, designating the brighter stars by the letters of the Greek alphabet, usually in brightness order, followed by Latin letters. This was instead of Arabic proper names or by AL-SUFI's awkward descriptions relative t...

  8. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  9. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  10. Titius, Johann Daniel (1729-96)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Konitz, Germany (now Poland), professor of physics at Wittenberg, built the first lightning conductor. He interpolated into the translation he had prepared of a book by the naturalist Charles Bonnet the relation between the distances of the planets that he had discovered. The planets, Titius pointed out, were at distances from the Sun that were in proportion to the sequ...

  11. Hevelius, Johannes [Jan Hewelcke] (1611-87)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer and instrument-maker, born in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland. Hevelius was an accomplished instrument-maker and engraver. Influenced by TYCHO BRAHE in subject and instrumentation, he erected in Danzig what must have been then the world's finest observatory Stellaburgum (cf Brahe's Uraniborg), destroyed by fire in 1679. He made several large telescopes and some of the last large, ...

  12. Doppler, Johann Christian Andreas (1803-53)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Salzburg, Austria, Doppler studied and taught mathematics in Vienna. On the verge, because of economic hardship, of emigrating to America, he was offered posts in Prague. Despite huge teaching loads, he was able to carry out some research of his own (in the face of complaints of neglect by his students). In 1842 read a paper to the Royal Bohemian Society `On the colored light of the doubl...

  13. Johann Christoph Sturm's universal mathematics and metaphysics (German Title: Universalmathematik und Metaphysik bei Johann Christoph Sturm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsle, Ulrich G.

    In order to understand Sturm's concept of a universal mathematics as a replacement or complement of metaphysics, one first has to examine the evolution of the idea of a mathesis universalis up to Sturm, and his concept of metaphysics. According to the understanding of those times, natural theology belongs to metaphysics. The last section is concerned with Sturm's statements on the existence of God and his assessments for a physico-theology.

  14. Schröter, Johann Hieronymous (1745-1816)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Magistrate of Lilienthal near Bremen, Germany, assiduous mapper of Mars, although he believed that all martian markings were duststorms. The Schröter effect in Venus is the gap of a day or two between the time of the geometrical dichotomy of Venus and the time at which Venus actually appears as a half-circle (an effect of Venus' atmosphere). His assistant K L HARDING discovered Juno, and F W BESS...

  15. Johannes Kepler in Prague - and a new museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R.

    2010-06-01

    Four centuries ago in 1610, the Kepler family were living in their last place of residence in Prague, in a house in a courtyard off Karlova Street (Karlova ulice), very close to the east end of Charles Bridge (Karluv most). The house is No.188, U Francouzske koruny (French Crown House), and has a passage through to Anenska Street. Kepler spent 12 years in the city, publishing his most important works including Astronomia Nova.

  16. Magnenus [Magnen, Magnien], Johann Chrysostom (c. 1590-c. 1679)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physician, born in Luxeuil, Burgundy, became professor of medicine and philosophy at Pavia, Italy, an astrologer, who revived atomism, establishing a viable alternative to Aristotelian philosophy and paving the way for the modern scientific view as expressed by GALILEO....

  17. Zöllner, Johann Karl [Carl] Friedrich (1834-82)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    German astronomer, born in Leipzig, was a pioneer solar astronomer, classifying solar prominences. He first suggested that the spectral types of stars represent an evolutionary sequence, starting hot and cooling. This idea was taken up with variations by H C VOGEL and NORMAN LOCKYER....

  18. Johannes Hevelius, nova CK Vulpeculae (1670) and the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smak, J.

    The author reviews the basic properties of cataclysmic variables and the thermonuclear runaway (TNR) theory of the outbursts of novae, including the "hibernation" model of cataclysmic variables. The TNR theory, while remarkably successful in explaining a number of observational properties of novae, met also with some difficulties related to (1) excessive mass-transfer rates in old novae, and (2) conflicting estimates of their space density. Both are estimated from absolute magnitudes of novae as observed within decades before, or after, their outbursts. Nova CK Vulpeculae (1670), the oldest recorded nova, was observed in 1670 - 1672 by Hevelius, whose observations - together with those by Anthelme and Cassini - were sufficiently numerous and accurate to permit a modern reconstruction of the light curve and its classification as a very slow nova.

  19. [Criticism of physicians by Johannes Gregorius Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579)].

    PubMed

    František, Šimon; Magyar, László András

    2016-02-01

    Humanist author J. G. Macer Szepsius (1530-after 1579) born in Szepsi, Upper Hungary (today Slovakia, Moldava and Bodvou) lived in Krakow and was a typical author of Latin occasional poetry. In a part of his work De vera gloria libellus (Booklet on the true glory) published in 1562 he deals with certain professions and criticizes them. Physicians are described as being garrulus (loquacious), mendicus (beggar), and having a big belly due to a luxury. The Physician doesn´t read books, is lazy and not characterized by his knowledge, but rather by ignorance, arrogance and pride. Physicians prescribe medications without knowing their effects. Such a criticism is surprising, because Macer Szepsius was probably closely related to medicine. PMID:27120725

  20. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi in the 1990s; Implications for Today's Multicultural Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Johanna; Seckinger, Donald S.

    1993-01-01

    Pestalozzi's conception of effective learning arising from personal observation and experience can be applied to the education of diverse students. His notions of empathy and caring, understanding the child's own culture, and equality without conformity are cornerstones of multicultural education. (SK)

  1. Johann Christian August Heinroth (1773–1843): the first professor of psychiatry as a psychotherapist.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2012-06-01

    Heinroth is known as the first professor of psychiatry. His chair was established 200 years ago on the 21st of October 1811. His major importance for the history of psychotherapy has not yet been acknowledged. Heinroth regarded restriction as well as activation as fundamental remedies for mental illnesses. Restriction meant making a voluntary decision to live a life based on religious faith and to abstain from earthly satisfaction. Within his specific psychotherapeutical module—the ‘‘direct-psychic’’method—he utilized the patient’s mental powers—mood, mind and will, but also his spirituality. His therapeutic approach additionally contained elements of cognitive,behavioral and conversational therapy. PMID:22297539

  2. Anatomy of an illusion: the 'Alhazen' of Johann Hieronymus Schröter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longshaw, N.

    2010-06-01

    Late in the 18th century, German magistrate & astronomer J. H. Schröter charted what he took to be a prominent crater on the eastern 'shoreline' of the Mare Crisium. Subsequent observers experienced some difficulties in recovering the feature, leading to a presumption of change which still hung over the matter at the dawn of the space age. The observational history of this episode and the controversy it engendered is discussed, and comparisons made with the visual appearance of the isolated mountain peak Alhazen Alpha in a small aperture telescope.

  3. Johannes Kepler and David Fabricius: Their Discussion on the Nova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, Miguel A.

    David Fabricius (1564-1617) was one of the most important astronomers in the period between 1596, the year of publication of Kepler's Mysterium cosmographicum, and 1609, the year of publication of the Astronomia nova.1 Kepler praised Fabricius as the most accurate observational astronomer after Tycho Brahe's death in 1601.2 Fabricius was a Reformed pastor in Ostfriesland (East Frisia), his remote natal region, and a vocational astronomer. He published nothing in the field of astronomy except for the short treatises between 1604 and 1606 concerning the nova that appeared in October 1604 in Serpentarius.

  4. 2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,

    2008-03-01

    Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.

  5. Johannes Phocylides Holwarda and the Interpretation of New Stars in the Dutch Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermij, Rienk

    Seen from the perspective of Kepler or Galileo, the new star of 1604 was an important event. It helped them in formulating and defending new views of the cosmos. However, Kepler and Galileo were exceptional individuals. To many other people, the cosmological significance of the nova was not that clear. New stars might be wondrous or even terrifying phenomena, but in themselves they did not raise any questions about the constitution of the universe. The meaning attributed to new stars would depend on people's general world-views, which in its turn would be greatly influenced by the local circumstances. It makes sense, therefore, to study the debate on new stars in a variety of specific contexts.

  6. Opera in the Foreign Language Classroom: Learning German with Mozart, Wagner, Weber, and Johann Strauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Solveig M.

    2010-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language…

  7. The Method of Anschauung: From Johann H. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaya, Keiichi

    2003-01-01

    One of the major inventions of modern education is the instructional use of "Anschauung," an experience-based learning technique that was influential both as a method of instruction (more effective than mere book-learning and rote memorization) and as a rejection of old social arrangements that inculcated traditional values through deductive and…

  8. The discovery of encephalic arteries. From Johann Jacob Wepfer to Charles Foix.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Moulin, Thierry; Monnier, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Up until the 17th century, ideas surrounding the discovery of encephalic arteries were to remain largely influenced by the political and religious ideologies of the era. Parts of the encephalic arterial system have been called after several anatomists from this earlier period. From the 18th century onwards, scientists and doctors in particular, liberated themselves from the political and religious trends which had governed their work in previous centuries. Some progress was made by applying the clinico-anatomical method to neurology, but it was only at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century that discoveries about encephalic arteries had gained ground. During the same period, anatomists in several countries were producing detailed descriptions of this arterial system. Moreover, this period saw the advent of the first generation of vascular neurologists, one of whom, Charles Foix, is considered as the founder of the discipline. PMID:16230846

  9. Fabricius, David (1564-1617) and Fabricius, Johannes (1587-1616)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Lutheran pastor and astronomer in Osteel, East Frisia (northwest Germany), discoverer (1596) of the first known variable star, mira stella (`wonderful star'), now simply Mira (Omicron Ceti). Fabricius observed the star at its brightest and thought it was a nova, after which Holwarda noticed that a star in Cetus cataloged by PTOLEMY and TYCHO was missing but then it reappeared. Eventually the long...

  10. Pastoral Typography: Sigmund von Birken and the "Picture-Rhymes" of Johann Helwig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jeremy

    1986-01-01

    Argues that European figured poetry is a distinctive art form that combined aspects of Greek and Latin art to produce a specifically typographical style of literature exemplified in the work of Birken and Helwig. (FL)

  11. The 25-foot telescope of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter in Lilienthal - Construction, operation, and its model-size replica. (German Title: Johann Hieronymus Schroeters 25füßiges Teleskop in Lilienthal - Bau, Funktion und seine Nachbildung im Modell)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    In 2000, the author built a to-scale-reconstruction of the famous 25-foot-reflector of J.H. Schroeter. This article shows not only the problems and results of that work, but also how the building of a model led to a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. The model is now on diplay in the exhibition of the local museum in Lilienthal.

  12. orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita -- on the terminological identification of the essential paradigm change in astronomy by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: orbis (sphaera), circulus, via, iter, orbita} -- zur terminologischen Kennzeichnung des wesentlichsten Paradigmawechsels in der Astronomie durch Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Fritz

    2011-08-01

    The use of modern terminology hinders to understand historical astronomical texts and often misleads the reader. Therefore, this study tries to reconstruct the ideas of the way the planets seem to move against the sphere of fixed stars in a non-teleological manner, that means in the original view and with original terms. The study proceeds historically and explains: (1) Aristotle's system of homocentric spheres being hollow spheres of ether turning equally round the earth in the centre of the world, a number of which makes the apparatus of the movement of a planet which produces its apparently unequal motion. (2) Ptolemy's reductionistic system of geometric circles (eccentric deferents, epicycles etc.), which are indeed great circles on non-concentric hollow spheres, whereupon they turn around equally. The space which they take up in all is surrounded by an inner and an outer concentric spherical surface and makes the sphere of the planet. (3) John's of Sacrobosco transferring of the geometric astronomy to the Latin of Middle Ages and the commentators' precision of the Greek-Latin terms. (4) The tradition of the "Theorica planetarum" which makes this geometry physics by allotting every partial moving to a partial material hollow sphere (with spherical surfaces of different centricity) or full sphere of an epicycle (orbes particulares or partialis), a number of which makes the entire sphere of each planet (orbis totalis or totus). - Copernicus also stood within this tradition, except that his entire spheres differ from the earlier ones in size or thickness (because he eliminated the partly very big synodic epicycles and allocated their effect as a mere parallactic one to the yearly moving of the earth) and in the great intervening spaces between each other (a result of measuring the true distances of the planets on the basis of these parallactic effects). (5) Tycho Brahe's refutation of the unchangingness and unpermeableness and therefore solidity of all etherial spheres, what had been the fundamental condition for creating the indirect ways of the planets in all astronomical systems with partial or entire spheres engaging one another. It was particularly Kepler who recognizes that as a result celestial physics requires a complete change. (6) Kepler's replacement of celestial physics. He did not think any more that the apparent (unequal) way of a planet indirectly results from the combination of several equal movements of etherial partial and entire spheres. His planets move their true and real way caused directly by the joint effect of two corporal forces moving the planets both around the sun and to and from it, which latter makes the planet's speed indeed naturally unequal. For this "real way" he coins in late 1604 the specific term "orbita" (the modern "orbit", the German "Bahn". This term then little by little replaced the former non-specific, general description of the apparent or real way (as "via, iter, ambitus, circulus, circuitus" etc.), and Kepler used it increasingly from its introduction (initially frequently joined to a describing definition of this "way") up to the exclusive use in the fifth book of the "Epitome", after this "orbita" had changed its shape from a perfect eccentric circle to an oval and finally an elliptic form. This way Kepler marks the paradigm change of astronomy caused by himself also terminologically.

  13. Preparing Adolescents for the Twenty-First Century. Challenges Facing Europe and the United States. Johann Jacobs Foundation Conference Series, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takanishi, Ruby, Ed.; Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers based on presentations at a 1994 conference held in Marbach, Germany, and a 1995 conference in Geneva, Switzerland, focusing on frontiers in the education of young adolescents in European countries and the United States. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Klaus J. Jacobs); "Meeting the Essential…

  14. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital. PMID:26294002

  15. On the size of the ptolemaic system of the world - a study based on two figures by Johannes Kepler. (German Title: Über die Gröszlig;e des ptolemäischen Weltsystems - Eine Studie, veranlasst durch zwei Bilder bei Johannes Kepler)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberschelp, Arnold

    It is well known that the geocentric system according to Ptolemy is almost twice as large as the heliocentric planetary system of Copernicus. There are, however, two pictures, given by Kepler in his «Mysterium Cosmographicum» of 1596 which - at first glance - seem to contradict this. The first picture of the heliocentric system is drawn to scale. The second picture shows a geocentric system, which seems to be too small. The puzzle about the size is solved rather trivially by the fact - which is not mentioned by Kepler and which may be overlooked - that the geocentric picture is not drawn to scale and that the angles do not correspond to the degrees noted at them. In order to get a geocentric picture drawn to scale - taking Kepler's degrees for granted - it is necessary to discuss some details of the ptolemaic system. The result is, however, a geocentric system which is too big. The solution of this new puzzle is not obvious. It turns out that one of Keplers degrees (for Mars) does not correspond to the parameters of Ptolemy. Actually, in his book of 1596, Kepler's topic is not the ptolemaic system nor the copernican distances, but his heliocentric model with the five regular polyhedra. While it is interesting to note all these facts, Kepler's pictures and degrees, for the size of the ptolemaic system, lead to a dead end. Using the parameters from the «Almagest» and the principle of nested spheres from the «Planetary Hypotheses» a distance scale (Tab. 10) for the geocentric system is derived. This distance scale, however, is somewhat different from the well known ptolemaic distance scale (Tab. 1). This puzzle is not resolved, but due to the fact that different sources («Almagest» and «Planetary Hypotheses») of Ptolemy are involved. The distances of Tab. 10 correspond better to the ptolemaic system, since the relative thickness of the spheres is computed from the rather precise parameters (eccentricities and epicycle radii) of the «Almagest». The distances of Tab. I, given in the «Planetary Hypotheses», use values for the relative thicknesses of the spheres which are rounded off. Since the pictures of Kepler, when viewed together, are misleading, two new pictures of the copernican and ptolemaic planetary systems are given drawn to the same scale. A final remark is about the radius of the «tychonic system».

  16. Johann Gottfried Köhler - inspector at the Mathematical-Physical Salon in Dresden - an active observer of the starry sky in the last quarter of the 18th century (German Title: Johann Gottfried Köhler - Inspektor am Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon Dresden - aktiver Beobachter des gestirnten Himmels im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Klaus

    In 1777, J. G. Köhler, an academician trained in mathematics and the sciences and with a deep interest in astronomy, was appointed inspector of the Mathematical-Physical Salon. He was lucky to find, in the person of the Saxonian electoral prince and later king, August the Righteous, a ruler who was open-minded to science, and thus he could combine his private interests with those of the sovereign. While the files of the Mathematical-Physical Salon from his time were lost during World War II, his actions can be reconstructed from a few archival sources and notes in the diaries of his successors. The Saxonian residence did not have an astronomical observatory. Köhler used the instruments from the collection of the Mathematical-Physical Salon for numerous celestial observations. He was in close contact with a number of other astronomers like Bode and Zach. They took care of his results, sometimes after editing them. Time determinations based on longitude and latitude determinations, as well as other astronomical observations, led to the development of a time service, which was carried out for about 150 years. Köhler himself constructed the clocks. Because of his responsibilities as an inspector, as well as due to local and material constraints, he was not able to carry out systematic and reproducible measurements over a long time span. His improvement of the circular micrometer and his stop-down photometer are of special interest. He also had considerable talent in drawing, as is shown in his drawings of lunar mountains. A number of instruments used by Köhler are still to be found in the Mathematical-Physical Salon.

  17. The Long and the Short of It: Telescopes of the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, M. Eugene

    An historical review of telescope makers and users, and the state of telescopes in the 1600s. Mentioned are: Jean Dominique Cassini, Hans Lippershey, Galileo, Johannes Kepler, Scheiner, Francesco Fontana, Evangelista Torricelli, Eustachio Divini, William Gascoigne, Adrien Auzout, Jean Picard, Christian Huygens, Johannes Hevelius, Edmund Halley, and Isaac Newton.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Granada, Miguel A; Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st 1584, and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors. PMID:25942771

  19. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  20. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  1. The Bronsted-Lowery Acid-Base Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Gives the background history of the simultaneous discovery of acid-base relationships by Johannes Bronsted and Thomas Lowry. Provides a brief biographical sketch of each. Discusses their concept of acids and bases in some detail. (CW)

  2. Zur Vorgeschichte der Padagogischen Konzepte Pestalozzis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterwalder, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the major concepts of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's work, emphasizing the ways that other contemporary theorists influenced his work. Examines the application of his comprehensive philosophical systems to questions of pedagogy. (RW)

  3. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  4. ATV2 Interview with Michael Suffredini

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Manager Michael Suffredini answers questions about the European Space Agency’s second Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV2), Johannes Kepler, set to launch from a launch p...

  5. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenhall, Clive

    2011-09-01

    Townsend Observatory destroyed; BAA Lunar Section archives; Astro-Cymru; Royal star identified; Formation of Johannes Kepler Working Group; Tycho Brahe exhumed; Ancient observatory discovered in Iran...; ... and in Mexico; Calling all ex-occupants of interplanetary craft.

  6. The Fruits of Kepler's Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belonuchkin, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents six learning activities dealing with planetary motion, the launching of satellites, and Halley's comet, all of which utilize the three laws of Johannes Kepler. These three laws are discussed in detail, and answers to the activities are provided. (KR)

  7. Healthcare resource utilization and cost in dementia: are there differences between patients screened positive for dementia with and those without a formal diagnosis of dementia in primary care in Germany? - ERRATUM.

    PubMed

    Michalowsky, Bernhard; Eichler, Tilly; Thyrian, Jochen René; Hertel, Johannes; Wucherer, Diana; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Flessa, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In the above mentioned article by Michalowsky et al., Johannes Hertel was mistakenly omitted from the authorship list. This error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of the original article. PMID:26510524

  8. THE SORROWS OF YOUNG WERTHER AND GOETHE'S UNDERSTANDING OF MELANCHOLIA.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). By Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, translated by Elizabeth Mayer and Louise Bogan. 167 pp. In The Sorrows of Young Werther, and Novella. New York: Random House, 1971. PMID:26784722

  9. Too Little too Soon: The Literature of Deaf Education in 17th-Century Britain (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoolihan, Christopher

    1985-01-01

    The article describes the growth in literature on deaf education in 17th century Britain. Noted is the work of John Wallis, William Holder, George Dalgarno, Anton Deusing, and Johann Conrad Amman. (CL)

  10. The first use of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables for the production of a writing calendar. (German Title: Die erstmalige Benutzung von Keplers Rudolphinischen Tafeln für die Herstellung eines Schreibkalenders)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Klaus-Dieter

    The Rudolphine Tables count among Johannes Kepler's eminent astronomical works. During the 17th century, astronomers and calendar-makers, who carried out their own calculations, rated them more and more as the most trustworthy astronomical base. We show in this contribution that this new set of tables relatively quickly found entrance into the astronomical praxis of calculation among several calendar makers. A correspondent and friend of Kepler, the writing-calendar maker Johannes Remus Quietanus, became the target of our considerations.

  11. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 9; (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The contributions deal with astronomical events of the past 1000 years. We elucidate the person of the single European observer of the supernova of 1006, and the views of Christoph Scheiner and Otto von Guericke on the structure and substance of the cosmos. A study of the development of the Copernican and the cosmological principles conclude this group of themes. Biographical investigations were carried out on the clockmaker Nikolaus Lilienfeld, the astronomers Johann Wurzelbau, Friedrich Wilhelm Toennies and Boris Karpov as well as the “panbabylonist” Alfred Jeremias. Astronomers can be active also in poetry and fiction. This is shown in the studies of Johann Leonard Rost and Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel. Finally, Johannes Hevelius' Observatory in Danzig/Gdansk, destroyed by a fire in 1679, is reconstructed by means of printed sources, old maps and photographs. The book concludes by short communications, obituaries and book reviews.

  12. [250 years ago: the origin of electrotherapy exemplified by Halle].

    PubMed

    Völker, A

    1993-05-01

    Experiments started in 1743 by a working group at the university of Halle marked the beginning of efforts to incorporate electricity into clinical therapy. Very soon this resulted in knowledge that was also taken up elsewhere, leading to a period of intensive research. The creative suggestions that originated in Halle were authored, among others, by Johann Gottlob Krüger, Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein and Johann Joachim Lange. Their experimental and clinical findings were accompanied by deliberations on the mechanism of action of electrotherapy on which they reported in detail. Due to adverse circumstances this initially leading position occupied by Halle faded out already shortly after the middle of the century. PMID:8517069

  13. Die Keplersche Supernova - Entdeckung vor 400 Jahren [Kepler's supernova: its discovery 400 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Maitzen, Hans Michael

    2004-10-01

    We summarize the early observations of SN 1604 made by Johannes Brunowsky and Johannes Kepler in Prague in October 1604. Quoting from Kepler's two books on this subject ("Gründlicher Bericht" and "De stella nova"), we point out that he compared the supernova with respect to its twinkling with an "exquisite multifaceted diamond" and that he thought this object to be rather something like a newly born (proto-)star than a star in its final phase of evolution, as we would call it today. The twinkling of the star was interpreted by Kepler as intrinsic to it rather than an effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

  14. COMMITTEES: SQM2006 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Organising Committee Kenneth Barish Huan Zhong Huang Joseph Kapusta Grazyna Odyniec Johann Rafelski Charles A Whitten Jr International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Federico Antinori Tamas Biró Jean Cleymans Lazlo Csernai Tim Hallman Ulrich Heinz Sonja Kabana Rob Lacey Yu-Gang Ma Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Johann Rafelski Hans Ritter Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Wen-Qing Shen Georges Stephans Horst Stöcker Thomas Ullrich Bill Zajc

  15. Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T

    2009-11-01

    A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico. PMID:19515500

  16. Kant on Dignity and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger discusses the educational significance of Immanuel Kant's conception of human dignity. According to Kant, Giesinger claims, children can and should be educated for dignity: on the one hand, children realize their dignity by developing the capacity for moral autonomy; on the other hand, this capacity can only…

  17. "Dancing Cannot Start Too Soon": Spiritual Education in the Thought of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2004-01-01

    Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (1763-1825) adopted the pen-name "Jean Paul" in honour of Jean Jaques Rousseau. His "Levana or the doctrine of education" ("Levana oder Erziehlehre") was once a standard text and required reading in teacher education. Outside Germany the name of Jean Paul is now little known and the seminal educational text for which…

  18. Faulhaber's Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  19. Euler and His Contribution Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Len, Amy; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Born in 1707, Leonhard Euler was the son of a Protestant minister from the vicinity of Basel, Switzerland. With the aim of pursuing a career in theology, Euler entered the University of Basel at the age of thirteen, where he was tutored in mathematics by Johann Bernoulli (of the famous Bernoulli family of mathematicians). He developed an interest…

  20. Scutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Shield; abbrev. Sct, gen. Scuti; area 109 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies to the south-west of Aquila, and culminates at midnight in early July. It was introduced as Scutum Sobiescianum (Sobieski's Shield) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk) in 1684 in honor of Jan Sobieski III, king of Poland....

  1. Leo Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Lion; abbrev. LMi, gen. Leonis Minoris; area 232 sq.deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Leo, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  2. Sextans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Sextant; abbrev. Sex, gen. Sextantis; area 314 sq. deg.) An equatorial constellation which lies between Leo and Hydra, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced as Sextans Uraniae (Urania's Sextant) to commemorate the astronomical sextant (which is larger than the later marine sextant) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in h...

  3. Vulpecula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Fox; abbrev. Vul, gen. Vulpeculae; area 268 sq. deg.) a northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Sagitta-Delphinus, and culminates at midnight in late July. It was introduced as Vulpecula cum Ansere (the Fox and Goose) by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  4. Lacerta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lizard; abbrev. Lac, gen. Lacertae; area 201 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Andromeda, and culminates at midnight in late August. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. Hevelius also gave it the alternative name of Stellio (the Stelli...

  5. Lynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lynx; abbrev. Lyn, gen. Lyncis; area 545 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Auriga, and culminates at midnight in late January. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. An inconspicuous constellation, Hevelius (who distrusted telescopic...

  6. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  7. Carl Friedrich Gauss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kathryn; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Gauss was born on April 30, 1777, in the German city of Braunschweig (Brunswick). He was the only child of Gebhard Dietrich Gauss and Dorothea Benze. Neither of Gauss's parents had much education, his father could read and write, but earned his living doing menial jobs such as…

  8. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was arguably the most innovative astronomical theorist in the millennium and a half from Claudius PTOLEMY's Almagest (c. AD 150) to Isaac NEWTON's Principia (1687). Before Kepler, planetary and lunar theory had consisted in combining circular motions, either strictly uniform or angularly uniform about an off-center `equant' point, so as to `save the appearances'. T...

  9. Technological Effects on Aesthetic Evaluation: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.; Sudduth, Mary Margaret; Clabaugh, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether an artist's use of technology to create art results in a detectable aesthetic difference was investigated in the case of Dutch realist painter Johannes Vermeer and his use of the camera obscura. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 20 Vermeer paintings on 6 aesthetic dimensions and preferred paintings created with the…

  10. Pestalozzi: Foster Father of Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    In tracing the spread of the educational philosophy of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, it is useful to understand educators' emphasis on an internal or external locus of control. Pestalozzi was an individual with an internal locus of control, and this trait was reflected in his educational philosophy of self-learning and free investigation. However,…

  11. The Origins of Progressive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, William J.

    2001-01-01

    Explains that in the United States, child-centered progressivism was part of a larger humanitarian movement led by the northern middle classes in the antebellum and postbellum periods. States that games, stories, play time and informal learning experiences became part of a broader educational discourse due to the writings of Johann Pestalozzi and…

  12. Schooling as a Means of Popular Education: Pestalozzi's Method as a Popular Education Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horlacher, Rebekka

    2011-01-01

    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi promised his Method as a means of education for all that was easily manageable by mothers at home for early childhood, leading eventually to a wholesome person characterised by morality. In order to develop this Method, Pestalozzi published "Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrt" (How Gertrud Teaches her Children) in 1801 and…

  13. Pestalozzi and James Pierrepont Greaves: A Shared Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Jackie E. M.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on Johann H. Pestalozzi, James Pierrepont Greaves, and Reverend Charles Mayo. States that Greaves and Mayo disseminated Pestalozzi's ideas and techniques in England. Explains that Pestalozzi and Greaves trained elementary teachers to view students' talents and personal growth as a whole person concept. Argues less effort would limit…

  14. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  15. Pestalozzi's Influence on Manual Training in Nineteenth-Century Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culver, Steven M.

    1986-01-01

    Recounts the life and work of the Swiss educator, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, who believed all students, regardless of social class, should have some vocational training. His ideas were the basis for the 1880s training schools in the United States. (Author/CH)

  16. Mastery Learning in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perko, F. Michael

    Seen in its strictest sense, mastery learning is a recent phenomenon. Viewed in terms of its constituent elements, however, it has roots deep in the Western tradition of education. Elements of mastery learning theory can be found in the work of the Sophists; early Jesuit educators; John Amos Comenius, a Moravian pastor; John Locke; Johann Heinrich…

  17. Finnish Twin Research in the 1930s: Contributions of Arvo Lehtovaara and His Mentor, Eino Kaila.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We offer a brief sketch of an overlooked early twin researcher, Arvo Johannes Lehtovaara (1905-1985), Professor of Psychology at the University of Jyväskylä, 1939-1952, and the University of Helsinki, 1952-1970, with background notes on his mentor, Eino Kaila. PMID:26996224

  18. History of Baroque Music in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The year 1985 marks the 300th birthday of three masters of Baroque music: Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, and Dominico Scarlatti. A summary of the history of Baroque music and a profile of the three composers, which can be used to teach secondary students about the period, are provided. (RM)

  19. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings of Musicians in Performances of Bach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  20. Positive Feed-Bach: A Motivation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)

  1. Goethe's "Delicate Empiricism": Assessing Its Value for Australian Ecologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, recognised as a seminal German polymath, developed a unique approach for investigating nature, termed "delicate empiricism". Goethe's approach uses empathy, imagination and intuition to promote a participatory engagement with the world. It goes beyond the dualistic-rationalism that defines "conventional" ecological…

  2. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  3. Beyond Morphosyntax in Developing Bilinguals and "Specific" Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2010-01-01

    In the Keynote Article, "The Interface Between Bilingual Development and Specific Language Impairment," Johanne Paradis considers issues and evidence at the intersection of children learning two languages and primary or specific language impairment (SLI). The review focuses on morphosyntactic evidence and the fit of this evidence with maturational…

  4. Letzmann and Koschmieder's "Guidelines for Research on Funnels, Tornadoes, Waterspouts and Whirlwinds".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Richard E.

    1992-05-01

    The most extensive published guidelines to carrying out studies of tornadoes were written by Johannes Letzmann and Harald Koschmieder, issued in 1937. Forgotten for decades, they are presented here in translation, accompanied by commentary and background material. They provide insight into the development of concepts of tornadogenesis, and a measure of the progress made in tornado research in the recent past.

  5. Schroeter's Effect and the twilight model for Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallama, A.

    1996-02-01

    The phase of Venus appears slightly concave when Sun-Earth-Venus geometry indicates that it should be exactly half illuminated. This phenomenon was first noticed by the German amateur astronomer Johann Schroeter in 1793. Observations and a possible explanation of the effect are presented.

  6. Reprint Series: Memorable Personalities in Mathematics: Nineteenth Century. RS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Laplace; (2) Carl Friedrich Gauss; (3) Wolfgang and Johann Bolyai; (4) Evariste Galois; and (5) Josiah Willard Gibbs.…

  7. Conceptual Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram, Ashwin, Ed.; Nersessian, Nancy J., Ed.; Keil, Frank C., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This special issue includes four articles that address issues concerning conceptual change. Topics include analogical reasoning and a case study of Johannes Kepler; conceptual change and wine expertise; the role of extreme case reasoning in instruction for conceptual change; and dynamic science assessment: a new approach for investigating…

  8. The Transition from Latin to German in the Natural Sciences--And Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porksen, Uwe

    Little is known about the transition from the use of Latin to the use of German in scientific literature. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Latin texts by Albrecht Durer and Johannes Kepler were bestsellers while the German versions were unpopular. German mathematics became acceptable only after 1700, with the work of Christian Wolff.…

  9. Idea Bank: Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denise; Watkins, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    In 1609, Galileo Galilei turned his telescope to the night sky and began a series of observations of the cosmos. These observations, together with the work of Johannes Kepler and other scientists of the time, revolutionized our understanding of the universe and the process by which we do science. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed…

  10. Notes on Joseph Fraunhofer's honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen, 1822 (German Title: Bemerkungen zur Ehrenpromotion Joseph Fraunhofers 1822 in Erlangen )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventzke, Karl

    In 1822, Joseph Fraunhofer received a honorary Ph.D. degree from Erlangen University. Presumably, this distinction was based on suggestions by Johann Wilhelm Pfaff. Since 1822, Pfaff gave lectures with the inclusion of instruments, which he obtained directly from Fraunhofer, and presumably also included problems of spectral investigation. This contribution analyzes informations which were collected in this regard.

  11. Education Matters, July 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) How to Avoid Burnout (Kate Johanns); and (2) Union Loses…

  12. System Accreditation: An Innovative Approach to Assure and Develop the Quality of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "System accreditation" is a new approach developed for German universities to conduct the mandatory accreditation of all their study programmes. A pilot project at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is playing an important role in paving the way for this alternative to prevailing programme accreditation. This article describes how system…

  13. 77 FR 25780 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Gold, Jasper, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Gold, Jasper, and Carnelian: Johann... April 15, 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Gold,...

  14. Doubt, Despair and Hope in Western Thought: Unamuno and the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the importance of doubt in Western philosophy, with particular attention to the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Miguel de Unamuno. Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus ventures down the pathway of doubt, finds it perplexing and difficult and discovers that he is unable to return to his pre-doubting self. In…

  15. Sources of Kant's Cosmopolitanism: Basedow, Rousseau, and Cosmopolitan Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallar, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this essay is to analyse the influence of Johann Bernhard Basedow and Rousseau on Kant's cosmopolitanism and concept of cosmopolitan education. It argues that both Basedow and Kant defined cosmopolitan education as non-denominational moral formation or "Bildung", encompassing--in different forms--a thin version of moral…

  16. Franklin's Philadelphia Academy and Basedow's Dessau Philanthropine: Two Models of Non-Denominational Schooling in Eighteenth-Century America and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhoff, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The Academy of Philadelphia (today known as the University of Pennsylvania), founded through Benjamin Franklin's influence in 1751, and the Dessau Philanthropine, founded by Johann Bernhard Basedow in 1774, were arguably the first non-denominational schools in the eighteenth century. Yet, the congenial educational ideas of their founders have…

  17. Problemes et methodes de la lexicographie quebecoise (Problems and Methods of Quebec Lexicography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Monique C., Ed.; Francoeur, Aline, Ed.

    Papers on lexicographic research in Quebec (Canada) include: "Indications semantiques dans les dictionnaires bilingues" ("Semantic Indications in Bilingual Dictionaries) (Johanne Blais, Roda P. Roberts); "Definitions predictionnairiques de 'maison, batiment, et pavillon'" ("Pre-dictionary definitions of 'house, building, and pavillon'") (Helene…

  18. Development versus Education--A Contribution to the Discussion on the Definition of the Relation between Developmental Logic, Ethics, and Pedagogics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolffl, Hans-Ulrich

    1990-01-01

    States that moral education has traditionally been characterized by interpretative and normative issues of moral philosophy. Critiques Lawrence Kohlberg's and Jurgen Habermas' theories of moral education. Questions whether moral education can be defined both in the differences and connections with moral philosophy. Examines Johann Herbart's…

  19. Predicting the Atomic Weights of the Trans-Lawrencium Elements: A Novel Application of Dobereiner's Triads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Sami A.

    2005-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner, in 1829, made the first significant attempt to reveal a relation between the properties of the chemical elements and their atomic weights. His groupings remain useful for providing reasonable estimates for the properties and the atomic weights of the trans-lawrencium elements.

  20. Mental Maps and Ethnocentrism: Geographic Characterizations in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    Reexamines geographic thought regarding ethnocentrism as expressed in the writings including Ellen Churchill Semple, Hendrick Willem Van Loon, Ellsworth Huntington, Roswell C. Smith, J. Olney, Henry Thomas Buckle, Georg Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottfried Von Herder, Charles de Montesquieu, Ibn Khaldun, and Hippocrates. (DB)

  1. Education, Fair Competition, and Concern for the Worst Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Johannes Giesinger comments on the current philosophical debate on educational justice. He observes that while authors like Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz develop a so-called adequacy view of educational justice, Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift defend an egalitarian principle. Giesinger focuses his analysis on the main objection…

  2. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  3. To Show and Explain: The Information Graphics of Stevin and Comenius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Krzysztof; Kahn, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Examines the development of diagrammatic presentation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with particular emphasis on the work of Simon Stevin and Johann Amos Comenius, two prominent European scholars and educators who were extremely effective in their use of visual material to complement their texts. (SR)

  4. Goethe's Phenomenological Optics: The Point Where Language Ends and Experience Begins in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Kirk

    This paper explores whether phenomenology, in general, and the case of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's phenomenological optics in particular, provides a case and a location for "minimal realism," located between the extreme positions of absolute scientific realists and "radical rhetoricians." The paper begins with a description of the…

  5. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal culture to this…

  6. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  7. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  8. Looking to Mars for Mathematics Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2010-01-01

    Each year a high school math club selects an applications topic for a year-long study. This year the club members chose the study of Mars in its orbit from the perspective of Johannes Kepler's laws of orbital motion, which they applied to data available on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons Web site. Although not apparent at the time, the math…

  9. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  10. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  11. Adams, John Couch (1819-92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Laneast, Cornwall, England, he became fellow and mathematical tutor at Cambridge. He developed a procedure for numerical integration of differential equations and, inspired by MARY SOMERVILLE, he deduced mathematically the existence and location of the planet Neptune from its perturbations on the planet Uranus. Neptune was discovered by JOHANN GALLE in Berlin, in September 1846, using URB...

