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Sample records for malignant pheochromocytoma treated

  1. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  2. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  3. Malignant bladder pheochromocytoma with SDHB genetic mutation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Funahashi, Y; Katoh, M; Fujita, T; Tsuruta, K; Gotoh, M

    2013-09-01

    A 30-year-old man presented with micturition pain and was diagnosed with a submucosal tumor in the right wall of the bladder with metastasis to the right obturator lymph node. Transurethral resection led to a diagnosis of invasive malignant pheochromocytoma. Radical cystectomy, neobladder reconstruction and bilateral iliac lymph node dissection were performed. Genetic analysis revealed succinate dehydrogenase B-associated hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome. 10 months after the operation, he had no evidence of recurrence. PMID:23807799

  4. Composite pheochromocytoma with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, Takeshi; Utsumi, Takanobu; Imamoto, Takashi; Kawamura, Koji; Oide, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Nihei, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

    2016-07-01

    Adrenal tumors with more than one cellular component are uncommon. Furthermore, an adrenal tumor composed of a pheochromocytoma and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is extremely rare. A composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a 42-year-old man is reported here. After adequate preoperative control, left adrenalectomy was performed simultaneously with resection of the ipsilateral kidney for spontaneous rupture of the left adrenal tumor. Pathological findings demonstrated pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a ruptured adrenal tumor. To date, there have been only four reported cases of composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, so the present case is only the fifth case in the world. Despite the very poor prognosis of patients with pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors reported in the literature, the patient remains well without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions at 36 months postoperatively. PMID:27338175

  5. Pheochromocytoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. It results in the release of too ... in the center (medulla) of one or both adrenal glands . Rarely, this kind of tumor occurs outside the ...

  6. Complete Remission in Metastatic Pheochromocytoma Treated with Extensive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Arnas-Leon, Claudia; Sánchez, Víctor; Santana Suárez, Ana D; Quintana Arroyo, Sara; Acosta, Carmen; Martinez Martin, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Malignant pheochromocytoma is defined as the presence of metastatic spread in tissues where chromaffin cells are not usually present. This case report describes the case of a relapsed malignant pheochromocytoma, spread to the right liver lobe, superior pole of the right kidney, posterior right hemidiaphragm, right hemidiaphragmatic pillar, inferior vena cava, and regional lymph nodes. After evaluation, an extensive surgery was performed, with resection of all the affected tissues and regional lymphadenectomy. No adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy or chemotherapy) was given. Complete clinical, biochemical, and radiological remission was achieved, with normalisation of metanephrine and normetanephrine. To date, six years after surgery, the patient remains asymptomatic and normotensive without taking any antihypertensive medication. We conclude that the therapeutic approach should be individualized in the case of metastatic pheochromocytoma. Extensive surgery can be considered as a treatment option, even in the case of multiple metastases, as it may be able to achieve complete remission of the disease, avoiding costly and potentially dangerous adjuvant therapies. PMID:26918215

  7. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment. PMID:27452493

  8. Primary malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Anna; Peksa, Rafał; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    An increased number of adrenal tumors are now diagnosed due to the increased number of abdominal CT scans being performed. We present the first case of malignant lymphoma combined with clinically "silent" pheochromocytoma in the same adrenal gland. An abdominal CT scan demonstrates unilateral adrenal lesion which suggests pheochromocytoma or adrenal carcinoma. Laboratory examinations revealed a slight increase of 24-h urine vanillylmandelic acid and 24-h urinary methanephrine excretion. Histological examination revealed two intermingled tumor cell proliferations-diffuse B cell lymphoma and pheochromocytoma.Unexpected coexistence of catecholamine-producing tumor with the other adrenal lesion can lead to serious complications of diagnosis and treatment. The adequate preparation for surgery can protect patient from threatening catecholamine crisis. PMID:26419235

  9. Malignant pheochromocytoma of the anterior mediastinum: PET findings with [{sup 18}F]FDG and {sup 82}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, D.R.; Basile, K.E.; Chen, E.Q.; Go, R.T.; Bravo, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    A case of a malignant pheochromocytoma arising from the anterior mediastinum is presented. We report the use of positron emission tomography with {sup 82}Rb, and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose to successfully image this neoplasm. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  10. ATRX driver mutation in a composite malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Tejera, Águeda M; Currás-Freixes, María; Remacha, Laura; Gonzalvo, Pablo; Tonda, Raúl; Letón, Rocío; Blasco, María A; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Approximately 40% of PCCs/PGLs are due to germline mutations in one of 16 susceptibility genes, and a further 30% are due to somatic alterations in 5 main genes. Recently, somatic ATRX mutations have been found in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-associated hereditary PCCs/PGLs. In the present study we applied whole-exome sequencing to the germline and tumor DNA of a patient with metastatic composite PCC and no alterations in known PCC/PGL susceptibility genes. A somatic loss-of-function mutation affecting ATRX was identified in tumor DNA. Transcriptional profiling analysis classified the tumor within cluster 2 of PCCs/PGLs (without SDH gene mutations) and identified downregulation of genes involved in neuronal development and homeostasis (NLGN4, CD99 and CSF2RA) as well as upregulation of Drosha, an important gene involved in miRNA and rRNA processing. CpG island methylator phenotype typical of SDH gene-mutated tumors was ruled out, and SNP array data revealed a unique profile of gains and losses. Finally, we demonstrated the presence of alternative lengthening of telomeres in the tumor, probably associated with the failure of ATRX functions. In conclusion, somatic variants affecting ATRX may play a driver role in sporadic PCC/PGL. PMID:27209355

  11. HuR in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - overexpression in verified malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Helena; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Ristimäki, Ari; Paavonen, Timo; Metso, Saara; Mäenpää, Hanna; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare, neural crest-originating, neuroendocrine tumors. HuR is an mRNA-binding protein of the ELAV/Hu-protein family, which participates in posttranscriptional regulation of many cancer-associated genes. HuR expression has been connected with aggressive behavior of several malignancies. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also expressed in several malignant tumors, and its expression is regulated by HuR. Tissue microarray of 153 primary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas was investigated for the expression of HuR and COX-2 proteins by immunohistochemistry using two different HuR antibodies (HuR19F12 and HuR3A). In these tumors, the expression of both intranuclear and cytoplasmic HuR was detectable. Increased cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with metastatic tumors. Increased COX-2 and MIB-1 expression also was associated with metastatic potential, and moreover, HuR and COX-2 expression correlated with each other. Our data suggest that increased expression of HuR protein is associated with metastatic potential of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and COX-2 seems to be a target of HuR. PMID:27357268

  12. Molecular and Therapeutic Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Aoife J.; Walsh, Siun; McDermott, Enda W.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23576482

  13. Malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas harbor mutations in transport and cell adhesion genes.

    PubMed

    Wilzén, Annica; Rehammar, Anna; Muth, Andreas; Nilsson, Ola; Tešan Tomić, Tajana; Wängberg, Bo; Kristiansson, Erik; Abel, Frida

    2016-05-01

    One out of ten patients with pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) develop malignant disease. Today there are no reliable pathological methods to predict malignancy at the time of diagnosis. Tumors harboring mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene often metastasize but the sequential genetic events resulting in malignant progression are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify somatic mutations that contribute to the malignant transformation of PCC/PGL. We performed pair-wise (tumor-normal) whole-exome sequencing to analyze the somatic mutational landscape in five malignant and four benign primary PCC/sympathetic PGL (sPGL), including two biological replicates from each specimen. In total, 225 unique somatic mutations were identified in 215 genes, with an average mutation rate of 0.54 mutations/megabase. Malignant tumors had a significantly higher number of mutations compared to benign tumors (p < 0.001). Three novel genes were identified as recurrently mutated; MYCN, MYO5B and VCL, and mutations in these genes were exclusively found in malignant sPGL tumors. Mutations in the MYO5B gene could be verified in two publicly available data sets. A gene ontology analysis of mutated genes showed enrichment of cellular functions related to cytoskeletal protein binding, myosin complex and motor activity, many of which had functions in Rab and Rac/Rho GTPase pathways. In conclusion, we have identified recurrent mutations in genes related to intracellular transport and cell adhesion, and we have confirmed MYO5B to be recurrently mutated in PCC/PGL cases with malignant potential. Our study suggests that deregulated Rab and Rac/Rho pathways may be important in PCC/PGL tumorigenesis. PMID:26650627

  14. Genetic aspects of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kolačkov, Katarzyna; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are derived from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla which synthesize and secrete catecholamines, thus affecting the cardiovascular system and metabolic processes. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the following multicarcinoma hereditary syndromes: type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, type 1 neurofibromatosis and the pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas syndrome. Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare, and because of non-specific manifestation of these tumors and the possible lack of signs and symptoms for extended periods of time, the diagnosis may be delayed, which may, in turn, lead to death. Pheochromocytomas may occur sporadically. However, due to the frequent incidence of hereditary forms of these cancers, the presymptomatic genetic testing of family members with a positive family history is indicated, thus allowing for selecting people with higher risk of cancer. Early detection of the syndrome and the coexisting tumors (which may be malignant) may lead to a correct diagnosis, regular surveillance, preventive examinations and implementation of appropriate early treatment. Recent examinations have shown significant involvement of RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB and SDHD as well as the newly discovered KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX genes in pathogenesis of these tumors. The microarray-gene expression studies, based on the analysis of cellular pathways, have revealed two distinct clusters indicating two different routes of tumorgenesis. The genotype-phenotype correlations are still being studied and future research can give us clearer information about the function of these genes, which may prove crucial from the clinical point of view. PMID:23457139

  15. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  16. The protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Manger, W M

    2009-09-01

    The treacherous and deceptive nature of pheochromocytoma makes it crucial to detect and treat it promptly; otherwise it will almost certainly be fatal from cardiovascular complications or metastases. Hypertension occurring in patients with pheochromocytomas is sustained in about 50% and paroxysmal in the remainder; however, many patients remain normotensive. Hypertension attacks may be precipitated by physical activity, postural changes, anxiety, certain foods or wine, some drugs, operative procedures, etc. Cardinal manifestations are paroxysmal hypertension, headache, palpitations +/- tachycardia, inappropriate sweating; anxiety, tremulousness, pallor (rarely flushing), chest and abdominal pains; nausea and vomiting often occur. Hypercatecholaminemia manifestations are more common and pronounced when paroxysmal hypertension occurs, but persons with familial pheochromocytoma may be asymptomatic. Protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma may simulate many conditions, some of which may have elevated plasma and urine catecholamines and their metabolites. Baro-reflex failure, postural tachycardia syndrome, sleep apnea, carcinoid, renal failure, and pseudopheochromocytoma may be diagnostic challenges. The history, physical examination, biochemical testing (after eliminating interfering drugs, when possible) for plasma and urinary metanephrines can usually establish or exclude presence of pheochromocytomas. Occasionally a clonidine suppression test is needed to differentiate neurogenic from pheochromocytic hypertension. Manifestations suggesting hypercatecholaminemia without hypertension are highly atypical of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma may present as panic attacks, pre-eclampsia, cardiomyopathy, infection with fever and leucocytosis, diabetes, migraine, shock, Cushing's syndrome, multiple organ failure with lactic acidosis, neurological manifestations, transitory electrocardiogram abnormalities, constipation, intestinal obstruction, visual impairment

  17. Patient with inoperable pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Brancíková, D.; Mechl, Z.; Adam, Z.; Jandáková, E.; Pavlovský, Z.; Válek, V.; Andrašina, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is a tumour with a very low incidence that occurs sporadically or in the presence of multiple endocrine neoplasia. We present the case of a woman with a sporadic occurrence of pheochromocytoma diagnosed in the phase of multiple dissemination in the abdominal cavity and overexpressing adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Local transarterial chemoembolization and systemic treatment with lanreotide resulted in a very good response, a decrease in the production of catecholamines for 12 months and a partial decrease for another 8 months, with stabilization of disease determined by imaging. Systemic treatment with tegafur resulted in disease stabilization lasting 50 months, after which the drug was discontinued because of adverse effects. Maintenance therapy with lanreotide continues, and no disease progression has been observed for 4 months. The treatment algorithm for such patients is multidisciplinary and must always take into account the current scope of the disease, intercurrence, and the general condition of the patient. PMID:26089731

  18. Patient with inoperable pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Brancíková, D; Mechl, Z; Adam, Z; Jandáková, E; Pavlovský, Z; Válek, V; Andrašina, Z

    2015-06-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is a tumour with a very low incidence that occurs sporadically or in the presence of multiple endocrine neoplasia. We present the case of a woman with a sporadic occurrence of pheochromocytoma diagnosed in the phase of multiple dissemination in the abdominal cavity and overexpressing adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Local transarterial chemoembolization and systemic treatment with lanreotide resulted in a very good response, a decrease in the production of catecholamines for 12 months and a partial decrease for another 8 months, with stabilization of disease determined by imaging. Systemic treatment with tegafur resulted in disease stabilization lasting 50 months, after which the drug was discontinued because of adverse effects. Maintenance therapy with lanreotide continues, and no disease progression has been observed for 4 months. The treatment algorithm for such patients is multidisciplinary and must always take into account the current scope of the disease, intercurrence, and the general condition of the patient. PMID:26089731

  19. [Pheochromocytoma: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Widimský, J; Zelinka, T; Petrák, O; Strauch, B; Rosa, J; Michalský, M; Kasalický, M; Safarík, L; Vranková, A; Holaj, R

    2009-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (pheo) is adrenal or less frequently extraadrenal tumour of chromafine tissue. Pheos are rare, but cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities are common. Unrecognised pheo may lead to fatal hypertensive crisis during anesthesia or other stresses. Proper diagnosis of pheo is thus of utmost importance. 24-h blood pressure (BP) monitoring may contribute to the diagnosis of pheo due to increased BP variability and absence of night BP decline. Pheo contains large amount of enzyme catechol-O-methyl transpherase (COMT) with subsequent excessive production of COMT metabolites like metanephrines. Measurement of plasma free metanephrines or urinary fraccionated metanephrines has usually higher sensivitivity and specificity compared with plasma or urinary catecholamines. Morphological diagnosis of adrenal/extraadrenal pheo is based on CT/MR visualisation and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidin (MIBG) or PET 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose scan. Genetic analysis should be performed in all confirmed pheo cases, especially in younger subjects below 50 years of age in order to detect mutations of following genes: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), RET- protooncogen, genes encoding B, C and D subunit of mitochondrial sukcinat dehydrogenaze (SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) and neurofibromatosis type I gene. Pharmacological treatment is based on alpha blockers with subsequent (after 24-48 hours) administration of beta-blockers/especially in patients with tendency to tachycardia/. Following this therapy normalisation of BP is common and laparoscopic excision of pheo tumour can be realised. Malignant pheos are difficult to treat due to early occurrence of metastasis and lack of response to chemotherapy or iradiation in most cases. PMID:19899721

  20. Graves’ disease allied with multiple pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Housni, Brahim; Elharroudi, Tijani; Soufi, Mehdi; Bouziane, Mohammed; Azzouzi, Abderahim

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an uncommon cause of high blood pressure touching adults. The combination of severe hypertension in the triad of headache, sweating, and tachycardia should suggest this diagnosis; this clinical picture is similar to that of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with multiple pheochromocytoma associated with Graves’ disease revealed by malignant hypertension and discussed the difficulties of the diagnosis and the treatment approach. PMID:23776912

  1. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Epithelial Mesothelioma; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatous Mesothelioma; Stage IA Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage IB Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage II Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage III Malignant Mesothelioma; Stage IV Malignant Mesothelioma

  2. Malignancy rates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab

    PubMed Central

    Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Sebba, Anthony; Brockwell, Laura; Kelman, Ariella; Porter-Brown, Benjamin; Pulley, Jennifer; Napalkov, Pavel; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse malignancy rates in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tocilizumab. Methods Patients who received tocilizumab or placebo+methotrexate/disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the double-blind phases of 5-phase three trials or who received at least 1 dose of tocilizumab in the long-term extension studies were analysed up to the 2 May 2012 cut-off date. Malignancies were monitored throughout the studies, analysed and adjudicated as malignant by medical review. Risk was compared with that in the general population using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) based on data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results SEER (US general population) and GLOBOCAN (non-US general population) databases. Results In total, 4009 patients in the tocilizumab all-exposure population were included. Mean treatment duration was 4.0 years (mean 5.1 (range 0.0–6.8); total observation time was 16 120.1 patient-years (PY). The adjudicated malignancy rate (95% CI) was 1.26/100 PY (1.09 to 1.44) and remained constant over time. The SIR (95% CI) for all malignancies combined, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, was 1.36 (1.01 to 1.80) for US and 1.81 (1.44 to 2.23) for non-US populations, driven primarily by higher rates in lung and bronchus (US/non-US) malignancies and prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (non-US), in contrast to those for the general populations; these higher rates are in line with those expected in patients with RA or in the geographic regions studied. Conclusions Malignancy rates remained stable with long-term tocilizumab treatment, and malignancy types and rates were consistent with those expected in patients with RA. PMID:27252893