  12. Who Solved the Bernoulli Differential Equation and How Did They Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    The Bernoulli brothers, Jacob and Johann, and Leibniz: Any of these might have been first to solve what is called the Bernoulli differential equation. We explore their ideas and the chronology of their work, finding out, among other things, that variation of parameters was used in 1697, 78 years before 1775, when Lagrange introduced it in general.

  13. Explorers with a Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Patricia James

    1991-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of contributions made by several of Christopher Columbus's contemporaries, including Nicholas Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Gutenberg, Sir Thomas More, Desiderius Erasmus, and John Colet. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. (DMM)

  14. Phrenology and physiognomy in Victorian literature.

    PubMed

    Boshears, Rhonda; Whitaker, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Phrenology evolved from the work of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), becoming a fixture in Victorian culture, arts and letters as well as medicine. Writers such as Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866) and Thomas Hood (1799-1845) initially satirized phrenology, as did playwright and composer William S. Gilbert (1836-1911). On the other hand, novelists such as Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), Charles Dickens (1812-1870), George Eliot (1819-1880), and the poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) not only accepted the principles of this brain-based personality theory but exploited it in their characters. The popularity of phrenology in the Victorian period should in part be attributed to the popularity of physiognomy which, thanks in large part to Johann Christian Lavater (1741-1801), has been thoroughly embedded in Western culture since the end of the eighteenth century. PMID:24290261

  15. Hermann Lebert (1813-1878): a pioneer of diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Hellmuth; Reich, Olaf; Winter, Raimund; Young, Robert H

    2009-09-01

    Hermann Lebert (1813-1879) was a pioneer of diagnostic pathology and medical iconography. He was born in Breslau, then Prussia, and died in Nice (France). He lived in Switzerland as a general physician, in France as a pathologist, and eventually became the chairman for internal medicine in Zurich and Breslau, respectively. The significance of Hermann Lebert for medical posterity has three aspects: firstly, scientific linking of the French (Parisian) school and its distinctive clinical/practical orientation to the later clinical/pathological German school of Johann Lukas Schönlein, Johannes Müller, and Rudolf Virchow; secondly, his pioneering of the diagnostic use of the microscope in pathological anatomy; and finally, his remarkable book, Traité d'anatomie pathologique générale et spéciale, which has almost fallen into oblivion, being unknown to most contemporary workers. PMID:19688221

  16. Two hundred years of orthopaedics in Wuerzburg-one hundred years of the Koenig-Ludwig-Haus.

    PubMed

    Jakuscheit, Axel; Rudert, Maximilian

    2016-08-01

    Wuerzburg in the centre of Germany claims to be a cradle of modern orthopaedics. Under the leadership of Johann Georg Heine (1771-1831) the first German orthopaedic hospital, the Carolinum, was established in 1816. Johann Georg Heine's legacy was continued by his son Joseph (1803-1877) and his nephew Bernhard Heine (1800-1846), before Albert Hoffa (1859-1907) put the clinical practice of orthopaedics on a strict scientific basis and further promoted a worldwide exchange of knowledge. In 1916, Albert Hoffa's successor Jakob Riedinger (1861-1917) founded the Koenig-Ludwig-Haus, which hosts the Orthopaedic Hospital and the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research of the University of Wuerzburg. On the occasion of the bicentenary and centenary anniversaries of the founding of the two orthopaedic hospitals, we provide a short view on the development of orthopaedics in Wuerzburg. PMID:27283104

  17. Canes Venatici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Hunting Dogs; abbrev. CVn, gen. Canum Venaticorum; area 465 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Boötes, and culminates at midnight in early April. It was named by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia though the celestial figure had been shown in earlier charts da...

  18. Philosophical Foundations of Zwicky's Morphological Approach in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Konrad

    Fritz Zwicky as a conscious Goetheanist. Johann Wolfgang Goethe as a natural philosopher and methodologist. Goetheanist theory of knowledge — a theory essentially different from the theory of Kant, from which the contemporary concept of paradigms has originated. Pre-scientific character of theory of knowledge. The principal thought experiment. The role of thinking in Goetheanism. Fundamental phenomena. Morphological approach. The shape (µo ) of a problem. Morphological box. Individual hypothesis versus classes of hypotheses. Theory and reality.

  19. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  20. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  1. Science, fiction and the age of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2007-05-01

    This article suggests that the age of discovery and enlightenment of the Scientific Revolution and the universe of Copernicus was responsible for a new way of imagining, which we now call science fiction. This history is important for an understanding of the evolution of the physics, and shows how scientists, such as Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei, and philosophers, such as the Bishop of Llandaff, Francis Godwin, and Cyrano de Bergerac, used the fictional imagination to help visualise the unknown.

  2. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry 2015: Meet the Experts of MedChem near the Cradle of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wegscheid-Gerlach, Christof; Gerber, Hans-Dieter; Diederich, Wibke E

    2015-07-01

    Pioneering inspiration: Right next to the former laboratories of Johannes Hartmann, the first so-called "Professor of Chymiatrie", the 2015 Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry meeting was held last March at Philipps University in Marburg, Germany. Herein we give readers an idea of what it was like to attend the conference, which was organized jointly by the DPhG, GDCh, and SCS. Along with the lectures, we also describe the poster sessions, social program, and awards. PMID:26038282

  3. Fabrication of transmission gratings for use in X-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predehl, P.; Braeuninger, H.; Truemper, J.; Kraus, H.

    The process of manufacturing free-standing diffracting transmission gratings with high ruling density and high efficiency is described. This process has been developed at the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institut. Two steps are involved, the mechanical ruling of the original master and the photomechanical replication of the individual grating facets. At present gratings of up to 2000 1/mm are available. Measured X-ray efficiencies are close to the theoretically expected values.

  4. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  5. [Billroth and his time; selected passages from his letters].

    PubMed

    Budernik, A

    1986-04-18

    Billroth's life and work are illustrated by selected excerpts from his letters written to outstanding personalities and colleagues. Not only his medical activities, but also his initiative in the planning of the Rudolfinerhaus hospital, and the reconstruction of his own department and the building of the Medical Association house in the Frankgasse are described. In addition, his love of music and his deep friendship with Johannes Brahms are demonstrated by these letters. PMID:3521104

  6. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    One of Galileo's staunchest supporters during his lifetime was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. The Astronomy Video poster will contain all the basic information about the contest including: categories, rules, prizes, web address for more info and how to download the new song, "Shoulders of Giants.”

  7. Astronomy Video Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, John

    2008-05-01

    During Galileo's lifetime his staunchest supporter was Johannes Kepler, Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor. Johannes Kepler will be in St. Louis to personally offer a tribute to Galileo. Set Galileo's astronomy discoveries to music and you get the newest song by the well known acappella group, THE CHROMATICS. The song, entitled "Shoulders of Giants” was written specifically for IYA-2009 and will be debuted at this conference. The song will also be used as a base to create a music video by synchronizing a person's own images to the song's lyrics and tempo. Thousands of people already do this for fun and post their videos on YOU TUBE and other sites. The ASTRONOMY VIDEO CONTEST will be launched as a vehicle to excite, enthuse and educate people about astronomy and science. It will be an annual event administered by the Johannes Kepler Project and will continue to foster the goals of IYA-2009 for years to come. During this presentation the basic categories, rules, and prizes for the Astronomy Video Contest will be covered and finally the new song "Shoulders of Giants” by THE CHROMATICS will be unveiled

  8. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Wolfgang; Stutzmann, Martin; Hildebrandt, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The present special issue contains a collection of Original Papers dedicated to Professor Johannes Heydenreich on the occasion of his 75th birthday.Johannes Heydenreich, born on 20 June 1930 in Plauen/Vogtland near Dresden, studied physics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam, where he obtained his first academic degree Dipl. Phys. in 1958. He received his doctoral degree at the Martin Luther University in Halle in 1961 and the Habilitation degree in 1969. Already during his studies in Potsdam, he showed an interest in electron microscopy due to the influence of his teacher and supervisor Prof. Picht, one of the pioneers in electron optics. His interests were strengthened when Johannes Heydenreich did the experimental work for his Diploma degree at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Halle, where he met Prof. Heinz Bethge for the first time. This was the beginning of a fruitful and longstanding collaboration. In 1962 Johannes Heydenreich joined the team of the later Institute for Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, in Halle, for which the basis was laid by Prof. Bethge in 1960.Heydenreich has been working as Assistant Director for many years and played a decisive role in introducing and organising the various techniques of electron microscopy in the institute.The research activities of Prof. Heydenreich covered a broad spectrum over the years. At the beginning of his career he made significant contributions in the field of electron mirror microscopy. After that, his main interests were focused on transmission electron microscopy, ranging from diffraction contrast analysis of crystal defects to high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing. His favourite field was studies of defect-induced phenomena in advanced materials. The so-called Bethge-Heydenreich, the book Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, published at first in a German edition in 1982 and later in a revised

  9. Some Historical Points of Interest in Göttingen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    The Georgia Augusta University of Göttingen, founded in 1737, was a child of the Enlightenment, and the new sciences have always played a major role here.1 Among the teachers of physics, physical chemistry, astronomy, and related subjects we find Johann Christian Polykarp Erxleben, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Johann Tobias Mayer, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Johann B. Listing, Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Woldemar Voigt, Friedrich Kohlrausch, Eduard Riecke, Walther Nernst and Peter Debye — the last two subsequently moved on to Berlin. In the 1920s, physics students were jestingly referred to as “Frankierte, Bornierte und Polierte” (loosely translated as stamped, limited and polished), in allusion to their teachers, the theoretical physicist Max Born and the experimentalists James Franck and Robert Wichard Pohl, the first two being important figures in the history of quantum theory, the third, one of the founding fathers of experimental solid state physics.2 The National Socialist’s rise to power had a devastating effect on this world-renowned center for physics and mathematics. Most of its high-caliber scientists either were dismissed on the basis of the racist “Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” or themselves felt compelled to emigrate: About a dozen members of the physics faculty, including Born and Franck, and ten from the mathematics faculty left Göttingen.3 After the war, Richard Becker, who in 1936 had received a compulsory order to take the chair for theoretical physics vacant since Born’s emigration, and Friedrich Hund, who was also an enthusiastic historian of science, distinguished themselves as physics teachers there but the university as a whole never recovered its international standing of before 1933 (see Figs. 1 and 2).

  10. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones. PMID:19019438

  11. Instrumental images: the visual rhetoric of self-presentation in Hevelius's Machina Coelestis.

    PubMed

    Vertesi, Janet

    2010-06-01

    This article places the famous images of Johannes Hevelius's instruments in his Machina Coelestis (1673) in the context of Hevelius's contested cometary observations and his debate with Hooke over telescopic sights. Seen thus, the images promote a crafted vision of Hevelius's astronomical practice and skills, constituting a careful self-presentation to his distant professional network and a claim as to which instrumental techniques guarantee accurate observations. Reviewing the reception of the images, the article explores how visual rhetoric may be invoked and challenged in the context of controversy, and suggests renewed analytical attention to the role of laboratory imagery in instrumental cultures in the history of science. PMID:20695415

  12. Astrometric observations of Hevelius and derived values of ΔT (dynamical time - universal time).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsch, J.

    About 1500 meridian altitudes of the Sun observed by Johannes Hevelius (1611 - 1687) at Danzig in the years 1652 - 1679 and about 1160 distances of fixed stars from the lunar limb obtained in 1658 - 1679 as well as 48 occultations of stars by the Moon were analyzed with the aim to obtain a value of the time difference ΔT = ET - UT between ephemeris time and universal time for the period of Hevelius' observations. This time difference is a measure of the "clock error" of the rotation of the Earth, caused mainly by secular deceleration due to tidal friction.

  13. Bach and His.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Wyn

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail. PMID:24405850

  14. Seeing the B-A-C-H motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catravas, Palmyra

    2005-09-01

    Musical compositions can be thought of as complex, multidimensional data sets. Compositions based on the B-A-C-H motif (a four-note motif of the pitches of the last name of Johann Sebastian Bach) span several centuries of evolving compositional styles and provide an intriguing set for analysis since they contain a common feature, the motif, buried in dissimilar contexts. We will present analyses which highlight the content of this unusual set of pieces, with emphasis on visual display of information.

  15. Astronomical kaleidoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2005-10-01

    The entry contains two Moon eclipses (a picture of a total eclipse and a photo of a penumbral one), photographs of monuments of few greatest astronomers: Nikolay Kopernik, Tiho Brahe and Johannes Kepler, a photo from the JENAM-1995 (Catania, Sicily) as well as photographs of few astronomers related with Moldova and Romania: V. Grigorevskii, N. Donitch, V.Nadolschi, D. Mangeron, two nice clocks in Prague, as well as a map of the Sanctuary in Orheiul -Vechi (Bessarabia) with an supposed ancient calendar.

  16. In Galileo's footsteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-03-01

    Astronomy can lay rightful claim to being the oldest science, with its foundations dating back even further than those of mathematics. From the ancient Babylonians who observed the regular motions of Venus to medieval Islamic scholars who had the first inklings of heliocentrism, the study of the skies has fascinated humankind. But 2009 - the International Year of Astronomy - commemorates an event central to the development of Western science: Galileo Galilei's first observations with a telescope in 1609. This year also marks the 400th anniversary of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova, in which he outlined his laws of planetary motion.

  17. William Crabtree's Venus transit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    The close collaboration between the two North-country astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree gave them special insight into the new astronomy published by the recently-deceased Kepler, whereby Horrocks became the only person to apprehend that the Rudolphine tables were in fact predicting a Venus transit in 1639. This paper focuses especially upon William Crabtree's role and contribution. A comparison is made with an earlier, unsuccessful endeavour by these two concerning a possible transit of Mercury. Much of the record of their work was lost during the civil war. Finally, thanks to Christiaan Huygens, Horrock's manuscript was published by Johannes Hevelius in Danzig, in 1662.

  18. Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Special Session 9 of the XXVII General Assembly (11-14 August 2009, Rio de Janeiro) was devoted to the topic “Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova”. During the two-and-a-half day meeting (spread over four days), there were nine invited and three contributed talks, a round-table discussion on the future of Kepler studies and an open session to propose the setting up of a Johannes Kepler Working Group under the aegis of the IAU.

  19. Recent activities at PTB nanometer comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flugge, Jens; Koning, Rainer; Bosse, Harald

    2003-11-01

    The PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH built up a new length comparator with a measurement range of 610 mm for 1D length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers. The PTB nanometer comparator was retrofitted and now allows a stable operation of the interferometer. To investigate the actual measurement performance a few line scales and a linear encoder were measured and compared with results from other comparators. The results are discussed and recent developments at the nanometer comparator are described.

  20. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for near edge absorption studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanoff, V.; Hamalainen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Hastings, J.B.; Berman, L.E.; Cramer, S.; Smith, G.

    1991-12-31

    A high resolution fluorescence spectrometer using a Johann geometry in a back scattering arrangement was developed. The spectrometer, with a resolution of 0.3 eV at 6.5 keV, combined with an incident beam, with a resolution of 0.7 eV, form the basis of a high resolution instrument for measuring x-ray absorption spectra. The advantages of the instrument are illustrated with the near edge absorption spectrum of dysprosium nitrate. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Quo vadis nanomedicine?

    PubMed

    Luxenhofer, Robert; Barz, Matthias; Schillmeier, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The interdisciplinary workshop 'Quo Vadis Nanomedicine?' was held on 10-11 April 2014 at the University of Exeter (Exeter, UK), coorganized by the Schumpeter-Research Group 'Innovations in Nanomedicine', funded by the VolkswagenStiftung at Exeter University, and the Sonderforschungsbereich (STB; collaborative research centre) 1066 'Nanodimensional Polymer Therapeutics for Tumor Therapy', funded by the German Research Council (DFG) at the Johannes Gutenberg-University (Mainz, Germany). This international workshop brought together scientists, philosophers and social scientists in order to reflect, discuss and rethink the practices, concepts, methods, models and metaphors, as well as the medical and regulatory needs in current nanomedical research and its possible futures. PMID:25405794

  3. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 5 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This book contains articles on 16th century horoscopes, on Athanasius Kircher's ``Organum Mathematicum'', on Gottfried Kirch's idea of an astronomical society, on a stellar photometer dating from 1786, on Bessel's review of Gauss' ``Theoria Motus'', on letters by F.X. von Zach, on the discovery of the minor planet Eros, as well as on the astronomers Christoph Scheiner, Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau, Georg Koch and Felix Linke. Short contributions and book reviews conclude this volume. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  4. Simulating Statistical Power in Latent Growth Curve Modeling: A Strategy for Evaluating Age-Based Changes in Cognitive Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman

    Variability across and within individuals is a fundamental property of adult age changes in behavior [20, 21, 24]. Some people seem young for their age, others seem old; shining examples of older individuals who maintained high levels of intellectual functioning well into very old age, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe or Sophocles, stand in contrast to individuals whose cognitive resources are depleted by the time they reach later adulthood. A similar contrast exists between different intellectual abilities. For example, if one looks at the speed needed to identify and discriminate between different percepts, one is likely to find monotonic decline after late adolescence and early adulthood.

  5. Musician's and physicist's view on tuning keyboard instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubenow, Martin; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous sound of several voices or instruments requires proper tuning to achieve consonance for certain intervals and chords. Most instruments allow enough frequency variation to enable pure tuning while being played. Keyboard instruments such as organ and piano have given frequencies for individual notes and the tuning must be based on a compromise. The equal temperament is not the only solution, but a special choice. Unequal temperaments produce better results in many cases, because important major thirds and triads are improved. Equal temperament was not propagated by Johann Sebastian Bach, as is often stated in introductory literature on this topic.

  6. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Spectra of multiply charged nickel and copper ions in an X-pinch plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Érmatov, Sh A.; Nilsen, J.

    1993-05-01

    The L spectra of Ni and Cu ions produced in an X-pinch plasma have been recorded. A fast-optics Johann spectrograph and detection with spatial resolution were used to observe these spectra both in the hot, dense plasma and in the relatively cold recombining plasma expanding outward from the "hot spot." The wavelengths of a number of spectral lines of multiply charged nickel and copper ions were measured with relative error Δλ/λ ~ 10-4. A number of new lines of Na-like satellite lines were identified in the spectra of these ions.

  7. COMMITTEES: SQM2004 Organising and International Advisory Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Organising Committee Jean Cleymans (Chairman) Zeblon Vilakazi Roger Fearick Peter Steinberg Rory Adams Bruce Becker Sarah Blyth Gareth de Vaux Heather Gray Mark Horner Nawahl Razak Artur Szostak Spencer Wheaton International Advisory Committee Federico Antinori Tim Hallman John Harris Tetsuo Hatsuda Ulrich Heinz Huan Z Huang Sonja Kabana Volker Koch Rob Lacey Jes Madsen Yasuo Miake Maurizio Morando Berndt Mueller Grazyna Odyniec Helmut Oeschler Apostolos Panagiotou Josef Pochodzalla Johann Rafelski Karel Safarik Jack Sandweiss Jürgen Schaffner-Bielich Georges Stephans Horst Stoecker Herbert Stroebele Thomas Ullrich Orlando Villalobos-Baillie Bill Zajc Joseph Zimanyi

  8. The discoveries of Neptune and Triton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.

    The story of the tracking-down of Neptune has been told many times, but even today there are still discrepancies in the various accounts, to say nothing of conflicting opinions. To some people, John Couch Adams is a shining hero and George Biddell Airy a black villain; to others it is Le Verrier who is the hero, and Adams an unimportant member of the supporting cast. Of course, all this is absurd. In the author's view, the true discoverers of Neptune were Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich D'Arrest.

  9. Robert Boyle, Transmutation, and the History of Chemistry before Lavoisier: A Response to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-01-01

    In an influential article of 1952, Thomas Kuhn argued that Robert Boyle had little or no influence on the subsequent development of chemistry. This essay challenges Kuhn's view on two fronts. First, it shows that Johann Joachim Becher developed his hierarchical matter theory under the influence of Boyle and then transmitted it to the founder of the phlogiston theory, G. E. Stahl. Second, this essay argues that transmutational matter theories were not necessarily opposed to the existence of stable chemical species, pace Kuhn. Boyle's corpuscular theory descended largely from the tradition of "chymical atomism," which often advocated both chrysopoeia and the reality of robust chemical substances. PMID:26103748

  10. The University Observatory of Bützow - history, buildings, instruments and personnel. (German Title: Die Universitätssternwarte Bützow - Geschichte, Baulichkeit, Instrumente und Personal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The existence of an observatory at the - only briefly existing - university of Bützow was hardly known until now. Nevertheless, as compared to other observatories, it was well-equipped with instruments and was also used for academic lectures by the important mathematician Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten. The example of this institution shows the importance that was ascribed to astronomy even at small universities. This article delineates the founding and the fate of the observatory, describes the instruments, and deals with the activity of professor Karsten, including a bibliography of his writings.

  11. [Early orthopedics in Munich around 1860].

    PubMed

    Halter, U

    1999-01-01

    Case histories and patient photographs have recently been discovered from the private "Orthopaedic and Physiotherapeutic Clinic of the Licensed Orthopaedist Ludwig Hugo Krieger", which was located in Munich from 1857 to 1888 under the directorship of the surgeon Johann Nepomuk Nussbaum. The photographs include the oldest existing patient photographs in Germany. The documents reveal the early successes in Orthopaedics, which at the time was not a subject of academic study. Orthopaedics was primarily practised by interested amateurs, who were frequently quite talented, such as the bandage-specialist Krieger, ideally in co-operation with medical physicians. PMID:10441837

  12. Kepler on Light and Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alistair

    The works by Johannes Kepler on light ("Paralipomena ad Vitelionem" and "Dioptrice") and sound ("Harmonices Mundi") are reviewed. The author underlines that the "Harmonices Mundi" represents a dissertation on musical theory. Kepler assumed, that the human soul got pleasure from musical harmonies received through the ear, and indeed a succession of notes at melodic intervals, because the human mind perceived the ordained mathematically harmonic relationships between the notes. The contribution of Kepler in the understanding of the phenomenon of resonance is pointed out. Some mistakes by Kepler are also examined.

  13. Friedrich Paschen and the Mecklenburg ordnance survey 1853 to 1873. (German Title: Friedrich Paschen und die mecklenburgische Landesvermessung 1853 bis 1873 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard

    At the suggestion of the Prussian military geodesist Johann Jacob Baeyer, the government of Mecklenburg decided in 1853 to undertake an ordnance survey on a trigonometric basis. It appointed Friedrich Paschen (1804-1873) as the scientific and technical head of this survey. Paschen was a lawyer, but visited Gauss' lectures on mathematics, astronomy and geodesy during his student years in Göttingen. This paper gives an account of the astronomical-geodetic works. For the first time also parts of Paschen's correspondence with Gauss and other scientists is published.

  14. Experiences with the magnetism of conducting loops: Historical instruments, experimental replications, and productive confusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2003-02-01

    This study investigates nineteenth century laboratory work on electromagnetism through historical accounts and experimental replications. Oersted found that when a magnetic needle was placed in varying positions around a conducting wire, its orientation changed: in moving from a spot above the wire to one below, its sense inverted. This behavior was confusing and provocative. Early experimenters such as Johann Schweigger, Johann Poggendorff, and James Cumming engaged it by bending wire into loops. These loops, which increased the magnetic effect on a compass placed within, also provided evidence of their understanding and confusion. Coiling conducting wires around iron magnetized it, but when some wires coiled oppositely from others, the effect diminished. This effect confused contemporaries of Joseph Henry who made electromagnets, and amateurs later in the century who constructed multisection induction coils. I experienced these confusions myself while working with multilayer coils and induction coils that I made to replicate the historical instruments. This study shows how confusion can be a productive element in learning, by engaging learners to ask questions and invent experiments. By providing space for learners' confusions, teachers can support the development of their students' physical understandings.

  15. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  16. Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, Marco; Wade, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei, one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution. This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered. Galileo's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances. Galileo's innovative conception of the relation between the senses and external reality contrasted with the classical tradition dominated by Aristotle; it paved the way for the modern understanding of sensory processing, culminating two centuries later in Johannes Müller's elaboration of the doctrine of specific nerve energies and in Helmholtz's general theory of perception. PMID:18986060

  17. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War. PMID:27325060

  18. Development of a Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter for Precision Parity-Violating Electron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Valerie M.

    2013-10-01

    Parity-violating electron scattering experiments allow for testing the Standard Model at low energy accelerators. Future parity-violating electron scattering experiments, like the P2 experiment at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany, and the MOLLER and SoLID experiments at Jefferson Lab will measure observables predicted by the Standard Model to high precision. In order to make these measurements, we will need to determine the polarization of the electron beam to sub-percent precision. The present way of measuring the polarization, with Møller scattering in iron foils or using Compton laser backscattering, will not easily be able to reach this precision. The novel Hydrogen Møller Polarimeter presents a non-invasive way to measure the electron polarization by scattering the electron beam off of atomic hydrogen gas polarized in a 7 Tesla solenoidal magnetic trap. This apparatus is expected to be operational by 2016 in Mainz. Currently, simulations of the polarimeter are used to develop the detection system at College of William & Mary, while the hydrogen trap and superconducting solenoid magnet are being developed at the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz. I will discuss the progress of the design and development of this novel polarimeter system. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1206053.

  19. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  20. From Gauß to Biermann: Highlights from the first 117 years of publications in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Berlepsch, R.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2009-06-01

    We present facsimiles of some of the scientifically and historically most relevant papers published in Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes (AN) between 1821 and 1938. Almost all of these papers were written and printed in German and it is sometimes not completely straightforward to find these original works and then to cite the historically correct version, e.g. in case of a series of articles or editorial letters. It was common during the early years that many contributions were made in form of letters to the editor. We present a summary for these original works with an English translation of their titles. Among the highlights are the originals of the discovery of stellar parallaxes by Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, the discovery of the solar cycle by Heinrich Schwabe, the discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle, the first ever measured stellar radial velocity by Hermann Vogel, the discovery of radio emission from the Sun by Wilsing and Scheiner, the first ever conducted photoelectric photometry of stars by Paul Guthnick and up to the pioneering work by Karl Schwarzschild, Ejnar Hertzsprung, Erwin Finlay Freundlich and others. As a particular gimmick we present the still world record holding shortest paper ever published; by Johannes Hartmann in AN 226, 63 (1926) on Nova Pictoris. Our focus is on contributions in the early years and published until 1938 near the verge of the second world war.

  1. [Billroth and Brahms: personal encounter of medicine and music].

    PubMed

    Hadaschik, B A; Hadaschik, E N; Hohenfellner, M

    2012-02-01

    Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms shared a decades long personal friendship. The music-loving Billroth influenced the work of the famous composer and in turn Brahms also left traces within Billroth's lifetime achievements. To shed light on the close relationship of medicine and music, this manuscript describes both Billroth's life and surgical career as they were influenced and stimulated by his close friendship to Brahms.Theodor Billroth and Johannes Brahms first met in 1865 in Zurich, Switzerland. After Billroth accepted the chair of surgery at the University of Vienna in 1867, Brahms moved to Vienna in 1869. During the following years, Billroth analyzed most of Brahms' compositions prior to publication. Similar to his effective way of teaching medical students and assistants, Billroth stimulated Brahms to publish many of his later compositions. Brahms on the other hand supported Billroth in writing his essay"Who is musical?". Furthermore, music helped Billroth to cope with the demanding working life of a surgeon.Music and surgery share both structural and emotional analogies. While both professions require meticulous techniques, personal interaction is a prerequisite for success. "Science and art scoop from the same well." PMID:22269990

  2. [The Anatomy Institutions of Jean Guinter d'Andernach (1487-1574), and André Vésale (1514-1564). ].

    PubMed

    Drizenko, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Anatomical Institutions of Johann Guinter von Andernach, in its original version, was published almost simultaneously in Paris and Basel in 1536. Guinter was then in his fiftieth year, and Andreas Vesalius who was his student in Paris between 1533 ans 1536, was only twenty-two years old. His studies being finished in Leuven and his thesis being published for the first edition in Leuven in February 1537, and for the second in Basel in March 1537, Vesalius went to Padua where he was named professor of anatomy and surgery. Vesalius, besides the reasons put forward in his dedicatory lettre to Johann Armenterianus, tried to have rapidly printed documents for his students. He published in this way in April 1538 the engraved version of the great plates which he had mostly drawn and used to support his demonstrations during sessions of dissection. For the accompanying text, he choosed the handbook of his Master Guinter von Andernach which he decided to edit incorporating modifications and which he published in Venice in 1538 by D. Bernardinus. The modifications made by Vesalius on the Guinter's text can be classified in several headings: minor adjustments, additions of anatomical comments, additions corroborating traditional physiology, and anecdotes peppering the text. PMID:22400471

  3. The personages of Jan Stephan van Calcar's frontispiece to Andreas Vesalius' book "On the Structure of the Human Body".

    PubMed

    Speransky, L S; Bocharov, V J; Goncharov, N I

    1983-01-01

    More than 400 years have passed since the edition of the prominent anatomical treatise "On the Structure of the Human Body" in 7 books of Andreas Vesalius, the founder of the modern anatomical science, the outstanding scientist of the Renaissance. The role of Andreas Vesalius in the history of medicine and anatomy, his life and creative work are described in detail by many following generations (Choulant 1852; Jackschath 1903; Anson 1945; Deshin 1915; Leibson 1940, 1951; Kasatkin 1956; Kuprijanov 1964; Ternovsky 1965; Goncharov 1976, 1978). However the interest both in that man and the epoch he lived and created does not grow weak nowadays. At the USSR Order of Lenin State Library in the section of rare books there is one of a few left copies of A. Vesalius' book (published in 1543 in Basel of Johann Oporin's publication) published by Johann Oporin in 1543 in Basel. This book is exhibited unfold and its frontispiece is great interest to readers (Fig. 1). PMID:6349420

  4. Spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Gu, M. F.; Eikenberry, E.; Broennimann, Ch.; Lee, S. G.

    2008-10-15

    The use of high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometers to diagnose fusion plasmas has been limited by the poor spatial localization associated with chord integrated measurements. Taking advantage of a new x-ray imaging spectrometer concept [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3660 (2004)], and improvements in x-ray detector technology [Ch. Broennimann et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120 (2006)], a spatially resolving high resolution x-ray spectrometer has been built and installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of two dimensional x-ray detectors arranged in the Johann configuration [H. H. Johann, Z. Phys. 69, 185 (1931)] to image the entire plasma cross section with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm. The spectrometer was designed to measure line emission from H-like and He-like argon in the wavelength range 3.7 and 4.0 A with a resolving power of approximately 10 000 at frame rates up to 200 Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques [I. Condrea, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2427 (2004)] the line integrated spectra can be inverted to infer profiles of impurity emissivity, velocity, and temperature. From these quantities it is then possible to calculate impurity density and electron temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis techniques, and example profiles are presented.

  5. The A2 Experiment Program at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; A2 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. The Mainz Microtron MAMI is an accelerator for electron beams run by the Institut für Kernphysik of the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz used for hadron physics experiments. Of it's three active experimental halls, the A2 facility, which features the presence of the SLAC Crystal Ball detector, has produced a plethora of experimental results, which has contributed to the understanding of the structure of the nucleon. An overview and update of the current A2 program will be presented. Funded in part by SFB 1044. US collaborators funded by USDOE and USNSF.

  6. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  7. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  8. [Schelling and experiential science].

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Schelling's philosophy of nature is shown to be part of the scientific discussions of his day, not set apart from it. His terminology describing the potentialities and polarities of nature was formed during Schelling's collaboration with the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter. This scientist adopted the schema Schelling had developed for the categorization of natural phenomena to describe the peculiar facts that interested him in his area of research. Thus Ritter was able to develop a classification of the various phenomena of animal galvanism. Thus it can be shown that the idealistic "Naturphilosophie" was part of the scientific culture of about 1800. It is to be interpreted as philosophy of science and has to be evaluated not only in a philosophically systematic way but in particular in its influence on the way scientific categories were ordered at the time. Thereby it can be shown that the idealistic vocabulary had close correspondence to French morphology and English Natural Theology. PMID:15730143

  9. Metaphysics for an enlightened public: The controversy over monads in Germany, 1746-1748.

    PubMed

    Broman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This essay analyzes the controversy that attended the prize essay question on monads proposed by the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1746. The controversy was first touched off by an anonymous pamphlet published by the mathematician Leonhard Euler, the academy's most well known member, that attacked the doctrine of monads. It peaked with the awarding of the prize to Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi, whose winning essay closely followed Euler's arguments. This essay discusses the controversy as one instance in a broader quarrel in the German academic community over the suitability of Christian Wolff's philosophy as the foundation for a broad range of academic disciplines, including natural philosophy. It also analyzes the controversy as displaying the central role of the periodical press in the emergent German public sphere. PMID:22655336

  10. Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) and astronomy in Berlin in the 18th century. Contributions of the colloquium held in Berlin-Treptow on March 6, 2010 (German Title: Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) und die Berliner Astronomie im 18. Jahrhundert.) Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 6. März 2010 in Berlin-Treptow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of this volume are dedicated to Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710), the first Berlin astronomer, on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of his death. They deal with the astronomy of his times and developments in later times, which are connected to his work. The papers deal with the following topics: The instrumental equipment of Berlin Observatory at the time of G. Kirch and its modernisation up to around 1780; the instruments of Johann Makob Marioni's Viennese observatory around 1730; the heraldic celestial globe by Kirch's teacher Erhard Weigel. In addition, they deal with Kirch's share in the propagation of ideas of the Enlightenment, and with the Berlin meteorological record and its consequences for the investigation of anthropogenous climatic changes. They also deal with astronomical topics in the exchange of letters between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, and with the Berlin "Astronomisches Jahrbuch", which is based on Kirch's activities, as a biographical source.

  11. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe part II: resistance against the third reich.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2011-11-01

    Previously, I mentioned that not all neuroscientists collaborated with the Nazis, who from 1933 to 1945 tried to eliminate neurologic and psychiatric disease from the gene pool. Oskar and Cécile Vogt openly resisted and courageously protested against the Nazi regime and its policies, and have been discussed previously in the neurology literature. Here I discuss Alexander Mitscherlich, Haakon Saethre, Walther Spielmeyer, Jules Tinel, and Johannes Pompe. Other neuroscientists had ambivalent roles, including Hans Creutzfeldt, who has been discussed previously. Here, I discuss Max Nonne, Karl Bonhoeffer, and Oswald Bumke. The neuroscientists who resisted had different backgrounds and motivations that likely influenced their behavior, but this group undoubtedly saved lives of colleagues, friends, and patients, or at least prevented forced sterilizations. By recognizing and understanding the actions of these heroes of neuroscience, we pay homage and realize how ethics and morals do not need to be compromised even in dark times. PMID:22030419

  12. Solar rotation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziembowski, W.

    Sunspot observations made by Johannes Hevelius in 1642 - 1644 are the first ones providing significant information about the solar differential rotation. In modern astronomy the determination of the rotation rate is done in a routine way by measuring positions of various structures on the solar surface as well as by studying the Doppler shifts of spectral lines. In recent years a progress in helioseismology enabled determination of the rotation rate in the layers inaccessible for direct observations. There are still uncertainties concerning, especially, the temporal variations of the rotation rate and its behaviour in the radiative interior. We are far from understanding the observations. Theoretical works have not yet resulted in a satisfactory model for the angular momentum transport in the convective zone.

  13. Sunspots During the Maunder Minimum from Machina Coelestis by Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, V. M. S.; Álvarez, J. Villalba; Vaquero, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    We revisited the sunspot observations published by Johannes Hevelius in his book Machina Coelestis (1679) corresponding to the period of 1653 - 1675 (just in the middle of the Maunder Minimum). We show detailed translations of the original Latin texts describing the sunspot records and provide the general context of these sunspot observations. From this source, we present an estimate of the annual values of the group sunspot number based only on the records that explicitly inform us of the presence or absence of sunspots. Although we obtain very low values of the group sunspot number, in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity, these values are significantly higher in general than the values provided by Hoyt and Schatten ( Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) for the same period.

  14. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  15. Kepler's Use of Archetypes in his defence against Aristotelian Scepticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Rhonda M.

    In 1621, looking back over an impresive career, Johannes Kepler commented that "almost every book on astronomy which I have published since that time could be referred to one or another of the important chapters set out in this little book (the Mysterium Cosmographicum) and would contain either an illustration or a completion of it". Kepler viewed the Mysterium, his first book, as the genesis of hist later works; Here the author is focusing on the conceptual foundations it provided for his approach to physical astronomy and the Aristotelian dominant during his time. It turns out that despite Kepler's arowedly Platonic and Pythagorean sympathies, his physical astronomy comports with Aristotle's directives in the Posterior Analytics. Perhaps paradoxically, his arhetypal cosmology as expressed in the Mysterium enabled the merging Platonic and Aristotelian intuitions in his construction of the new astronomy.

  16. ["Could not therefore the earth globe also be a large tourmaline?" A crystal, Lichtenberg and the polarity discussion before 1800].

    PubMed

    Wiesenfeldt, Gerhard; Breidbach, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the debate on one particular phenomenon of the research into electrical charge distribution prior to 1800: the description and interpretation of polarities observed on the tourmaline. We show that in the second half of the eighteenth century this crystal became a model to distinguish and categorize different qualities of charges (electric and magnetic fluids). It will become clear that the polarity detected on the tourmaline became a key concept for eighteenth century natural philosophy, which relied on analogizing operations. We illustrate this concentrating on Lichtenbergs first lecture at the Göttingen academy of science in 1778. Thus the concept of polarity is already a central ordering category before the beginnings of the speculative enterprise of idealistic Naturphilosophy. Consequently, the physicist Johann Wilhelm Ritter, who can be positioned in that context, consciously adheres to the experimental research tradition of polarities portrayed in this paper. PMID:23155759

  17. Waldemar Wilhelm: father of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Waldemar Wilhelm (1913-1994) was honored by the Asociación Colombiana de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Colombian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) as the Father of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Colombia. Born in Karlsruhe, Germany, Wilhelm graduated as a dentist from Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in 1936. He emigrated shortly thereafter to Colombia, receiving his dental license there in 1943. He completed his oral and maxillofacial surgery training at Nordwestdeutsche Kieferklinic, under the tutelage of Prof. Dr. Dr. Karl Schuchardt in Hamburg. In 1950, he settled in Bogotá, where he joined the Universidad Nacional School of Dentistry, opened Colombia's first oral and maxillofacial surgery department at Hospital San José, and trained the first maxillofacial surgeons in Colombia in 1958. PMID:22372189

  18. [Surgical instruments and the emblems of Alsatien craftsmen and the archives of Obernai (16th-17th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Muller, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This study presents some original data concerning the instruments used by Alsatian surgeons-barbers from the 16th to the 18th century. Emblems of professions frequently appear on private houses in Alsace, and 35 emblems of surgeons-barbers have been discovered; six, particularly chararacteristic, are analysed here (Soultz 1568, Marlenheim 1581, Sainte-Croix-en-Plaine 1587, Rosheim 1681, Rosheim 1733, and Wasselonne 1738). The razor (Schermesser), the lancet (Lanzette), and the "flame" (Lasseisen, Fliete) are the most frequently represented instruments. Unpublished inventories after death also bring instructive data and in particular those of the barbers Hans Artz of Molsheim (1597) and Jacob Pflieger of Obernai (c. 1608-1609). At last, are evoked unpublished mentions concerning two barbers originating from Obernai who exercised in Eastern Europe (Sebald Korn around 1583, and Johannes Baur around 1637). PMID:22400473

  19. How fingerprints came into use for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Caplan, R M

    1990-07-01

    The use of fingerprints for personal identification became widespread early in this century. How the fingerprints slowly became standardized involves many persons, including Nathaniel Grew, Johannes Purkinje, William Herschel, Henry Faulds, Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, Mark Twain, Juan Vucetich, Edward Henry, and J. Edgar Hoover. Although fingerprints have been noted and used since antiquity, a 25-year burst of activity that secured adoption of their use for identification began in about 1880. New modifications and applications have continued to the present. The history of fingerprints offers an excellent example of how society adopts innovations. This story also includes a bitter struggle for appropriate credit for various crucial steps in developing and adopting this important tool. More recent technical advances, including computers and molecular biology, now supplement the ease and usefulness of fingerprints, although the word fingerprinting continues in use by metaphoric extension. PMID:2195070

  20. French Crossings: III. The Smile of the Tiger

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article continues the theme of ‘French Crossings’ explored in other Presidential Addresses by focussing on the border zone between the human and the animal. The focus is on the allegedly tiger-like character attributed to Maimilien Robespierre, particularly after his fall from power and his execution in 1794. This theme is explored in terms of Thermidorian propaganda, French Revolutionary historiography and the ancient discipline of physiognomy, which was reactivated by Johann-Caspar Lavater in the late eighteenth century and still influential through much of the nineteenth. Robespierre’s animal rather than human status was also held to emerge in his inability to smile or laugh, a significant point also in that the meaning of the smile was changing in the same period.

  1. Kepler's mathematization of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith V.

    The paper concerns with mathematical knowledge of Johannes Kepler. A part of the paper describes the mathematical education of Kepler which includes the Euclidean geometry and texts by Ptolemy. The first He knew from the Proclus' Commentary which was published in 1533. The author is pointing out that Kepler's epistemology was close to Plato's. The "polyhedral archetype" is discussed in detail. The greatest error was in the case of Mercury (~20%) Kepler's reaction was otherwise absolutely what one would exopect of a theoretician in the twentieth century: he suggested that better observations would imoprouve matter. The author make an analogy with modern discussions on metal abundances in the outer layers of old stars. The author is mentioning also that the Kepler's version of Copernicus' system is noticeably different from Copernicus' original one, including important improvements.

  2. [LaMedica. The medical education academy on the internet].

    PubMed

    Melamed, R J; Friedl, R; Engl, T; Lanwert, S; Preisack, M B; Jonas, D; Bickeböller, R

    2002-01-01

    At present, "modern media" are still a novelty in medical education. The "LaMedica Project"--a program supported by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research--intends to provide an Internet-based education and training system for the entire field of medicine, using all available media resources. This online educational program will provide subjects for medical laypersons as well as medical experts. Various styles of learning and different learning requests will be promoted. The project presented mirrors the cutting edge of database technology, computer-based training and media didactics, critical content processing as well as supplying individual subjects. This report summarizes our 10 months of experience with this program at the Department for Urology and Pediatric Urology of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt Main. PMID:11963770

  3. Franz Selety (1893-1933?). His cosmological investigations and the correspondence with Einstein (German Title: Franz Selety (1893-1933?). Seine kosmologischen Arbeiten und der Briefwechsel mit Einstein)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Tobias

    In 1922, Franz Selety, university-bred philosopher and self-educated physicist and cosmologist, developed a molecular hierarchical, spatially infinite, Newtonian cosmological model. His considerations were based on his earlier philosophical work published in 1914 as well as on the early correspondence with Einstein in 1917. Historically, the roots of hierarchical models can be seen in 18th century investigations by Thomas Wright of Durham, Immanuel Kant and Johann Heinrich Lambert. Those investigations were taken up by Edmund Fournier d'Albe and Carl Charlier at the beginning of the 20th century. Selety's cosmological model was criticized by Einstein mainly due to its spatial infiniteness which in Einstein's opinion seemed to contradict Mach's principle. This criticism sheds light on Einstein's conviction that with his first cosmological model, namely the static, spatially infinite, though unbounded Einstein Universe of 1917, the appropriate cosmological theory already had been established.

  4. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  5. Mechanical effects of light on material media: radiation pressure and the linear and angular momenta of photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-09-01

    Electromagnetic waves carry energy as well as linear and angular momenta. Interactions between light and material media typically involve the exchange of all three entities. In all such interactions energy and momentum (both linear and angular) are conserved. Johannes Kepler seems to have been the first person to notice that the pressure of sunlight is responsible for the tails of the comets pointing away from the Sun. Modern applications of radiation pressure and photon momentum include solar sails, optical tweezers for optical trapping and micro-manipulation, and optically-driven micro-motors and actuators. This paper briefly describes certain fundamental aspects underlying the mechanical properties of light, and examines several interesting phenomena involving the linear and angular momenta of photons.

  6. The Transits of Venus and New Technologies: A Time to Reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the recent history of astronomy there have been occasions where `New Astronomies' have been introduced. In the spirit of the recent excitement of the 2004 transit of Venus, I have used the periods around the historical transits to reflect on the `New Astronomies' of those eras. Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova is a fine representation of the New Astronomy of the 1631-1639 transit pair and Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace's Traité de Mécanique Céleste reflects the New Astronomy of the 1761-1769 transit pair. A combination of Samuel P. Langley's The New Astronomy and James E. Keeler's 1897 paper on astrophysics have been chosen as the exemplars of the New Astronomy of the 1874-1882 transit pair. I am open to suggestions for the works that best represent the 2004-2012 transit pairs.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  8. In the Grip of the Distant Universe: The Science of Inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graneau, Peter; Graneau, Neal

    ch. 1. All matter instantaneously senses all other matter in the universe -- ch. 2. Johannes Kepler - The astronomer who coined the word inertia -- ch. 3. Free Fall - A hardly believable story of science -- ch. 4. The Cartesian interlude - a novel cosmology -- ch. 5. Newton's force of inertia - the basis of dynamics -- ch. 6. A century of consolidation - the early practitioners of Newtonian dynamics -- ch. 7. Mach's magic principle - the unique inertial system -- ch. 8. Albert Einstein - inertia obscured by gravitation -- ch. 9. Inducing inertia - an electromagnetic analogy -- ch. 10. Retarded action at a distance - a short lived misnomer -- ch. 11. Clock confusion in the 20th century - the connection between inertia and timekeeping -- ch. 12. Machian inertia and the isotropic universe - a new force law.

  9. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.

    2010-09-01

    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  10. From Cosmos to Confession: Kepler and the Connection Between Astronomical and Religious Truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, Aviva

    In October of 1595, Johannes Kepler joyfully conveyed to Tübingen the news that he had completed his first book, the Mysterium cosmographicum. "I truly desire," he wrote to Michael Maestlin, his former professor of mathematics, "that these things are published as quickly as possible for the glory of God, who wants to be known from the Book of Nature […]. I wanted to be a theologian; for a long time I was distressed: behold God is now celebrated too in my astronomical work."1 Unable to devote himself to the Book of Scripture directly,2 Kepler had turned his focus to God's other book - the Book of Nature - which, he believed, also revealed God's providential plan.

  11. Kepler's Copernican Campaign and the New Star of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    In a letter of 27 October 1604, David Fabricius (1564-1617) eagerly reported to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) his observations of a brilliant new luminary in the constellation of Sagittarius. Fabricius had first observed the new luminary "near the location of the great conjunction,"1 which had occurred just 10 months earlier. His eyes had been drawn to the area by the proximity of the three superior planets when "Mars and Jupiter were conjoined and Saturn had by then returned directly to the location of the great conjunction."2 There, Fabricius had identified "a new star, with no motion of its own," in the outer sphere encasing the cosmos.3 The star had surpassed Jupiter "in diameter and silvery splendor,"4 and its scintillation had proven incomparably swift.

  12. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  13. Soft-Stowed Approach: Safe Transportation to ISS for Experiments, Spares & New Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itta, Antonietta; Quagliotti, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    The ISS operational and logistic scenario relies on the regular upload of new experiments and maintenance hardware. The extension of the ISS lifetime places even more emphasis on a resupply policy based on safe, cheap and flexible transportation solutions to ISS. A transportation method suitable for all available carriers is represented by foam packaged items put inside bags or containers. This flight condition can now be analyzed thanks to the results derived from an extensive test campaign performed by Boeing in 2009 under NASA sponsorship. Data and guidelines are provided for the calculation of the attenuated flight environments due to the soft packaging conditions. The paper also reports a real life application: the uploading to ISS of the Columbus PDU (some 90 kg) inside ATV II Johannes Kepler, wrapped in 1” of zotek and put inside a M01 bag. The mission was successful: PDU is today safely stored inside a Columbus Rack.

  14. Modifying the Crystal Ball and Developing Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strakovsky, Alexey; Oussena, Baya

    2010-11-01

    This poster describes work done with the A2 Collaboration at the Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet (JGU) in Mainz, Germany. In 2009, we modified the cabling of the Crystal Ball detector, housed at the Mainzer Mikrotron facility (MAMI) at JGU. This reduced the length of the 672 signal cables by approximately 43.68 km to reduce weight on the frame of the detector and make room for a frozen-spin hydrogen target. This involved cutting cables in half and resoldering the ends to new interface cards and photomultiplier tube connectors. More recently in 2010, our focus has been to develop new data acquisition software to replace the one currently in use. The new version, AcquDAQ, is based on C++ rather than the old C programming language. When completed, AcquDAQ will control and read data from the new electronics hardware utilized at MAMI, including the Crystal Ball.

  15. [The "Tractatus de balneis Germaniae" by Caspar Schober (around 1530). On the status of early balneology in Germany between mineral source analysis and corresponding reports].

    PubMed

    Fürbeth, F

    1996-01-01

    Caspar Schober, an Austrian physician of the early 16th century, wrote a treatise concerning the most famous German spas. In this treatise he describes a method to analyse the hot springs in Gastein to know their therapeutic effects. With this description he is one of the first scientific authors in Germany dealing with the modern analysis of hot springs used by the Italian balneologists; in fact he is writing in the same textual paradigm as Menghus Blanchellus in his "Consilium de balneo Villae'. The second part of his treatise about the spas of Baden near Vienna, Markgrafenbad, Wiesbaden, Aachen, Wildbad in the Black Forest, Pfäfers and Baden in Switzerland depends on a hitherto unknown latin redaction of the "Tractatus de balneis naturalibus' of Felix Hemmerli, probably written by the Munich physician Johannes Hartlieb. PMID:9092132

  16. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  17. Strasbourg Observatory in World War II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    During World War II, the Reichsuniversitat Strassburg was installed by the German authorities and Johannes Hellerich (1888-1963) was appointed director of the Observatory. A review of his life and his astro- nomical career as an assistant and professor in Kiel, Hamburg, Strasbourg, and Muenster is given. His activity in Strasbourg from mid-1941 to mid-1943 was focussed on bringing the Observatory into working operations, and on carrying out the monitoring of solar radiation and atmospheric extinction. After being drafted to the army and spending some time as a prisoner of war, he returned to Hamburg to complete a review on variable-star research in wartime Germany. He was called to Muenster University in 1947 to teach astronomy, and, from 1949 onward, to serve as director of the small Astronomical Institute till his retirement in 1954.

  18. The Lenticular Process of the Incus

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.; Chole, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    17th century anatomists, including Franciscus Sylvius, identified a small bony structure between the distal end of the incus and the stapes that they believed was a separate and thus additional ossicle. The existence of the ossicle at the distal portion of the long process of the incus was controversial for the next two hundred years. In the 19th century, anatomists including Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Henry Jones Shrapnell, Eduard Hagenbach, and Joseph Hyrtl provided numerous arguments to demonstrate why the so-called additional ossicle was actually attached to the incus by a thin strut, and thus not a separate bone. Since then, the ovoid end of the incus has been referred to as the “lenticular process” of the incus. The best nomenclature for the bony connection between the lenticular process and the rest of the incus remains uncertain, but the term “lenticular process” should not include its connecting pedicle. PMID:21986927

  19. Zöllner's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-12-01

    The idea that space is not Euclidean by necessity, and that there are other kinds of "curved" spaces, diffused slowly to the physical and astronomical sciences. Until Einstein's general theory of relativity, only a handful of astronomers contemplated a connection between non-Euclidean geometry and real space. One of them, the German astrophysicist Johann Carl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), suggested in 1872 a remarkable cosmological model describing a finite universe in closed space. I examine Zöllner's little-known contribution to cosmology and also his even more unorthodox speculations of a four-dimensional space including both physical and spiritual phenomena. I provide an overview of Zöllner's scientific work, of his status in the German scientific community, and of the controversies caused by his polemical style of science. Zöllner's cosmology was effectively forgotten, but there is no reason why it should remain an unwritten chapter in the history of science.

  20. Fetus-in-fetu: a pediatric rarity

    PubMed Central

    Narayanasamy, Jeyanthi N.; Nallusamy, Mohan Arunasalam; Baharuddin, Nur Daliza

    2014-01-01

    Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is a rare entity resulting from abnormal embryogenesis in diamniotic monochorionic twins, being first described by Johann Friedrich Meckel (1800s). This occurs when a vertebrate fetus is enclosed in a normally growing fetus. Clinical manifestations vary. Detection is most often in infancy, the oldest reported age being 47. We report the case of a 4-day-old girl who was referred postnatally following a prenatal fetal scan which had revealed the presence of a multi-loculated retroperitoneal mass lesion with calcifications within. A provisional radiological diagnosis of FIF was made. Elective laparotomy revealed a well encapsulated retroperitoneal mass containing among other structures a skull vault and rudimentary limb buds. Recovery was uneventful. Here we discuss the difference between FIF and teratomas, risks of non-operative therapy and the role of serology in surveillance and detection of malignant change. PMID:24876368

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  2. Vital Life-Threatening Hematoma after Implant Insertion in the Anterior Mandible: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schiegnitz, Eik; Moergel, Maximilian; Wagner, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant insertion is considered a safe and reliable surgical procedure and severe complications are seldom reported. However, we present a case of a 52-year-old patient who attended our Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz, with spreading hematoma in the floor of the mouth and acute airway obstruction after insertion of a dental implant in the anterior mandible. The hematoma was removed and submentally drained by a silicon drainage. However, the progressive swelling of the tongue and the floor of the mouth necessitated a temporary tracheotomy for three days. The review of the literature summarizes guidelines for prevention and management of this life-threatening complication. PMID:26557390

  3. Performances of a bent-crystal spectrometer adapted to resonant x-ray emission measurements on gas-phase samples

    SciTech Connect

    Journel, Loiec; El Khoury, Lara; Marin, Thierry; Guillemin, Renaud; Carniato, Stephane; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Hague, Coryn F.; Simon, Marc

    2009-09-15

    We describe a bent-crystal spectrometer adapted to measure x-ray emission resulting from core-level excitation of gas-phase molecules in the 0.8-8 keV energy range. The spectrometer is based on the Johann principle, and uses a microfocused photon beam to provide high-resolution (resolving power of {approx}7500). A gas cell was designed to hold a high-pressure (300 mbar) sample of gas while maintaining a high vacuum (10{sup -9} mbar) in the chamber. The cell was designed to optimize the counting rate (2000 cts/s at the maximum of the Cl K{alpha} emission line), while minimizing self-absorption. Example of the K{alpha} emission lines of CH{sub 3}Cl molecules is presented to illustrate the capabilities of this new instrument.

  4. Room-temperature gating of molecular junctions using few-layer graphene nanogap electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Amelia; Prins, Ferry; Ruitenberg, Justus; Seldenthuis, Johannes; Aliaga-Alcalde, Nuria; Vandersypen, Lieven; van der Zant, Herre

    2012-02-01

    We report on a new method based on feedback controlled electroburning to controllably form nanogaps in few-layer graphene [1]. The gaps have separations on the order of 1-2 nm as estimated from a Simmons model for tunneling. Furthermore, molecules are deposited in the nanogaps. These molecular junctions display gateable IV-characteristics at room temperature. Gateable transport through molecules contacted between the electrodes demonstrates the potential of room-temperature operation of our molecular devices. Combined with the observed stability in time, our study shows that few-layer graphene nanogaps are an interesting alternative to metal electrodes. [1] Ferry Prins, Amelia Barreiro, Justus Ruitenberg, Johannes Seldenthuis, N'uria Aliaga-Alcalde, Lieven Vandersypen, Herre van der Zant, Nanoletters 11 (2011) 4607 - 4611

  5. Pyroelectricity in Polycrystalline Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, R.; Jiménez, B.

    The first reference to pyroelectric effect is by Theophrastus in 314 BC, who noted that tourmaline becomes charged because it attracted bits of straw and ash when heated. Tourmaline's properties were reintroduced in Europe in 1707 by Johann George Schmidt, who also noted the attractive properties of the mineral when heated. Pyroelectricity was first described by Louis Lemery in 1717. In 1747, Linnaeus first related the phenomenon to electricity, although this was not proven until 1756 by Franz Ulrich Thodor Aepinus. In 1824, Sir David Brewster gave the effect the name it has today. William Thomson in 1878 and Voight in 1897 helped develop a theory for the processes behind pyroelectricity. Pierre Curie and his brother, Jacques Curie, studied pyroelectricity in the 1880s, leading to their discovery of some of the mechanisms behind piezoelectricity.

  6. Time-resolved K-shell line spectra measurement of z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingguo; Zhou, Shaotong; Chen, Guanhua; Huang, Xianbin; Cai, Hongchun; Li, Zeren

    2013-11-01

    A Johann-type crystal spectrometer integrated with x-ray PIN diodes has been developed for measuring the time-resolved K-shell line spectra of the imploding Al wire array. In this spectrometer, the PIN diodes are mounted on the Rowland circle of the cylindrical bent crystal with an appointed position to collect the line emissions from z-pinch plasmas. The spectrometer with four typical channels, which are keyed to the Al ion hydrogen-like (Hα, 0.7171 nm and Hβ, 0.6052 nm) and helium-like (Heα, 0.7757 nm and Heβ, 0.6634 nm) resonance lines is designed and fabricated. Example data from the experiment on the Yang accelerator are shown and the time-dependent electron temperature is determined from the signal ratios of Al ion Hα line to Heα line using the collisional and radiative model.

  7. Nostalgia: a conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Fuentenebro de Diego, Filiberto; Valiente Ots, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    The term nostalgia was first proposed in 1688 by Johannes Hofer as equivalent to the German term Heimweh. It referred to a state of moral pain associated with the forced separation from family and social environment. Consecutive clinical descriptions from the seventeenth century up to the present day have been subjected to the aetiopathogenic and clinical paradigms of each period. Golden-age descriptions of nostalgia that are of particular interest were derived from the observation of conscript soldiers in Napoleonic campaigns by authors such as Gerbois and Larrey. In 1909 Jaspers devoted his doctoral thesis to this topic (Nostalgia und Verbrechen). From a cultural history point of view, it could be considered today as an example of 'transient illness'. The nosological relay has taken place through clinical pictures such as the pathology associated with exile, forced displacements and psychosis of captivity. PMID:25395438

  8. [The mentally ill artist in the work of E. T. A. Hoffmann in relation to psychological theories at that time].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, V

    1991-01-01

    The work of one of the greatest writers of German Romanticism, E.T.A. Hoffmann, incorporates a great deal of current medical knowledge, which Hoffmann used in a skillful and detailed manner in the portrayal of his characters and their motives. Immersed as he was in contemporary medical practice, an interest fuelled by his own deep-seated hypochondria, he was particularly taken with the works of Philippe Pinel, Johann Christoph Reil, Carl A.F. Kluge, and Gotthelf Heinrich Schubert, who were all interested in the working of the mind. This article demonstrates how attention to Hoffmans's medical reading list offers insights useful for critical understanding of his work, using as an example the analysis of the mad goldsmith Cardillac in one of Hoffmann's most famous stories, 'Das Fräulein von Scuderi'. PMID:1786882

  9. [Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].

    PubMed

    Geus, A

    2007-01-01

    The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

  10. Coronellis Cosmos in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Pärr, Nora

    2009-06-01

    Die Melker Stiftsbibliothek besitzt ein Globenpaar des berühmten venezianischen Globenbauers Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718), einen Erdglobus von 1688 und einen Himmelsglobus von 1693. Wie und wann die beiden Globen nach Melk gekommen sind, ist nicht bekannt. Dass sie zur ursprünglichen Ausstattung der 1735 fertig gestellten Barockbibliothek gehörten, wird aber aus der zentralen Stellung deutlich, die dem Globus (Erdglobus und Armillarphäre) in dem von Paul Troger 1732 gemalten Deckenfresko zukommt. Mehrfach begegnet das Motiv des Globus als Attribut der Weisheit bzw. Philosophie, der Geographie bzw. Geometrie und der Astronomie in den beiden Hauptsälen wie auch in der Deckenmalerei von Johann Bergl in der Oberen Bibliothek (1768) und in der Kuppel des Gartenpavillons (1764).

  11. The mechanical career of Councillor Orffyreus, confidence man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    In the early 18th century, J. E. E. Bessler, known as Orffyreus, constructed several wheels that he claimed could keep turning forever, powered only by gravity. He never revealed the details of his invention, but he conducted demonstrations (with the machine's inner workings covered) that persuaded competent observers that he might have discovered the secret of perpetual motion. Among Bessler's defenders were Gottfried Leibniz, Johann Bernoulli, Professor Willem 's Gravesande of Leiden University (who wrote to Isaac Newton on the subject), and Prince Karl, ruler of the German state of Hesse-Kassel. We review Bessler's work, placing it within the context of the intellectual debates of the time about mechanical conservation laws and the (im)possibility of perpetual motion. We also mention Bessler's long career as a confidence man, the details of which were discussed in popular 19th-century German publications but have remained unfamiliar to authors in other languages.

  12. Jan Šindel and his treatise "Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadravová, Alena

    Already in the first few decades after its foundation in 1348, the Charles University in Prague achieved remarkable results in astronomy. One of outstanding persons of this period, professor and rector of Prague University Iohannes Andreae, called Šindel (c. 1375-1456/8), will be briefly introduced. M. Jan Šindel is known as the astronomer in collaboration with whom the clockmaker Nicolaus of Kadaň constructed in 1410 the famous astronomical Clock of Prague. The most important Šindel's astronomical treatise "Canones pro eclipsibus Solis et Lune" is added to several manuscripts copies of Albion by Richard of Wallingford (c. 1292-1335), enlarged by M. Johann von Gmunden (1380-1442). This illustrates the connections between Prague and Vienna astronomical schools. In this treatise Šindel describes his version of eclipse instrument, a nomogram for calculation of eclipses of the Moon and Sun, which is a simplification of the more general Wallingford's instrument.

  13. The Manipulation of Images in Ancient Books: The Case of Sacrobosco's De Sphaera Mundi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, E. O.; Rinaldi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Since the time of the invention of printing, ancient texts were graced by rich iconographic collections. These illustrations have a twofold role, decorative and explicative. However, the symbolic meaning of these images could not escape the watchful eye of the Counter-Reformation. Indeed, all science books that were bringing new truths were often censored. However, it should be noted that not only the texts were censored. Sometimes the images were also subject of such repressive actions and, in some cases, they were modified or disfigured. In this paper, we present the case of De sphaera mundi by Johannes de Sacrobosco, conserved in the library of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte. The xylography that accompanies the text shows the mutilated breasts of Urania.

  14. Measuring Curved Crystal Performance for a High Resolution, Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Haugh and Richard Stewart

    2010-06-07

    This paper describes the design, crystal selection, and crystal testing for a vertical Johann spectrometer operating in the 13 keV range to measure ion Doppler broadening in inertial confinement plasmas. The spectrometer is designed to use thin, curved, mica crystals to achieve a resolving power of E/ΔE>2000. A number of natural mica crystals were screened for flatness and X-ray diffraction width to find samples of sufficient perfection for use in the instrument. Procedures to select and mount high quality mica samples are discussed. A diode-type X-ray source coupled to a dual goniometer arrangement was used to measure the crystal reflectivity curve. A procedure was developed for evaluating the goniometer performance using a set of diffraction grade Si crystals. This goniometer system was invaluable for identifying the best original crystals for further use and developing the techniques to select satisfactory curved crystals for the spectrometer.

  15. The history of calculus mendax and the following surgery on the prostate.

    PubMed

    Szarszewski, Adam; Gulczyński, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we would like to present probably the first surgery performed on the prostate gland followed by microscopic analysis of the obtained tumor tissue sample. We based on the existing correspondence between Ludwig von Hammen and Johann N. Pechlin, and their successors in this field as well. Von Hammen seems to be a pioneer in the area of not only urological surgery but in directing this part of medical practice from "lithotomists" to physicians, much better educated than barbers in physiology but first of all in anatomy. This 17th century physician from Gdansk tried to set new standards both for surgical medical practice but histopathological examination of the excised material as well. Due to the change of the operational skills and procedures von Hammen's work got almost forgotten, but remains remembered due to the work of historians of the medicine from following centuries. PMID:25154615

  16. On the history of dissociative identity disorders in Germany: the doctor Justinus Kerner and the girl from Orlach, or possession as an "exchange of the self".

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The history of hypnosis is closely linked to the theme of possession; one such link is that the forerunner of hypnosis, animal magnetism, replaced exorcism in 1775 when Franz Anton Mesmer testified against Father Johann Joseph Gassner's exorcism. Modern authors have noted remarkable similarities between states of possession and dissociation. The treatment of possession by animal magnetism and exorcism represents the special romantic-magnetic therapy of the German medical doctor Justinus Kerner in the early 19th century. This article describes the man, his methods, and his thinking and presents one of his most famous case studies, the girl from Orlach, which, by today's standards, was a true case of dissociative identity disorder (DID). This article describes how contemporary principles of treatment were used and controversial issues about the nature and causes of DID were discussed 175 years ago. PMID:21104486

  17. Early telescopes in Augsburg. (German Title: Frühe Fernrohre in Augsburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Inge

    Already in early summer 1609, a merchant brought a telescope to Augsburg which he had bought at the Frankfurt spring fair. Thus Augsburg is one of those places where a telescope extisted at a very early time. Therefore, and because of the publications by Kepler (Dioptrice, 1611) and Scheiner (on sunspots, 1612), the new invention became quickly known in the city. The disinguished art dealer Philip Haindorfer supplied his mainly princely clients with lelescopes which he also included in his art cabinets, e.g. in the one which he delivered to Pomerania in 1617. He obtained lenses or complete instruments from Italy. Around 1620, Johann Wiesel moved into Augsburg, and in 1621 founded his optical workshop as a «perspective maker». He is the first commercial German telescope constructor whose name is still known today. He became famous all over Europe as «Augustanus Opticus».

  18. How History Helped Einstein in Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    I will discuss how the German intellectual movement known as ``critical history'' motivated several physicists in the late 1900s to radically analyze the fundamental principles of mechanics, leading eventually to Einstein's special theory of relativity. Eugen Karl Dühring, Johann Bernhard Stallo, Ludwig Lange, and Ernst Mach wrote critical histories of mechanics, some of which emphasized notions of relativity and observation, in opposition to old metaphysical concepts that seemed to infect the foundations of physics. This strand of critical history included the ``genetic method'' of analyzing how concepts develop over time, in our minds, by way of ordinary experiences, which by 1904 was young Albert Einstein's favorite approach for examining fundamental notions. Thus I will discuss how history contributed in Einstein's path to relativity, as well as comment more generally on Einstein's views on history.

  19. [Examinandi, doctors and medical councils. Reform proposals concerning surgico-medical education and examinations at the University of Vienna around 1800].

    PubMed

    Oppenauer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the workings of the so called Court Committee for the Revision of University Studies. The main duty of this institution was to evaluate the structure of the whole educational system of the Habsburg Empire. These records have not received much notice hitherto from historians of medicine. Nevertheless, they deserve attention, as they are quite full of information regarding the "how" of medical education and health care management around 1800. Johann Peter Frank, at that time professor at the Medical Faculty of Vienna was responsible for reform proposals. His deliberations shed fresh light not only on the structures of Viennese Medical Faculty itself but also on different educational policies in the medical sciences in Central Europe around 1800. PMID:25643480

  20. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine. PMID:24818740

  1. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. 7 (German Title: Beiträge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    The topics of this volume extend from the work of the islamic scienticst al-Tusi in the 13th century to the development of astronomical instrumentation at the Carl Zeiss Jena Company in the second half of the 20th century. The contents of the remaining articles are found between these limits: the well-known textbooks of Johannes de Sacrobosco, Tycho Brahe's stays in Augsburg, Gottfried Kirch's calendars, published around 1700, a portrait of Bessel, made during his Königsberg time, Fraunhofer's successors at the Munich Optical Institute, and Einstein's cosmological ideas in his ``Four lectures on the Theory of Relativity''. The earliest disputation of the learned Jesuit Christoph Scheiner is printed for the first time in a German translation. The volume is concluded by a bibliographical overview on historical Venus transits, additional short notes, an obituary of Jerzy Dobrzycki, and book reviews. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts.

  2. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  3. Artistic forms and complexity.

    PubMed

    Boon, J-P; Casti, J; Taylor, R P

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the inter-relationship between various concepts of complexity by introducing a complexity 'triangle' featuring objective complexity, subjective complexity and social complexity. Their connections are explored using visual and musical compositions of art. As examples, we quantify the complexity embedded within the paintings of the Jackson Pollock and the musical works of Johann Sebastian Bach. We discuss the challenges inherent in comparisons of the spatial patterns created by Pollock and the sonic patterns created by Bach, including the differing roles that time plays in these investigations. Our results draw attention to some common intriguing characteristics suggesting 'universality' and conjecturing that the fractal nature of art might have an intrinsic value of more general significance. PMID:21382264

  4. Encyclopedia as Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palló, Gábor

    2006-11-01

    Textbooks and encyclopedias represent different genres of scientific literature. Textbooks help the students to prepare for their examinations in various subjects taught at schools, such as logic, metaphysic, chemistry. In the 17th Century some Calvinist professors, mostly in Germany, thought that a universal wholeness should be taught for the students. Encyclopedias adequately expressed this vision. Some of these professors, including Johannes Alsted, were invited to Hungary, Transylvania, to introduce the encyclopedic spirit to the local schools. This act fostered the first textbook in Hungarian language written by János Apáczai Csere. This book was an encyclopedia born mostly in the Netherlands where the author studied. The Cartesian philosophy combined with a Ramist system served as the basis of the book. Its history shows how the local conditions influence the content of knowledge incorporated into a textbook.