  3. Primary Malignant Melanoma of Vagina Treated by Total Pelvic Exenteration.

    PubMed

    Rema, P; Suchetha, S; Ahmed, Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of vagina is a rare variant of melanoma and usually associated with a grave prognosis. Radical surgery is the only treatment option with reasonable loco regional control. A case of primary malignant melanoma involving whole of vagina infiltrating urethra and reaching up to vulva was treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The tumor was infiltrating bladder and rectum reaching the anal sphincter. Total pelvic exenteration was done to achieve tumor-free surgical margins. One year after treatment, patient is disease free. PMID:27186045

  4. Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Lai, Edwin W.; Adams, Karen T.; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Pacak, Karel; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-01-01

    In the present report on the preliminary safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pheochromocytoma metastases, seven metastases were treated in six patients (mean size, 3.4 cm; range, 2.2–6 cm). α- and β-adrenergic and catecholamine synthesis inhibition and intraprocedural anesthesia monitoring were used. Safety was assessed by recording ablation-related complications. Complete ablation was defined as a lack of enhancement within the ablation zone on follow-up computed tomography. No serious adverse sequelae were observed. Complete ablation was achieved in six of seven metastases (mean follow-up, 12.3 months; range, 2.5–28 months). In conclusion, RF ablation may be safely performed for metastatic pheochromocytoma given careful attention to peri-procedural management. PMID:19875067

  6. Pheochromocytoma complicated by cyanotic congenital heart disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Usui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Fujiwara, Makoto; Hori, Yumiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Oue, Takaharu; Morii, Eiichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Coincidental cyanotic congenital heart disease and pheochromocytoma is uncommon, although some cases have been reported. We describe a girl aged 15 yr and 11 mo with pheochromocytoma and tricuspid atresia treated by performing the Fontan surgery. The patient did not have any specific symptoms of syndrome related to pheochromoytoma or a family history of pheochromocytoma. During cardiac catheterization, her blood pressure increased markedly, and an α-blocker was administered. Catecholamine hypersecretion was observed in the blood and urine, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the right adrenal gland. Scintigraphy showed marked accumulation of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the tumor, which led to a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We did not detect any germline mutations in the RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHD, TMEM127, or MAX genes. This patient had experienced mild systemic hypoxia since birth, which may have contributed to the development of pheochromocytoma. PMID:27212797

  7. Pheochromocytoma complicated by cyanotic congenital heart disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Usui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Fujiwara, Makoto; Hori, Yumiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Oue, Takaharu; Morii, Eiichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Coincidental cyanotic congenital heart disease and pheochromocytoma is uncommon, although some cases have been reported. We describe a girl aged 15 yr and 11 mo with pheochromocytoma and tricuspid atresia treated by performing the Fontan surgery. The patient did not have any specific symptoms of syndrome related to pheochromoytoma or a family history of pheochromocytoma. During cardiac catheterization, her blood pressure increased markedly, and an α-blocker was administered. Catecholamine hypersecretion was observed in the blood and urine, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the right adrenal gland. Scintigraphy showed marked accumulation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the tumor, which led to a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We did not detect any germline mutations in the RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHD, TMEM127, or MAX genes. This patient had experienced mild systemic hypoxia since birth, which may have contributed to the development of pheochromocytoma. PMID:27212797

  8. Pheochromocytoma induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is a rare tumor that develops in the core of a chromaffin cell. This article will focus on pheochromocytoma and its affect on the heart. Because the signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of the sympathetic nervous system, this tumor is hard to detect and might not be considered early on. In addition, there are many common deferential diagnoses that may lead to a delay of the correct diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma. Uncontrollable hypertension is one of the primary effects of pheochromocytoma. A severe increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis) may occur and this can be a life threatening condition that leads to stroke or arrhythmias. African-Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension and they often go undiagnosed because of a lack of resources or access to care. This tumor is difficult to detect and its effects often mimic many other diagnoses, which often leads to this tumor being a late consideration. The long-term effects of a pheochromocytoma can lead to damage to the heart muscle, congestive heart failure (CHF), increased risk of diabetes, and even death. Nurses need to be aware of the key signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma, and to know when testing for this tumor what symptoms should be considered. Patients who suffer from a diagnosis of this tumor need a lot of emotional support and they must follow a strict diet and medication regimen. Nurses can play a vital role in raising awareness in our community about this tumor as well as being a patient advocate. PMID:21516925

  9. Pheochromocytoma after Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Shahraki, Azar Danesh; Sheikhalian, Somaye; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor. There are a very few reported cases of clinical pheochromocytoma. Here, we report a 27-year-old woman para 1 live 1 with chief complaint of headache, confusion, nausea, and vomiting 2 days after cesarean section. She was anxious and had palpitation. On physical examination, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, high blood pressure, and right thyroid nodule were found. She was managed as pregnancy-induced hypertension at first. In laboratory data, epinephrine, norepinephrine, metanephrine, normetanephrine, and vanillylmandelic acid were increased in 24 h urine collection. An adrenal mass was detected in abdominal computed tomography. Regarding clinical and paraclinical findings, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. The patient received medical treatment, but it was not effective; hence, she underwent adrenalectomy. PMID:27076898

  10. New Imaging Approaches to Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Havekes, Bas; King, Kathryn; Lai, Edwin W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Pacak, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Formerly used concepts for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have been challenged by recent discoveries that a) at least 24% of tumors are familial and thereby often multiple in various locations throughout the body, b) tumors are often malignant and perhaps more aggressive if associated with SDHB gene mutations, c) clinically silent tumors may present only with dopamine hypersecretion, d) tumors are more often found as incidentalomas in the current era where CT and MRI are more commonly used and e) MRI may be less specific for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma than previously thought. Because of unique tumor characteristics (e.g. the presence of cell membrane and intracellular vesicular norepinephrine transporters) these tumors were ‘born’ to be imaged by means of specific functional imaging approaches. Moreover, additional recent discoveries related to apoptosis, hypoxia, acidosis, anaerobic glycolysis, and angiogenesis, often disturbed in tumor cells, open new options and challenges to specifically image pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and possibly link those results to their pathophysiology, genotypic alterations and metastatic potential. Functional imaging, especially represented by PET, offers an excellent approach by which tumor specific processes can be detected, evaluated and seen in the context of tumor-specific behavior and its genetic signature. In this review, we address the recent developments in new functional imaging modalities for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and provide the reader with a new modified imaging algorithm for various pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas of sympathetic origin. Current imaging algorithms of head and neck parasympathetic paragangliomas are not discussed. Finally, this review outlines some future perspectives of functional imaging of these tumors. PMID:19508681

  11. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Veglio, F; Morello, F; Morra Di Cella, S; Del Colle, S; Rabbia, F; Mulatero, P

    2003-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours of catecholamine-producing chromaffin cells leading to hypertension and symptoms of catecholamine excess. They can be benign or malignant, sporadic or familial tumours. Genetic syndromes associated with pheochromocytoma are MEN II, VHL disease and neurofibromatosis type 1. Usually, pheochromocytomas occur in the adrenal medulla. Clinical manifestations include hypertension (which can be intermittent, stable or in the form of hypertensive peaks) and symptoms related to catecholamine excess such as headache, palpitations and tachycardia, pallor, anxiety and nervousness, nausea, vomiting, weight loss. This clinical syndrome can be mimicked by various hyperkinetic and hyperadrenergic states. When pheochromocytoma is suspected, the first diagnostic step is represented by the measurement of catecholamines and their metabolites (metanephrines) in urine and plasma. Chro-mogranin A measurement can be useful. The clonidine suppression test may be helpful in ruling out other conditions that may elevate catecholamines and metanephrines. Localiza-tion and staging of pheochromocytoma is based on MRI, which is more sensitive than CT scan, and (131)I-MIBG scintiscan. The best therapeutic option for pheochromocytoma is surgery with a laparoscopic approach. An appropriate pre-, intra- and postoperative medical management of the patient is mandatory. In the absence of optimal medical treatment, intraoperative mortality reaches 50%. PMID:14605591