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, D

    1996-01-01

    The beginning of the 19th century saw the definite separation of the medical discourse from the Enlightened public discourse on the knowledge of human nature. Especially in the emerging field of psychiatry new definitions of the interaction between somatic and psychic processes occurred. In this context the psychiatric "moral treatment" (psychische Kurmethode) meant a direct therapeutical intervention into these processes. Pain as a heroic means that worked directly on the nerve-system gained a key role to restore the mad patient's lost consciousness of the self. This physiological concept of pain, mainly represented by Johann Christian Reil who operated in a new space of medical knowledge, came into conflict with changing attitudes and a new sensitivity of the middle classes to corporal punishment and violence at the beginning of the 19th century. PMID:11636932

  6. Dirty deeds at Dorpat.

    PubMed

    Jack, David

    2005-06-01

    Johann Georg Noel Dragendorff was a German-born pharmacist who made a name for himself at a young age with the Pharmaceutical Society of St. Petersburg. Among his most celebrated contributions to science was the development of the reagent named after him, which consisted of a mixture of bismuth and potassium iodides in dilute sulfuric acid. Dragendorff's activities in St. Petersburg led to the offer of the Chair in Pharmacy and Directorship of the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Dorpat (now Tartu in Estonia). This was a university with strong Western influence in the sciences, and the majority of its students in the 19th century were Baltic Germans. Dragendorff's sudden departure from Dorpat leads the author to question whether his supposed resignation was rather a dismissal brought on by Alexander II's promotion of Russian culture. PMID:16193108

  7. [On the ancient and magical lesions in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    Hach, W; Hach-Wunderle, V

    2014-11-01

    At the beginning of the Renaissance magical, witchcraft and demonological medicine still played a large role in the poor healing ability of chronic leg ulcers. This included the general administration of magical potions and topical application. An example of the manipulation of the whole body by the devil was the Abracadabra text from Johann Christoph Bitterkraut in the year 1677. The use of bewitched ointments was particularly propagated by Paracelsus in 1622; however, even as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, the invocation of supernatural powers was slowly diminishing until at the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical schools on chronic leg ulcers could be cultivated at the universities and by specialized wound healers. PMID:25323599

  8. The anatomical school of Padua.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-06-01

    The University of Padua is one of the most ancient in the world, being founded in 1222, and the most important anatomists of the XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries studied and taught here. Probably, the first professor of anatomy and surgery was Bruno da Longobucco (c. 1200-c. 1286), who had previously studied at the Salerno School of Medicine. While professor in Padua, Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), which is considered as the birth of the modern anatomy. Following professors were Realdo Colombo (c. 1516-1559), Gabriel Fallopius (1523-1562), Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533-1619), Iulius Casserius (1552-1616), Johann Wesling (1598-1649), and Johann Georg Wirsung (1589-1643). Many other foreign scholars studied in the University of Padua, such as Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524), the founder of the Royal College of Physicians, Werner Rolfinck (1599-1673), and Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702), who created anatomical theatres in Germany and Sweden, respectively, on the basis of the Paduan model. The anatomy of the XVII century characteristically widened the scope of its enquiry to function, as in the Exercitatio Anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (1628) by William Harvey (1578-1657). Further evolution was then given by the anatomy in the XVIII century, which tried to correlate alterations of structure with clinical symptoms. The most important anatomist of this century is Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), whose masterpiece De Sedibus et Causis Morborum per Anatomen Indagatis (1761) is a landmark contribution that is viewed as the beginning of modern pathologic anatomy. This year falls the 300th anniversary of Morgagni's inaugural lecture on medical education, Nova Institutionum Medicarum Idea (1712), which is still relevant in its effort to stress the importance of a deep knowledge of all the preclinical and clinical aspects of medical science. PMID:22581496

  9. ["Fiction and Truth": Goethe's anatomical research at the University of Jena].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, H H; Sivukhina, E; Dölz, W; Oehring, H

    2012-12-01

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was one of the most renowned German poets of the late Age of Enlightenment. However, his engagement went far beyond literature especially relating to politics and natural science. Goethe, primarily trained as a lawyer, developed his own theory of colors and even challenged the concepts of Isaac Newton. His discovery of the human intermaxilary bone questioned all the dogmas of the religious-minded world of the 18th century. Together with the anatomy professor Justus Christian Loder, Goethe performed comparative anatomy and proved the conceptual uniformity of humans and animals on 27 March 1784. Even though, Félix Vicq d'Azyr described the intermaxilary bone simultaneously in Catholic France, Goethe's findings were politically accepted due to the liberal Protestantism of the Duchy of Weimar. Nevertheless, leading anatomists of the century (Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Petrus Camper and Samuel Thomas v. Soemmerring) mainly rejected Goethe's postulates which led to a delayed publication in 1820; almost 36 years after writing his original manuscript. Today, Goethe's discovery is known to be a fundamental basis for the development of Charles Darwin's theory of phylogenetic evolution. Nowadays, the Department of Anatomy contains the Museum Anatomicum Jenense which was founded by the Duke of Weimar, Carl August and Goethe and entails Goethe's premaxillary bones as its main attraction. The University values the cultural heritage of Goethe's contribution to Medicine and provides access to the collection to the public and generations of medical students. Still today Goethe's legacy is noticeable in the halls of the Alma Mater Jenensis. PMID:23233304

  10. Carl Ludwig: the man, his time, his influence.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) was the driving force in the foundation and development of scientifically based and experimentally oriented physiology against natural philosophy and vitalism that prevailed during the first quarter of the 19th century in Germany. He was the representative of a small group of young, highly talented and dynamic physiologists aiming at implementing the laws of physics and chemistry as the only active forces in physiologic processes. These "organic physicists" included Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896), Ernst Brücke (1819-1892), and Hermann Helmholz (1821-1894). Carl Ludwig wrote the program of this group in the form of a textbook of physiology that was considered revolutionary, provocative and premature. His academic life, his inventions and discoveries, his scientific achievements, his influence and his personality are reviewed. Since every person can be viewed only in the context of his time, the political background, the economic and social situation, the conditions for science and research as well as the cultural climate that were characteristic for the decisive years of Carl Ludwig are described to some extent. It is shown that Carl Ludwig and his contemporary organic physicists lived and grew into a science- and research-oriented period which had been prepared and paved by men like Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795-1878), Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1877), Johannes Müller (1801-1858) and Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887). They benefited from this enormous scientific development and contributed to it to a large and significant extent so that it ultimately turned out to be the most productive and influential period in the history of German physiology. Some of the numerous scholars who had studied with Carl Ludwig carried his approach to physiology into the 20th century: Adolf Fick (1829-1901), Otto Frank (1865-1944), Iwan Petrowitsch Pawlow (1849-1936) and Henry Pickering Browditch (1840-1911). PMID

  11. [From Nebuchadnezzar to the randomized controlled trial--milestones in the development of clinical research].

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, Menachem; Lysy, Joseph; Gropp, Cornelius

    2011-08-01

    The first clinical experiment is described in the bible: The prophet Daniel is reported being nourished during ten days by seeds and water only, in order to check if his physical state would deteriorate as a result of this minimal nutrition. In the 15th century, French surgeon Ambroise Parí experimented with a mixture of turpentine, egg protein and rose oil to treat combat wounds, which is thought to be the first clinical study to be reported. In the 19th century British scientist James Lind designed the first controlled prospective study with parallel groups, proving that ingesting citrus fruit prevents scurvy. A short time afterwards British scientist John Haygarth was the first to use a placebo drug in a clinical study. Important work on placebo was conducted by the American scientists Austin Flint and later by Henry K. Beecher, who showed that placebo itself has biological properties. The importance of comparative studies was first understood by French psychologist CLaude Bernard. He is considered the founder of the modern scientific method based on observation, analysis of data and examination of hypotheses. Bernard's work was based on the work of fellow Frenchman Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis, who is justly considered a founding father of modern epidemiology, and who was the first to use statistics in clinical experiments. Random distributions in clinical studies were reported even before this time, for instance in the work of the Flemish physician Johannes Baptista van Helmont. Danish Nobel prize winner Johannes Fibiger pioneered the use of selection bias in his work with diphtheria serum. PMID:21939122

  12. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 18th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the sixth collection of essays on the history of astronomy ("Beitræge zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 6"), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains eight major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The first article by Michael Weichenhan (Berlin) deals with "the invention of the disk-shaped earth: a chapter of Copernican apologetics". The author shows that the concept of a "disc-shaped Earth" was by no means widespread in the middle ages, but restricted to the father of the church Lactantius and some adherents. Nevertheless, it was used by adherents of Copernicus to show the absurd consequences of a strictly literal biblical interpretation -- here concerning the Earth's shape, disc versus sphere, there the geocentric versus the heliocentric system. This thorough philosophical study is followed by two very short articles. "The measuring accuracy of Tycho's large sextant" by Johann Wünsch investigates O-C values of planet-star distances, as based on Tycho's observations as published in the Historia Coelestis (a compilation, which is also based on Tycho's manuscripts, and published in Regensburg in 1672). The result is that standard deviations are 80 arcseconds for Saturn and 89 arcseconds for Jupiter and Mars, an unexpectedly poor result in view of the general opinion that Tycho was famous for his precision work. "The astronomer Christoph Grienberger and the Galilei trial" by Franz Daxecker deals with a Jesuit astronomer who was both the disciple and successor of the mathematician-astronomer Christopher Clavius at the Collegium Romanum. While he was inclined to Galilei early on, he was forced to propagate Aristotelian doctrine. The brief article is very concise, but extremely tiresome to read (3 pages of pure text are embellished by

  13. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  14. [John Flamsteed's horoscope for laying the groundwork of Greenwich astronomy and astrology].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, Günther

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the astronomical and astrological contents of a horoscope cast by John Flamsteed in 1675 for the foundation of Greenwich Observatory. So far no analysis of its astronomical contents has been made. It can be shown that the chart has been drawn correctly, as is to be expected from a competent astronomer. For calculating the planetary positions he most likely used tables issued by Johann Hecker, a pupil of Hevelius, based on Kepler's "Tabulae Rudolphinae" in 1627. The cusps of the twelve astrological houses Flamsteed calculated trigonometrically; so he used no table of houses. Flamsteed employed a method of house division (domification) which was commonly used in the 16th and 17th century and connected with the name of Johannes Regiomontanus. Positional circles joining in the north and south points of the observer's horizon are laid through distances of 30 degrees on the celestial equator, thus giving unequal sections of the ecliptic. By consulting contemporary sources for the interpretation of the chart (Ramesey's Astrologia Restaurata, 1653) it appears that the time for laying the foundation stone was well chosen from the astrological point of view. There were precursors in this practice, e.g. the Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, who was commissioned to submit an astrological report for the foundation for the Franse Wing in the Vatican in 1543, and Tycho Brahe, who performed a solemn ceremony on the island of Hven in 1576 at the laying of the foundation stone of his observatory in an astrologically propitious moment. This leads to the question whether Flamsteed believed in astrology. Michael Hunter has already given evidence that Flamsteed was indeed well-versed with astrological techniques and supplied astrologers with data. But at the same time he expressed hostility towards astrological interpretations issued frequently by different parties during Civil War in England. In an unpublished preface for Hecker's Tables (edited by Hunter) Flamsteed

  15. Innovation Concepts in Healthcare

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-06

    AbstractDemographic change and advances in medical science pose increased challenges to healthcare systems globally: The economic basis is aging and thus health is becoming more and more a productivity factor. At the same time, with today’s new communication possibilities the demand and expectations of effective medical treatment have been increased. This presentation will illustrate the need for the “industrialization” of healthcare in order to achieve highest results at limited budgets. Thereby, industrialization is not meaning the medical treatment based on the assembly line approach. Rather it is to recognize the cost of medical care as an investment with respective expectations on the return of the investment. Innovations in imaging and pharmaceutical products as well as in processes - that lead to similar medical results, but with lower efforts - are keys in such scenarios.BiographyProf. Dr. Hermann Requardt, 54, is a member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and Chief Executive Officer of the Healthcare Sector. In addition he is the CTO of Siemens AG and Head of Corporate Technology, the central research department at Siemens.After completing his studies in physics and philosophy at the Darmstadt University of Technology and Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt and receiving a doctorate in biophysics, he worked at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center.In 1984 he joined the Medical Technology Group of Siemens AG, where he was responsible for projects in the Magnetic Resonance (MR) division. He was appointed head of the division in 1995. From 2001 to 2006, as a member of the Executive Management of the Medical Solutions Group, he was responsible for several areas, including technological development.In 2006 he became a Member of the Siemens’ Managing Board and head of Corporate Technology. He was additionally appointed as the Sector Healthcare CEO in 2008.Since 2006 he is an honorary professor in physics of the

  16. Innovation Concepts in Healthcare

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    AbstractDemographic change and advances in medical science pose increased challenges to healthcare systems globally: The economic basis is aging and thus health is becoming more and more a productivity factor. At the same time, with today?s new communication possibilities the demand and expectations of effective medical treatment have been increased. This presentation will illustrate the need for the ?industrialization? of healthcare in order to achieve highest results at limited budgets. Thereby, industrialization is not meaning the medical treatment based on the assembly line approach. Rather it is to recognize the cost of medical care as an investment with respective expectations on the return of the investment. Innovations in imaging and pharmaceutical products as well as in processes - that lead to similar medical results, but with lower efforts - are keys in such scenarios.BiographyProf. Dr. Hermann Requardt, 54, is a member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and Chief Executive Officer of the Healthcare Sector. In addition he is the CTO of Siemens AG and Head of Corporate Technology, the central research department at Siemens.After completing his studies in physics and philosophy at the Darmstadt University of Technology and Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt and receiving a doctorate in biophysics, he worked at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center.In 1984 he joined the Medical Technology Group of Siemens AG, where he was responsible for projects in the Magnetic Resonance (MR) division. He was appointed head of the division in 1995. From 2001 to 2006, as a member of the Executive Management of the Medical Solutions Group, he was responsible for several areas, including technological development.In 2006 he became a Member of the Siemens? Managing Board and head of Corporate Technology. He was additionally appointed as the Sector Healthcare CEO in 2008.Since 2006 he is an honorary professor in physics of the Johann

  17. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  18. Centenary of tele-electrocardiography and telephonocardiography.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, N M; Julius, H W

    2005-01-01

    In the history of electrocardiography the names of two physiologists stand out: Augustus Waller (1865-1922) and Willem Einthoven (1860-1927). Waller was the first to show that the beating heart produces a weak electric potential, which can be registered by a measuring device connected to electrodes attached to the skin. Einthoven developed a 'string' galvanometer, which was much faster and more sensitive than the system used by Waller. Einthoven's electrocardiograph was ready for use in 1903. To facilitate investigations of patients Einthoven connected his instrument to the Academic Hospital in Leyden, by a telephone line, as suggested by his engineering colleague Johannes Bosscha in Delft. The first successful tele-electrocardiogram was transmitted on Sunday 22 March 1905. The heart tones were registered by wiring a specially developed microphone placed on the subject's chest to another string galvanometer. The event was therefore a first both for tele-electrocardiography and for telephonocardiography. We are still awaiting the full-scale implementation of these achievements, 100 years later. PMID:16238834

  19. Böttger stoneware from North America and Europe; are they authentic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Nelson, Christina H.

    2000-03-01

    In the early 18th century, Johann Friedrich Böttger, an alchemist recently arrived in Dresden, was assigned to ceramic experimentation under the orders of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. The Elector and his advisors hoped to discover the secret of making hard paste porcelain like the wares imported into Europe from China and Japan. In 1706-1707, Böttger produced his first ceramic body, a red stoneware similar to the wares produced in Yixing, China. The first objects were made following the forms of chinese prototypes or European metalwork of the period. Recently, the authenticity of a number of `Böttger' objects in various museums and private collections in North America and Europe has been questioned. To aide in resolving these questions several non-destructive analytical techniques have been employed, the most important being PIXE. This report is on an initial study of 25 objects with 16 elements from Al to Zr and Pb being analysed. The results strongly suggest three different groupings, one of objects from the Meissen factory during the 20th century, one from the work of Böttger himself early in the 18th century and one from an as yet unknown time period and site. The first two groups were previously identified by one of the authors (C.N.).

  20. Chapter 42: neurology and the neurological sciences in the German-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Isler, Hansruedi

    2010-01-01

    Early neurology in German-speaking countries evolved aside from mainstream medicine. Animists like Stahl in the 18th century saw the soul as the cause of health and disease, and the later Vitalists insisted on life-force as the specific property of living beings, contrary to skeptics like Albrecht von Haller, whose neurophysiology they left behind. Following Willis, they studied brain tracts and speculated about reflex action. They experimented with electrotherapy, and later devised early theories of electric nerve action. The controversial medical theories of animal magnetism and phrenology also advanced brain research and clinical neurology together with their sectarian programs, which seem absurd today. The impact on natural science and medicine of the last great Vitalist, Johannes Müller, and his mechanistic students such as Remak, Schwann, Schleiden, Helmholtz, Ludwig, Brücke, Virchow, Koelliker, and Wundt was unparalleled. They provided the anatomical and physiological infrastructure for the growth of neurology. From 1845 far into the 20th century, psychiatry and neurology evolved together. Neuropsychiatrists cared for their mental patients during the day, and studied their brain tissue slides at night, as in the case of Alzheimer and Nissl. Major advances in brain research were achieved by the hypnotists Forel and Vogt, and modern psychiatry was launched by the typical neuropsychiatrists Kraepelin, Moebius, Bleuler, and Adolf Meyer. PMID:19892145

  1. [Overview of the history of thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, M

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid gland surgery passed through history from the suggestions for prohibition, during middle of XIX century due to unacceptable mortality even for medieval condition, to highest vel of surgical laser, as W. Halsted sad. First thyroidectomy was done by Albucasis (El Zahrawi) in 925 a.d. and after him by Roger from Salerno. While Pierre-Joseph Dusalt in 1791 has done first operation on thyroid gland than can fulfill todays criteria, Teodor Billroth gave scientific grounds of thyroid surgery. Genius attitude and surgical talent of Theodor Kocher raised thyroid surgery o scientific level, brought surgical skills on the top of surgical art pyramid, and brought him personally to the Nobel Prize in 1909. Every important contribution to development of thyroid surgery gave its giants: Johann von Mikulic, William Halsted, Charles Mayo, George W. Crile and Rank Lahey. Thomas P. Dunhill, F.A. Coller, A.M. Boydena and many others did important contribution, too. Development of thyroid srugery was constant to nowadays, with tendention for multidisciplinary approach in specialized centres. Thyroid surgery in Serbia followed this world trends, in spite of treat problems in the area during history. PMID:15179751

  2. Training the intelligent eye: understanding illustrations in early modern astronomy texts.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Kathleen M; Barker, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the early modern period, the most widely read astronomical textbooks were Johannes de Sacrobosco's De sphaera and the Theorica planetarum, ultimately in the new form introduced by Georg Peurbach. This essay argues that the images in these texts were intended to develop an "intelligent eye." Students were trained to transform representations of specific heavenly phenomena into moving mental images of the structure of the cosmos. Only by learning the techniques of mental visualization and manipulation could the student "see" in the mind's eye the structure and motions of the cosmos. While anyone could look up at the heavens, only those who had acquired the intelligent eye could comprehend the divinely created order of the universe. Further, the essay demonstrates that the visual program of the Sphaera and Theorica texts played a significant and hitherto unrecognized role in later scientific work. Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler all utilized the same types of images in their own texts to explicate their ideas about the cosmos. PMID:24341260

  3. [Christian Keferstein - an amateur geologist in central Germany around 1800 and his journal "Teutschland shown geognostically - geologically"].

    PubMed

    Polenz, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Christian Keferstein (1784-1866) was a self-educated geologist in early 19th century Germany. His pre-scientific period may be regarded as an example of how research in nature was conducted not only by academics but also by so called "Dilettanten" (amateurs). Keferstein's journal Teutschland, geognostisch-geologisch dargestellt was published for over ten years beginning from 1821 and was intended to provide a forum for geological studies in Germany. The fact that Johann Wolfgang von Goethe colored a geological map as an insert for the 1st edition of the journal shows how dilettantism was part of professional research, even though experts did hardly refer to it. This article is to show how this kind of common research was done during the early stages of geology--when the discipline was still open to amateurs--and how results could be published. Therefore the profile of Keferstein's journal reflects not only the specifics of amateurs observations but also a lack of experts that could satisfy the need for standardized observations, especially for the production of detailed maps. PMID:21898977

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Giudice, F

    2000-01-01

    The object of this study is Leonhard Euler's physical optics as it is formulated in Nova theoria lucis et colorum (1746). The focus is on this particular work by Euler for two reasons: 1) Nova theoria represents undoubtedly the most comprehensive and systematic medium theory of the 18th century; 2) it contains the basic principles of Euler's conception of the nature of light, which he later maintained. The works of the most important advocates of this tradition (Huygens, Malebranche and Johann II Bernoulli) are here analyzed to give a historical frame to Euler's role in the medium tradition. Though these authors try to elaborate a theory of light alternative to the emission theory, they never realize the contrast between the medium and the emission traditions. From this perspective, Nova theoria is a real transition point: Euler is fully aware of the antithesis between the two traditions; he compares them, he refutes the arguments in favor of emission theory and formulates an alternative one, that will substantially be the first and the most significant antagonist of emission model. The essay examines also the central questions of Euler's theory of light, i.e. how pulses are generated and propagated, the nature of the rays of light and the relations among pulse distance, frequency, and velocity. PMID:11639178

  5. A Note on the Height of Auroras by Leonhard Euler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    In former times, mostly before the end of the 19th century, many speculations were made about the height of the Earth's atmosphere. Scientists also discussed the height of the auroras, which were often observed in middle Europe. Mostly, people thought the auroras were manifestations of the lower Earth's atmosphere, and that they formed a circle inside of it. Only a few speculations were devoted to the exact height and nature of these phenomena. They were thought to be signs from God, until the appearance of the aurora on 17 March 1716 (for detail, see Schröder [2001]). An interesting letter written by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), a Swiss mathematician and member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, to the theologian and scholar Johann Esaias Silberschlag (1716-1791)-also a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences- gives some insight into the discussion that took place in the 18th century. Euler wrote in his letter that the auroras, similar to the great meteors or fireballs, must be placed in the high atmosphere, mostly above the height of the meteors. For Euler, it was clear that meteors, fireballs, and auroras were all objects associated with the Earth's atmosphere. In those days, the idea that the auroral phenomena were caused in the atmosphere and were part of its constitution was new. Following the 17 March 1716 event, scientists of the day concluded that the height of the aurora was above that of the normally observed clouds.

  6. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  7. Overlooked sunspot observations by Hevelius in the early Maunder Minimum, 1653 1684

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1995-09-01

    In the bookMachina Coelestis (1679), Johannes Hevelius lists his daily solar observations from 1653 to 1679. He mentions 19 sunspot groups during this interval, of which 14 are unique to Hevelius and five are confirmed by other observers. There are an additional 9 sunspot groups during this interval that were not observed by Hevelius. In five cases he was not observing, but in the other four cases he did observe but failed to comment upon sunspots. The spots he missed or failed to observe tend to occur near the end of his career. This suggests Hevelius occasionally missed sunspots but usually was a reliable observer. These observations are important because they provide us the only known daily listing of solar observations during the early years of the Maunder Minimum. They are also important because they were overlooked by Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, Eddy, and others in their study of solar activity in the seventeenth century. They provide us the best record of the sunspot maximum of 1660 when one sunspot lasted at least 86 days as it traversed the solar disk four times. The same region was active for seven solar rotations.

  8. The star catalogue of Hevelius. Machine-readable version and comparison with the modern Hipparcos Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, F.; van Gent, R. H.

    2010-06-01

    The catalogue by Johannes Hevelius with the positions and magnitudes of 1564 entries was published by his wife Elisabeth Koopman in 1690. We provide a machine-readable version of the catalogue, and briefly discuss its accuracy on the basis of comparison with data from the modern Hipparcos Catalogue. We compare our results with an earlier analysis by Rybka (1984), finding good overall agreement. The magnitudes given by Hevelius correlate well with modern values. The accuracy of his position measurements is similar to that of Brahe, with σ = 2´ for longitudes and latitudes, but with more errors >5´ than expected for a Gaussian distribution. The position accuracy decreases slowly with magnitude. The fraction of stars with position errors larger than a degree is 1.5%, rather smaller than the fraction of 5% in the star catalogue of Brahe. Star catalogue of Hevelius is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/516/A29

  9. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  10. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Sarnak, P; Pugh, M C

    2000-11-21

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues ("the energy levels") follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  11. Medical competence, anatomy and the polity in seventeenth-century Rome

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    At the centre of this article are two physicians active in Rome between 1600 and 1630 who combined medical practice with broader involvement in the dynamic cultural, economic and political scene of the centre of the Catholic world. The city's distinctive and very influential social landscape magnified issues of career-building and allows us to recapture physicians’ different strategies of self-fashioning at a time of major social and religious reorganization. At one level, reconstructing Johannes Faber and Giulio Mancini's medical education, arrival in Rome and overlapping but different career trajectories contributes to research on physicians’ identity in early modern Italian states. Most remarkable are their access to different segments of Roman society, including a dynamic art market, and their diplomatic and political role, claimed as well as real. But following these physicians from hospitals to courts, including that of the Pope, and from tribunals to the university and analysing the wide range of their writing – from medico-legal consilia to political essays and reports of anatomical investigations – also enriches our view of medical practice, which included, but went beyond, the bedside. Furthermore, their activities demand that we reassess the complex place of anatomical investigations in a courtly society, and start recovering the fundamental role played by hospitals – those quintessential Catholic institutions – as sites of routine dissections for both medical teaching and research. (pp. 551–567) PMID:21949463

  12. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  13. Variations of a Constant -- On the History of Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, W.

    The precession of the equinoxes, the phenomenon which defines one of the fundamental constants of astronomy, has been with us for more than two millennia. Discovered by Hipparchos who did notice a systematic difference of his star positions as compared with older observations, subsequently adopted by Ptolemaios, its correct value became the object of prolonged controversy. The apparent variability of the precession led to the superimposition of a so-called ''trepidation``, an oscillation of typically +/- 9 deg amplitude and 7000 years period, over a linear precession of only 26 arcsec per annum. This construction, finalized in the Alfonsine Tables (ca. 1280), did work for less than two centuries. The motion of the vernal equinox, at 39 arcsec p.a. too small from the outset, decreases according to this theory to 34 arcsec in the year 1475, the first year covered by the printed version of Johannes Regiomontanus' Ephemerides. Regiomontanus had to re-adjust his longitudes to the real situation, but the difficulties caused by the apparent nonlinearity did persist, leading to a prolonged debate which was finally put to rest by Tycho Brahe. Subsequent to Edmond Halley's successful derivation of a modern value of the precessional constant, again by comparing contemporary star positions with the Almagest catalogue, and Bradley's discovery of the nutation, the last long-term comparison of modern with Ptolemaic coordinates was published by Bode (1795). Shortly after, the analytical theory of precession was established by Bessel in his Fundamenta Astronomiae (1818).

  14. Istoriya s planetoj Ol'bersa %t The story with Olbers' planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanov, I. A.

    J[ohannes] Kepler suggested that there was one more planet between Mars and Jupiter. Two centuries later H[einrich] Olbers, the discoverer of asteroids, believed they were planetary debris. In 1861, G. Dobre attributed the meteorites to the collapse of an earthlike planet. I.I. Putilin (1949) has pointed out that a singular explosion does not explained the asteroid orbits and thus suggested a series of explosions. Studying meteorites, A.N. Zavaritsky (1951) has demonstrated that during the blow-up chondritic crust detached first, followed by the disintegration of the chondritic mantle. Calculation of the asteroid belt's mass and composition of the meteorites demonstrate that the hypothetical tenth panet was similar to Mars. The collapse was caused by the dissipation of its superdense hydrogen atmosphere, thus decreasing the pressure onto the planet's surface. It took place 4.6 to 3.9 bln. years ago, as evidenced by giant impact craters on the Moon. Bacterial lifeform emerged between the two phases of collapse - fossil remains of cyalobacteria were found in the carbonaceous chondrites.

  15. The Christian chronologies of the creation and the view of modern astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E. Th.

    2004-01-01

    How many different chronologies have been proposed for the beginning of the Creation? It is, of course, well known that the Jewish chronology starts from 7 October (1 Tishri) 3761 BC; however, this starting point apparently did not satisfy various scholars nor Christian savants and astronomers. As a result, from time to time miscellaneous dates were being proposed, from the Jewish historian Josephus (first Century AD) up to the French humanist Joseph Scaliger (1484-1558) and the famous Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87). Not only the scholars of these eras but also the Christian Churches defined through Ecumenical Council decisions the beginning of the Creation. In this study we present the proposed dates, while we note that especially the date proposed by James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh (Northern Ireland), that is the year 4004 BC and not the centurial year 4000 BC, is due to the historians' belief that Herod died in 4 BC. Thus, Ussher added these 4 years to the year 4000 BC in order to have a more accurate chronology in respect to the birth of Christ, a birth placed by him, as well as by many chronicle writers of the era, in 4 BC.

  16. Clara Schumann: 'A woman's love and life': a psychoanalytic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Halberstadt-Freud, H C

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate how psychoanalysis can shed new light on a much studied life history. Clara's emotional life knew a sequence of losses and "prohibited" intimate relationships that created grave loyalty, identity, and identificatory conflicts for her. Since her early childhood, when her father forced her to give up her mother, she had been forced into a choice between the love objects most dear to her and the one on whom she depended for her emotional survival. This resulted in her later repetition compulsion to maneuver herself into the same conflict of loyalty and in her hesitation to decide when choosing one object meant losing the other. Clara had never known a normal separation, only loss and abandonment. She strove to combine the incompatible and succeeded in remaining loyal not only to her mother and father, but also to Robert Schumann, and eventually to Johannes Brahms. Clara Schumann's ideals were conflicted not only because she was educated by two men who were fighting each other, but also because her father, as well as Robert, had internally inconsistent and ambiguous ideas about women. Clara not only had to be obedient and creative, but self-sufficient at the same time. She was partially able to satisfy her own and her partner's needs and solve her deficiencies by projective identification, choosing taciturn men, more maternal than she. PMID:11616291

  17. Rational formulation design.

    PubMed

    Lane, M E; Hadgraft, J; Oliveira, G; Vieira, R; Mohammed, D; Hirata, K

    2012-12-01

    To be efficacious and to satisfy the requirements for claim substantiation, a cosmetic formulation must achieve effective targeting of an active in the skin. Although the basic principles governing the skin permeation and disposition of molecules have been known for many years, attention has been far less focused on the role of the vehicle, particularly at cosmetically relevant doses. In this article, we discuss the necessity to understand the fate of the formulation components as well as the active once applied onto skin. Recent data confirm that the residence time of the formulation constituents can have a profound impact on the fate of the active. Approaches to identify the ideal vehicle for skin delivery are considered critically, specifically the recent work on 'formulating for efficacy' (FFE) by the late Johann Wiechers. Essentially, FFE aims to match the active with the optimal vehicle for skin delivery based on matching polarity/solubility values of the trinity of skin, active and vehicle. The emerging importance of techniques that provide insight to how the vehicle distributes in and on skin is highlighted. PMID:22882873

  18. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, Werner; Staub, Susanne; Simon, Rolf; Heissler, Stefan; Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard

    2007-07-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: "Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  19. The Origins of the Field Concept in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Ernan

    The term, ``field,'' made its first appearance in physics as a technical term in the mid-nineteenth century. But the notion of what later came to be called a field had been a long time in gestation. Early discussions of magnetism and of the cause of the ocean tides had long ago suggested the idea of a ``zone of influence'' surrounding certain bodies. Johannes Kepler's mathematical rendering of the orbital motion of Mars encouraged him to formulate what he called ``a true theory of gravity'' involving the notion of attraction. Isaac Newton went on to construct an eminently effective dynamics, with attraction as its primary example of force. Was his a field theory? Historians of science disagree. Much depends on whether a theory consistent with the notion of action at a distance ought qualify as a ``field'' theory. Roger Boscovich and Immanuel Kant later took the Newtonian concept of attraction in new directions. It was left to Michael Faraday to propose the ``physical existence'' of lines of force and to James Clerk Maxwell to add as criterion the presence of energy as the ontological basis for a full-blown ``field theory'' of electromagnetic phenomena.

  20. Vascular access: an historical perspective from Sir William Harvey to the 1956 Nobel prize to André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, and Dickinson W. Richards.

    PubMed

    Sette, Piersandro; Dorizzi, Romolo M; Azzini, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Harvey (1578-1657), who had many precursors, discovered blood circulation in 1628 after a significant number of anatomic dissection of cadavers; his studies were continued by Sir Christopher Wren and Daniel Johann Major. The first central vein catheterization was performed on a horse by Stephen Hales, an English Vicar. In 1844, a century later, the French biologist Claude Bernard attempted the first carotid artery cannulation and repeated the procedure in the jugular vein, again on a horse. He was first to report the complications now well known to be associated with this maneuver. In 1929 Werner Forssmann tried cardiac catheterization on himself, but could not investigate the procedure further since his findings were rejected and ridiculed by colleagues. His work was continued by André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr in the United States. In 1956 the three physicians shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their studies on vascular and cardiac systems. The genius and the perseverance of the three physicians paved the way towards peripheral and central catheter vein placement, one of the most frequently performed maneuvers in hospitals. Its history still remains unknown to most and deserves a short description. PMID:21983826

  1. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  2. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  3. Comparison of ribbon and wire array load characteristics on double eagle

    SciTech Connect

    Yadlowsky, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J. J.; Failor, B. H.; LePell, P. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Thornhill, J. W.; Davis, J.

    1997-05-05

    The non-uniform acceleration of partially vaporized and ionized wires in wire array loads results in precursor plasmas that assemble on-axis and soften the subsequent implosion of the remaining mass. One micron thick Al ribbons with an anticipated vaporization/ionization time small compared to the 30 {mu}m diameter wire were fabricated to minimize this load straggling effect. The implosion and radiation characteristics of ribbon and wire arrays were compared on the Double Eagle accelerator. A high resolution x-ray spectrometer in the Johann geometry recorded the energy resolved He{sub a} and intercombination lines of the 1% Mg dopant added for diagnostic purposes. Comparable x-ray yields were obtained with both configurations. The ratio of K-spectrum lines of Al were used to infer comparable electron temperatures (1-1.3 keV) and ion densities (7x10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3}) in both cases. The ion temperatures, inferred from the Doppler width of optically thin Mg dopant lines, were a factor of 3 smaller for ribbons. The intercombination/He{sub a} line ratio for Mg was much smaller in the ribbon case, implying a higher density. The inability to reconcile this ratio with the Al spectrum or the radiated power in the ribbon case is not presently understood.

  4. The Integrative Role of the Sigh in Psychology, Physiology, Pathology, and Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2015-01-01

    “Sighs, tears, grief, distress” expresses Johann Sebastian Bach in a musical example for the relationship between sighs and deep emotions. This review explores the neurobiological basis of the sigh and its relationship with psychology, physiology, and pathology. Sighs monitor changes in brain states, induce arousal, and reset breathing variability. These behavioral roles homeostatically regulate breathing stability under physiological and pathological conditions. Sighs evoked in hypoxia evoke arousal and thereby become critical for survival. Hypoarousal and failure to sigh have been associated with sudden infant death syndrome. Increased breathing irregularity may provoke excessive sighing and hyperarousal, a behavioral sequence that may play a role in panic disorders. Essential for generating sighs and breathing is the pre-Bötzinger complex. Modulatory and synaptic interactions within this local network and between networks located in the brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala, and the periaqueductal gray may govern the relationships between physiology, psychology, and pathology. Unraveling these circuits will lead to a better understanding of how we balance emotions and how emotions become pathological. PMID:24746045

  5. The integrative role of the sigh in psychology, physiology, pathology, and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2014-01-01

    "Sighs, tears, grief, distress" expresses Johann Sebastian Bach in a musical example for the relationship between sighs and deep emotions. This review explores the neurobiological basis of the sigh and its relationship with psychology, physiology, and pathology. Sighs monitor changes in brain states, induce arousal, and reset breathing variability. These behavioral roles homeostatically regulate breathing stability under physiological and pathological conditions. Sighs evoked in hypoxia evoke arousal and thereby become critical for survival. Hypoarousal and failure to sigh have been associated with sudden infant death syndrome. Increased breathing irregularity may provoke excessive sighing and hyperarousal, a behavioral sequence that may play a role in panic disorders. Essential for generating sighs and breathing is the pre-Bötzinger complex. Modulatory and synaptic interactions within this local network and between networks located in the brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala, and the periaqueductal gray may govern the relationships between physiology, psychology, and pathology. Unraveling these circuits will lead to a better understanding of how we balance emotions and how emotions become pathological. PMID:24746045

  6. COMMITTEES: SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2009 - 14th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organizing Committee Takeshi Kodama Chair, UFRJ Jun Takahashi Co-chair, UNICAMP Ignácio Bediaga e Hickman CBPF Eduardo Fraga UFRJ Frederique Grassi USP Yogiro Hama USP Gastão Krein IFT Erasmo Madureira Ferreira UFRJ Marcelo G. Munhoz USP Fernando Navarra USP Sandra Padula IFT Alejandro Szanto de Toledo USP César Augusto Zen Vasconcellos UFRGS International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin Nantes Federico Antinori Padova Tamás Biró Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger GSI Jean Cleymans Cape Town Láaszló Csernai Bergen Timothy Hallman BNL Huan Zhong Huang UCLA Takeshi Kodama Rio de Janeiro Yu-Gang Ma Shanghai Jes Madsen Aarhus Ágnes Mócsy Pratt University Berndt Müller Duke University Grazyna Odyniec LBNL Helmut Oeschler Darmstadt Johann Rafelski Arizona Hans Georg Ritter LBNL Gunther Rolland MIT Karel Šafařík CERN Ladislav Sandor Kosice University Jack Sandweiss Yale University George S F Stephans MIT Horst Stöcker Frankfurt Larry McLerranBNL Helmut Satz Universitä Bielefeld Nu Xu LBNL Fuqiang Wang Purdue University William A. Zajc Columbia University Pengfei Zhuang Tsinghua University

  7. COMMITTEES: SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter SQM2008-International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Local Organising Committee Xiangzhou Cai (SINPA) Weiqin Chao (CCAST) Liewen Chen (SJTU) Jianping Cheng (Tsinghua University) Jinghua Fu (CCNU) Yuanning Gao (Tsinghua University) Xiaomei Li (CIAE) Zuotang Liang (Shandong University) Feng Liu (CCNU), Co-chair Yuxin Liu (PKU) Qing Wang (Tsinghua University) Qun Wang (USTC) Hushan Xu (IMP) Daicui Zhou (CCNU) Pengfei Zhuang (Tsinghua University), Co-chair Bingsong Zou (IHEP) International Advisory Committee Jörg Aichelin, Nantes Federico Antinori, Padova Tamás Biró, Budapest Peter Braun-Munzinger, GSI Jean Cleymans, Cape Town László Csernai, Bergen Timothy Hallman, BNL Huan Zhong Huang, UCLA Takeshi Kodama, Rio de Janeiro Carlos Lourenço, CERN Yu-Gang Ma, Shanghai Jes Masden, Aarhus Yasuo Miake, Tsukuba Berndt Müller, Duke Grazyna Odyniec, LBNL Helmut Oeschler, Darmstadt Johann Rafelski, Arizona Hans Georg Ritter, LBNL Karel Šafařík, CERN Jack Sandweiss, Yale George S F Stephans, MIT Horst Stöcker, Frankfurt Thomas Ullrich, BNL Nu Xu, LBNL William A Zajc, Columbia

  8. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  9. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T). PMID:27032403

  10. Quantitative spectroscopy of x-ray lines and continua in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, N.J.; Barnsley, R.; Lawson, K.D.; Melnick, I.M.; OMullane, M.G.; Singleton, M.A.; Patel, A.

    1997-04-01

    Crystal and synthetic multilayer diffractors, deployed either as flat Bragg reflectors, or curved, as in the Johann configuration, are used to study the spectrum of COMPASS-D and other tokamaks in the wavelength region of 1{endash}100 {Angstrom}. In this article, we concentrate on the measurement of absolute photon fluxes and the derivation of volume emissivities of the lines and continua in the x-ray region. The sensitivities of these instruments to absolute photon flux have been constructed {ital ab initio} from the individual component efficiencies, including published values of the diffractor reflectivities, which have been checked or supplemented by measurements using a double-axis goniometer or from line branching ratios. For those tokamak plasmas, where the elemental abundances and effective ion charge are documented, the x-ray continuum intensity itself has been used as a calibration source to derive absolute instrument sensitivity, in reasonable agreement with the {ital ab initio} method. In the COMPASS-D Tokamak, changes in the effective ion charge state, {ital Z}{sub eff}, have been derived for different operating conditions, from the absolute intensity of the continuum at {approximately}4 {Angstrom}. From the radiances of the line emission, changes in the absolute level of impurities following {open_quotes}boronization{close_quotes} of the vacuum vessel have also been documented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Maestlin's teaching of Copernicus. The evidence of his university textbook and disputations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methuen, C.

    1996-06-01

    Michael Maestlin (1550 - 1631), professor of mathematics at the University of Tübingen from 1584 until his death, is probably best known as the teacher of Johannes Kepler. As such he has merited more attention from historians than most other sixteenth-century German professors of mathematics. While Maestlin's own achievements (for instance, his correct description of earthshine, his observation and identification of the nova of 1572, and his attempt to determine the orbit of the comet of 1577 - 1578) have been noted, Kepler's testimony that he learned the Copernican system from Maestlin has meant that attention has been focused on Maestlin's attitude toward the Copernican hypothesis. Central to the ensuing discussion has been the question, and particularly the light shed on it by such of Maestlin's teaching materials as survive, that forms the subject of this paper. Copernicus's planetary hypothesis was probably not taught to every student in the University of Tübingen, but Maestlin seems always to have made the new hypothesis available who had the interest and ability to pursue it.

  12. The metaphor of epigenesis: Kant, Blumenbach and Herder.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Daniela; Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few decades, the meaning of the scientific theory of epigenesis and its significance for Kant's critical philosophy have become increasingly central questions. Most recently, scholars have argued that epigenesis is a key factor in the development of Kant's understanding of reason as self-grounding and self-generating. Building on this work, our claim is that Kant appealed to not just any epigenetic theory, but specifically Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's account of generation, and that this appeal must be understood not only in terms of self-organization, but also in terms of the demarcation of a specific domain of inquiry: for Blumenbach, the study of life; for Kant, the study of reason. We argue that Kant adopted this specific epigenetic model as a result of his dispute with Herder regarding the independence of reason from nature. Blumenbach's conception of epigenesis and his separation of a domain of the living from the non-living lent Kant the tools to demarcate metaphysics, and to guard reason against Herder's attempts to naturalize it. PMID:27474190

  13. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature. PMID:20513619

  14. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics. PMID:24988759

  15. [Picture metamorphosis. The transformation of insects from the end of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Janina

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the history of research into the problem of insect metamorphosis from the middle of the seventeenth century to the beginning of the nineteenth century. In particular, the work of three central figures is discussed: Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680), Pierre Lyonet (1706-1789) and Johann Moritz David Herold (1790-1862). It is argued that an understanding of the history of the problem of metamorphosis requires a careful analysis of its pictorial dimension. For Swammerdam, the central aim was a visualisation of the mechanical process by which, as he assumed, the butterfly is enfolding out of the larva. Lyonet's aim was a schematic representation of the structure of the organs, layer by layer, in order to understand the inner changes that the organs are undergoing throughout metamorphosis. Herold, working in the context of epigenetic embryology, took a very different strategy: the developmental series became the central pictorial means by which development as a gradual process of transformation was depicted. PMID:19227706

  16. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  17. Early American Strabismus Surgery: 1840-1845.

    PubMed

    Currie, Benjamin D; Feibel, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of effective surgical therapy for strabismus was one of the outstanding triumphs of the first half of 19th-century ophthalmology, just prior to the invention of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. Although priority for the development of strabismus surgery belongs to Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach of Germany, who first reported his surgical results in 1839, 4 cases of tenotomy of the medial rectus muscle had been performed in the United States by William Gibson in 1818 but never published. By 1840, the reports of surgery in Europe had rapidly spread to America where surgeons immediately began using these procedures. The first American surgeon to perform eye muscle surgery and publish his results was John Dix of Boston, and other surgeons were soon reporting their cases as well. We discuss 8 American pioneers in this field during the time (1840-1845) of the first burst of enthusiasm for this surgery. Although these surgeons were active in performing a large number of cases and carefully reporting their experiences and results, they did not make any major advances in the field. PMID:26669424

  18. High-resolution bent-crystal spectrometer for the ultra-soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Walling, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 /angstrom/. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda/sub 0/ = 8/angstrom/. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  19. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  20. Origin of Galactic Type-Ia supernovae: SN 1572 and SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Hernández, J. I.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Tabernero, H. M.; Montes, D.; Canal, R.; Méndez, J.; Bedin, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    We have been searching for surviving companions of progenitors of Galactic Type-Ia supernovae, in particular SN 1572 and SN 1006. These companion stars are expected to show peculiarities: (i) to be probably more luminous than the Sun, (ii) to have high radial velocity and proper motion, (iii) to be possibly enriched in metals from the SNIa ejecta, and (iv) to be located at the distance of the SNIa remnant. We have been characterizing possible candidate stars using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken at 10m-Keck and 8.2m-VLT facilities. We have identified a very promising candidate companion (Tycho G) for SN 1572 (see Ruiz-Lapuente et al. 2004; however for a different view see Kerzendorf et al., 2012) but we have not found any candidate companion for SN 1006, suggesting that SN event occurred in 1006 could have been the result of the merging of two white dwarfs (see González-Hernández et al., 2012). Adding these results to the evidence from the other direct searches, the clear minority of cases (20% or less) seem to disfavour the single-degenerate channel or that preferentially the single-degenerate escenario would involve main-sequence companions less massive than the Sun. Therefore, it appears to be very important to continue investigating these and other Galactic Type-Ia SNe such as the Johannes Kepler SN 1604.

  1. Casualty Risk Assessment Controlled Re-Entry of EPS - Ariane 5ES - ATV Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.-H.; Laine, N.; Aussilhou, C.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil its mission of compliance check to the French Space Operations Act, CNES has developed ELECTRA© tool in order to estimate casualty risk induced by a space activity (like rocket launch, controlled or un-controlled re-entry on Earth of a space object). This article describes the application of such a tool for the EPS controlled re-entry during the second Ariane 5E/S flight (Johannes Kepler mission has been launched in February 2011). EPS is the Ariane 5E/S upper composite which is de-orbited from a 260 km circular orbit after its main mission (release of the Automated Transfer Vehicle - ATV). After a brief description of the launcher, the ATV-mission and a description of all the failure cases taken into account in the mission design (which leads to "back-up scenarios" into the flight software program), the article will describe the steps which lead to the casualty risk assessment (in case of failure) with ELECTRA©. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting (main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion) leads to a low remaining casualty risk.

  2. Astronomy Festival on the National Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2015-11-01

    The annual Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM) takes place on 11 acres north of the Washington Monument in June (previous AFNM were April and July). AFNM, sponsored by Hofstra University, features optical and radio telescope viewing of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, clusters, and nebulae; a live large-screen image, a cell phone imaging mount; exhibits; hands-on activities; videos; large outdoor banners and posters; citizen science activities; hand-outs; bookmarks, and teacher information materials. With no tall buildings almost the entire sky is visible and 10th mag. moons of Saturn and the Ring Nebula (9.75 mag.) were easily visible on clear nights. Representatives from some of the nation's foremost scientific and educational institutions presented exciting demonstrations and activities; and answered questions about careers in science, celestial objects, and the latest astronomical discoveries. Local amateur astronomers set up twenty telescopes on the Mall and long lines of 20-30 people waited to look through the telescopes. Visitors met astronaut Dr. John Grunsfeld (Associate Administrator, NASA) and astronomers Dr. Lisse, Dr. Livengood, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Paul Hertz (Director, Astrophysics Division, NASA). Important historical astronomers spoke to the attendees: Caroline Herschel (Lynn King); Tycho Brahe (Dean Howarth); and Johannes Kepler (Jeff Jones). Free telescopes, donated by Celestron, were raffled off.

  3. The απολογητοσ-riddle in Kepler's Astronomia Nova, chapter 57. (German Title: Das απολογητοσ-Rätsel in Keplers Astronomia Nova, Kapitel 57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Ernst

    Since 1937, the latin edition of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova (1609) is available as a standard text. Here, in the 57th chapter, the third one of 48 important marginalia of Kepler, is reproduced as ⪉quo;Quae sit genuina et απολογητοσ mensura librationis huijus etc.». The Grecized word «αpi;ολογητοσ» was ignored to a large extent by translators and commentators, and was at least declared enigmatic by Donahue (1992). A look in the original copies of the 1609 edition shows that it is written ατιολογητοσ, not π but a τι. απολογητοσ in KGW is a read error. In the context of Keplers «natural, causal magnet-like forcesraquo; of planetary motion the conjecture αιτιολογητοσ (as a typographical error a ι is omitted) immediately suggests itself: causally, aetiological. This solution of the απολογητοσ riddle indicates the tight brace between the important Chapter 57 of Kepler's celestial physics and and the complete title ASTRONOMIA NOVA ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΟΣ, SEV PHYSICA COELESTIS etc.

  4. From Keplerian Orbits to Precise Planetary Predictions: the Transits of the 1630s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar

    2013-05-01

    The first transits of Mercury and Venus ever observed were important for quite different reasons than were the transit of Venus observed in the eighteenth century. Good data of planetary orbits are necessary for the prediction of planetary transits. Under the assumption of the central position of the Sun, Johannes Kepler published the theory of elliptical orbital motion of the planets in 1609; this new astronomy made it possible to compute noticeably improved ephemerides for the planets. In 1627 Kepler published the Tabulae Rudolphinae, and thanks to these tables he was able to publish a pamphlet announcing the rare phenomenon of Mercury and Venus transiting the Sun. Although the 1631 transit of Mercury was only observed by three astronomers in France and in Switzerland, and the 1639 transit of Venus was only predicted and observed by two self-taught astronomers in the English countryside, their observation would hardly been possible without the revolutionary theories and calculations of Kepler. The Tabulae Rudolphinae count among Kepler's outstanding astronomical works, and during the seventeenth century they gradually found entrance into the astronomical praxis of calculation among mathematical astronomers and calendar makers who rated them more and more as the most trustworthy astronomical foundation.

  5. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

    2009-10-01

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  6. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  7. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Karsten; Hamel, Jürgen

    The papers of this volume are dedicated to Johannes Kepler, the astronomy of his time, and the consequences of his researches. They deal with the reception on the Copernican system of the world at the court of landgrave William IV in Kassel and the use of astronomy at a princely court in the 16th century, exemplified by the Kassel residence. Two contributions discuss a text fragment in Kepler's Astronomia Nova and the dimensions of the geo- and heliocentric systems of the world in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum. Other contributions deal with mathematical aspects un Kepler's exchange of letters, the biography of Kepler's discussion partner Ph. Feselius, as well as the early reception of the Tabulae Rudolphinae in the calendar literature, telescopes in Kepler's time, Chr. Scheiner's optical theory of the eye, and finally in the continuation of the heliocentric world system by Otto von Guericke's natural philosophy and science. In conclusion, the documents of the planned call of Kepler to Rostock university, as well as the first publication of a recently found, hitherto unknown letter by Kepler.

  8. Solar Sailing is not Science Fiction Anymore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.

    2010-01-01

    Over 400 years ago Johannes Kepler envisioned the use of sunlight to propel a spacecraft. Just this year, a solar sail was deployed in orbit for the first time and proved that a spacecraft could effectively use a solar sail for propulsion. NASA's first nano-class solar sail satellite, NanoSail-D was designed and developed in only four months. Although the first unit was lost during the Falcon 1 rocket failure in 2008, the second flight unit has been refurbished and is waiting to be launched later this year. NanoSail-D will further the research into solar sail enabled spacecraft. It will be the first of several more sail enabled spacecraft to be launch in the next few years. FeatherSail is the next generation nano-class sail spacecraft being designed with the goal to prove low earth orbit operational capabilities. Future solar sail spacecraft will require novel ideas and innovative research for the continued development of space systems. One such pioneering idea is the Small Multipurpose Advanced Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) project. The SMART technology has the potential to revolutionize spacecraft avionics. Even though solar sailing is currently in its infancy, the next decade will provide great opportunities for research into sailing in outer space.

  9. Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer

    Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.

  10. Predicting Spacecraft Trajectories by the WeavEncke Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Jonathan K.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of methods is proposed of predicting spacecraft trajectories that possibly include multiple maneuvers and/or perturbing accelerations, with greater speed, accuracy, and repeatability than were heretofore achievable. The combination is denoted the WeavEncke method because it is based on unpublished studies by Jonathan Weaver of the orbit-prediction formulation of the noted astronomer Johann Franz Encke. Weaver evaluated a number of alternatives that arise within that formulation, arriving at an orbit-predicting algorithm optimized for complex trajectory operations. In the WeavEncke method, Encke's method of prediction of perturbed orbits is enhanced by application of modern numerical methods. Among these methods are efficient Kepler s-equation time-of-flight solutions and self-starting numerical integration with time as the independent variable. Self-starting numerical integration satisfies the requirements for accuracy, reproducibility, and efficiency (and, hence, speed). Self-starting numerical integration also supports fully analytic regulation of integration step sizes, thereby further increasing speed while maintaining accuracy.

  11. The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wade, N J; Finger, S

    2001-01-01

    The era of modern vision research can be thought of as beginning in the seventeenth century with Johannes Kepler's understanding of the optics of the camera obscura with a lens and its relation to the eye. During the nineteenth century, Helmholtz used "The eye as an optical instrument" as the title for one of his Popular Lectures, and such a conception of the eye is now accepted as a fundamental feature of visual science. In analysing the optics of the eye, Helmholtz constructed some novel optical instruments for studying the eye. The development of optometers, ophthalmometers, and ophthalmoscopes is presented historically, with emphasis on how these instruments and camera analogies helped scientists to understand the functions of the eye, especially the enigma of accommodation. "The laws of optics are so well understood, and the knowledge of the eye, when considered as an optical instrument, has been rendered so perfect, that I do not consider myself capable of making any addition to it; but still there is a power in the eye by which it can adapt itself to different distances far too extensive for the simple mechanism of the parts to effect." (John Hunter in a letter to Joseph Banks in 1793, published by Home 1794, page 24). PMID:11721819

  12. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    PubMed Central

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  13. [Contribution of Aleksander Sapieha (1773-1812) into European galvanization therapy].

    PubMed

    Gorski, P; Goetz, W

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the therapy using electricity as agent two tracks can be identified. On the one side, the indication for applying this therapy was handled more careful, simultaneously the technical equipment was improved. The Polish noble man Alexander Sapieha (1773-1812), the leading natural scientist of the Granddukedom of Warsaw, cooperated with excellent European scientists in order to improve the galvanic battery technologically. Among these scientists were Alexander Volta (1745-1827), the inventor of the battery, and Johann Bartholomaeus Trommsdorff (1770-1837), who is considered as one of the founders of scientific pharmacy in Europe. A. Sapieha supported the publication of galvanic experiences, e.g. in the case of Alexander of Humboldt (1769-1859) by publishing his paper about electric fishes. Sapiehas connections with the scientific centers in Turin and Bologna, Erfurt, Warszaw and Paris accelerated the exchange of information about galvanism. Later the resulting mini-batteries were employed in diathermie, in defibrillators and pacemakers. Details about these connections are presented in the lecture resp. full paper. PMID:11625095

  14. Interferometry at the PTB Nanometer Comparator: design, status and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flügge, J.; Weichert, Ch.; Hu, H.; Köning, R.; Bosse, H.; Wiegmann, A.; Schulz, M.; Elster, C.; Geckeler, R. D.

    2008-10-01

    To minimize the measurement uncertainty of one dimensional length measurements on line scales, linear encoders and interferometers the PTB in cooperation with the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH had built up a new length comparator. The Nanometer Comparator [1,2] has already proven its performance during the measurements of incremental encoders and line scales with an expanded measurement uncertainty of below 5 nm [3,4,5]. Due to the introduction of double and multiple exposure in advanced lithography techniques the overlay and registration metrology requirements will drastically increase so that reference metrology tools need to be developed further to be able to follow the resulting decrease of the specifications. Therefore, the PTB further develops the new 1D vacuum comparator to add a measurement possibility for straightness and to reach a measurement accuracy in the sub nanometer range [6]. One key development will be the interferometric measurement of all six degrees of freedom of the measurement slide of the comparator. A new multi axis heterodyne interferometer electronics and optical interferometer designs minimizing nonlinearities by spatially separated beams are under development.

  15. Beethoven's renal disease based on his autopsy: a case of papillary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A

    1993-06-01

    The autopsy report of Ludwig van Beethoven written by Dr Johann Wagner in 1827 reveals that he had renal calculi that had not been diagnosed during his lifetime, together with perirenal fibrosis. The most comprehensive interpretation of this autopsy finding is that the regular calcareous deposits in every one of his renal calices represented calcified necrotic papillae. Severe urinary obstruction or diabetes as possible causes of papillary necrosis were not present. Analgesic abuse because of headaches, back pain, and attacks of rheumatism or gout may be presumed on the basis of Beethoven's uncontrolled way of taking medication. Salicin, a commonly used analgesic substance of that time (dried and powdered willow bark), is able to cause papillary necrosis. Perirenal fibrosis may be due to chronic infection or drug intake. Beethoven's other well-known diseases are deafness caused by otosclerosis of the inner ear, relapsing attacks of diarrhea as the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and liver cirrhosis following viral hepatitis and chronic alcohol consumption. Liver cirrhosis also may cause papillary necrosis. In Beethoven's case, renal papillary necrosis was most probably the consequence of analgesic abuse together with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The autopsy report of Beethoven is the first case of papillary necrosis recorded in the literature. PMID:8503419

  16. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender. PMID:20653187

  17. Phrenology and the neurosciences: contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2005-06-01

    The pseudoscience of phrenology arose from the observations and intuitions of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and his disciple Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832). Gall believed that mental functions are localized in discrete parts of the brain, which he called organs. He located the organs subserving intellectual functions chiefly in the cerebral cortex. To support this doctrine, Gall and Spurzheim carried out extensive neuro-anatomical studies, and made some important discoveries. The Gordon Craig Library contains a book by Spurzheim on the anatomy of the brain, published in London in 1826, which summarizes these discoveries. Gall also believed that the functional strength of the cerebral and cerebellar organs was expressed by their bulk: a well-developed organ caused a bulge in the overlying cranial bone. Hence, feeling the bumps of the skull was a means of assessing the individual's personality. This very fallacious component of Gall's doctrine had great influence in the nineteenth century, affecting psychiatry, criminology and educational theory. Further research demolished Gall's doctrine, and phrenology sank into disrepute. Nevertheless, phrenological thinking played an important part in the growth of clinical neurology in the second half of the nineteenth century. PMID:15943741

  18. Notes made by Thomas Harriot on the treatises of François Viète

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedall, Jacqueline

    2008-03-01

    In the Archive for History of Exact Sciences in 1979 Johannes Lohne published "A survey of Harriot's scientific writings". This has remained until now the only survey of the surviving manuscripts of Thomas Harriot (ca. 1560-1621). Lohne's paper is still a useful resource but it touches only very sketchily on Harriot's debt to François Viète (1540-1603), even though dozens of Harriot's manuscript sheets are filled with re-workings of problems or theorems from Viète's various treatises. Many of these sheets carry overt references to page or proposition numbers in Viète's publications, while others reveal themselves through inspection of the problem they contain. The primary aim of the present paper is to offer a new survey, of precisely those sheets where Harriot can be seen working on the mathematics of Viète. In doing so, it also offers an insight into the reception of Viète's work within his own lifetime at the hands of one of his most astute and able readers.

  19. [Ludwig von Riediger (Ludwik Rydygier). A great surgeon forgotten in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zajaczkowski, T; Döhler, R; Zamann, A M

    2013-07-01

    Riediger was born in West Prussia and studied medicine in Greifswald under Carl Hueter. Having accomplished his surgical training in Gdańsk, Greifswald and Jena in 1879 he built an outstanding private hospital in Chełmno where he wrote important publications in the Polish language. In 1887 he polonized his name to Rydygier to obtain Bavarian citizenship and succeeded Johann von Mikulicz as the chair of surgery at the Jagiellonian University. In 1897 he was given the chair in surgery at the University of Lviv and in 1901/02 he became rector. In World War I he served in the Austrian and Polish Armies. In the Polish-Soviet War (1920) he played an active role against the invading Bolshevic (Soviet) army as head of the medical service for the Polish army in Pomerania. After 23 years in Lviv he became professor emeritus. Before returning to West Prussia he lost his fortune due to the stock market crash in 1920 and died at 70 years old. Riediger founded the Polish Society of Surgeons and was cofounder of the German Association of Urology. His descendents formed a dynasty of surgeons in Brazil. PMID:24006518

  20. Transforming sexuality: the medical sources of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-95) and the origins of the theory of bisexuality.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Ross

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the medical references in the writings of the German jurist and activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as a means of breaking new ground in diverse fields (including history of medicine, history of sexuality, and gender history). It demonstrates that the theory of bisexuality has a much deeper and more textured genealogy than has been hitherto appreciated and that dual-gendered bodies and minds must be better recognized as important through the nineteenth century. Specifically, it demonstrates that classifications and rhetoric of hermaphroditism, and other dual-gendered categories (e.g., sexual dualism and anatomical bisexuality), were deployed in diverse contexts through the period, often with little or no reference to the occurrence of genital ambiguities. Important discourses in embryology, utilized by Ulrichs, suggested that all individuals, in the earliest stages of fetal development, were hermaphroditic. In making an analogy among the ontogeny of sex anatomy, hermaphroditism, and the development of erotic preferences, Ulrichs sought to naturalize homoeroticism, rendering social and legal prohibitions untenable. His advocacy, however, was counterbalanced by the Prussian forensic expert Johann Ludwig Casper who had made some conceptual maneuvers similar to Ulrichs only couched in the rhetoric of pathology. Ulrichs was equivocal in his use of forensic works such as Casper's, condemning their authors but recognizing similarities with his own gender schema. PMID:21081540

  1. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  2. Constructive neutral evolution: exploring evolutionary theory’s curious disconnect

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Constructive neutral evolution (CNE) suggests that neutral evolution may follow a stepwise path to extravagance. Whether or not CNE is common, the mere possibility raises provocative questions about causation: in classical neo-Darwinian thinking, selection is the sole source of creativity and direction, the only force that can cause trends or build complex features. However, much of contemporary evolutionary genetics departs from the conception of evolution underlying neo-Darwinism, resulting in a widening gap between what formal models allow, and what the prevailing view of the causes of evolution suggests. In particular, a mutationist conception of evolution as a 2-step origin-fixation process has been a source of theoretical innovation for 40 years, appearing not only in the Neutral Theory, but also in recent breakthroughs in modeling adaptation (the “mutational landscape” model), and in practical software for sequence analysis. In this conception, mutation is not a source of raw materials, but an agent that introduces novelty, while selection is not an agent that shapes features, but a stochastic sieve. This view, which now lays claim to important theoretical, experimental, and practical results, demands our attention. CNE provides a way to explore its most significant implications about the role of variation in evolution. Reviewers Alex Kondrashov, Eugene Koonin and Johann Peter Gogarten reviewed this article. PMID:23062217

  3. [Skyblue - the cyanometer of Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (1740 - 1799)].

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Karliczek, André

    2011-01-01

    The cyanometer is a simply constructed measuring instrument that enables a determination of skyblue. It consists of a color-scale that is arranged circularly going in equal steps from white to blue (Prussian blue) and finally into black. According to its inventor--Horace-Bénédict de Saussure--the azure is determined by the amount of so called opaque vapors in the atmosphere associated with meteorological phenomena. As outlined by De Saussure, the blackness of the universe seen through an illuminated and blurred medium results in azure. Thereby his instrument offers a relative scale that is consistent with color theories of his time like those of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The description allows the construction of the scale without the employment of standardized color-prints. Instead he provides a clear report of the necessary procedures to produce such a scale. The accuracy of this description is tested and discussed employing the methods of experimental history of science. The reception of the cyanometer in the time about 1800 and its implications on color theories is discussed. PMID:21898976

  4. Sr2Cu(PO4)2 and Ba2Cu(PO4)2 as quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Md. Mahfoozul; Ahsan, M. A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Using magnetic exchange couplings for antiferromagnets Sr2Cu(PO4)2 and Ba2Cu(PO4)2, estimated independently by Johannes (2006 [1]) and Salunke (2007 [2]), we present model calculations via exact diagonalization for several lattices of 24 and 16 spins by calculating experimentally accessible quantities like spin-spin correlation, the antiferromagnetic order-parameter, entropy-density, specific-heat and z-component of the magnetic susceptibility using up to 15 low-lying eigenstates. From our calculation, the ratio of critical entropy and mean-field critical entropy comes out to be ∼ 0.492(7). The slope of the specific heat curve at low temperatures is found to be 2 / 3. The peak value of z-component of the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature curve turns out to be 1/3 χ ∼ 0.05 . Our results favor the conclusion that these magnetic compounds are indeed quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets.

  5. [The influence of anatomical treaties on the works of Wendel Dietterlin and his successors in the second half of the 16th century].

    PubMed

    Gampp, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In 1543 in Basel, Johannes Oporinus published one of the most famous treatises in the history of anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius. The book was an immediate success all over Europe, especially in the Upper Rhine region. In Strasbourg, Walter Ryff (Gualterius Rivius) was responsible for an early copy; others followed, as for example Felix Platter in Basel in 1581. One of the novelties of all these books consisted in the fact that for the first time the human body was dissected into its smallest units. Anatomical elements such as the opened thorax, the vertebral column, the kidney sectionned, or the laryngeal cartilages apparently stimulated an artist of the late 16th century in the same geographical region: Wendel Dietterlin (c.1550-1599) who principally worked in Strasbourg and introduced these elements into his treatise on architecture as architectural ornaments. This seems to be the first instance of a transfer of motifs from human anatomy to architecture. From this time on, the transfer reappeared in some works until William Hogarth's era in the 18th century. PMID:22400472

  6. Historical vignettes of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Although "glands" in the neck corresponding to the thyroid were known for thousands of years, they were mainly considered pathological when encountered. Recognition of the thyroid gland as an anatomical and physiological entity required human dissection, which began in earnest in the 16th century. Leonardo Da Vinci is generally credited as the first to draw the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ. The drawings were subsequently "lost" to medicine for nearly 260 years. The drawings were probably of a nonhuman specimen. Da Vinci vowed to produce an anatomical atlas, but it was never completed. Michelangelo Buonarroti promised to complete drawings for the anatomical work of Realdus Columbus, De Re Anatomica, but these were also never completed. Andreas Vesalius established the thyroid gland as an anatomical organ with his description and drawings in the Fabrica. The thyroid was still depicted in a nonhuman form during this time. The copper etchings of Bartholomew Eustachius made in the 1560s were obviously of humans, but were not actually published until 1714 with a description by Johannes Maria Lancisius. These etchings also depicted some interesting anatomy, which we describe. The Adenographia by Thomas Wharton in 1656 named the thyroid gland for the first time and more fully described it. The book also attempted to assign a function to the gland. The thyroid gland's interesting history thus touches a number of famous men from diverse backgrounds. PMID:21120907

  7. Student Involvement in International Research -- The IRES Program at MAMI and MAX-lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; O'Rielly, Grant; Benmouna, Nawal

    2010-02-01

    Students associated with The George Washington University, Montgomery College, and the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth have the opportunity to participate in an international collaborative research at the Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) at the Johannes Gutenberg Universit"at in Mainz, Germany or MAX-lab at the Lund University in Lund, Sweden. This project supports up to six undergraduate students and two beginning graduate students each year. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the two laboratories. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon and its excitations through the study of meson photoproduction off the nucleon. Along with the US co-PIs, members of the international collaborations contribute to the training and mentoring of the students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technology-dependent society. We will present a history, goals and outcomes of this program. )

  8. The role of the Piarist order in developing the scientific way of thinking in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, András

    The Order of the Pious Schools was a significant participant in the culture of Hungary. They administered about one third of the Hungarian catholic gymnasiums. In the Piarist schools, mathematics was a subject of special attention since the foundation of the Order (1597), because they experienced solid arithmetical knowledge as directly usable in the future life of the mainly poor students. In the field of higher studies the Italian Piarists were personally influenced by Galilei, and taught the "new philosophy", based on modern physical research. This philosophical doctrine was introduced in the Catholic schools of Hungary by a Hungarian Piarist, Elek Cörver, from 1743 in their gymnasium of Pest. Johann Franz Zach was later also a student of this philosophical school in 1773. The first higher school of engineering in Hungary, the Collegium Oeconomicum in Szenc, founded in 1763, was also led by the Piarists. All these through the Piarists had an important role in the cultivation of scientific way of thinking in Hungary in the 18th century.

  9. The Pasquich affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patkós, Laszló

    The history of scientific research and particularly the history of astronomy is sometimes shaded by some people who tried to make forging and fraud instead of working hard. There are well-known sad stories, but there are also some with a positive end. One of them is the forging charge against Johann Pasquich, the director of St. Gellert Hill Observatory in Buda. He measured positions of the bright comet of 1821 and published his results in Astronomische Nachrichten Vol. 1, No. 2, 1821. His assistant Daniel Kmeth accused him with fraud, first in a letter written to the editor of Astronomische Nachrichten, Ch. Schumacher. Despite Schumacher's doubts, Kmeth repeated his accusations in the prestigious Hungarian periodical Tudományos Gyüjtemény, and moreover in Zach's Correspondance Astronomique. As the result of a long and careful investigation, Pasquich was discharged. The calculations which proved that Pasquich was right were carried out by the most famous scientists of the era: Ch. Schumacher, C.F. Gauss, J.F. Encke, W. Olbers and F.W. Bessel

  10. [President J. H. Brand and his medical history].

    PubMed

    Retief, F P

    1981-03-14

    During his term of office of 25 years (1863-1888) Johannes Hendrikus Brand, fourth President of the Orange Free State, proved himself a remarkable statesman of international stature. Born in the Cape Town of Lord Charles Somerset he was educated in the British tradition, and later received knighthoods from both Portugal and Britain. However, in converting his young embryonic state into South Africa's 'Model Republic' he showed himself to be a staunch republican. Total loyalty towards his country of adoption was aptly demonstrated by his uncompromising stand over the British annexation of the diamond fields in 1871. While preparing to put his case before the Colonial Secretary in London, he developed Bright's disease at the age of 49 years in August 1872. After an extreme illness lasting 5 months he appeared to recover fully. His subsequent health was excellent up to the end of the next decade when he developed symptoms of heart failure, epistaxis and possibly a cerebrovascular incident. In March 1888 his two Bloemfontein doctors, C. J. G. Krause and B. O. Kellner, in consultation with Dr Leander Starr Jameson (of Jameson Raid fame) diagnosed a recurrence of his kidney ailment and progressive heart disease. His death on 14 July 1888 was probably due to acute left ventricular failure as a late hypertensive complication of glomerulonephritis. PMID:7008210

  11. [On two antique medical texts].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2005-01-01

    The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective. PMID:17500134

  12. [Goethe's philosophical-medical masks, in Faust].

    PubMed

    de Castro-Peredo, Hugo Fernandez

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XXI century the health profession is engaged in a medical ethical and moral crisis and society, hurt by the pandemic of violence and impunity, feels the effect of a state of legal crisis unable to find a viable scientific or humanistic answer. This manuscript, is the result of an investigation into the Johann Wolfgang Goethe's tragedy of the nineteenth century, Faust. It demonstrates the coincidence of real life subjects and objects with literary subjects and objects represented, by means of the interpretation of the paradigms, problems, dilemmas and identified cases of medical ethical-morals: dáimon, reflection-solitude, free will, good-evil, Eros, learned ignorance, genes, epistemology, medical etiquette, paternalism, anatomy of the personality, Hyppocratism, will, good sense of humor, bubonic plague. Faust can be construed as a new path for change--towards the common good--of the physician if traced by their will and recovering the represented real objects, decides to meditate free and lonely on its professional exercise, medical knowledge and the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:17201118

  13. Detailed Hydrodynamic and X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of a Laser-Produced Rapidly-Expanding Aluminum Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D M; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J; Wolfrum, E; Gouveia, A; Lee, R W; Marjoribanks, R S; Renner, O; Sondhauss, P; Topping, S; Young, P E; Pinto, P A; Wark, J S

    2001-04-03

    We present a detailed analysis of K-shell emission from laser-produced rapidly-expanding aluminum plasmas. This work forms part of a series of experiments performed at the Vulcan laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. 1-D planar expansion was obtained by over-illuminating Al-microdot targets supported on CH plastic foils. The small size of the Al-plasma ensured high spatial and frequency resolution of the spectra, obtained with a single crystal spectrometer, two vertical dispersion variant double crystal spectrometers, and a vertical dispersion variant Johann Spectrometer. The hydrodynamic properties of the plasma were measured independently by spatially and temporally resolved Thomson scattering, utilizing a 4{omega} probe beam. This enabled sub- and super- critical densities to be probed relative to the 1{omega} heater beams. The deduced plasma hydrodynamic conditions are compared with those generated from the 1-D hydro-code Medusa, and the significant differences found in the electron temperature discussed. Synthetic spectra generated from the detailed term collisional radiative non-LTE atomic physics code Fly are compared with the experimental spectra for the measured hydrodynamic parameters, and for those taken from Medusa. Excellent agreement is only found for both the H- and He-like Al series when careful account is taken of the temporal evolution of the electron temperature.

  14. [Learning at the bedside of pregnant patients. On the typology of the birthing center in Germany (1728-1840)].

    PubMed

    Karenberg, A

    1991-01-01

    The process of institutionalization of obstetrics in the German universities is investigated on the basis of contemporary accounts and archival documents. The inauguration of the "school for midwives" by Johann Jakob Fried at Strasbourg (1728) was followed after 1750 by the foundation of numerous other obstetric departments and lying-in hospitals, in which midwives and medical students could attend a regular and systematic bedside-teaching for the first time. As to the architectural types, four basic structures have to be distinguished: Whereas in big cities the teaching centres were integrated in pre-existing hospitals (type A), the setting up of lying-in hospitals in regional universities took place in decaying old buildings (type B). The organizing of an obstetric ward in the former "clinicum" together with the medical and surgical department (type C) was rather seldom. Before 1850 the construction of expensive new buildings for lying-in hospitals (type D) was only realized at few places. In conclusion the emphasis is put on the political intentions and tendencies of the enlightenment philosophy which influenced considerably the creation and the development of the first teaching centres for obstetrics. PMID:1746187

  15. The presentation of plastic surgery visual data from 1816 to 1916: The evolution of reproducible results.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2016-09-01

    All scientific data should be presented with sufficient accuracy and precision so that they can be both analyzed properly and reproduced. Visual data are the foundation upon which plastic surgeons advance knowledge. We use visual data to achieve reproducible results by discerning details of procedures and differences between pre- and post-surgery images. This review highlights how the presentation of visual data evolved from 1816, when Joseph Carpue published his book on nasal reconstruction to 1916, when Captain Harold Gillies began to treat over 2000 casualties from the Battle of the Somme. It shows the frailties of human nature that led some authors such as Carl von Graefe, Joseph Pancoast and Thomas Mutter to record inaccurate methods or results that could not be reproduced, and what measures other authors such as Eduard Zeis, Johann Dieffenbach, and Gurdon Buck took to affirm the accuracy of their results. It shows how photography gradually supplanted illustration as a reference standard. Finally, it shows the efforts that some authors and originators took to authenticate and preserve their visual data in what can be considered the forerunners of clinical registries. PMID:27453409

  16. 2D x-ray imaging spectroscopic diagnostics using convex bent crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Daniel; Presura, Radu; Wallace, Matt; Largent, Billy; Haque, Showera; Arias, Angel; Khanal, Vijay; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2013-10-01

    A new 2-dimensional time-integrated x-ray spectroscopic diagnostics technique was developed to create multi-monochromatic images of high-energy density Al plasmas. 2-dimensional is an advanced spectroscopic tool, providing a way to determine the spatial dependence of plasma temperature and density (Te and ne) in hot plasmas. The new technique uses the strong source broadening of convex cylindrically bent KAP crystal spectrometers, which contains spatial information along the dispersive direction. The perpendicular direction is imaged using a slit. The spatial resolution of the method is improved by the deconvolution of the source broadened line profiles from the lineshapes (recorded by the convex crystal spectrometer) with lineshapes of minimum instrumental broadening. The latter spectra were recorded with a concave cylindrically bent KAP crystal spectrometer, based on the Johann geometry. Spectroscopic model of the plasma x-ray emission was developed using the PrismSPECT code. The identification of suitable spectral features allows deriving Te and ne from line intensities. We applied this model to get temperature and density distribution maps for wire array z-pinch plasmas. Work supported by the DOE/NNSA under grant DE-NA0001834 and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  17. Thermal neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope 60Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heftrich, T.; Bichler, M.; Dressler, R.; Eberhardt, K.; Endres, A.; Glorius, J.; Göbel, K.; Hampel, G.; Heftrich, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mikorski, M.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Stieghorst, C.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Slavkovská, Z.; Sonnabend, K.; Wallner, A.; Weigand, M.; Wiehl, N.; Zauner, S.