  12. Pheochromocytoma Crisis With Severe Cyclic Blood Pressure Fluctuations in a Cardiac Pheochromocytoma Patient Successfully Resuscitated by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Dawei; Su, Longxiang; Long, Yun; Du, Wei; Miao, Qi; Li, Fang; Jin, Zhengyu; Zeng, Zhengpei; Luo, Ailun; Huang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac pheochromocytoma is relatively rare. Few reports describe the intraoperative and postoperative progression of patients experiencing a life-threatening pheochromocytoma crisis treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 35-year-old man was referred to our facility for paroxysmal hypertension with a 10-year history of sweating, headaches, cardiac palpitations, and postexercise dyspnea. The patient initially underwent urine catecholamine measurement and an isotope scan, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (CT), which indicated a multiple, cardiac pheochromocytoma. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT reconstruction, and a coronary CT angiography revealed several lesions at the aortic root and along the cardiac vasculature. Multifocal cardiac pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuation occurred during surgery. Surgical resection of multiple pheochromocytomas in the right medial carotid sheath, mediastinum between the main and pulmonary arteries, and between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena artery was performed. To ensure cardiac perfusion and avoid severe circulatory fluctuation, the cardiac paraganglioma resection was prioritized. After resecting the cardiac pheochromocytoma, a severe pheochromocytoma crisis with rapid cyclic blood pressure fluctuation developed. ECMO and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) were initiated to stabilize circulation and perfusion. Phenoxybenzamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and fluid resuscitation were administered to support cardiovascular function. The magnitude of blood pressure fluctuation steadily decreased with treatment. IABP was discontinued after 3 days, and ECMO was discontinued after 16 days. The patient was discharged 3 months postoperatively. This case indicates that mechanical life support with ECMO is a valuable option for

  13. Malignant epitheloid angiomyolipoma of the kidney in a child treated with sunitinib, everolimus and axitinib

    PubMed Central

    Citak, Elvan Caglar; Yilmaz, Eda Bengi; Yaman, Emel; Kaya, Simge; Taskinlar, Hakan; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Apaydin, Demir

    2015-01-01

    The malignant variant of epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) of the kidney is uncommon, extremely aggressive and behaves like a renal cell carcinoma. We present a case of a 12-year-old male with malignant EAML who was treated according to adult treatment protocols. To our knowledge, axitinib has not been used before in children. We conclude that adult protocols, in this rare case, could be safely used in rare childhood malignancies. PMID:26279736

  14. How I treat influenza in patients with hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Corey; Englund, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has heightened the interest of clinicians for options in the prevention and management of influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Even before the emergence of the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, influenza disease was a serious complication in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review the clinical manifestations of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and discuss current diagnosis, antiviral treatment, and prophylaxis options. We also summarize infection control and vaccination strategies for patients, family members, and caregivers. PMID:20009037

  15. Pigmented Pheochromocytoma: an Unusual Variant of a Common Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Kaur, Kavneet; Kumar, Tarun; Cherian, Libin Babu; Kaushal, Rohit; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Dhar, Anita; Seth, Amlesh; Jain, Deepali

    2016-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. A number of variants of pheochromocytoma are known; however, pigmented pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in literature. We report the cases of two patients with pigmented pheochromocytoma. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of breathlessness, palpitations, and anxiety for 5 years, which had worsened over the last 8 months. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a right suprarenal mass. Case 2 was that of an 18-year-old girl who presented with similar complaints and was diagnosed with hypertension. CT abdomen showed bilateral adrenal masses. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid was raised in both patients. Sections examined from all three tumors showed cells arranged in Zellballen pattern, separated by thin fibrovascular septae. Tumor cells showed moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism in case 1. Mitoses were, however, not seen. There was no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. Many of the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic black pigment, which was positive for Fontana-Masson and was bleach-labile, confirming it as melanin. Hemosiderin deposition was also identified. Large areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen in case 1. Tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, while they were negative for HMB-45. Electron microscopy was performed. A final diagnosis of pigmented pheochromocytoma was rendered in both cases. Pigmented pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor, which needs to be differentiated from other pigmented tumors like malignant melanoma of adrenal gland and pigmented adrenal adenoma. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry help in making this distinction. PMID:26578456

  16. Pheochromocytoma: Gasping for Air.

    PubMed

    Jochmanová, Ivana; Zhuang, Zhengping; Pacak, Karel

    2015-12-01

    There has been increasing evidence that pseudohypoxia--a phenomenon that we refer to as "gasping for air"--along with mitochondrial enzyme dysregulation play a crucial role in tumorigenesis, particularly in several hereditary pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs). Alterations in key tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle enzymes (SDH, FH, MDH2) have been shown to induce pseudohypoxia via activation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) signaling pathway that is involved in tumorigenesis, invasiveness, and metastatic spread, including an association with resistance to various cancer therapies and worse prognosis. This review outlines the ongoing story of the pathogenesis of hereditary PHEOs/PGLs, showing the unique and most updated evidence of TCA cycle dysregulation that is tightly linked to hypoxia signaling. PMID:26138106

  17. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Pacak, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a very special kind of tumor full of duplicity. On the one hand it represents its own microworld with unique clinical, biochemical and pathological features, while on the other it constitutes a tremendously significant part of whole body system, playing a vital role for practically every organ system. It has a very special character – sometimes like a child it can be sweet and predictable, while at times it can behave like a deadly wild beast, crashing and tearing everything on its path in a fierce rage. It also consists of the amazingly intelligent neuroendocrine cells that possess a magical ability to make miraculous substances of many kinds. But most of all, it is a system that is able to drive our curiosity and the itch of “Cogito, ergo sum” to limitless depths and year by year it still amazes us with new and unexpected discoveries that move our understanding of multiple pathways and metabolic events closer to the ultimate truth. Recent discoveries of succinate dehydrogenase (SHD) and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations, for example, propelled our understanding of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis as a whole, as well as physiology of mitochondrial respiratory chain and phenomenon of pseudohypoxia in particular. Good old discoveries make their way from dusty repositories to shine with new meaning, appropriate for the current level of knowledge. This acquired wisdom makes us better physicians – knowing the specific expression makeup of catecholamine transporters, GLUTs and SRIFs allows for better tailored imaging and therapeutic manipulations. There are still long ways to go, keeping in mind that pheochromocytoma is but so very special, and we are optimistic and expect many great things to come. PMID:20541673

  18. Rasburicase and Allopurinol in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Pheochromocytoma and Neurofibromatosis Type 1 in a Patient with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Julijana; Kitanovska, Biljana Gerasimovska; Bogdanovska, Stevka; Kuzmanoska, Svetlana Pavleska

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant condition that has a variety of clinical manifestations. Essential or secondary hypertension may be associated with neurofibromatosis. A rare finding is hypertension due to pheochromocytoma in patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. CASE REPORT: We present a case with a 7-year medical history of hypertension which was poorly controlled and with wide variations of blood pressure before the examination. Investigations did not reveal a secondary cause of hypertension. After the physical examination and establishing the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis, as well as the history of symptomes suggestive of catecholamine discharge, diagnostic procedures for pheochromocytoma were undertaken. Abdominal CT and MRI have proven the presence of a right adrenal tumor mass which was suspected to be a pheochromocytoma. Patient was preoperatively treated for two weeks with alpha and beta blokers and right adrenalectomy was performed. Perioperatively and on a longer term, blood pressure remained well controlled with less antihypertensive therapy. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis involves a dermatologist, endocrinologist, nephrologist and an urologist and requires a well-coordinated multidisciplinary approach. CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma, although a rare condition in patients with neurofibromatosis, may be a cause for uncontrolled hypertension, as well as other cardiovascular complications and the clinician should do all available clinical investigations to confirm it or exclude it on time. PMID:27275314

  20. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Alpaslan; Tuncel, Tolga; Emirzeoglu, Levent; Celik, Serkan; Bilgi, Oguz; Haholu, Abdullah; Urhan, Muammer; Karagoz, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can be successfully treated when it is identified in its early stages, but the disease is associated with a poor prognosis when it is detected in an advanced stage. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a thyroid cancer that has a good prognosis. The present study reports a rare case of malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma that were diagnosed concurrently and treated simultaneously. The present patient was a 37-year-old male, in whom examination of a skin biopsy that was obtained from a lesion in the right retroauricular region revealed the lesion to be consistent with malignant melanoma. The patient underwent radical neck dissection upon the detection of malignant melanoma metastasis to the sentinel lymph node. Metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma were detected in four out of 38 lymph nodes. The patient was then diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma and underwent total thyroidectomy. The patient was administered with high-dose followed by moderate-dose interferon-α therapy for the treatment of malignant melanoma. The patient also received concurrent radioactive iodine therapy for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma, at the same time as the interferon therapy. The two primary tumors of the patient were treated successfully. During therapy, no serious side-effects were observed, with the exception of fever caused by high-dose interferon therapy. Malignant melanoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma may occur concurrently, although this is rarely observed. The present study reports a rare case that demonstrates that the two tumors can be successfully treated simultaneously. PMID:25436010

  1. Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy of the extremities in metastatic pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shulkin, B.L.; Shen, S.W.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-03-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy may be used to determine the presence or absence of metastases to the appendicular skeleton in malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Normal bones show no uptake of (/sup 131/I)MIBG and the joints are seen as photon-deficient areas surrounded by background muscle activity. Discrete concentrations of radioactivity in bone are often seen in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma may be indicated by diffuse uptake of (/sup 131/I)MIBG or focal accumulation at the metaphyses. Uncommonly, bone involvement may not be displayed by the (/sup 131/I)MIBG images. Since conventional bone scanning agents may also fail to detect these tumors, skeletal scintigraphy with both (/sup 131/I)MIBG and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP is necessary to reliably stage malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.