    2015-07-01

    Background: Fifty percent of the heavy element abundances are produced via slow neutron capture reactions in different stellar scenarios. The underlying nucleosynthesis models need the input of neutron capture cross sections. Purpose: One of the fundamental signatures for active nucleosynthesis in our galaxy is the observation of long-lived radioactive isotopes, such as 60Fe with a half-life of 2.60 ×106 yr. To reproduce this γ activity in the universe, the nucleosynthesis of 60Fe has to be understood reliably. Methods: An 60Fe sample produced at the Paul Scherrer Institut (Villigen, Switzerland) was activated with thermal and epithermal neutrons at the research reactor at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Mainz, Germany). Results: The thermal neutron capture cross section has been measured for the first time to σth=0.226 (-0.049+0.044) b . An upper limit of σRI<0.50 b could be determined for the resonance integral. Conclusions: An extrapolation towards the astrophysically interesting energy regime between k T =10 and 100 keV illustrates that the s -wave part of the direct capture component can be neglected.

  18. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    PubMed Central

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Mori, R. Alonso; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Qian, Q.; Rabedeau, T.; Bergmann, U.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4π sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4π sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc. PMID:22559520

  19. [Medical history as an academic subject at the Bamberg University].

    PubMed

    Locher, W

    2000-01-01

    A full program of medicine was taught at the Catholic University of Bamberg (founded 1648 as the Academia Ottonia) from 1773 through 1803. Within this period of time, the History of Medicine was taught from 1790 through 1795 by Johann Baptist Dominicus Fin(c)k. This paper elucidates how in this instance protestant universities served as models for catholic universities. Interestingly, it was not the medical faculty itself which developed an interest in teaching medical history. Rather, it was Adalbert Friedrich Marcus (1753-1816), physician-in-waiting of the Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Erthal and medical officer in the principality of Bamberg since June 22, 1790, who was charged by the Prince-Bishop with developing guidelines for medical education. The start of the History of Medicine lectures brought with it a heated dispute about an appropriate textbook. The discussion is evidence of a transition from historiography understood as an account of learned doctors of the past to a study of history in a modern sense. PMID:11068514

  20. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  1. The Beginnings of Pancreatology as a Field of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This review presents the history of discoveries concerning the pancreas. In antiquity and the Middle Ages knowledge about the anatomy of the pancreas was very limited and its function was completely unknown. Significant progress was first made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Johann Georg Wirsüng, the prosector of the University of Padua, discovered the main pancreatic duct, and Giovanni Santorini discovered the accessory duct. Regnier de Graaf was the first to perform pancreatic exocrine studies, and Paul Langerhans's 1869 discovery of pancreatic islets was the first step toward recognizing the pancreas as an endocrine gland. The twentieth century brought the discovery of insulin and other pancreatic hormones. To date, histochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry enabled the discovery of five cell types with identified hormonal products in adult human pancreatic islets. Twentieth-century pancreatic studies led to crucial advances in scientific knowledge and were recognized, among other things, with seven Nobel Prizes. The first of these went to Ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his work on the physiology of digestion. The most recent was awarded to Günter Blobel in 1999 for discovering signaling mechanisms that govern the transport and localization of proteins within pancreatic acinar cells. PMID:26180777

  2. A Marble Embryo: Meanings of a Portrait from 1900

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Portraits of scientists use attributes of discovery to construct identities; portraits that include esoteric accessories may fashion identities for these too. A striking example is a marble bust of the anatomist Wilhelm His by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner. Made in 1900, it depicts the founder of modern human embryology looking down at a model embryo in his right hand. This essay reconstructs the design and viewing of this remarkable portrait in order to shed light on private and public relations between scientists, research objects and audiences. The bust came out of a collaboration to model the face of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach and embodies a shared commitment to anatomical exactitude in three dimensions. His’s research agendas and public character explain the contemplative pose and unprecedented embryo model, which he had laboriously constructed from material a midwife supplied. The early contexts of display in the His home and art exhibitions suggest interpretive resources for viewers and hence likely meanings. Seffner’s work remains exceptional, but has affinities to portraits of human embryologists and embryos produced since 1960. Embryo images have acquired such controversial prominence that the model may engage us more strongly now than it did exhibition visitors around 1900. PMID:22606754

  3. [Techniques of mediation. Chemistry as a combination of work, teaching and research: the case of J. F. A. Göttling].

    PubMed

    Frercks, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Atypical career of a chemist in Germany around 1800 consisted of being trained as an apothecary, followed by an occupation as a professor at a university or another institution of higher education. These conditions deeply influenced the concept and the practice of chemistry as a science. Johann Friedrich August Göttling is an intriguing example for merging education and daily duties of teaching with the self-image of a scientific chemist. He linked chemical teaching, work, and research by using different hybrid media, such as the Almanach oder Taschenbuch für Scheidekünstler und Apotheker, a stove specifically designed for the narrow student's room, portable laboratories, a pharmaceutical boarding school and textbooks. This allowed him to practice three different forms of chemistry as a science. A "socio-epistemological diagram" of German chemistry around 1800 shows that these forms neatly corresponded to the then predominant three-level epistemology. In particular, the concept of a chemical fact served to link pharmaceutical practice with teaching practice, while granting only the chemistry done by professors the status of a science. PMID:19244834

  4. [Photoeffects, Einstein's light quanta and the history of their acceptance].

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, Karl Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    It is generally supposed, that the discovery of the efficacy-quantum by Planck was the impetus to Einstein's hypothesis of lightquanta. With its help Einstein could explain the external light-electrical effect. But even years before Einstein had worked at the photoeffect and already made experiments on it. For that reason the article gives a short survey about the history of the lightelectric effects. Lenard's basical work about the release of the photoelectrons is dealt with in detail, without which Einstein would scarcely have found his lightquanta. Furthermore it is shown how difficult it was for the physicists to give up--at least partially--the traditional view of the undulation-nature of light, and how they searched to explain the great energies of the photoelectrons. On the other side it is set forth how Einstein's formula of lightquanta was gradually confirmed. The tragical development of Einstein's personal relations with Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard are briefly described. Stark was one of the few who supported Einstein's ideas at the beginning. Only with the Compton-effect, which could only be quantitatively interpreted by means of lightquanta and the special theory of relativity 1923, the way was free for the general acceptance of the lightquanta. Einstein did not agree to the obtained dualism of undulation and corpuscle; he had a different solution in mind about the fusion of the two forms of appearance of light. PMID:17338401

  5. Ionization balance in EBIT and tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, N. J.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Crosby, D.; Silver, J. D.; Rainnie, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The equilibrium state in tokamak core plasmas has been studied using the relative intensities of resonance x-ray lines, for example Lyα (H-like), "w" (He-like), and "q" (Li-like) from test ions such as Ar+15, Ar+16, and Ar+17. A full spatial analysis involves comparison of the line intensities with ion diffusion calculations, including relevant atomic rates. A zero-dimensional model using a global ion loss rate approximation has also been demonstrated by comparison with the data collected from a Johann configuration spectrometer with a charged coupled device (CCD) detector. Since the lines are nearly monoenergetic, their intensities are independent of the instrument sensitivity and are directly proportional to the ion abundances. This method has recently been applied to Ar in the Oxford electron beam ion trap (EBIT) with a beam energy in the range 3-10 keV. Taking into account the cross sections for monoenergetic electron collisions and polarization effects, model calculations agree with the observed line ratios at 4.1 keV beam energy. This work will be expanded to provide nomograms of ionization state versus line intensity ratios as a function of EBIT beam energy.

  6. A brief history of mastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: To describe to the new generation of otologists the origins of mastoidectomy as well as the difficulties our predecessors encountered and the solutions they devised to improve otologic surgery. Method: Retrospective literature review-based study. Results: Before the mid-19th century, mastoidectomy was performed only sporadically and in most cases as a desperate attempt to save the lives of people suffering from complications of infectious otitis. The drainage of acute abscesses became a common procedure at the beginning of the 20th century, within the pre-antibiotic era. The first documented surgical incision to drain an infected ear was described by the French physician Ambroise Paré in the 16th century. The credit for performing the first mastoidectomy for the removal of purulent secretions went to Jean-Louis Petit. Mastoidectomies were normally performed to treat infections. However, mastoidectomies were also carried out for other purposes, particularly for the treatment of deafness and tinnitus, during various periods. Sir Charles Ballance credited Johannes Riolanus with recommending mastoidectomy for the treatment of tinnitus. William Wilde began the era of modern mastoidectomy with his introduction of the eponymous retroauricular incision. Conclusion: Mastoidectomy has evolved significantly throughout its history. Improvements in mastoidectomy have relied on the introduction of more elaborate surgical procedures, especially the advances in surgical equipment during the last century. Mastoidectomy continues to be a life-saving surgical procedure. PMID:25992009

  7. 'Columbus's Method of Determining Longitude'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Keith A.

    I am pleased to see that, in light of my critical evaluation, Arne B. Molander has reevaluated a number of points in his analysis, and has revised his proposals of Columbus's alleged use of the Moon for determining his longitude. However, it is disappointing that these latest proposals again do not seem to have been thoroughly considered.Since it is clear that Columbus's East which usually can be done whether or not the conjunction itself is visible. However, it is entirely unclear how such an observation can be converted into a longitude. Reading attentively, we can glean a few details of this process: only a single observation is required, since some positions are computed within a few hours of the purported observation; and Columbus apparently used the Ephemerides of Johann Miiller, since errors in that ephemeris are alleged to have caused errors in the computed longitude. In his 1992 paper, Mr Molander asserted that timing of the conjunction is not required by this method, because Columbus somehow utilizes the Moon's daily topocentric motion. But how this datum is utilized, and in fact all details of the longitude determination itself, are entirely obscure.

  8. A Documentary History of the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waff, C. B.; Kollerstrom, N.

    2001-12-01

    The discovery of the planet Neptune by Johann Gottfried Galle on 23 September 1846 near the positions predicted by Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and John Couch Adams has been justly considered by many the greatest achievement of Newtonian celestial mechanics. Aside from communications to societies and journals and a selection of letters published shortly after the discovery by British Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy, however, contemporary documents (especially letters) concerning the discovery have in large part remained unpublished and scattered in numerous archives in England, France, the United States, Germany, and elsewhere. Partially in response to the longtime disappearance and fortunate recent recovery of the Royal Greenwich Observatory file of documents on the discovery, the authors of this paper have formed the project of editing and annotating for publication a chronologically ordered collection of documents relating to the prediction, discovery, and orbit determination of Neptune. A lengthy introductory essay that would summarize research on the Neptune discovery that has been conducted by various historians would accompany such a collection. This paper will outline the criteria that have been used for selecting the documents that will be published in the edition and describe some of the preliminary associated research findings of the authors.

  9. Adam Politzer-Father of Modern Otology.

    PubMed

    Dhungat, J V Pai; Gore, Geeta

    2015-09-01

    Adam Politzer (1835-1920) was born in Alberti near the city of Budapest in Hungary. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna and obtained his Doctorate degree in 1859. Some of his teachers belonged to the famous second "Vienna School" such as Joseph Skoda, Karl Rokitansky, Von Hebra, Josef Hyrtil, Johann Von Oppolzer and famous physiologist Carl Ludwig -who took special interest in him and was influential in his subsequent career. Politzer showed unusual interest in diseases of the ear and started to work in Carl Ludwig's laboratory. His interest at that time was mainly the physics of the auditory system. He studied the innervations of the intrinsic muscles of the ear There he was the first to demonstrate that the innervations of the tensor tympani muscle was by trigeminal nerve and that of the stapedial muscle was by facial nerve. He studied the air movement in the Eustachian tube and variation of air pressure in the tympanic cavity by connecting two manometers- one placed in the external auditory canal meatus, and another in the pharynx. He showed valve near the opening into the middle ear which controls the process. It is usually closed to keep the bacteria and other things away from the mouth and nose. PMID:27608882

  10. The Wolffian roots of Kant's teleology.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Hein

    2013-12-01

    Kant's teleology as presented in the Critique of Judgment is commonly interpreted in relation to the late eighteenth-century biological research of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. In the present paper, I show that this interpretative perspective is incomplete. Understanding Kant's views on teleology and biology requires a consideration of the teleological and biological views of Christian Wolff and his rationalist successors. By reconstructing the Wolffian roots of Kant's teleology, I identify several little known sources of Kant's views on biology. I argue that one of Kant's main contributions to eighteenth-century debates on biology consisted in demarcating biology from metaphysics. Kant rejected Wolffian views on the hierarchy of sciences, according to which propositions specifying the functions of organisms are derived from theological truths. In addition, Kant argued that organic self-organization necessitates a teleological description in order to show that self-organization does not support materialism. By demarcating biology and metaphysics, Kant made a small yet important contribution to establishing biology as a science. PMID:23932232

  11. Dryander of Marburg and the first textbook of neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, W C; Ragen, W; Foster, R

    1990-03-01

    Born in Wetter, Germany, in 1500, Johannes Eichmann (Dryander) studied medicine and anatomy at the University of Paris from 1528 to 1534. In 1535, he was appointed professor of medicine at the University of Marburg. During the next year he held two public dissections, and in 1536 he was the author of the first text illustrating a Galenic dissection of the human brain. An expanded edition of this early book, the Anatomiae pars prior, was published in 1537. These texts represented an important transition from the dogma of medieval scholasticism to the precise observations of Vesalius. The books depicted the brain in eight figures, with four additional plates describing the skull, skull base, and cranial sutures. Detailed illustrations of the dura mater, cerebral cortex, and posterior fossa structures with clear, but inaccurate, relationship to the cranial nerves demonstrated Dryander's reliance on his own dissections. In 1542, he published a translated edition of Mundinus' anatomy. As was common at that time, the text plagiarized a portion of Vesalius' Tabulae sex, which resulted in the famous anatomist's anger. Despite this, Dryander continued to write on medical subjects as well as mathematics and astrology until his death in 1560. Because he was a progenitor of rational scientific thought, his earlier books represented an important advance in the progression to modern anatomic description and illustration. PMID:2181335

  12. Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  13. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  14. Applying X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectroscopy for Use as a High Temperature Plasma Diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Cao, Norman M; Mier Valdivia, Andrés M; Rice, John E

    2016-01-01

    X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information on high temperature plasmas; for example electron temperature and density can be inferred from line intensity ratios. By using a Johann spectrometer viewing the plasma, it is possible to construct profiles of plasma parameters such as density, temperature, and velocity with good spatial and time resolution. However, benchmarking atomic code modeling of X-ray spectra obtained from well-diagnosed laboratory plasmas is important to justify use of such spectra to determine plasma parameters when other independent diagnostics are not available. This manuscript presents the operation of the High Resolution X-ray Crystal Imaging Spectrometer with Spatial Resolution (HIREXSR), a high wavelength resolution spatially imaging X-ray spectrometer used to view hydrogen- and helium-like ions of medium atomic number elements in a tokamak plasma. In addition, this manuscript covers a laser blow-off system that can introduce such ions to the plasma with precise timing to allow for perturbative studies of transport in the plasma. PMID:27585305

  15. A Patient With Word Blindness in the Seventeenth Century.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Johann Jakob Wepfer (1620-1695), city physician in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, published two books on "apoplexy." He proposed new ideas about the events in the brain during such attacks, based on Harvey's theory of the circulation of the blood. Wepfer postulated extravasation of whole blood or serum in the brain, in opposition to the Galenic notion of blocked ventricles. His case histories are remarkably precise and untainted by interpretation. This allows the recognition of a patient with word blindness, who was also unable to read words written by himself. Unlike patients with pure "alexia without agraphia," he could not write complete sentences because of additional language defects, especially speech comprehension. Jules Dejerine (1849-1917) would, in 1892, not only describe a patient with the pure form of this syndrome (cécité verbale avec intégrité de l'écriture spontanée et sous dictée) but also provide an explanation of its anatomical basis. PMID:25774890

  16. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses several still unsettled and not systematically investigated questions concerning the situation of Jewish scientists, among them mathematicians, in the Republic of Weimar. Contemporary statements by the well-known leftist and liberal journalists Carl von Ossietzky (1932) and Rudolf Olden (1934) are used to describe the general political situation. A wide-spread feeling of a social and political crisis and changes and perturbations in international scientific communication provide explanatory background for the conditions within academia in the 1920s. A comparison of appointments of Jewish mathematicians to full professorships before and after World War I does not give significant differences. Attitudes of Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Bernstein, Richard Courant, Emil Julius Gumbel, Edmund Landau, Richard von Mises, Johann von Neumann and Adolf A. Fraenkel, but also of non-Jewish mathematicians such as Felix Klein, Walther von Dyck and Theodor Vahlen will be discussed, providing some unpublished material. One statement by Felix Klein (1920), which shows his undecided stance with respect to the problem of anti-Semitism, and an excerpt from Richard von Mises' diary (1933), where he reflects on his status as a Jewish mathematician and as a refugee, are particularly valuable as points of reference for necessary further research. PMID:18693641

  17. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles. PMID:15311436

  18. Clinical application of amniotic membranes on a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pardo, M E; Reyes Frías, M L; Ramos Durón, L E; Gutiérrez Salgado, E; Gómez, J C; Marín, M A; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The case of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with radiosterilised amniotic membranes is presented. The disorder is a congenital disease characterised by a poor desmosomal junction in the keratinocyte membrane. After proper donor screening, amnios were collected at Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (HCSAE), PEMEX and microbiological analysis was performed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FQUNAM, (Biology Dept. of the Chemistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico), before and after radiation sterilisation. Processing, packaging and sterilisation were performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, (National Nuclear Research Institute). The patient, a ten-year-old boy with severe malnutrition, extensive loss of skin and pseudomonad infection in the whole body, was treated with gentle debridement in a Hubbard bath. Later amnion application was performed with sterilised amnios by using two different processes, in one of which the amnion was sterilised with paracetic acid, preserved in glycerol, kindly donated by the German Institute for Tissue and Cell Replacement and applied by Dr. Johannes C. Bruck, IAEA visiting expert, and the other amnion was processed at ININ: air dried and sterilised by gamma radiation at dose of 30 kGy. After spontaneous epithelisation was successfully promoted for seven days, the pain was alleviated and mobility was improved in a few hours and the patient's general condition was so improved that in a month he was discharged. Unfortunately, because this disease is revertive and has malignant degeneration, the prognosis is not good. PMID:10853786

  19. Early volcanological research in the Vulkaneifel, Germany, the classic region of maar-diatreme volcanoes: the years 1774-1865

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Herbert; Lorenz, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The Vulkaneifel (Volcanic West Eifel) in the western part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany, played a major role in the early history of volcanology in general and especially so with respect to the recognition and volcanology of maar-diatreme volcanoes. In 1819, the volcano term "maar" was introduced into the scientific literature by Johann Steininger, a teacher from Trier (Treves) who established the Vulkaneifel as the type region for this kind of volcano. At that time, only a few pioneers—in the earliest days practically all of them were amateurs—had visited this part of western Central Europe in the late eighteenth and earliest nineteenth century. Despite many making important contributions to knowledge of volcanoes, not all were appreciated. In consequence, only in the second half of the twentieth century did new ideas and concepts concerning volcanism in general and phreatomagmatic activity in particular arise that were not previously presented by these pioneers. Their pathbreaking ideas have so far been mostly ignored, we feel, because of the old literature's limited availability. This paper tries to shed new light on these trailblazers. A selection of early geological maps of the Vulkaneifel and its neighbouring regions demonstrates the enormous advancements that had been achieved during those early days, to a large extent, in this part of Western Europe.

  20. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities. PMID:23025649

  1. [out of scope].

    PubMed

    Woitkowitz, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This article sheds light onto life and work of the German land surveyor, cartographer, astronomer, and mechanic Johannes Humelius (1518-1562), paying special attention to the situation of the University of Leipzig in the middle of the 16th century. At this scientific institution, the scholar Humelius--born in the imperial town of Memmingen and highly regarded by the emperor Charles V and by Melanchthon--assumed the main chair of mathematics in 1551, succeeding Georg Joachim Rheticus as professor on this position. Humelius became an intimate friend of the Saxon elector August and laid the foundations of cartography, land surveying and engineering of measurement instruments in the electorate of Saxony. The relations of Humelius to the important professor of Greek and Latin at the Leipzig University, Joachim Camerarius, deepened after his marriage to a daughter of Camerarius' in 1558. Not only with respect to astronomical topics, Camerarius apparently was an important partner for Humelius, who precisely observed the movement of planets and hence, critically opposed Copernican theories. Since Humelius did not publish his scientific results, his fame soon faded in later times. However, two scholars continued his research and reached unforgotten importance: in the area of cartography, his student and assistant Bartholomäus Scultetus, and in the area of astronomy, his indirect student Tycho Brahe. This is an example of the scientific importance of the University of Leipzig in the mid 16th century, and demonstrates its abilitiy to drive scientific momentum. PMID:18693643

  2. Delving Deeper into the Solar Dynamo Mechanism: Alpha Effect, Parity Selection and Large Scale Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D.

    2003-05-01

    Visible manifestations of the 22 year solar magnetic cycle have been the subject of study spanning centuries starting with the telescopic observations of sunspots by Johann Fabricius, Christoph Scheiner and Galileo Galilei in the early 1600s. Coupled with these observations of magnetic features on the solar surface, the advent of the field of helioseismology in recent years has made it possible to map large scale flows in the solar interior - believed to play a crucial role in sustaining the solar cycle. However, a complete understanding of the hydromagnetic dynamo mechanism that powers this solar cycle remains elusive. Here we report studies of the solar dynamo addressing some of the important unresolved questions regarding the nature and location of the alpha effect, solar magnetic parity selection and the role of large scale flows and their variation, with a goal to understand the exact means by which the Sun generates its magnetic cycle. This study was supported by NASA through SR&T grant NAG5-6110.

  3. Return of the living dead: Re-reading Pierre Flourens' contributions to neurophysiology and literature.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Sharman

    2013-01-01

    Historians of neurophysiology remember Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) for his experimental approach to nineteenth-century debates on cortical localization and, in particular, for his successful attacks on Frantz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810-19). Whereas Gall and his colleague, Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), posited correlations between features of the skull and brain development and claimed to have localized character traits, competencies and temperaments in specific cortical regions, Flourens advocated cerebral equipotentiality and provided empirical as well as philosophical grounds for his theories. Flourens has also been recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the cerebellum's role in the coordination of movement, the localization of a respiratory center in the medulla oblongata, the relationship between the semicircular canals and balance, the role of the periosteum in bone growth and regeneration, and finally, the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Less known to historians of neuroscience is the fact that Pierre Flourens was not only a neurophysiologist and Secrétaire Perpetuel of the French Académie des Sciences, he was also a member of the Académie Française, France's most prestigious literary academy. Examining Flourens' contributions as a writer and, at the same time, a prime target for criticism and caricature from journalists, yields a particularly interesting example of the problematic relations between different genres of science writing and their respective publics in mid-nineteenth-century France. PMID:24290264

  4. On the Use of Piezoelectric Sensors in Structural Mechanics: Some Novel Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Irschik, Hans; Krommer, Michael; Vetyukov, Yury

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper, a review on piezoelectric sensing of mechanical deformations and vibrations of so-called smart or intelligent structures is given. After a short introduction into piezoelectric sensing and actuation of such controlled structures, we pay special emphasis on the description of some own work, which has been performed at the Institute of Technical Mechanics of the Johannes Kepler University of Linz (JKU) in the last years. Among other aspects, this work has been motivated by the fact that collocated control of smart structures requires a sensor output that is work-conjugated to the input by the actuator. This fact in turn brings into the play the more general question of how to measure mechanically meaningful structural quantities, such as displacements, slopes, or other quantities, which form the work-conjugated quantities of the actuation, by means piezoelectric sensors. At least in the range of small strains, there is confidence that distributed piezoelectric sensors or sensor patches in smart structures do measure weighted integrals over their domain. Therefore, there is a need of distributing or shaping the sensor activity in order to be able to re-interpret the sensor signals in the desired mechanical sense. We sketch a general strategy that is based on a special application of work principles, more generally on displacement virials. We also review our work in the past on bringing this concept to application in smart structures, such as beams, rods and plates. PMID:22219679

  5. 'The pregnant women are here for the sake of the teaching institution': The lying-in hospital of Göttingen University, 1751 to c. 1830.

    PubMed

    Schlumbohm, J

    2001-01-01

    Drawing on the admission records, the medical casebooks and the publications of its director, this article explores how the University of Göttingen's maternity hospital achieved its three official goals: teaching medical students, training female midwives, and providing shelter for needy parturient women. Since educating medical men was the most important aim of the hospital, the paper particularly focuses on how the demands of instruction shaped day-to-day obstetrical practices, especially under the directorship of Professor Friedrich Benjamin Osiander (1792-1822). He was a keen advocate of the forceps, whereas the first director, Professor Johann Georg Roederer (1751-63), had taken a moderate, that is a much less interventionist, approach to obstetrics. Osiander avowedly was determined to subordinate the parturient women to the demands of the clinic and to treat them as 'living manikins'. In spite of that, there is evidence that the pregnant and parturient women, most of whom were unmarried and from the lower classes, made use of the lying-in hospital for their own purposes, and that sometimes they refused to play the role assigned to them. The link between the maternity hospital and the rise of the man-midwife and of 'scientific' obstetrics appears to have been particularly strong in the case of Göttingen and other German university hospitals, compared with lying-in hospitals in other countries where the link was more indirect. PMID:14524351

  6. [Thoracopagus symmetricus. On the separation of Siamese twins in the 10th century A. D. by Byzantine physicians].

    PubMed

    Geroulanos, S; Jaggi, F; Wydler, J; Lachat, M; Cakmakci, M

    1993-01-01

    The byzantine author, Leon Diakonos, mentions in 974/975 A.D. a pair of "siamese twins", e.g., a thoracopagus symmetricus. He had seen them personally several times in Asia Minor when they were about 30 years old. This pair is possibly the same that was "successfully" surgically separated after the death of one of the twins in the second half of the 10th century in Constantinople. This operation is mentioned by two historiographs, Leon Grammatikos and Theodoros Daphnopates. Although the second twin survived the operation, he died three days later. In spite of its lethal outcome, the operation left a long-lasting impression on the historians of that time and was even mentioned 150 years later by Johannes Skylitzes. Furthermore, the manuscript of Skylitzes, now in the library of Madrid, contains a miniature illuminating this operation. This is likely to be the earliest written report of a separation of siamese twins illustrating the high standard of byzantine medicine of that time. PMID:8307391

  7. The color of complexes and UV-vis spectroscopy as an analytical tool of Alfred Werner's group at the University of Zurich.

    PubMed

    Fox, Thomas; Berke, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Two PhD theses (Alexander Gordienko, 1912; Johannes Angerstein, 1914) and a dissertation in partial fulfillment of a PhD thesis (H. S. French, Zurich, 1914) are reviewed that deal with hitherto unpublished UV-vis spectroscopy work of coordination compounds in the group of Alfred Werner. The method of measurement of UV-vis spectra at Alfred Werner's time is described in detail. Examples of spectra of complexes are given, which were partly interpreted in terms of structure (cis ↔ trans configuration, counting number of bands for structural relationships, and shift of general spectral features by consecutive replacement of ligands). A more complete interpretation of spectra was hampered at Alfred Werner's time by the lack of a light absorption theory and a correct theory of electron excitation, and the lack of a ligand field theory for coordination compounds. The experimentally difficult data acquisitions and the difficult spectral interpretations might have been reasons why this method did not experience a breakthrough in Alfred Werner's group to play a more prominent role as an important analytical method. Nevertheless the application of UV-vis spectroscopy on coordination compounds was unique and novel, and witnesses Alfred Werner's great aptitude and keenness to always try and go beyond conventional practice. PMID:24983805

  8. [Malignancies in families of children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Graf, N; Breitenmoser, M; Jobke, A; Kaatsch, P

    1990-01-01

    We examined the frequency and kind of cancer in families with a child having a neoplasm at the Universitätskinderklinik Homburg/Saar, at the Universitätskinderklinik Freiburg and at the Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz. The following could be shown: 1. There is no difference in the distribution of various kinds of cancer in children, whether they have relatives with cancer or not. 2. It is necessary to examine the family history repeatedly to obtain an accurate documentation of familial cancer. 3. Cancer in familial members did occur in a third of all families on an average. 4. Independently of the diagnosis of the child, in most families only one additional family member did have cancer. 5. The majority of relatives with cancer are grandparents. 6. Cancer of the lung and of the breast are the most frequent kinds of neoplasms occurring in family members. 7. Comparing the most frequent kinds of neoplasms in family members in this study with the distribution of cancer in adults, it is obviously, that there is a higher percentage of leukemia and brain tumors in relatives of children with cancer than is expected. 8. Typical tumor constellations can be found in affected families like breast cancer and soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:2395314

  9. Charge order and frustrated magnetism in the orbitally-degenerate triangular metallic antiferromagnet AgNiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldea, Radu

    2008-03-01

    We explore the electronic ground state in the orbitally degenerate triangular metallic antiferromagnet AgNiO2. In high-resolution neutron diffraction we observe a structural transition below 365 K to a tripled unit cell in the triangular layers with a periodic arrangement of expanded and contracted NiO6 octahedra, naturally explained by a three-sublattice (√3 x√3) charge order pattern on the triangular lattice of Ni sites. Band-structure calculations suggest that charge order occurs in order to lift the orbital degeneracy and is favoured by the weak electron delocalization over local Jahn Teller distortions found in more insulating systems. An unusual magnetic order is observed at low temperatures with only one third of sites (the electron-rich Ni sites) carrying a magnetic moment arranged in an unexpected collinear stripe order pattern on an antiferromagnetic triangular lattice. Possible mechanisms stabilizing the observed ground state will be discussed. E. Wawrzy'nska, R. Coldea, E.M. Wheeler, I.I. Mazin, M.D. Johannes, T. Sörgel, M. Jansen, R.M. Ibberson, P.G. Radaelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 157204 (2007). We acknowledge support from EPSRC UK.

  10. The German Physical Society in the Third Reich: Local Conservatism between Co-optation and Autonomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler, Richard

    2006-05-01

    During the National Socialism regime the German Physical Society (GPS), like many other German professional organizations, faced difficult choices along the spectrum of co-optation into the Nazi power structure and autonomy from the regime. This paper examines several examples of the Society's actions which shown an seeking to maintain traditional disciplinary standards while at the same time selectively cooperating with some of the regime's expectations. The successful riposte to ardent Nazi Johannes Stark's effort to become GPS chair in 1933 showed that the GPS was able to assert its traditional disciplinary authority structure even in the face of efforts to subsume the Society under the leadership principle favored by the Nazis. The Society's later election of industrial physicist Carl Ramsauer showed the GPS emphsizing the strategic (also military) importance of physics--and also willing to accommodate the regime's demand for the exclusion of non-Aryans. Finally, the choices behind the GPS's awarding of its presitigious Max Planck Medal in the late 1930's and early 40's show that both achievement in physics and political considerations--favoring scientists sympathetic to the regime, avoiding those antagonistic to it--were taken into account. Taken together, these examples demonstrate a kind of ``local conservativism'' that was at some times at odds with Nazi ideology but which nevertheless avoided open confrontation and indeed selectively cooperated with the regime's agenda.

  11. BIM experiment module and its flight on MASER 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Per; Löfgren, Oscar; Huijser, Ron; Willemsen, Harry

    2005-08-01

    The Biology In Microgravity (BIM) experiment module was flown in microgravity during 6 minutes on the sounding rocket MASER 10 on May 2, 2005. Swedish Space Corporation, Dutch Space and CCM developed the BIM module under contract from the European Space Agency (ESA). Two cell biology experiments were flown in the BIM module: ACTIN, Role of microgravity on actin metabolism in mammalian cells. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Johannes Boonstra, University of Utrecht (NL). AMUSE, Influence of micrograviy on activation of NF-κB, a principal regulator of inflammation and immunity. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Maikel Peppelenbosch, University of Groningen (NL). The BIM experiments were performed in 48 experiment units containing culture chambers and liquid storage reservoirs with additives, which were added to the culture chambers during the microgravity period of six minutes. Cultures in microgravity and on a 1xg reference centrifuge on-board the module were activated simultaneously with a reference on-ground. The experiment units were prepared hours before launch and were integrated in late access insert systems. The flight system was installed in the module via a hatch. The ground system, with the reference experiment units, was placed in an incubator. During the flight, when microgravity was achieved, all actions were performed to activate and, just before end of microgravity, fixate the experiment samples. The thermal control and the centrifuge worked properly. Due to a hard landing the module was severely damaged, nevertheless almost all experiments could be saved.

  12. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets. PMID:19348354

  13. [Assessment of a Bullterrier bloodline in the temperament test of Lower Saxony--comparison with six dog breeds affected by breed specific legislation and a control group of Golden Retrievers].