  2. Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: Effects on c-jun and c-fos expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivaschuk, O.I.; Jones, R.A.; Ishida-Jones, T.; Haggren, W.; Adey, W.R.; Phillips, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells have been treated with nerve growth factor and then exposed to athermal levels of a packet-modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz. This signal was produced by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular telephone standard. Three slot average power densities were used: 0.09, 0.9, and 9 mW/cm{sup 2}. Exposures were for 20, 40, and 60 min and included an intermittent exposure regime, resulting in total incubation times of 20, 60, and 100 min, respectively. Concurrent controls were sham exposed. After extracting total cellular RNA, Northern blot analysis was used to assess the expression of the immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, in all cell populations. No change in c-fos transcript levels were detected after 20 min exposure at each field intensity. Transcript levels for c-jun were altered only after 20 min exposure to 9 mW/cm{sup 2}. 51 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression.

    PubMed

    Ivaschuk, O I; Jones, R A; Ishida-Jones, T; Haggren, W; Adey, W R; Phillips, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells have been treated with nerve growth factor and then exposed to athermal levels of a packet-modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz. This signal was produced by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular telephone standard. Three slot average power densities were used: 0.09, 0.9, and 9 mW/cm2. Exposures were for 20, 40, and 60 min and included an intermittent exposure regimen (20 min on/20 min off), resulting in total incubation times of 20, 60, and 100 min, respectively. Concurrent controls were sham exposed. After extracting total cellular RNA, Northern blot analysis was used to assess the expression of the immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, in all cell populations. No change in c-fos transcript levels were detected after 20 min exposure at each field intensity (20 min was the only time period at which c-fos message could be detected consistently). Transcript levels for c-jun were altered only after 20 min exposure to 9 mW/cm2 (average 38% decrease). PMID:9096840

  4. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Christine S.; Yock, Torunn I.; Nelson, Kerrie; Xu, Yang; Keating, Nancy L.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  5. Giant cystic pheochromocytoma: A silent entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Bains, Lovenish; Agarwal, Manish Kumar; Gupta, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumor that originate from chromaffin cells. Usually, it is solid neoplasm of the adrenal medulla, however cystic pheochromocytoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumour that is frequently asymptomatic and often diagnosed incidentally on imaging or intra-operatively. Only a few cases of cystic pheochromocytomas have been reported in the world literature. We present a case of giant cystic pheochromocytoma in a 65 years old lady who presented with a large retroperitoneal lump, which is probably the world's third largest pheochromocytoma as per the available indexed literature. PMID:27453669

  6. Somatic RET mutation in a patient with pigmented adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Maison, Nicole; Korpershoek, Esther; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the neural crest. Mutations in the RET-proto-oncogene are associated with sporadic pheochromocytoma, familial or sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. In the past, only few cases of pigmented PCCs, PGLs, and one case of pigmented MTC have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present the case of a 77-year old woman with a history of Tako-tsubo-cardiomyopathy and laboratory, as well as radiological, high suspicion of pheochromocytoma, who underwent left-sided adrenalectomy. The 3 cm tumor, which was located on the upper pole of the left adrenal, appeared highly pigmented with dark red to black color. Histologic examinations revealed highly pleomorphic cells with bizarre, huge hyperchromatic nuclei, that immunohistochemically were positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, focally positive for HMB45 and negative for melan A. These clinical and pathological features led to the diagnosis of the rare variant of a melanotic ‘black’ pheochromocytoma. In our case a somatic RET mutation in exon 16 (RET c.2753T>C, p.Met918Thy) was detected by targeted next generation sequencing. In summary, this case represents a rare variant of catecholamine-producing tumor with distinct histological features. A potential relationship between the phenotype, the cellular origin and the genetic alterations is discussed. Learning points Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Pigmentation is seen in several types of tumors arising from the neural crest. The macroscopic black aspect can mislead to the diagnosis of a metastasis deriving from a malignant melanoma. RET mutation are seen in catecholamine and non-catecholamine producing tumors of the same cellular origin. PMID:26843961

  7. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  8. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  9. Late presentation of metastatic pheochromocytoma: A problem case solved by I-131 MIBG scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Virgolini, L. )

    1990-02-01

    A patient presented with recurrent pheochromocytoma 10 years following the apparently successful surgical cure of a right adrenal pheochromocytoma. Conventional medical imaging techniques, (chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound, and abdominal CT) suggested local recurrence for which surgery was planned. I-131 MIBG scintigraphy revealed disseminated metastatic disease that rendered attempts at surgical cure futile. The patient was treated with three therapeutic doses of I-131 MIBG with good symptomatic palliation and improvement of some biochemical parameters.

  10. The occurrence of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with cyclophosphamide: a controlled retrospective follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Baltus, J A; Boersma, J W; Hartman, A P; Vandenbroucke, J P

    1983-01-01

    In a retrospective follow-up we compared the incidence of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with cyclophosphamide with that in another group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and also with the incidence of malignancies in the general population. Among 81 patients treated with cyclophosphamide in the past decade 15 malignancies occurred. This was 4.1 times the expected number obtained from a closely matched control group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis not treated with cytotoxic drugs (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 19.0), and 3.7 times the expected number calculated from general population rates (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 5.9). The increase in haematological and lymphoreticular malignancies was specially notable. The data also indicate that the development of malignancies after the start of cyclophosphamide therapy necessitates a certain induction time and that it is to some extent dose-dependent. PMID:6882031

  11. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Chen, Jianping; Sun, Kewen; Zhuang, Yun; Xu, Fu; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Qing; Zhang, Dachuan

    2016-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the esophagus. In the majority of cases, the disease originates in the mucosal layer of the esophagus, which is similar to other types of esophageal cancer. With the development of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic resection is possible for cases in which melanomas are limited to the mucosal and submucosal layer. However, few studies report the efficiency of ESD for PMME, and no studies perform long-term follow-up. The present study reported the case of a 71-year-old PMME patient who was successfully treated by ESD at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (Changzhou, China) in Otober 2011, with a follow-up of >3 years conducted. PMID:27602062

  12. Cellular therapy to treat haematological and other malignancies: progress and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Phillip D; Gottlieb, David; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Hart, Derek N J

    2011-10-01

    The recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a cellular therapy to treat castration resistant prostate cancer has reinforced the potential of cellular therapy to consolidate current pharmacological approaches to treating cancer. The emergence of the cell manufacturing facility to facilitate clinical translation of these new methodologies allows greater access to these novel therapies. Here we review different strategies currently being explored to treat haematological malignancies with a focus on adoptive allogeneic or autologous transfer of antigen specific T cells, NK cells or dendritic cells. These approaches all aim to generate immunological responses against overexpressed tissue antigens, mismatched minor histocompatability antigens or tumour associated antigens. Current successes and limitations of these different approaches will be discussed with an emphasis on challenges encountered in generating long term engraftment, antigen selection and implementation as well as therapeutic immune monitoring of clinical responses, with examples from recent clinical trials. PMID:21897329

  13. [The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome with pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Palmar, Ivan; Vircburger, Mirko; Manojlović, Dusan; Radević, Bozina; Andjelković, Zoran; Burić, Bogdan; Savicević, Milorad; Nesković, Gorana

    2002-07-01

    The members of four generations of a family with Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) have been followed by one of us (I.P.) for 30 years. The disease was proved in four members of this family, in three of them associated with pheochromocytoma. The grandmother (I-1) died at the age of 16 years two months after her first birth. The cause of death was not established. Her daughter (II-1) had 9 births with 5 children alive. Paresthesia and difficulties in walking followed by paraparesis and paraplegia were the first signs of the disease at the age of 58 years. The surgical treatment was performed because of an expansive lesion at the level of Th 3-4. Pathohistological examination was not done. It seems that a haemangioblastoma might be the cause of her disease. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was documented in a female patient (III-2) in 1972. Two years later she was successfully operated on. Pathohistological examination proved clinical diagnosis. She had also diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis and cardiomyopathy. She died at the age of 56 years. A right-sided pheochromocytoma was diagnosed in a next female patient (III-4) at the age of 22 years. Her surgical treatment was successful. Retinal haemangioblastomatosis was established 7 years later in this patient. She was blind at the end of her life. Haemangioblastomatosis cerebelli was diagnosed soon, and she died at the age of 51 years. A 12- year old boy (IV-3) presented severe hypertension (36/24 kPa). Left-sided pheochromocytoma was removed in this patient one year later. Right-sided pheochromocytoma was operated on in the same patient at the age of 24 years. An elevated level of urinary dopamine was documented four years after the second operation. A malignant right-sided pheochromocytoma was operated on in the same patient 15 years later. At the same time metastases were found in the lower part of the right lung lobe. A 131-I-MIBG therapy could not be realized. He died at the age of 41. Pathohistological examinations