    PubMed

    Ott, Stefanie; Schalke, Esther; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2009-04-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of section 11b TierSchG implies a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour in some bloodlines of Bullterriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Pitbull type dogs. This study aimed at finding out whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bullterrier bloodline. Dogs of this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th 2000. The Bullterriers' test results towards humans and environment were compared to those of 415 dogs affected by the legislation (Mittmann, 2002) and those of 70 Golden Retrievers (Johann, 2004) in order to detect possible differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. Of 38 Bullterriers, ten showed no aggressive behaviour towards humans and the environment. 27 dogs displayed visual or acoustic threats at most. Only one dog reacted by "biting or attacking with preceding threatening behaviour". Thus, according to the test guidelines, 37 dogs (97.37%) reacted appropriately in all test situations. Only one dog (2.63%) displayed inadequate agressive behaviour. No indication for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bullterrier bloodline was found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found when comparing Bullterriers and dogs of the two others studies concerning inadequate or disturbed aggressive towards humans and the environment. On the contrary, throughout the entire study the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately. PMID:19425313

  14. Speleothem Mg-isotope time-series data from different climate belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Richter, D. K.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Niedermayr, A.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Speleothem Mg-isotope time-series data from different climate belts Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Dieter Buhl(1), Detlev K. Richter (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (3), Andrea Niedermayr (1), Hubert B. Vonhof (4) , Jasper Wassenburg (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany (4) Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The Magnesium isotope proxy in Earth surface research is still underexplored. Recently, field and laboratory experiments have shed light on the complex suite of processes affecting Mg isotope fractionation in continental weathering systems. Magnesium-isotope fractionation in speleothems depends on a series of factors including biogenic activity and composition of soils, mineralogy of hostrock, changes in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios, water residence time in the soil and hostrock and disequilibrium factors such as the precipitation rate of calcite in speleothems. Furthermore, the silicate (here mainly Mg-bearing clays) versus carbonate weathering ratio depends on air temperature and rainfall amount, also influencing the soil biogenic activity. It must be emphasized that carbonate weathering is generally dominant, but under increasingly warm and more arid climate conditions, silicate weathering rates increase and release 26Mg-enriched isotopes to the soil water. Furthermore, as shown in laboratory experiments, increasing calcite precipitation rates lead to elevated delta26Mg ratios and vice versa. Here, data from six stalagmite time-series Mg-isotope records (Thermo Fisher Scientific Neptune MC-ICP-MS) are shown. Stalagmites

  15. BepiColombo mission to be presented to the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    After a competitive phase started in 2001, ESA has awarded Astrium the prime contract to build BepiColombo. The contract signature ceremony will take place in presence of the Prime Minister of Baden Württemberg (Germany), Dr. Guenther Oettinger, and will mark the kick-off of the industrial development of the spacecraft. BepiColombo will be launched in 2013. It consists of two spacecraft - an orbiter for planetary investigation, led by ESA, and one for magnetospheric studies, led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The satellite duo will reach Mercury in 2019 after a six-year journey towards the inner Solar System, to make the most extensive and detailed study of Mercury ever attempted. The press event will feature a thorough presentation of the mission and its objectives, as well as the technical challenges that Astrium will have to address. Such challenges derive from the difficulty of reaching, surviving and operating in the harsh environment of a planet so close to Sun, making of BepiColombo one of the most complex long-term planetary projects undertaken by ESA so far. Media interested to attend are invited to register by the reply form attached below. Visit of Prime Minister Guenther Oettinger and BepiColombo Contract Signature Event programme 18 January 2008, h 10:30 Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany Claude-Dornier-Straße, 88090 Immenstaad Building 8, Room "Meersburg" 10:30 Check-in 11:00 Welcome and introduction, Uwe Minne, Astrium, Director of Earth Observation and Science, Head of Friedrichshafen Site 11:05 BepiColombo in the context of the ESA Science Programme, Jacques Louet, ESA Head of Science Projects Departments 11:10 BepiColombo's scientific objectives, Johannes Benkhoff, ESA, BepiColombo Project Scientist 11:20 The BepiColombo mission, Jan van Casteren, ESA, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:30 BepiColombo's technical challenges, Rainer Best, Astrium, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:40 Q&A 12:00 Buffet lunch 13:00 Arrival of Prime

  16. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  17. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Bohemian (Jesuit) provinces, mainly in Vienna and Neisse (the present Nysa in Silesia, Poland), but no traces of further astronomical activity have survived, if they ever existed. The fourth article, by Hans Gaab, is a very thoroughly researched biography of Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725), an merchant turned astronomer from Nuremberg. Wurzelbau started his activities at Christoph Eimmart's (the director of the painters' academy in Nuremberg) private observatory, and his first published work deals with observations of the great comet of 1680. Furthermore, he observed solar eclipses, Mercury transits, and determined the geographical latitude of Nuremberg. The article also contains a detailed description of Wurzelbau's observatory and its instruments. The fifth paper, by Klaus-Dieter Herbst, deals with Gottfried Kirch's idea of founding an astronomical society - being a vehicle to publishing astronomical observations. Kirch (1639-1710) was a well-known astronomer and calendar manufacturer. Around 1700, Kirch was appointed first astronomer at the Brandenburg society of sciences, and director of the observatory that was to be established with the new Berlin Academy. Herbst shows that Kirch's religious attitude that converged on pietism was a driving force to establish a scientific society. However, the final failure of such a project is due to the emergence of the scientific journal Acta Eruditorum, issued since 1682 in Leipzig, which could serve as an outlet for the publication of astronomical data by Kirch and others, thus fulfilling an essential task of the projected academy. Kirch's occupation with the composition of calendars, which took most of his time, was another reason. The following three shorter articles deal with 19th century astronomy. Peter Brosche describes an early visual photometer employed by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1745-1801) in Dresden, Alberto Meschiari edits and comments letters by Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) to the physicist Gerbi in

  18. Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Spötl, C.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-04-01

    Water chemistry and isotope data from a five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave, NW Germany Sylvia Riechelmann (1), Andrea Schröder-Ritzrau (2), Christoph Spötl (3), Dana F.C. Riechelmann (4), Detlev K. Richter (1), Adrian Immenhauser (1) (1) Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum, Germany (2) Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany (3) Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck, Institute for Geology and Palaeontology, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria (4) Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Geography, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 21, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Monitoring of cave environments is essential to understand the processes taking place in the soil, karst and cave zone and the interpretation of speleothem archives is increasingly based on monitoring data. A five year monitoring programme of Bunker Cave (NW Germany) included monthly sampling of rain, soil and drip water. The delta18O ratios of the drip waters reflect the mean annual delta18O composition of rain water. The weak seasonal pattern in drip water delta18O composition is overlain by a trend to increasing values (approximately 0.3‰ in the monitoring period between 2007 and 2011). Up to the year 2009, rain water delta18O values show an increasing trend. In 2010, the lowest yearly mean delta18O ratio of rain water (-9.20‰) was observed, probably due to cool summer air temperatures and significant amounts of snow fall during winter months 2010. A decrease of the drip water delta18O in the future will expectedly allow to stack both data series and to identify time delay between rain water and drip water series and allow for the quantification of the approximate transfer time of rain water from soil surface into the cave. The Mg2+-concentration of one drip site correlates positively with drip rate. High Mg2+-concentrations occur especially after dry periods (low

  19. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  20. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  1. History of the Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffel, H. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Munich-Maisach-Fürstenfeldbruck Geomagnetic Observatory is one of the observatories with the longest recordings of the geomagnetic field. It started with hourly measurements on 1 August 1840. The founder of the observatory in Munich was Johann von Lamont (1805-1879), the Director of the Royal Bavarian Astronomical Observatory. He had been stimulated to build his own observatory by the initiative of the Göttingen Magnetic Union founded in 1834 by Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) and Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855). Before 1840 fewer than five observatories existed; the most prominent ones were those in London and Paris. At the beginning Lamont used equipment delivered by Gauss in Göttingen, but soon started to build instruments of his own design. Among them was a nonmagnetic theodolite which allowed precise geomagnetic measurements to be made also in the field. During the 1850s Lamont carried out geomagnetic surveys and produced geomagnetic maps for Germany and many other European countries. At the end of the nineteenth century accurate geomagnetic measurements in Munich became more and more disturbed by the magnetic stray fields from electric tramways and industry. During this period the quality of the data suffered and the measurements had to be interrupted several times. After a provisional solution in Maisach, a village 25 km west of Munich, a final solution could be found in the vicinity of the nearby city of Fürstenfeldbruck. Here the measurements started again on 1 January 1939. Since the 1980s the observatory has been part of INTERMAGNET, an organization providing almost real-time geomagnetic data of the highest quality.

  2. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  3. Cell complexes through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klette, Reinhard

    2000-10-01

    The history of cell complexes is closely related to the birth and development of topology in general. Johann Benedict Listing (1802 - 1882) introduced the term 'topology' into mathematics in a paper published in 1847, and he also defined cell complexes for the first time in a paper published in 1862. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 - 1855) is often cited as the one who initiated these ideas, but he did not publish either on topology or on cell complexes. The pioneering work of Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783) on graphs is also often cited as the birth of topology, and Euler's work was cited by Listing in 1862 as a stimulus for his research on cell complexes. There are different branches in topology which have little in common: point set topology, algebraic topology, differential topology etc. Confusion may arise if just 'topology' is specified, without clarifying the used concept. Topological subjects in mathematics are often related to continuous models, and therefore quite irrelevant to computer based solutions in image analysis. Compared to this, only a minority of topology publications in mathematics addresses discrete spaces which are appropriate for computer-based image analysis. In these cases, often the notion of a cell complex plays a crucial role. This paper briefly reports on a few of these publications. This paper is not intended to cover the very lively progress in cell complex studies within the context of image analysis during the last two decades. Basically it stops its historic review at the time when this subject in image analysis research gained speed in 1980 - 1990. As a general point of view, the paper indicates that image analysis contributes to a fusion of topological concepts, the geometric and the abstract cell structure approach and point set topology, which may lead towards new problems for the study of topologies defined on geometric or abstract cell complexes.

  4. Representing the heavens: Galileo and visual astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M. G.; van Helden, A.

    1992-06-01

    The authors present the following conclusion. Galileo was not alone in his ambivalent attitude toward visual communication in astronomy. His attitude was shared by his contemporaries. In fact, the use of visual evidence is surprisingly rare until after 1640. And when astronomers finally began using pictorial evidence, they did so with an explicit commitment to representing the heavens faithfully and accurately. Although Francesco Fontana was the first to publish an astronomical book in which pictorial information was central, it is in the work of Johannes Hevelius (1611 - 1687), a university trained brewer in the Polish city of Gdansk, that we see the new visual dimension of telescopic astronomy best exemplified. Hevelius's Selenographia sive lunae descriptio of 1647 contained figures of forty different lunar phases, four views of the full moon, eighty-three diagrams, and several illustrations of his equipment and the appearances of other heavenly bodies. What is even more interesting, Hevelius made his own telescopes and, he himself engraved virtually every illustration - diagram or picture - in the book, thus combining the roles of the natural philosopher and the lowly artisan. Hevelius's approach to representing the heavens was so different from Galileo's that he utterly misunderstood the purpose behind the views of the moon shown in Sidereus nuncius. Such a completely wrongheaded judgment of Galileo's instruments and his ability as an observer and draftsman shows just how different the worlds of these two men were. When, within the range of media available to them, Hevelius and others chose to make the visual component central in communicating their observations, astronomy became a visual science.

  5. Fourth class of convex equilateral polyhedron with polyhedral symmetry related to fullerenes and viruses

    PubMed Central

    Schein, Stan; Gayed, James Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The three known classes of convex polyhedron with equal edge lengths and polyhedral symmetry––tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral––are the 5 Platonic polyhedra, the 13 Archimedean polyhedra––including the truncated icosahedron or soccer ball––and the 2 rhombic polyhedra reported by Johannes Kepler in 1611. (Some carbon fullerenes, inorganic cages, icosahedral viruses, geodesic structures, and protein complexes resemble these fundamental shapes.) Here we add a fourth class, “Goldberg polyhedra,” which are also convex and equilateral. We begin by decorating each of the triangular facets of a tetrahedron, an octahedron, or an icosahedron with the T vertices and connecting edges of a “Goldberg triangle.” We obtain the unique set of internal angles in each planar face of each polyhedron by solving a system of n equations and n variables, where the equations set the dihedral angle discrepancy about different types of edge to zero, and the variables are a subset of the internal angles in 6gons. Like the faces in Kepler’s rhombic polyhedra, the 6gon faces in Goldberg polyhedra are equilateral and planar but not equiangular. We show that there is just a single tetrahedral Goldberg polyhedron, a single octahedral one, and a systematic, countable infinity of icosahedral ones, one for each Goldberg triangle. Unlike carbon fullerenes and faceted viruses, the icosahedral Goldberg polyhedra are nearly spherical. The reasoning and techniques presented here will enable discovery of still more classes of convex equilateral polyhedra with polyhedral symmetry. PMID:24516137

  6. 400 years astronomical observatory in Jena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    ``Nam cum aliquod observatorium mihi comparaverim, ... '': ``As I have equiped my observatory now'', Georg Limnaeus, professor of mathematics in Jena from 1588 to 1611, wrote on 24 April 1598, ``I have decided to make friends with some experts by letter; I know from your Prodromus that you are one of them''. The letter was addressed to Johannes Kepler and was related to his first work about the ``Mysterium cosmographicum''. Kepler sent some copies of his paper to Galileo Galilei, Tycho Brahe, Reimar Ursus and also to Limnaeus in Jena from the Frankfurt Book Fair in 1597. Limnaeus gave him - apart from the words expressing praise but which actually were meaningless concerning Kepler's ideas - the information about Brahe Kepler had asked for and which may have promoted his move to Prague. The above mentioned observatory is considered to be the first one in Jena. Astronomy had already been established as a subject since the establishment of the ``Hohe Schule'' in 1548 and since the foundation of the university ten years later. Nothing is known about the instruments and the location of the observatory. Limnaeus did not belong to the taxpaying house-owners of which there exists an index; he obviously rented a flat. To all appearances the correspondence announced was not continued either. For the following centuries the professors Heinrich Hoffmann, Erhard Weigel, Georg Albrecht and Georg Erhard Hamberger are named in the literature running the observatory in Jena. The ``Herzogliche Sternwarte'' fitted out under Goethe's overall supervision in 1813 eventually developed into the university institute of today.

  7. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies. PMID:25607287

  8. [Nutrition and individual defense--historical considerations].

    PubMed

    Schadewaldt, H

    1991-03-01

    The first scientific understandings on the value of nutrition and the assimilation of food, in the Greek language "metabole" (metabolism), are published in the Corpus Hippocraticum. But the conception of metabolism was introduced in scientific literature not earlier than 1839 by Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) and 1842 by Justus von Liebig (1803-1873). The antique ideas were completed in the 17th century by the theory of ferments, introduced by the iatro-chemist Johann Baptist van Helmont (1577-1644), and the Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) could proof the existence of such processes in the living organism by animal experiments in 1776. Then Schwann could discover in the gastric juice a substance in 1835 which he called "pepsin". In the time of the voyages of discovery new, not yet known malnutritions on the ships were known as scurvy, beriberi and in the northern countries rickets. Then it became clear that not only the three groups of food, but also supplementary materials, known in 1912 as vitamines by Casimir Funk (1884-1967), could develop determined effects. The starvation in the first and the second world war showed clearly, that deterioration of food supply diminished the condition of immunity. Failed food experiments with gelatin, synthetically produced citric acid and the discussions of malnutrition diseases, based on a deficiency of zinc, of toddlers, are discussed as the malnutrition illness kwashiorkor in the third world. In conclusion a citation of the famous American physiologist Graham Lusk (1866-1932) is mentioned from the year 1906, who praised the scientific priority of the German medical research. PMID:2059290

  9. Government intervention in child rearing: governing infancy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day. PMID:20662168

  10. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  11. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  12. J. W. Goethe - poet engaged in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The famous German poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe (1749 - 1832) was a man of an outstanding interest for the Earth sciences. In the Czech geological dictionary his own biography remembers his frequent visits to the famous West Bohemian health resorts. In this region he was focusing his attention to the geological history, petrography and mineralogy, genesis of mineral water springs etc. Some of his studies were published. His geological points of view were not always correct (as seen from a recent knowledge) but his efforts to deepen studies of this territory cannot be forgotten. - In his rich correspondence with the count Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761 - 1838) - founder of the (nowadays) National Museum in Prague - the author of this article has recently discovered in the Prague archives a letter written just one week before the death of the poet. It is a confession of his deep relation especially to the region if West Bohemia where he found lot of enjoyment and new knowledge in the course of numerous visits and stays. - Goethe had the largest private collection of minerals in all of Europe (17800 rock samples). A mineral goethite has been named after him. - The Czech composer Václav Jan Tomášek (1774 - 1850) describing his visit paid to Goethe in Cheb (Eger) in 1822 remembers also mineralogical interest of the poet and his excursions to the region for collecting local minerals. The main reason for personal contact in this case was the art (Tomášek composed songs using Goethe's poems). But Tomášek described also his frequent talks on science with the famous Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848) in Karlsbad (1822). From other sources a common stay of Berzelius, Goethe and Sternberg in Marienbad (also 1822) is reported.

  13. Analysis of material entrainment with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and simulation of the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach torrent - Austria, 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, Christian; Schraml, Klaus; Moser, Markus; Hübl, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2013, a disastrous debris-flow destroyed several houses and infrastructure facilities on the fan of the Sattelbach catchment located in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, Salzburg (Austria). Fortunately, no damage to persons could be registered. The debris flow was triggered by shallow landslides within the upper catchment, mobilizing in total approximately 4,000 m3 of debris. However, the volume of the debris-flow event at the fan was documented with 12,000 m3, whereas a maximum discharge of 380 m3/s was estimated near the fan apex. Witnesses reported only one big wave passing the fan area, which seems to be out of character for a typical Alpine debris-flow event showing such high discharge. For the later, one would suppose multiple smaller waves. Due to the fact of evolving material entrainment resulted in one big wave, the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach catchment was chosen as case study to analyze mass bulking. For this reason, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to establish a digital terrain model (DTM) of the whole reach after the event. This terrain model was then compared to a LiDAR DTM, showing the topographical situation before the event. Based on the analyzed mass bulking along the whole reach, numerical simulations were performed using the DAN3D (Dynamic Analysis of Landslides in Three Dimensions) code. The DAN3D model allows selection between different rheologies as well as the implementation of entrainment. The study will show the applicability of UAV's in small and steep catchments and will test DAN 3D a debris-flow simulation tool with an implemented mass-bulking model.

  14. Lomonosov, the discovery of Venus's atmosphere, and the eighteenth-century transits of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Sheehan, William

    2012-03-01

    The discovery of Venus's atmosphere has been widely attributed to the Russian academician M.V. Lomonosov from his observations of the 1761 transit of Venus from St. Petersburg. Other observers at the time also made observations that have been ascribed to the effects of the atmosphere of Venus. Though Venus does have an atmosphere one hundred times denser than the Earth's and refracts sunlight so as to produce an 'aureole' around the planet's disk when it is ingressing and egressing the solar limb, many eighteenth century observers also upheld the doctrine of cosmic pluralism: believing that the planets were inhabited, they had a preconceived bias for believing that the other planets must have atmospheres. A careful re-examination of several of the most important accounts of eighteenth century observers and comparisons with the observations of the nineteenth century and 2004 transits shows that Lomonosov inferred the existence of Venus's atmosphere from observations related to the 'black drop', which has nothing to do with the atmosphere of Venus. Several observers of the eighteenth-century transits, includ-ing Chappe d'Auteroche, Bergman, and Wargentin in 1761 and Wales, Dymond, and Rittenhouse in 1769, may have made bona fide observations of the aureole produced by the atmosphere of Venus. Therefore, it appears that several observers-but not Lomonosov-should receive credit for first detecting the aureole due to refraction of sunlight by the atmosphere of Venus during a transit. This crucial observation occurred almost three decades before Johann Schroeter independently demonstrated the existence of the atmosphere of Venus from his analysis of extensions of the semicircle of light of the planet near inferior conjunction, which are produced by back-scattering of light by aerosol-sized particles.

  15. The Kepler Mission and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; DeVore, E.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2008-05-01

    Johannes Kepler was one of Galileo's contemporaries, publishing New Astronomy defining his first two laws, nearly 400 years ago, in 1609. It is a fitting tribute that the Kepler Mission launches in 2009. Kepler continued his studies of motion and made observations of satellites of Jupiter, and published his third law. We now recognize Kepler's laws as 1. Planets move in elliptical; 2. The planets move such that the line between the Sun and the Planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time no matter where in the orbit; and 3. The square of the period of the orbit of a planet is proportional to the mean distance from the Sun cubed. Kepler's laws were deduced empirically from the motions of the planet Mars in the early 17th century, before Newton deduced the law of gravity and his laws of motion. The Kepler Mission, a NASA Discovery mission, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Results from this mission will allow us to place our solar system within the continuum of planetary systems in the Galaxy. The Mission Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program has developed a Night Sky Network (NSN) outreach kit, Shadows and Silhouettes. This NSN kit is used by amateur astronomers at school and public observing events to illustrate a transit, and explain eclipses.

  16. Transits Of Venus: 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874, 1882, 2004, And 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2012-01-01

    Transits of Venus are exceedingly rare predictable astronomical events, with only six having been observed since Jeremiah Horrox corrected Johannes Kepler's Rudolphine Tables and observed the transit of 1639. Edmond Halley's 1716 method of finding the size and scale of the Solar System and thus of the Universe led to hundreds of 18th-century and 19th-century transit-of-Venus expeditions for each event. I discuss the history and importance of the transit observations, and how spacecraft observations of the 1999 transit of Mercury, repeated at the 2003 and 2006 transits, led to the solution of the black-drop effect problem that had prevented Halley's method from reaching its desired accuracy and thus solution of the noble problem of astronomy to find the size and scale of the solar system. Other spacecraft observations of the 2004 transit of Venus have led to an analysis of how Venus's atmosphere becomes visible for about 25 minutes before second contact and after third contact, and links with prior historical claims, mostly invalid, to have discovered Venus's atmosphere at transits. Total-solar-irradiance spacecraft observations at the 2004 Venus transit link to exoplanet discoveries with NASA's aptly named Kepler Mission and ESA's CoRoT. I further link previous transit observations to planned observations for the June 5/6, 2012, Venus transit and the May 9, 2016, Mercury transit, together providing a historical basis for 22nd-century astronomers preparing to observe the December 10, 2117, Venus transit. My observations at the 2004 and 2012 transits of Venus were and will be supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. My solar observations were supported in part by NASA grant NNG04GK44G for work with the TRACE spacecraft and NASA Marshall grant NNX10AK47A and planetary work supported in part by NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy.

  17. Mechatronics 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, Rudolf; Jakoby, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    Following the 2010 conference held at ETH Zurich, the 13th renowned International Mechatronics Forum Conference--Mechatronics 2012--took place from 17-19 September 2012. Held in Austria for the first time, it was jointly organized by the Johannes Kepler University and the Austrian Center for Competence in Mechatronics (ACCM). In accordance with the Local and International Organizing Committee, we opened new avenues to make this conference more attractive, particularly to industry. Mini-symposia were set up devoted to specific topics. This proved successful in attracting certain scientific communities and groups and gave the conference a broader scope and a more colourful appearance. Another successful attempt was to involve industry more strongly than in previous conferences. The conference's character was influenced by the approach and the specific mechatronic problems of the Linz area in industry, teaching and research. This concept of showcasing the local situation in mechatronics in these areas could be valuable for the future conferences; the international mechatronics community could get an overview about the different interpretations of mechatronics and could form informed opinions about different approaches. Around 150 lecturers from 23 countries around the world covered a broad spectrum of approaches to mechatronic problem solutions, of new technologies, scientific and engineering methods and methodologies. Authors of conference papers in the area of sensors and measurement technology were invited to submit extended papers for publication in this special feature in Measurement Science and Technology , which were all fully peer-reviewed. The topics of the papers that are now collected in this special feature illustrate this variety, from the application of measurement systems to microsystems and algorithms. We are grateful to the editors of Measurement Science and Technology for the opportunity to provide a glimpse of the results presented at the conference

  18. AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and an established contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, "AstroCappella 2.0", has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. Full information can be found at http://www.astrocappella.com. Since the release of AstroCappella 2.0, additional songs have been written for missions as diverse as Messenger ("Messenger to Mercury") and AIM ("Noctilucent Cloud"; with music video available on YouTube). Now, to commemorate IYA, and in collaboration with the Johannes Kepler Project, the Chromatics are continuing their mission to spread science through a cappella and a cappella through science by creating a new original song celebrating the discoveries of the telescope, from Galileo's first glimpse of mountains and craters on the moon to the detection of planets around nearby stars and the expansion of the Universe."

  19. Kepler's Supernova Studied Through the Combined Abilities of NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a new star in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spritzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. The CXO data show regions of very hot gas. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. There have been six known supernovas in our Milky Way over the past 1,000 years. Kepler's is the only one in which astronomers do not know what type of star exploded. By combining information from all three Great Observatories, astronomers may find the clues they need. Project management for both the HST and CXO programs is the responsibility of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  20. The Knowledge of Celestial Things: Using the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks to Plan Observations and Believe the Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Caldwell, D. A.; Jenkins, J. M.; Bryson, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Gazis, P.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Haas, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    "... the ways by which men arrive at knowledge of the celestial things are hardly less wonderful than the nature of these things themselves" - Johannes Kepler As an introduction to the understanding of Kepler data products, we have prepared the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks, and make them available through STScI's MAST and Kepler's GO web sites to all who are interested in planning, publishing, or reviewing Kepler observations. The Kepler Mission is designed to detect transits of Earth-size planets orbiting in the "habitable zone” of 9

  1. The first published chart of the Andromeda Nebula, 1667

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    2014-06-01

    The Parisian astronomer Ismaél Bullialdus (1605-1694) is known for his planetary tables (Astronomia philolaica, 1645) based on a geometrical approximation to the Keplerian ellipse, and for his long correspondence with the Danzig astronomer Johannes Hevelius and with Christiaan Huygens. Bullialdus became interested in the nascent study of variable stars, and in 1667 published a small pamphlet with two contributions, one on Mira Ceti and the other on the nebula in Andromeda. He found a manuscript portraying the nebula with the date 1428, and because Tycho Brahe never mentioned a nebula in Andromeda, Bullialdus conjectured that this object was a variable that had disappeared in the intervening era. “We conclude this since this conglomeration was observed neither by Hipparchus nor anyone else in antiquity, nor in the previous age by Tycho, nor in the age of our forefathers like Bayer.” His publication included a handsome engraving of the image of Andromeda and the position of the nebula, its first printed chart. I recently acquired a copy of this rare pamphlet, Ad astronomos monita duo, and realized that the image matched a manuscript now in the Gotha Research Library, a 15th-century Latin version based on the work of the tenth-century Islamic astronomer, al-Sufi. The manuscript does not carry the name of al-Sufi, and hence Bullialdus had no real clue about its origin or its date of composition. Paul Kunitzsch (The Arabs and the Stars, 1989, Article XI, “The Astronomer Abu ’l-Husayn al-Sufi”) has identified a group of eight “Latin al-Sufi” manuscripts from this period, scattered in European libraries, but only the one now in Gotha is an exact match to Bullialdus’ engraving. The al-Sufi manuscript was given to the Gotha Library in 1798 by Duke Ernst II of Saxonia-Gotha-Altenburg, who must have acquired it from France sometime in the 18th century.

  2. Celebrating the Year of Science 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. L.; Scotchmoor, J.; O'Grady, R.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of organizations representing hundreds of thousands of scientists are preparing for a year-long celebration to engage the public and improve understanding about the nature and processes of science and its value to society. Integration of efforts is led by the Coalition on the Public Understanding of Science (COPUS: www.copusproject.org), a grassroots effort linking universities, scientific societies, science centers and museums, advocacy groups, media, educators, businesses, and industry in a peer network. A Year of Science 2009 website at www.yearofscience2009.org to coordinate and promote 2009 activities and provide for the sharing of resources includes activities and kits, a searchable database of events, an interactive map of events, a blog, chat rooms, a document library, a press room, and links to content in the Understanding Science website - www.understandingscience.org. Opportunities to mark 2009 as the anniversary of seminal events in the history of science include: the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin as well as of Abraham Lincoln, founder of the National Academy of Sciences; the 150th anniversary of the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species; and the 400th anniversary of the publication of Johannes Kepler's first two Laws of Planetary Motion. We are collaborating with communications experts on framing scientific communications most effectively for general public understanding. A general public with an understanding and appreciation of the nature of science is a prerequisite for a skilled workforce able to compete in a knowledge-based global economy, able to make informed decisions about relative risks such as medical treatments, natural hazards, and other quality of life factors, and prepared to engage in public policy discussions involving science and technology. An insufficient understanding of science leads to exclusion from much of the discourse of modern society, an inability to distinguish science from non

  3. Kepler's Cosmos And The Lathe Of Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum, published in 1596, presented his vision of the geometrical structure of the solar system. Kepler sought to account for the number of planets, thought to be six, as well as their orbital radii. He assigned orbits to the planets in three-dimensional space. Kepler proposed that the planets move on six spheres inscribed within and circumscribed around the five platonic solids. How did he arrive at his model? By his own account reported in the book, the central idea occurred to him while giving a lecture about planetary conjunctions. But was this revelation the origin of the model? In this presentation, we discuss the artistic, scientific and mathematical environment in which Kepler was immersed in late 16th century Europe. Examples will be shown of some of the readily available inscribed polyhedra that he may have seen - printed in widely circulated books, included in well-known paintings and engravings, and displayed as three dimensional ornamentally turned sculptures. It is highly likely that he saw such physical models five years later while in the employ of Rudolf II who was an avid ornamental turner. Layered polyhedral ivory turnings were made by the nobility with what were then fairly common lathes. Kepler himself wanted to have his own celestial model made into a punch bowl! Therefore, it seems plausible that Kepler had seen models of inscribed platonic solids well before 1596. Later in life Kepler reprinted the Mysterium Cosmographicum with very little fundamental change in its outlook, even after having found what we now call Kepler's three laws of planetary motion. His interest in nested polyhedra may well have preceded any astronomical evidence or geometrical reasoning, arising from artistic and aesthetic encounters that occurred early in his life. Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  4. Transits of Venus and Mercury: Exoplanet Analogs in Our Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2012-05-01

    Since Johannes Kepler's predictions of transits of Mercury and Venus in 1631, and observations by Jeremiah Horrocks and William Crabtree of the 1639 transit of Venus, only 5 other transits of Venus have been observed: in 1761 and 1769, 1874 and 1882, and 2004. Expeditions were sent all over the world for the 18th and 19th century transits to follow the methods of Halley and others to determine the Astronomical Unit, giving the size and scale of the solar system, arguably the most important problem in astronomy for centuries. I will discuss how the infamous black-drop effect bedeviled astronomers in that quest for an accurate A.U., and how Glenn Schneider and I explained the effect through satellite observations of transits of Mercury, showing that it was not simply caused by the Cytherean atmosphere. During the 2004 transit, we worked with Richard Willson of ACRIMsat to detect the 0.1% drop in the Total Solar Irradiance, showing the effect of solar limb darkening, positioning such observations of transits of Venus and of Mercury as analogs to exoplanet transits. Our observations of the atmosphere of Venus with NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer in 2004 led us to plan extensive observations of Venus's atmosphere and other phenomena during the June 5, 2012, transit of Venus, the last to be visible from Earth until 2117. We will have used NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, ACRIMsat, and other spacecraft, and ground-based solar telescopes at Sacramento Peak, Kitt Peak, Big Bear, and Haleakala to observe the transit; I hope to give preliminary reports on these observations during this talk. Further, I will discuss the plans of Ehrenreich and colleagues for Hubble observations of this transit and our hopes of detecting transits of Venus and Earth as seen from Jupiter and Saturn over the next few years.

  5. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  6. Physical basis of the Thellier-Thellier and related paleointensity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, David J.

    2011-08-01

    Émile and Odette Thellier produced the first reliable determinations of paleointensity following an experimental protocol used earlier by Johann Koenigsberger. Although Koenigsberger did groundbreaking work on thermoremanent magnetization (TRM), it was the Thelliers who formulated the fundamental idea of partial TRMs as building blocks for TRM. In his 1938 doctoral thesis and a series of short notes, Émile Thellier minutely examined the data on TRM and partial TRM, ultimately establishing for bricks and other baked clays his laws of pTRM reciprocity, independence and additivity. In 1946 he speculated that blocking represents "…immobilization of elementary magnetic moments below a temperature Θ … Θ will vary at each point in the body, perhaps with the dimensions and the shape of the crystalline grains … One can thus explain thermoremanence by the progressive fixing, in the course of cooling, of moments which find themselves held fast when they pass through their individual temperature Θ." Thellier thus established the physical basis of TRM blocking and recognized the essential role of grain size and shape. In 1949 Louis Néel quantified these concepts in terms of the properties of single-domain grains. Today the Thellier-Thellier method remains the benchmark of reliable paleointensity data. The challenge has been the non-ideality of real geological and archeological materials: TRM carriers larger than single-domain size and physicochemical alteration during heating. The Thelliers avoided these problems by using bricks and pottery previously fired under conditions similar to those in laboratory heatings, eschewing volcanic and other rocks. But despite their problems, we have to deal with the material nature provides. This paper provides insights into the physics underlying the Thellier-Thellier method and check procedures that detect non-ideal behavior, as well as reviewing recent advances in paleointensity methodology.

  7. How Sommerfeld extended Bohr's model of the atom (1913-1916)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's atomic model was motivated by the quest for a theory of the Zeeman and Stark effects. The crucial idea was that a spectral line is made up of coinciding frequencies which are decomposed in an applied field. In October 1914 Johannes Stark had published the results of his experimental investigation on the splitting of spectral lines in hydrogen (Balmer lines) in electric fields, which showed that the frequency of each Balmer line becomes decomposed into a multiplet of frequencies. The number of lines in such a decomposition grows with the index of the line in the Balmer series. Sommerfeld concluded from this observation that the quantization in Bohr's model had to be altered in order to allow for such decompositions. He outlined this idea in a lecture in winter 1914/15, but did not publish it. The First World War further delayed its elaboration. When Bohr published new results in autumn 1915, Sommerfeld finally developed his theory in a provisional form in two memoirs which he presented in December 1915 and January 1916 to the Bavarian Academy of Science. In July 1916 he published the refined version in the Annalen der Physik. The focus here is on the preliminary Academy memoirs whose rudimentary form is better suited for a historical approach to Sommerfeld's atomic theory than the finished Annalen-paper. This introductory essay reconstructs the historical context (mainly based on Sommerfeld's correspondence). It will become clear that the extension of Bohr's model did not emerge in a singular stroke of genius but resulted from an evolving process.

  8. "mysterium Cosmographicum", for Orchestra, Narrator/actor, and Computer Music on Tape. (with Original Composition)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Robert Michael

    Mysterium Cosmographicum is a musical chronicle of an astronomy treatise by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum (Tubingen, 1596), or "Secret of the Universe," was a means by which he justified the existence of the six planets discovered during his lifetime. Kepler, through flawless a priori reasoning, goes to great lengths to explain that the reason there are six and only six planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) is because God had placed one of the five regular solids (tetrahedron, cube, octa-, dodeca-, and icosahedron) around each orbiting body. Needless to say, the publication was not very successful, nor did it gain much comment from Kepler's peers, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). But hidden within the Mysterium Cosmographicum, almost like a new planet waiting to be discovered, is one of Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, a law that held true for planets discovered long after Kepler's lifetime. Mysterium Cosmographicum is a monologue with music in three parts for orchestra, narrator/actor, and computer music on tape. All musical data structures are generated via an interactive Pascal computer program that computes latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates for each of the nine planets as seen from a fixed point on Earth for any given time frame. These coordinates are then mapped onto selected musical parameters as determined by the composer. Whenever Kepler reads from his treatise or from a lecture or correspondence, the monologue is supported by orchestral planetary data generated from the exact place, date, and time of the treatise, lecture, or correspondence. To the best of my knowledge, Mysterium Cosmographicum is the first composition ever written that employs planetary data as a supporting chronology to action and monologue.

  9. [Semantics of learned quackery in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Füssel, Marian

    2004-06-01

    In the 17th and 18th century republic of letters the problem of scientific fraud was met with a discourse of charlatanism. Departing from Johann Burchhard Menckes famous treatise on the Charlatanry of the learned the following essay traces how the accusations of academic and scientific misconduct put in terms of 'charlatanry' primarily helped to produce the new species of the erudite 'charlatan'. Facing a growing complexity of scientific culture this new frame of meaning, structured by numerous examples of scientific misconduct offered a new way of orientation in the world of learning. But besides its cognitive impacts the discourse of charlatanry allowed to create symbolic boundaries, which determined decisions upon the affiliation or non affiliation to the new forming scientific community by separating honourable from dishonourable scientific personae. Speaking of charlatanry therefore always implied a social distinction as much as a scientific. The discourses on charlatanry also mirror differentiations within the scientific field. At first dominated by a critique built on courteous or bourgeois values, the scientific field later on developed its own criteria of appraisal like authorship, originality, transparency etc. Attracting the attention of a further growing public sphere, the explicit verbalisation of claims not relating to the value system of a republic of letters primarily concerned with the production and distribution of knowledge finally led up to a more implicit moral economy of science. A change that at a large scale level can be described both as an internalisation of the values of scientific conduct and differentiation between justiciable and unjusticiable transgressions of the norms set up by the scientific community. PMID:15338535

  10. Status of the nanometer comparator at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluegge, Jens; Koening, Rainer G.

    2001-10-01

    Due to increasing demands on the photolithography of integrated circuits and the progress of interferometric linear encoders, length measurement systems with a reproducibility under 3 nm are used in industry today, whereas the connection to the unit of length exhibits an uncertainty of about 25 nm. To resolve this problem a new one dimensional length comparator, the nanometer comparator, was developed in a cooperation between the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH and Werth Me#technik GmbH. The nanometer comparator will be able to perform one dimensional calibrations of photo masks, line-graduation scales, incremental linear encoders and laser interferometers in one axis up to a maximum length of 610 mm. To ensure the highest level of measurement performance, the interferometer is completely located in vacuum using metal bellows, whilst the calibration objects can be mounted under atmospheric conditions. The interferometer set-up compensates the dilatation and the bending of the granite base and minimizes the measurement circle of the comparator. This will minimize the influence of thermal and mechanical distortions. The interferometer design can be used with a heterodyne or a homodyne signal detection electronics. Due to their high power dissipation, the laser is arranged far apart from the comparator and light is fed to the interferometers by means of glass fibers. The light source is a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser frequency stabilized by an iodine absorption line. Different measuring systems for the structure localization can be attached to an universal sensor carrier on a solid bridge above the measuring carriage. Incremental reading heads and two photoelectric microscopes are now available for this purpose.

  11. Proof of paternity: historical reflections on an andrological-forensic challenge.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2004-02-01

    Throughout the history of medicine, there have been difficulties in forensic proving of unsolved paternities, making this a major andrological-forensic challenge. In the Roman empire, children procreated by incest, called 'incestuosi', had no rights at all and other illegitimates, e.g. children born of prostitutes or as a result of adultery, could not assert rights towards the father. Only through the 'corpus iuris civilis' of the Roman Emperor Justinian I (6th century ad) could claims of alimony be made in some cases. In later times, evidence of presumable impotence of a potential father was determined by the congressus, where defined juristical 'sexual fights' had to be held before official matrons, surgeons and priests. Men had to demonstrate their erectile and ejaculatory function. A special significance must be attributed to the microscopical discovery of spermatozoa by the medical student Johann Ham in 1677 and the further investigation by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. After centuries of personally biased and scientifically incorrect concepts of paternity determination, the discovery of the blood grouping system by Karl Landsteiner at the beginning of the 20th century paved the way for sophisticated techniques to prove or rather to disprove paternity. In 1921, Reuben Ottenberg from New York was the first to suggest the application of the system to medico-legal questions, but it was not before the 1950s that legal courts accepted this method. A famous example of disregarding clear blood grouping results was the case of the movie star Charles Chaplin in California in 1946. Modern DNA techniques, today the golden standard in forensic medicine, have also been applied recently for historical investigations. One of the very illustrious examples is the dispute about Thomas Jefferson, third President of the US, fathering a child of one of his slaves. PMID:14871262

  12. [The pharmacy at Broager. An odyssey finally resulting in the pharmacy at Broager].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jürgen; Andersen, Verner

    2007-01-01

    A brief description is given of the attempts made between 1867 and 1911 to establish a pharmacy in the village of Broager. Broager is located in the middle of Broagerland peninsula in the south-eastern part of Sønderjylland, Denmark. After the war in 1864 between Denmark and Prussia/Austria the Duchy Schleswig was occupied and became part of the Province Schleswig-Holstein in 1867. Broagerland was part of the province until 1920. The first attempt, in 1867, was made by a pharmacist from Flensburg--before the administrative changes of 1867 were implemented--and his attempt was accepted by the authorities. However, the following administrative changes in Schleswig-Holstein in 1867 delayed the matter which finally was not approved. The authorities in Schleswig-Holstein--including the district medical officer--were not in favor of the idea of a pharmacy at Broager and, thus, could not recommend the applications from 1867, 1881, 1897, and 1901. Arguments by the "Landrath" to the 1901-application were partly related to the risk of getting similar applications from other villages in his district and partly to the negative effects on the income of the existing pharmacists at the nearest pharmacies in Gråsten and Sønderborg. The fact that ten local authorities (kommuneforstandere) supported the application in 1901, and that about half the population had signed the petition, did not affect the "Landrath". The fifth application in 1911 by the "amtsforstander" was successful, and a pharmacy was established at Broager June 6 1912. The first pharmacist was August Johannes Richard Kröger, born at Altona January 30 1869. His colleagues until 1920 are listed. Kröger died August 14 1920. The five attempts to establish the pharmacy in Broager are not described in De danske Apotekers Historie, where only information regarding the pharmacy and pharmacists in Broager after 1920 can be found. PMID:18350702

  13. Goethe's phenomenology of nature: a juvenilization of science.

    PubMed

    Skaftnesmo, Trond

    2009-01-01

    Empirical science is not a mere collection of facts. It builds theories and frames hypotheses within those theories. Empirical theories are stated as plausible answers to questions we pose to nature. According to the Galilean-Baconian tradition within science, these questions should basically explore the causes of observed phenomena, and further be restricted to the measurable and quantitative realm. Thus, the answers are generally expected to explain the effective causes behind the actual phenomena. By framing falsifiable hypotheses, the theories are tested against the empirical foundation on which they rest. In this way we try to relieve science from false theories. Thus, we have two epistemological levels: First, the theoretical level; the scientific theory explaining the phenomena, and second, the empirical level; the phenomena or facts verifying or falsifying those theories. According to the poet and multi-scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), there is however another way of science, namely an approach where these two levels fuse and become one. Goethe intended this approach to be a complementation of the Galilean-Baconian method, more than an alternative. He considered his "hypothesis-free method" to be a more comprehensive and secure way to understand nature. Whereas the Galilean-Baconian method aimed at explaining the effective causes of natural phenomena, in order to control and exploit nature for technical and industrial purposes, Goethe aimed at an exposition of the inherent meaning of the phenomena.We will explore, exemplify and discuss this approach with reference to the inherently Goethean phenomenology of evolution credited to the Dutch anatomist Louis Bolk (1866-1930), later commented and complemented by Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) and Jos Verhulst (1949 ). In the course of this presentation we will outline the Goethean approach as a method representing a juvenilization or in Bolk's terms, a fetalization of science. PMID:20077388

  14. Tropical Greenhouse Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Switchable Reagent Ion Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectromety (PTR-TOF-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, we will summarize the results of measurements made in an approximately 1300 m3 tropical greenhouse at the Johannes Gutenberg University botanical garden in Mainz Germany conducted over a one month period. The greenhouse is home to a large variety of plant species from hot and humid regions of the world. The greenhouse is also host to several crops such as Cocoa and Cola Nut as well as ornamental plants. A particular focus of the species maintained are those which are considered ant plants, or plants which have an intimate relationship with ants in tropical habitats. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a Switchable Reagent Ion Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using H3O+, NO+, and O2+ ion chemistry. Measurements will be presented both for primary emissions observed in the closed greenhouse atmosphere as well as the oxidation products observed after the introduction of ambient ozone. The high resolving power (5000 m/Δm) of the time-of-flight instrument allows for the separation of isobaric species. In particular, both isoprene (68.1170 amu) and furan (68.0740 amu) were observed and separated as primary emissions during this study. The significance of this will be discussed in terms of both atmospheric implications as well as with respect to previous measurements of isoprene obtained using quadrupole PTR-MS where isobaric separation of these compounds is not possible. Additionally observed species (e.g. Methanol, Acetaldehyde, MVK and MEK) will be discussed in detail with respect to their behavior as a function of light, temperature and relative humidity. The overall instrument performance of the PTR-TOF-MS technique using the H3O+, NO+, and O2+ primary ions for the measurement of VOCs will be evaluated.

  15. Walter Baade, Dynamical Astronomer at Goettingen, Hamburg, Mount Wilson, and Palomar Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-09-01

    Walter Baade, famous for his astrophysical discoveries, also made many contributions in dynamical astronomy. His thesis at Goettingen University on the spectroscopic orbit of β Lyrae was based on spectrograms his teacher, Johannes Hartmann, had taken at Potsdam years earlier. Immediately on receiving his Ph.D. in 1919, Baade joined the Hamburg Bergedorf Observatory staff, and soon was the sole observer with its 1-m reflector, the largest telescope in Europe. Under its director, Richard Schorr, Baade's main job at first was to obtain direct plates of asteroids and comets for positional measurements. As an incidental part of this observing he discovered many asteroids, eight of which were eventually named, including 966 Muschi (his wife's nickname), 944 Hidalgo, with large orbital semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination, and 1036 Ganymed, whose orbit extends inside that of Mars. Baade also discovered a new comet, 1922 II. During the close approach of Eros in 1930 Baade measured its period of light variation, its color, and its mean magnitude. After Pluto was discovered in 1930 he measured its position assiduously, following it as far from opposition as he could. In 1931 Baade moved to Mount Wilson, where he concentrated almost entirely on globular-cluster, supernova, and galaxy research. He saw many asteroid trails on his long exposures but did not report them except for one, 7448 (still not named), which showed a very long trail on a 3-hr exposure of the Crab nebula. At Palomar, using the 48-in Schmidt soon after it went into operation, he dicovered and reported 1566 Icarus, with a very small perihelion distance, and later his second comet, 1955 VI.

  16. [The history of the Institute of Hygiene of the Medical College of Lübeck].

    PubMed

    Preuner, R

    1986-05-01

    The "Institute of Hygiene" of the Hanseatic town of Lübeck was founded in 1946 by Prof. Dr. Franz Schültz on account of the then prevailing epidemic situation mainly caused by the rapid spread of typhoid fever. The local responsibility of the Institute extended to the town itself and to the two hospitals "South" and "East", with the latter originating from the asylum of Strecknitz after its tragic destruction. In 1950 Franz Schütz was appointed ordinary professor and director of the Institute of Hygiene of the University of Göttingen. In Lübeck he was succeeded by Prof. Dr. Hans Schubert, last senior physician of the Institute of Hygiene of the University of Königsberg. He served a very short term in Lübeck, for he died as early as 1951 after seven months' tenure. He was succeeded in office by Prof. Dr. Rudolf Preuner in 1952. During his term of office the ties with the hospitals were severed and the Institute became independent. Endeavors to found a College started in the early sixties. In November 1964 the Medical Academy of Lübeck was created as Second Medical Faculty of the University of Kiel; in 1974 it was converted into the independent Medical College of Lübeck with a presidial constitution. In 1979 Rudolf Preuner retired as professor emeritus. His successor in office was Prof. Dr. Johannes Beckert. In 1985 the College was raised to the Medical University of Lübeck. PMID:3092506

  17. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging of a plasma collision

    SciTech Connect

    Chenais-Popovics, C.; Rancu, O.; Renaudin, P.

    1995-07-14

    The collision of laser-produced plasmas has been diagnosed by x-ray spectroscopy and imaging. The two colliding plasmas are produced on Al thin foils at a distance of 200 to 900 {mu}m irradiated at {lambda} = 0.53 {mu}m with laser intensities of 3 {times} 10{sup 13} to 6 {times} 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. Interpenetration of the plasmas was visualized by replacing one of the foils material by magnesium. The main diagnostics viewing the inter-target space were time-resolved monochromatic imaging of the 1s{sup 2} 1s3p aluminum line (He{Beta} at {lambda} {minus} 6.635 {Angstrom}). Doppler broadening measurement with a vertical Johann very high resolution spectrograph in the range 6.5--6.7{Angstrom}, space-resolved high resolution spectra of the dielectronic satellites of the 1s-2p 1 yman, space-resolved spectra with a flat-crystal spectrograph in the range 5--7 {Angstrom} and in the range of 43--48 {Angstrom} obtained with a new OHM crystal spectrograph and a pinhole camera. A multifluid eulerian monodimensional hydrodynamic code coupled with a radiative-atomic package provided simulations of the experiments. Hydrodynamic 2D simulations calculating the lateral expansion of the plasma enabled a reliable treatment of reabsorption along the line of sight of the spectrographs. The size the time duration of the collision, the plasma parameters (Te,Ti and ne) in the collision region and interpenetration were measured. The hydrocode simulations give a good understanding of the behavior of the collision in function of intertarget distance and laser intensity.

  18. Nicole Oresme's 'On Seeing the Stars (De visione stellarum)': A critical edition of Oresme's treatise on optics and atmospheric refraction, with an introduction, commentary, and English translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Danny Ethus

    2000-10-01

    In the middle of the fourteenth century, the renowned natural philosopher Nicole Oresme composed a treatise entitled: De visione stellarum (= On Seeing the Stars). This text appears to be the earliest separate treatise devoted to the study of atmospheric refraction and its deeper implications. A major portion of this dissertation is the formulation of the first critical edition and English translation of this work. Accompanying this edition is a commentary explicating its major themes as well as arguments in support of Oresme's authorship. The fundamental question Oresme's De visione attempts to answer is: Utrum stelle videantur ubi sint - ``Are the stars really where they seem to be?'' Using perspectivist optics, Oresme ultimately answered that they are not. Further, he concluded not only the stars but almost nothing is seen where it truly is, calling all visual sense data into doubt. The De visione builds upon the foundations laid by the great perspectivists such as Ptolemy, Alhazen, Bacon, and Witelo on atmospheric optics, but it also goes further. This dissertation argues that one of the more profound scientific discoveries by Oresme is the following. Two centuries before the Scientific Revolution, Oresme proposed the qualitatively correct solution to the problem of atmospheric refraction, that light travels along a curve through a medium of uniformly varying density, and he arrived at this solution using infinitesimals. This solution at this solution using infinitesimals. This solution had even escaped the great 17th century scholar of optics and astronomy, Johannes Kepler, and up to now, the credit for its first discovery has been given to Robert Hooke and its mathematical resolution to Isaac Newton. Oresme's argument concerning the curvature of light is a major milestone in the history of optics and astronomy that was previously unknown to modern scholarship. And it further confirms that Oresme was one of the most innovative scientists of the pre

  19. ['A sad and painful heart'--Andreas Vesalius as cardiologist].

    PubMed

    Haneveld, G T

    1993-01-01

    One needs courage to dissociate oneself from ideas maintained for ages and put forward by authorities. How laborious this process has been for Vesalius concerning the heart, is obvious when we compare the information of an eye-witness with both editions of the De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543 and 1555). He must have come hesitantly to the conclusion that the views on the permeability of the septum cordis, as they were supported by Galen, Mondino and Johann Winther, a professor at Louvain, could not be defended. However, they had been essential in the considerations about the blood-flow. Although Vesalius demonstrated by vivisection-experiments that a relation exists between the pulse and the heart contractions, he was not an experimenting cardiophysiologist. In this respect, he stood far behind his contemporary Leonardo da Vinci, who made experiments on heart ntractions and the bloodstream along the heart valves. Vesalius was an anatomist! And a morphologist! But he was also a physician. In this respect, he also was interested in the pathological aspects of anatomy. So he recalled in, his last book, Anatomicarum Gabrielis Fallopii Observationum Examen (1564) some cardiologically interesting patients, a.o. the courtier van Immerseel, with a very unequal pulse and "a sad and painful heart" (tristi in corde, sensu doloreve), by whom a heart abnormality was found post mortem, that in modern terms we could call "an old heart infarction with thrombus formation." According to Schenk von Grafenberg, Vesalius was dreaming of a big book about anatomo-pathology, but alas, he never wrote it. Undoubtedly he would have trusted more his eyes and less Galen: "non solum ex Galenis testimonio, sed etiam oculis ipsis perspexeris". PMID:8209581

  20. Rare Books As Teaching Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gino, M. C.; Wise, G.

    2003-05-01

    The use of historic science illustrations in the classroom offers unique opportunities to meet the National Science Standard that "students should develop understanding of science as a human endeavor, of the nature of scientific knowledge, and of historical perspectives" (Content Standard G, Science Education Standards, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington, DC). The Dudley Observatory has launched an effort to use its outstanding collection of rare astronomy books to meet this challenge. The example featured here is the illustration "Systema Solare et Planetarium" from the book Atlas novus coelestis (1742) by Johann Gabriel Doppelmayr (1671-1750). This illustration is significant in the evolution of astronomy because it is one of the first popular depictions of the solar system picturing the planets in their accurate relative sizes and providing numerical estimates of planetary and solar dimensions and distances. Perhaps at least as important, from the educational viewpoint, it is visually appealing, culturally intriguing and filled with puzzling items that might serve as the basis for inquiry-based learning. For example, why is the page sprinkled with what appear to be appeals to theology ("Ex His Creatorem") and expressions of wonder or even horror ("perceptum horridem")? Why does its map of the world depict California as an island? A structure for using this and other historic illustrations in the classroom might be based on the following general questions: What is the purpose of the illustration? What is included that a modern scientist might leave out, or left out that a modern scientist might include? How accurate are the quantitative results presented? How does the conceptual treatment resemble and differ from modern treatments? Viewing the heavens as an 18th century astronomer wanted his public to see them is an excellent approach to achieving the humanistic and historical perspective that the educational standard seeks.

  1. Planets in Transit V Passages of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, T. P.

    2003-05-01

    Eclipses of the Sun have long influenced culture, history, and science. The analogous but much more subtle phenomena of a transit of the Sun by Mercury was first predicted by Johannes Kepler. Soon, predictions of transits of Venus inspired bold expeditions to better understand the scale of our solar system. These passages of discovery sometimes succeeded scientifically but always captured the public imagination and played an unexpected role in history. The possibility of detecting planets outside the solar system by the transit method was first outlined by Otto Struve in 1952. Early inquiries usually assumed that extrasolar planetary systems would have a distribution of planetary radii and orbital sizes like the solar system. The detection of transits from the ground in such systems would be daunting. The recent, unexpected discovery of a class of extrasolar planets (by the radial velocity technique) with orbital periods less than a week and masses near to the planet Jupiter has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, the transit method. These so called "hot Jupiters", can produce transits that are likely enough, frequent enough, and deep enough that ground-based transit searches can be successful. In November 1999, a planet orbiting the star HD 209458 was found to transit, and many measurements of the transit have since been made that challenge formation and evolution theories. Numerous ground based searches for transits are now underway. Several planned high precision space-based missions designed to detect transits of earth-sized planets, also have the potential to detect transits of hundreds of "hot Jupiters". These efforts and the upcoming transit of the Sun by Venus on June 8, 2004 present an opportunity for transits to once again capture the public imagination and perhaps play a role in history.

  2. History of Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giovanna; Tamma, Grazia

    2016-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis is maintained by the kidney adjusting urine volume and composition according to body needs. Diabetes Insipidus is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome affecting water balance and characterized by constant diuresis, resulting in large volumes of dilute urine. With respect to the similarly named Diabetes Mellitus, a disease already known in ancient Egypt, Greece and Asia, Diabetes Insipidus has been described several thousand years later. In 1670s Thomas Willis, noted the difference in taste of urine from polyuric subjects compared with healthy individuals and started the differentiation of Diabetes Mellitus from the more rare entity of Diabetes Insipidus. In 1794, Johann Peter Frank described polyuric patients excreting nonsaccharine urine and introduced the term of Diabetes Insipidus. An hystorical milestone was the in 1913, when Farini successfully used posterior pituitary extracts to treat Diabetes Insipidus. Until 1920s the available evidence indicated Diabetes Insipidus as a disorder of the pituitary gland. In the early 1928, De Lange first observed that some patients with Diabetes Insipidus did not respond to posterior pituitary extracts and subsequently Forssman and Waring in 1945 established that the kidney had a critical role for these forms of Diabetes Insipidus resistant to this treatment. In 1947 Williams and Henry introduced the term Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus for the congenital syndrome characterized by polyuria and renal concentrating defect resistant to vasopressin. In 1955, du Vigneaud received the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the first synthesis of the hormone vasopressin representing a milestone for the treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus. PMID:26913870

  3. On the differential properties of internal magnetic field models at the Earth's surface and at satellite altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webers, Wigor A.

    2007-03-01

    The inverse theory of potential fields shows that the correspondence between the internal magnetic field of the Earth and its field sources is unique when the potential field is known in all points of the three-dimensional space including all points of the source region (cp., e.g. Diesselhorst, H., 1939. Magnetische Felder und Kräfte. Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Leipzig). Thus, to determine the sources of the field it is not sufficient to know the potential field in the space external to the sources. Moreover, field models derived from finite sets of potential field observations emphasize different source properties because of measurement errors. In this study, I argue that improved internal field models can be developed from multi-altitude magnetic observations by imposing more effective constraints on the poorly conditioned downward continuation problem. In particular, the convergence behaviour of spherical harmonic field models can be used to improve the downward continuation of the higher truncation index terms. A high quality approximation of the field continuation is essential when the field models are interpreted for relatively small field contributions such as from the lithospheric sources. The relations between the potential field and its sources including the problems of potential field continuations - upward and downward - are governed by the theory of ill-posed inverse problems (cp., e.g. Anger, G., 1990. Inverse Problems in Differential Equations. Akademie/Plenum Press, Berlin/London; Anger, G., Gorenflo, R., Jochmann, H., Moritz, H., Webers, W. (Eds.), 1993. Inverse Problems: Principles and Applications in Geophysics, Technology, and Medicine. Akademie, Berlin; Huestis, S.P., Parker, R.L., 1979. Upward and downward continuations as inverse problems. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 57, 171-188; Rösler, R., 1981. Über die Fehlerfortpflanzung bei Potentialfeldtransformationen. Gerlands Beitr. Gephys. 90, 47-57).

  4. Is it turquoise + fuchsia = purple or is it turquoise + fuchsia = blue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    The first step in communicating color is to name it. The second step is color semiotics. The third step is introducing structure in the set of colors. In color education at all levels, this structure often takes the form of formulæ, like red + green = yellow, or turquoise + red = black. In recent times, Johannes Itten's color theory and its associated color wheel have been very influential, mostly through its impact on Bauhaus, although a number of color order systems and circles have been introduced over the centuries. Students get confused when they are trying to formulate the color name arithmetic using the structure of color order systems and concepts like complementary colors and opponent colors. Suddenly turquoise + fuchsia = purple instead of blue; purple and violet become blurred, and finally the student's head explodes under the epistemological pressures of Itten, Albers, Goethe, Runge, Newton, da Vinci, and all the other monsters of color structure. In this contribution we propose a systematic presentation of structure in color, from color theories to color naming. We start from the concept of color perception introduced by da Vinci and work ourselves through color measurement, color formation, and color naming, to develop the basis for a robust system based on table lookup and interpolation. One source of confusion is that color naming has been quite loose in color theory, where for example red can be used interchangeably with fuchsia, and blue with turquoise. Furthermore, common color terms are intermingled with technical colorant terms, for example cyan and aqua or fuchsia and magenta. We present the evolution of a few color terms, some of which have experienced a radical transition over the centuries, and describe an experiment showing the robustness of crowd-sourcing for color naming.

  5. [Tone psychology and music research as catalysts of experimental-scientific practice and methodology in the circle of Carl Stumpf].

    PubMed

    Klotz, Sebastian

    2008-09-01

    The study of acoustics, harmonics and of music has been providing scientific models since Greek Antiquity. Since the early modern ages, two separate cultures began to emerge out of the study of music: a technical acoustics and an aesthetically and philosophically inspired musical criticism. In the writings of Johann Friedrich Herbart (1811) a scientific approach to musical aesthetics and to music perception is taking shape that reinstalls the listening process as a highly complex and logical phenomenon. By opening music for a scientific psychological investigation, Herbart pioneered the physiologically and acoustically grounded seminal work by Hermann von Helmholtz On the sensations of tone (1863) which the author considered a prerequisite for musical aesthetics and music theory. Helmholtz in turn inspired the philosopher and psychologist Carl Stumpf to further investigate musical perception (beginning in 1883). To Stumpf, it provided a paradigm for experimental psychology as mental functions and phenomena could be studied in detail. These functions and phenomena are the actual objects of scientific study in Stumpf's inductive and descriptive psychology. Combining insights from statistics, ethnology, anthropology, psychoacoustics and the cultural history of mankind, Stumpf and his team developed a new blend of science which absorbs styles of reasoning, analytical procedures and academic convictions from natural history, the natural sciences and the humanities but at the same time identifies shortcomings of these approaches that fail to grasp the complexities of psychic functions. Despite their reliance on the quasi-objective phonograph and despite their commitment to objectivity, precision and measurement, mental phenomena relating to tonal perception and to music provided too complex a challenge to be easily articulated and shared by the scientific community after 1900. The essay illustrates these tensions against the background of a history of objectivity. PMID

  6. [Struensee--physician and missjudged social reformer].

    PubMed

    Nordlander, N B

    1996-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Struensee was born in 1737 in the German town of Halle where he graduated as doctor of Medicine at the age of 19. In 1757 he was appointed to be town physician in the big Danish town Altona, close to Hamburg. There he had a large medical practice among the poor, but he also succeeded in curing some important persons, which influenced his further career. During his eleven years in Altona he made many friends among the liberal circles and evolved an extensive writing of medical and social publications, where he called for reforms of housing, of hygiene, of fresh air and a sounder living. He organised a delivery clinic for single mothers and took care of the orphans. His opinions met with furious opposition from older doctors, whom he attacked for their greed and ignorance. In 1768 he was appointed to be the danish king Christian VII's physician during the kings visit to England. King Christian was mentally disturbed with fits of violence and confusion, but Struensee succeeded in gaining his confidence and after return to Denmark he was soon to be the absolute ruler of the country during three years. He started an intensive reform period with total freedom of the press, abolished peasant slavery and the death penalty, got rid of nepotism in the civil service, where only real competence should decide. He put an end to the great waste of money for luxury and superfluous staff in the court and in military units in order to improve the heavily indebted Danish economy. His reforms affronted many important persons and he never succeeded in gaining the confidence of the ordinary people, whose benefit he struggled for. By a sudden revolt Struensee's adversaries arrested him and forced the week and frightened king to sign the doctor's death sentence which was carried out April 28 1772 in spite of his noble document of defence. PMID:11624970

  7. A translational study "case report" on the small molecule "energy blocker" 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) as a potent anticancer agent: from bench side to bedside.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y H; Verhoeven, H A; Lee, M J; Corbin, D J; Vogl, T J; Pedersen, P L

    2012-02-01

    The small alkylating molecule, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), is a potent and specific anticancer agent. 3BP is different in its action from most currently available chemo-drugs. Thus, 3BP targets cancer cells' energy metabolism, both its high glycolysis ("Warburg Effect") and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This inhibits/ blocks total energy production leading to a depletion of energy reserves. Moreover, 3BP as an "Energy Blocker", is very rapid in killing such cells. This is in sharp contrast to most commonly used anticancer agents that usually take longer to show a noticeable effect. In addition, 3BP at its effective concentrations that kill cancer cells has little or no effect on normal cells. Therefore, 3BP can be considered a member, perhaps one of the first, of a new class of anticancer agents. Following 3BP's discovery as a novel anticancer agent in vitro in the Year 2000 (Published in Ko et al. Can Lett 173:83-91, 2001), and also as a highly effective and rapid anticancer agent in vivo shortly thereafter (Ko et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324:269-275, 2004), its efficacy as a potent anticancer agent in humans was demonstrated. Here, based on translational research, we report results of a case study in a young adult cancer patient with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, a bench side discovery in the Department of Biological Chemistry at Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine was taken effectively to bedside treatment at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt/Main Hospital, Germany. The results obtained hold promise for 3BP as a future cancer therapeutic without apparent cyto-toxicity when formulated properly. PMID:22328020

  8. Reduction in the amount of crosstalk with reduced number of focal spot rows in a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-06-01

    The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS), named after Johannes Franz Hartmann and Roland Shack, is one of the most well-known and popularly used optical wavefront sensor that finds numerous applications in various optical technologies. SHWS samples the incident wavefront by means of a lenslet array to produce an array of regular 2D array of focal spots on the detector plane of a digital camera, in the case of an unaberrated plane wavefront. If the incident wavefront is aberrated or deviates from a plane wavefront, the respective focal spots get shifted from its reference positions corresponding to the regular grid. If the incident wavefront aberration increases or has a very large curvature, the focal spot of one lenslet may enter the detector sub-aperture of the nearby lenslet. Thus, the SHWS has a limited dynamic range that is restricted to aberrations which do not allow the sub-images to be displaced out from their own detector sub-array. It makes the SHWS sensitive to cross-talk when higher order aberrations are present thereby unavoidably a ecting the wavefront estimation process. The array of tiny lenses of the SHWS can be replaced by an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens, generating an array of focal spots which is similar to that as in the case of a SHWS. In this paper, the spatial frequency of such a grating array based zonal wavefront sensor is configured to produce lesser number of rows of focal spots. The reduction in the number of focal spot rows reduces the amount of cross talk in the vertical direction. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results to demonstrate the above stated reduction in crosstalk.

  9. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  10. [Romantic origins of electrophysiology].

    PubMed

    Isler, H

    1992-12-01

    Research on static electricity and its effects on the human body date back to the invention of the electrizing or Wimshurst machine and the Leyden jar of 1743 and 1746. Such experiments often served as social pastimes, but they yielded many publications on medical aspects of static electricity. Attempts to explain the 'life force' of the vitalists and the old concept of the active principle of the nervous system, the 'spiritus animales', as electrical phenomena were unsuccessful because of the skeptic comments of leading experimental scientists such as Albrecht von Haller. When Mesmer reinvented 'animal magnetism' in 1776 as a fashionable term for treatment by suggestion, he appropriated theoretical, technical and social methods from the established ways of the experiments on static electricity. Therefore, the scientific character of Luigi Galvani's investigations was already compromised by his term 'animal electricity' when he published his famous 'Commentarius' in 1781. Volta in Pavia turned against Galvani, proving that galvanic currents are produced by metals alone, and rejecting 'animal electricity'. Volta's doctrine prevailed over Galvani's school after Volta's breakthrough with his pile, or battery, until Galvani's ideas were rehabilitated by Nobili, who in 1828 measured the 'frog current' with his galvanometer. This led to a flurry of bizarre experiments on rows of half-dismembered animals and severed parts of human cadavers. Johannes Müller in Berlin, who, with his students, established new principles of biology and neurology, asked Du Bois-Reymond to study these experiments. Du Bois-Reymond found that measurements of muscle currents in intact animals were more useful, and he compared them with his own observations on electric fishes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1462070

  11. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ``light pipes`` embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible.

  12. [What is death?--Definitions and diagnoses from 2500 years of natural philosophy and medicine].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, D

    2013-12-01

    For very long medicine has been dealing with the question what death means and when it has occurred. The promotion of this debate is mainly owed to the new medical findings and the concrete requirements of the clinical practice; but other factors like social-historical influences (in particular the dispute over the secure determination of death) as well as the (de-)medicalization of the concept of death have also to be taken into account. In a concise historical overlook this study aims to demonstrate the development of the definition of death: In ancient Greece Aristotle, disregarding the transcendent teleology, describes the natural or non-natural death that occurs when the production of the vegetative warmth in the central organ - the heart - has ceased. In the Enlightenment Johann August Unzer (emulated later by Bichat and Hufeland) worked out the concept of the step-by-step process of death: In the attempt to explain sudden death, apparent death and reanimation the enlightened physiologist differentiated between the cessation of the senses (caused by heart death and brain death) and the vegetative functions. In the second half of the 20th century progress made in transplanting and intensive care generated a broadened medical definition of death that met strong opposition in the discussions on the autonomy of the patient and the worth of human life. Generally considered, the increasing differences in interpreting death between physicians and medical laymen, but also in medical practice and basic research are mainly due to the divergent demands regarding the definition and diagnosis of death. PMID:24343185

  13. Moon-Struck: Artists Rediscover Nature And Observe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, Roberta J. M.

    We discuss rare early depictions of the Moon by artists who actually observed Earth's nearest neighbor rather than relying on stylized formulas. The earliest, from the 14th and 15th centuries, reveal that revolutionary advances in both pre-telescopic astronomy and naturalistic painting could go hand-in-hand. This link suggests that when painters observed the world, their definition of world could also include the heavens and the Moon. Many of the artists we discuss - e.g., Pietro Lorenzetti, Giotto, and Jan Van Eyck - actually studied the Moon, incorporating their studies into several works. We also consider the star map on the dome over the altar in the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence (c. 1442), whose likely advisor was Toscanelli. In addition, we examine representations by artists who painted for Popes Julius II and Leo X - Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, both of whom were influenced by individuals at the papal court, such as the astronomer, painter, and cartographer Johann (Giovanni) Ruysch and Leonardo da Vinci. We also discuss Leonardo's pre-telescopic notes and lunar drawings as they impacted on art and science in Florence, where Galileo would study perspective and chiaroscuro. Galileo's representations of the Moon (engraved in his Sidereus Nuncius, 1610) are noted, together with those by Harriot and Galileo's friend, the painter Cigoli. During the 17th century, the Moon's features were telescopically mapped by astronomers with repercussions in art, e.g., paintings by Donati Creti and Raimondo Manzini as well as Adam Elsheimer. Ending with a consideration of the 19th-century artists/astronomers John Russell and John Brett and early lunar photography, we demonstrate that artistic and scientific visual acuity belonged to the burgeoning empiricism of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries that eventually yielded modern observational astronomy.

  14. [Psychiatry at Leipzig University. A 200 year old tradition].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2004-01-01

    The University of Leipzig boasts a long tradition in the field of psychiatry. In 1811 Johann Christian August Heinroth was appointed as the first professor of mental health ("psychic therapy") in Europe. He conceived mental illness as based on a person's own guilt, as the consequence of turning away from God and living a life untrue to Christian ethics. After Heinroth retired in 1843 the Leipzig chair remained vacant until 1878 brain researcher Paul Flechsig succeeded him as professor of psychiatry, although not significantly contributing to the progress of this subject. His first assistant was Emil Kraepelin. Flechsig's successors, Oswald Bumke and Paul Schroder, included psychological as well as sociogenetic topics in their research. The latter did pioneering work for the institutionalization of child and adolescent psychiatry. The history of Leipzig psychiatry during the Nazi years has not yet been researched in depth. So far, however, no evidence has been found to prove the university hospital's involvement in German psychiatry's excruciating crimes on patients. It is true, however, that as elsewhere doctors of the Leipzig hospital were members of the Courts of Hereditary Health (Erbgesundheitsgericht) and that e.g. August Bostroem knew of the homicides. In 1943, during the directorship of Werner Wagner, the hospital was totally destroyed. Its reconstruction was mainly the work of Richard Arwed Pfeifer, who also made remarkable contributions to the study of the angiostructure of the brain. With Dietfried Muller-Hegemann, who had a major influence of East-German psychotherapy, the social psychiatric era began, and it was successfully continued under Berhard Schwarz, Klaus Weise and the hospital's present head, Matthias C. Angermeyer, Weise's theoretical and philosophical achievements in the foundation and his demand for an empirical verification of social psychiatric ideas in the whole of Germany are acknowledged until the present day. Last but no least it was

  15. Suffering for her art: the chronic pain syndrome of pianist Clara Wieck-Schumann.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Kopiez, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Clara Schumann was an outstanding pianist, systematically trained as a child prodigy by her father Friedrich Wieck. Married to the composer Robert Schumann she gave birth to 8 children, however, was able to continue performing regularly in public. After the mental breakdown of her husband, she had to increase her public performance activities due to the need to earn a living for her large family. In this time, the first pains in the right arm occurred, which at the beginning were of shorter duration, however increasingly required prolonged periods of rest. Later, when attempting to work on the highly demanding piano works of Johannes Brahms, especially on his first piano concerto, she developed chronic pain, which forced her to interrupt any concert activities for more than 1 year. Obviously, Brahms' modern treatment of the piano in an almost orchestral way imposed technical difficulties which Clara Schumann was not properly prepared to deal with. Finally, she underwent a multimodal pain therapy in the private sanatorium of Dr. Esmarch, which consisted of an integrated interdisciplinary approach comprising pain medication, psychotherapy, physiotherapy and modification of playing habits. She fully recovered and successfully continued her career as an internationally renowned concert pianist. The case report impressively demonstrates the stressors an outstanding female elite musician had to cope with in the 19th century. Furthermore, it is a convincing example of how the intuition and mere experience of a sensitive and understanding doctor lead to the right conclusions and to a modern multimodal pain therapy in chronic overuse injury. Furthermore the case report demonstrates the important role of prevention, including physical exercises, self-awareness, and reasonable practice schedules. PMID:20375525

  16. Der historische Buchbestand der Universitatssternwarte Wien. Ein illustrierter Katalog. Teil 2: 18. Jahrhundert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lackner, K.; Muller, I.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Posch, T.

    2006-12-01

    -headed eagle in the centre, surrounded by the text Universitats-Sternwarte Wien , and obviously used after 1918. Finally, there is one book (J. Cassini, Tabulae Planetarum, 1764) which carries a stamp where the eagle has exchanged its hammer and sickle by a swastika, thus dating the acquisition to the time of 1938-45. The editors note that there are no indications of a previous owner. The first three types of stamps are also found on title pages of the books printed before 1700 (again, the reader is referred to my review in JAD 11,4). According to the cursory census, 219 books published between 1700 and 1799 carry the rectangular, 38 the plain Kakanian , and 21 the round stamp; there are about 30 books without such a stamp. Some of the rectangular books also carry a handwritten note that they belonged to the Jesuit College. Again, 4 of the post-1918 books also carry a rubber-stamped inscription Vermachtnis Rudolf Konig . Another major inheritage happened in the era 1867-1918: Several books carry a seal and the note Bibl.^a Coll. Lewenburg Schol. Piar. Vienna or Convictus Loevenburgici Scholarum Piarum . The majority (78%) of 18th century books was acquired by the Vienna observatory before 1867, 14% before the end of the monarchy, and 8% thereafter; for the pre-18th century books, the percentages are 58%, 29% and 13%. Thus, 18th century books were often acquired by the observatory library immediately after publication, while apparently a major percentage of 16th and 17th century books was integrated into the library in the early decades of the New University Observatory , i.e. after 1874. I wish to draw attention to a few omissions, errors or confusions. Usually, in each entry the author's lifespan is given. There are a few omissions in the case of well-known authors - e.g. with Boskovic, where, however, the life dates are given in the commentary section. The dates of Francois Noel are wrong, they should be 1651-1729; Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten lived from 1732-1787. The

  17. [A tale of 2 cities. The dispute over the true origins of the Royal Society].

    PubMed

    Beeley, Philip

    2008-01-01

    When the Royal Society was founded in November 1660 it took scientific societies already existing in other European countries as its model. However, at a time when the new mathematical and experimental sciences were still generally without a secure institutional foundation there was also great interest in the new society on the part of scientists and scholars abroad. Soon visitors such as Christiaan Huygens and Balthazar de Monconys were able to report positively on its practical orientation, while among others Johannes Hevelius and Philipp Jacob Sachs von Lewenhaimb in letters to the founder member John Wallis and to the secretary Henry Oldenburg requested more information on its origins and statutes. Meanwhile, in England the Royal Society found itself the object of vociferous criticism, especially from the universities, which saw their own role as centres of learning increasingly compromised by the existence of an institution dedicated to the promotion of modern science. The Royal Society responded to this interest from abroad and criticism at home by commissioning an official history written by Thomas Sprat, a man with a university as well as a literary background. However, despite the author's good credentials, the History of the Royal Society presents a one-sided account of the institution, mainly from the perspective of the circle around John Wilkins to which Sprat had belonged. According to their point of view the Royal Society arose from meetings which Wilkins had organized at Wadham College in Oxford in the early 1650s. For members of the old guard, such as Wallis and William Brouncker, the origins of the Royal Society were, however, not in Oxford but rather in London, where meetings involving a significant number of members of the future institution had taken place already in the mid-1640s. This was not simply a question of historical accuracy, but also of the way in which the Royal Society conceived itself: while the circle around Wilkins was in

  18. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  19. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  20. Spatial analysis of subsoil compaction on cultivated land by means of penetrometry, electrical resistence tomography and X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumr, David; Vláčilová, Markéta; Dostál, Tomáš; Jeřábek, Jakub; Sobotková, Martina; Sněhota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    plot of approximately 10 x 50 m. Dipole-dipole scheme with electrode span of 10 cm was used. The results obtained by different techniques are in a good agreement with observed plough pan position. The contribution was prepared within the project of Czech Science Foundation No. 13-20388P. We thank Johannes Koestel from SLU Uppsala for his great help during CT imaging of the soil samples.