  14. Pheochromocytoma Masquerading as "Diabetic Ketoacidosis".

    PubMed

    Hedley, Jeffrey Stephen; Law, Sidney; Phookan, Sujoy; Lee, Maria Nien-Feng; Ioachimescu, Adriana; Levit, Rebecca D

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a routinely encountered diagnosis in medicine. Physicians are trained early on to look for precipitants. Most clinicians assess for medication compliance, infection, ischemia, and the like. We present a case of pheochromocytoma presenting as "diabetic ketoacidosis." The case serves as an example for broadening the differential diagnosis for patients with similar presentations. Additionally, the case helps inform our understanding of the so-called "stress reactions" that are commonly invoked in clinical rationale. PMID:27152317

  15. [Demonstration of enkephalins in pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Castanas, E; Oliver, C; Eiden, L; Boudouresque, F; Jaquet, P; Conte-Devolx, B; Cesselin, F

    1982-06-01

    Adrenal medulla has recently been shown to contain high concentrations of enkephalin immunoreactive peptides. In the present study, we report the levels of M-ENK and L-ENK in extracts from 6 cases of human pheochromocytoma. The molecular forms of M-ENK have been characterized by gel filtration chromatography and HPLC. mRNA extracted from one tumor has been proved to code for a 80,000 kilo daltons protein containing M-ENK sequence. M-ENK immunoreactive peptides are secreted in the culture medium of dispersed cultured cells of human pheochromocytoma. This secretion is stimulated when nicotine (10(5) M) is added to the medium. However, the level of plasma M-ENK in pheochromocytoma patients is not significantly different from normal patients. Data from Holaday and al. have established that naloxone (an opiate antagonist) has a beneficial role in shock. But the origin and meaning of plasma M-ENK remain to be established. PMID:6810817

  16. [Pheochromocytoma: rare lethal challenging diagnosis that may be encountered by gynecologists and obstetricians].

    PubMed

    Choux, C; Vergès, B; Isnardon, J-P; Rousselet, J-M; Douvier, S; Sagot, P

    2012-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare but potentially lethal tumors responsible for malignant hypertension. They may be encountered by gynecologists and obstetricians. The diagnosis is difficult because it can be mistaken for diseases more frequent like preeclampsia or other pelvic tumors. We report two cases highlighting clinical clues such as labile hypertension, headache, sweating, palpitations and failure to respond to conventional treatment should prompt physicians to screen patients for pheochromocytoma by measuring the 24-hour urinary catecholamines. The surgery must be performed after using an appropriate preoperative treatment, in order not to trigger lethal outcome. During pregnancy, C-section is recommended. PMID:22227233

  17. Mucosal Malignant Melanoma of the Head and Neck Treated by Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagi, Takeshi Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Bessho, Hiroki; Onda, Takeshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy for mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2004, 72 patients with mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck were treated with carbon ion beams in three prospective studies. Total dose ranged from 52.8 GyE to 64 GyE given in 16 fixed fractions over 4 weeks. Clinical parameters including gender, age, Karnofsky index, tumor site, tumor volume, tumor status, total dose, fraction size, and treatment time were evaluated in relation to local control and overall survival. Results: The median follow-up period was 49.2 months (range, 16.8-108.5 months). Treatment toxicity was within acceptable limits, and no patients showed Grade 3 or higher toxicity in the late phase. The 5-year local control rate was 84.1%. In relation to local control, there were no significant differences in any parameters evaluated. The 5-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 27.0% and 39.6%, respectively. For overall survival, however, tumor volume ({>=}100 mL) was found to be the most significant prognostic parameter. Of the patients who developed distant metastasis, 85% were free from local recurrence. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck in terms of high local control and acceptable toxicities. Overall survival rate was better than in those treated with conventional radiotherapy and was comparable to that with surgery.

  18. Radiotherapy for urinary bladder pheochromocytoma with invasion of the prostate: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    YOU, DONG; REN, RUIZHEN; CHEN, ERCHENG; CHEN, SHULIN; WANG, DAWEI; LIU, JIANHUI

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, for which there is currently no effective therapy. Cytoreductive surgery is recommended to reduce tumor burden and relieve the symptoms of catecholamine excess, although complete eradication of the lesions is often not feasible. In patients with advanced disease, for whom surgical resection is not an option, systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy and treatment with iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine may be used to achieve symptomatic relief. Although malignant pheochromocytoma is considered to be unresponsive to radiotherapy, a limited number of case reports, although not large patient samples, have been published on the effectiveness of radiotherapy for the treatment of this disease. This is the case report of a 23-year-old male patient with bladder pheochromocytoma invading the prostate, who refused to undergo surgery. The tumor shrank following radiotherapy and had not increased in size 1.5 years after treatment. Similarly, the blood pressure of the patient remained within normal limits without antihypertensive medication; the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites also remained normal. Our case demonstrated that radiotherapy was effective for malignant pheochromocytoma to a certain extent and, therefore, it may be selected when surgery is not feasible.

  19. Images of pheochromocytoma in adrenal glands

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Colin J.; Blake, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare tumors of the adrenal medulla. A wide spectrum of imaging findings has been described. The aim of this article is to describe the multimodality imaging features of pheochromocytomas including diagnostic pearls that can help differentiate them from other adrenal lesions and pitfalls to avoid. PMID:26310999

  20. [The observation of bilateral pheochromocytoma after unilateral adrenalectomy : a case report].

    PubMed

    Itami, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Takenaga, Maho; Shinohara, Masatake; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of bilateral pheochromocytoma which was incidentally discovered by ultrasonography at a health check-up. A 46-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for further examination of a right adrenal tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right adrenal tumor, 5 cm in size, and a left adrenal tumor, 1.5 cm in size. High serum noradrenaline and urine noradrenaline levels were noted. 131I-MIBG scintigraphy revealed an abnormal accumulation of 131 I in the tumors. Thus, our clinical diagnosis was bilateral pheochromocytoma. Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathological examination revealed pheochromocytoma, no capsule injury and no malignancy. We decided to continue watchful waiting of the left adrenal tumor, because the serum and urine levels of catecholamine were within the normal range after the operation. She has been well with no clinical symptoms, no increase in tumor size, and no elevation of catecholamine for 20 months. PMID:23827866

  1. Dealing with Pheochromocytoma during the First Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kiroplastis, Konstantinos; Kambaroudis, Apostolos; Andronikou, Apostolos; Reklou, Andromachi; Kokkonis, Dimitris; Petras, Panagiotis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Anagnostara, Eudokia; Spyridis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Pheochromocytoma in association with pregnancy is a very rare, without specific symptoms, life-threatening condition, increasing both maternal and fetal mortality up to 50%. The present paper illustrates the case of a pregnant woman, diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, aiming to demonstrate and discuss the difficulties that arouse during the diagnosis and the problems concerning the treatment. Patient. A 34-year-old woman, in the 9th week of pregnancy, complained for headache, sweating, and a feeling of heavy weight on the right renal area. A tumor of 10 cm diameter at the site of the right adrenal was found. Twenty-four-hour urine catecholamine and VMA excretion levels were well raised. Results. Multidisciplinary approach treated the patient conservatively. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed after the 14th week of pregnancy at the completion of organogenesis. Neither postoperative complications occurred nor hypertension relapse was recorded. The fetus was delivered without complications at the 36th week. Conclusions. There are no consensus and guidelines for treating pheochromocytoma during pregnancy, especially when it is diagnosed in the first trimester. The week of pregnancy and a multidisciplinary approach will determine whether the pregnancy should be continued or not, as well as the time and the approach of surgical treatment. PMID:25838955

  2. Second malignancies in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with low and medium activities of radioactive I-131

    PubMed Central

    PICIU, DOINA; PESTEAN, CLAUDIU; BARBUS, ELENA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; PICIU, ANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim This study aimed at determining whether there is a risk regarding the development of second primary malignancies after patient exposure to the low and medium radioiodine activity used during the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). Methods Second primary malignancies that occurred after DTC were detected in 1,990 patients treated between 1970 and 2003. The mean long-term follow-up period was 182 months. Results Radioiodine I-131was administrated at a mean dose of 63.2 mCi. There were 93 patients with at least one second primary malignancy. The relative risk of development of second malignancy in DTC patients was increased (p<0.0001) for breast, uterine and ovarian cancers compared with the general population. Conclusions The overall risk concerning the development of second primary malignancies was related to the presence of DTC, but not to exposure to the low and medium activities of radioiodine administered as adjuvant therapy. PMID:27547058

  3. Loss of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene expression in pheochromocytomas from patients without NF1

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, R.T.; Gutmann, D.H.; Moley, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein, termed neurofibromin. Loss of NF1 gene expression has been reported in Schwann cell tumors (neurofibrosarcomas) from patients with NF1 as well as malignant and neuroblastomas from patients without NF1. Previously, we demonstrated the lack of neurofibromin expression in six pheochromocytomas from patients with NF1, suggesting that neurofibromin loss is associated with the progression to neoplasia in pheochromocytomas in these patients. The lack of NF1 gene expression in NF1 patient pheochromocytomas supports the notion that neurofibromin might be an essential regulator of cell growth in these cells. To determine whether NF1 gene expression is similarly altered in pheochromocytomas from patients without NF1, twenty pheochromocytomas were examined for the presence of NF1 RNA by reverse-transcribed PCR (RT-PCR). Lack of NF1 gene expression was documented in four of these twenty tumors (20%) which corresponds to previously reported numbers for malignant melanomas and neuroblastomas in non-NF1 patients. Of these twenty pheochromocytomas, one of four sporadic tumors, one of ten tumors from patients with MEN2A, one of four tumors from patients with MEN2B, and one of two tumors from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome demonstrated loss of NF1 gene expression. In all cases, the quality and quantity of tumor RNA was determined by RT-PCR amplification using primers which amplify cyclophilin RNA. We previously demonstrated that these tumors do not harbor activating mutations of the N-ras, K-ras or H-ras proto-oncogenes. These results suggest that loss of NF1 gene expression is frequently associated with the progression to neoplasia in tumors derived from adrenal medullary tissue in patients without clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis and supports the notion that neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor gene product involved in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of tumor types.

  4. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  5. [Genetics of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas].

    PubMed

    Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare tumors that arise from chromaffin tissues of the adrenal medulla and from sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia. Ten susceptibility genes (VHL, RET, NF1, SDHA, B, C and D, SDHAF2, TMEM127 and finally MAX) are responsible for at least 30% of the cases. These patients can either have a familial history of the disease, a syndromic presentation, but can also emerge as apparently sporadic forms. Moreover, recent transcriptomic studies have led to the identification of somatic mutations in VHL and RET genes in 15% of sporadic cases, thus bringing a molecular explanation for nearly half of all cases. These findings have had a major impact on the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. It was shown that the genetic status of tumors is associated with particular transcription signatures, such as the activation of the pseudohypoxic response or the activation of MAPK or mTOR signalling. From nowadays to a close future, these advances will have important consequences on the monitoring of patients, from genetic counseling to a personalized clinical management. PMID:22805139

  6. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  7. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A health care provider uses blood and urine tests that measure ...

  8. Characterization and Plasma Measurement of the WE-14 Peptide in Patients with Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Johann; Guérin, Marlène; Thouënnon, Erwan; Montéro-Hadjadje, Maité; Leprince, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé; Klein, Marc; Muresan, Mihaela; Anouar, Youssef; Yon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Granins and their derived peptides are valuable circulating biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tumoral chromogranin A (CgA)-derived peptide WE-14 and the potential advantage to combine plasma WE-14 detection with the EM66 assay and the existing current CgA assay for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Compared to healthy volunteers, plasma WE-14 levels were 5.4-fold higher in patients with pheochromocytoma, but returned to normal values after surgical resection of the tumor. Determination of plasma CgA and EM66 concentrations in the same group of patients revealed that the test assays for these markers had an overall 84% diagnostic sensitivity, which is identical to that determined for WE-14. However, we found that WE-14 measurement improved the diagnostic sensitivity when combined with the results of CgA or EM66 assays. By combining the results of the three assays, the sensitivity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was increased to 95%. In fact, the combination of WE-14 with either CgA or EM66 test assays achieved 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of paragangliomas and sporadic or malignant pheochromocytomas if taken separately to account for the heterogeneity of the tumor. These data indicate that WE-14 is produced in pheochromocytoma and secreted into the general circulation, and that elevated plasma WE-14 levels are correlated with the occurrence of this chromaffin cell tumor. In addition, in association with other biological markers, such as CgA and/or EM66, WE-14 measurement systematically improves the diagnostic sensitivity for pheochromocytoma. These findings support the notion that granin-processing products may represent complementary tools for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:24523932

  9. Pheochromocytoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fever during an attack of symptoms. Your vital signs can be normal at other times. Tests include: ... to stay in the hospital and have your vital signs closely monitored around the time of surgery. After ...

  10. Primary anorectal malignant melanoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and sphincter-sparing surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SU, MENG; ZHU, LUCHENG; LUO, WENHUA; WEI, HANGPING; ZOU, CHANGLIN

    2014-01-01

    Primary anorectal (PA) malignant melanoma (MM) is a rare disease associated with a high mortality rate. The most appropriate treatment strategy for PAMM remains controversial. A 55-year-old female patient, who was misdiagnosed with locally advanced rectal carcinoma, was treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent oral capecitabine. During the therapy, grade 1 leukopenia occurred, however, there was no interruption to treatment. Following chemoradiotherapy, a computer tomography scan identified that the tumor had shrunk significantly and the original enlarged lymph nodes had disappeared. Eight weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy, sphincter-sparing surgery was performed on the patient and based on the postoperative pathological result, MM was diagnosed. At the time of writing, the patient has survived disease-free for 15 months and at the most recent follow-up examination the Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 100. The therapeutic regimen of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy together with sphincter-sparing surgery is considered to be an optimal choice for patients with PAMM. However, further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and clinical utility of this therapeutic regimen. PMID:24765186

  11. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient treated with lithium carbonate and haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfen; Guo, Yahui; Zhang, Aiguo

    2014-12-01

    A 39-year-old female with a 20-year history of bipolar disorder was admitted due to a recurrence of a manic episode with psychotic symptoms. She was treated with standard doses of lithium carbonate and clozapine. Three days after admission, she showed aggressive behavior and refused to take her medications so her oral clozapine was switched to intramuscular haloperidol. Three days later she developed a high temperature and exhibited symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) including excessive sweating, cramps and tremors in limb muscles, muscle rigidity, and impaired consciousness. The haloperidol and lithium were stopped immediately, symptomatic treatment was provided, and she was administered the dopamine agonist bromocriptine. The NMS symptoms resolved within three days but she continued to have severe psychotic symptoms. She was subsequently re-challenged with valproate and olanzapine but the NMS did not re-occur. After one month of this treatment she recovered and was discharged. Several case histories similar to this one suggest - but do not prove - that individuals concurrently receiving lithium and antipsychotic medications may be at higher risk of developing NMS than those receiving monotherapy with antipsychotic medication. PMID:25642114

  12. Current diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Experience with 22 consecutive tumors in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caty, M.G.; Coran, A.G.; Geagen, M.; Thompson, N.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of childhood. In comparison with adults with pheochromocytomas, children have a higher incidence of bilaterality, familial association, and extra-adrenal location. Fourteen children with 22 tumors were treated during the period 1970 through 1988. Children presented at a mean age of 13 years. Most children (10 of 14) presented with sustained hypertension. The majority of tumors were located with a combination of computed tomography and iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning. Eight adrenal and six extra-adrenal tumors were resected. Four children underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Follow-up data are available on 9 of the 14 children. All of these patients remain normotensive without medication. Preoperative examination of children with pheochromocytoma using the iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan provides an accurate diagnosis of adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors, thus making feasible resection of this rare tumor with complete cure.

  13. Pheochromocytoma presenting with remote bony recurrence twenty years after initial surgery: detection with 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Parida, Girish Kumar; Dhull, Varun Singh; Sharma, Punit; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors which can be malignant in 10% of cases. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with headache and palpitation for 1 year. She had a past history of right adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma 20 years back. In between, the patient was asymptomatic. Twenty-four-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid was raised. Noncontrast CT and ultrasound of abdomen were unremarkable. The patient underwent 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT that showed metastasis to left ilium, which was confirmed on biopsy. PMID:23640231

  14. Mutations seen among patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma at a referral center from India.

    PubMed

    Pai, R; Ebenazer, A; Paul, M J; Thomas, N; Nair, A; Seshadri, M S; Oommen, R; Shanthly, N; Devasia, A; Rebekah, G; Jeyaseelan, L; Rajaratnam, S

    2015-02-01

    Determining the mutational status of susceptibility genes including RET, VHL, SDHx (SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) among patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PGL) is gaining importance. These genes have not been systematically characterized among patients with PCC/PGL from India. The aim of the work was to screen the most frequently mutated genes among patients with PCC/PGL to determine the frequency and spectrum of mutations seen in this region. Fifty patients with PCC/PGL treated at our tertiary care hospital between January 2010 and June 2012 were screened for mutations in susceptibility genes using an algorithmic approach. Thirty-two percent (16/50) of patients were found to be positive for mutations including mutations among RET (n=4), VHL (n=6), SDHB (n=3), and SDHD (n=3) genes. None of these patients were positive for SDHC mutations. A significant association was found between young patients with bilateral tumors and VHL mutations (p=0.002). Two of the 3 patients with extra-adrenal SDHB associated tumors, had unique mutations, viz., c.436delT (exon 5) and c.788_857del (exon 8), one of which was malignant. High frequency of mutations seen among patients in this study emphasizes the need to consider mutational analysis among Indian patients with PCC/PGL. PMID:24977658

  15. Laparoscopic management of recurrent pheochromocytoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Garg, Harshit; Uppal, Manpreet; Sreedharan, Sreesanth Kelu; Aggarwal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence of pheochromocytoma after a total adrenalectomy is uncommon. Such recurrent tumours are mostly managed by the open technique, with very few studies reporting laparoscopic management. We hereby report a case of successful laparoscopic management of a recurrent pheochromocytoma after total adrenalectomy for left adrenal pheochromocytoma. PMID:27279402

  16. Laparoscopic management of recurrent pheochromocytoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Harshit; Uppal, Manpreet; Sreedharan, Sreesanth Kelu; Aggarwal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence of pheochromocytoma after a total adrenalectomy is uncommon. Such recurrent tumours are mostly managed by the open technique, with very few studies reporting laparoscopic management. We hereby report a case of successful laparoscopic management of a recurrent pheochromocytoma after total adrenalectomy for left adrenal pheochromocytoma. PMID:27279402

  17. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With HIV and Relapsed, Refractory, or Disseminated Malignant Neoplasms

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-19

    AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; HIV Infection; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Kaposi Sarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Malignant Neoplasm; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  18. Pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-lindau disease in a Pakistani family

    PubMed Central

    Jalbani, Imran K.; Nazim, Syed Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study the presentation, disease characteristics, operative outcome, and prognosis in patients with familial Pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Materials and Methods: There were six patients belonging to two generations of a single family who developed features of VHL over a period of 13 years and were treated at our institute. Patients’ characteristics, that is, age, gender, presenting complaints and clinical signs, laboratory and biochemical evaluation, and the presence of associated conditions was gathered from medical records. The preoperative and postoperative radiological imaging and histopathological results were also collected. Results: Out of six cases, five were male, and one was female. The mean age at first presentation was 25 years (16-40). All patients presented with uncontrolled hypertension and were found to have Pheochromocytoma on workup. Three patients had unilateral adrenal tumor, and three had bilateral disease. None of the patients had extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma. All patients were managed with adrenalectomy and had benign pathology. Two patients subsequently had craniotomy for excision of cerebellar hemangioma, and one patient had bilateral partial nephrectomy at the time of adrenalectomy. There was no peri- post-operative mortality and all patients are being followed by the surgeon(s) and endocrinologist. Conclusion: Pheochromocytoma can be a part of familial conditions including VHL. Other associated features should be suspected, investigated, and treated in these patients that can influence patients’ clinical course and prognosis. Family members should also be screened to achieve early diagnosis. PMID:25657563

  19. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  20. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  1. Transnasal tracheobronchial stenting for malignant airway narrowing under local anesthesia: Our experience of treating three cases using this technique

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Jayanta; Handique, Akash; Goyal, Amit; Lynser, Donbok; Phukan, Pranjal; Sarma, Kalyan; Padmanabhan, Aswin; Saikia, Manuj Kumar; Chutia, Happy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the technical feasibility of tracheobronchial stenting via transnasal route under bronchoscopy and fluoroscopic guidance in severe malignant airway strictures using self-expandable nitinol stents. Materials and Methods: We describe three patients with malignant airway strictures, treated entirely via transnasal route under local anesthesia using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Nasal route allowed convenient access to the airway for the bronchoscope across the stricture and a guidewire was introduced through its working channel. The 18F tracheal stent and the 6F bronchial stent assembly could be easily introduced and deployed under bronchoscopic (reintroduced through the other nostril) and fluoroscopic guidance. Results: We achieved technical success in all the three patients with immediate relief of dyspnea. Conclusion: Transnasal airway stenting with self-expandable nitinol stent using bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia is a safe and effective method with minimal patient discomfort. PMID:27081233

  2. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Chai Ryoung; Ahn, Jae Hee; Seo, Ji A

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication. PMID:24741459

  3. Synchronous colorectal malignancy and abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with endovascular aneurysm repair followed by laparoscopic colectomy.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kazushige; Sunami, Eiji; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Hosaka, Akihiro; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Although the incidence of synchronous abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and malignancies is increasing, there has been no clear consensus in the surgical treatment of such patients. The focus on surgical treatments with minimal invasiveness, such as endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAA and laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer, has increased; however, the clinical applicability of combination treatment with EVAR and laparoscopic colectomy has not been established. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with AAA, advanced sigmoid colon cancer, and coronary artery stenosis. Because the patient also had chronic renal failure with nephrotic syndrome, among several other comorbidities, surgery was considered to be associated with high risks in this patent. Sequential treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention, EVAR, and laparoscopic colectomy were successfully performed. Staged treatment of EVAR followed by laparoscopic colectomy may be a promising strategy for high-risk patients with AAA associated with malignancy. PMID:25875539

  4. Synchronous Colorectal Malignancy and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Treated With Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Followed by Laparoscopic Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Kazushige; Sunami, Eiji; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Hosaka, Akihiro; Ishihara, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of synchronous abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and malignancies is increasing, there has been no clear consensus in the surgical treatment of such patients. The focus on surgical treatments with minimal invasiveness, such as endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAA and laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal cancer, has increased; however, the clinical applicability of combination treatment with EVAR and laparoscopic colectomy has not been established. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with AAA, advanced sigmoid colon cancer, and coronary artery stenosis. Because the patient also had chronic renal failure with nephrotic syndrome, among several other comorbidities, surgery was considered to be associated with high risks in this patent. Sequential treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention, EVAR, and laparoscopic colectomy were successfully performed. Staged treatment of EVAR followed by laparoscopic colectomy may be a promising strategy for high-risk patients with AAA associated with malignancy. PMID:25875539

  5. Increased Risk of Second Primary Malignancy in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Treated with Radioactive Iodine for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Jennifer L.; Jain, Kunal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The long-term sequelae of radioactive iodine (RAI) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in pediatric and young adult patients are not well-defined. Epidemiologic analyses of second primary malignancy (SPM) risk have only been performed in the adult population. Existing data are limited to case series with limited follow-up. The objective of this study was to analyze the elevated risk of SPM attributable to RAI in young patients treated for DTC. Methods: Population-based analysis of 3850 pediatric and young adult patients (<25 years old) undergoing treatment with surgery with/without RAI for DTC, followed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry (1973–2008), equating to 54,727 person-years at risk (PYR). The excess risk of SPM was calculated relative to a reference population and expressed as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) per 10,000 PYR. Excess risk was compared in RAI-treated and non-RAI-treated patients. Results: A total of 1571 patients (40%) received RAI. The percentage of patients treated with RAI increased over time, from 4% in 1973 to 62% in 2008 (p<0.001). Among patients who received RAI, 26 SPMs were observed, and 18.3 were expected. The relative risk of SPM at any site was significantly elevated (SIR=1.42), corresponding to 4.4 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. SPM risk was not elevated in the non-RAI-treated cohort (SIR=1.01, EAR=0). Patients treated with RAI were at dramatically elevated risk for development of a salivary malignancy (SIR=34.1), corresponding to 1.7 excess cases per 10,000 PYR. The risk of leukemia in RAI-treated patients was elevated (SIR=4.0, EAR=0.9) but did not reach statistical significance. There was no elevated risk of salivary cancer or leukemia in the non-RAI-treated cohort. Conclusions: Pediatric and young adult patients who receive RAI for DTC experience an elevated risk of SPM, mainly salivary gland cancer. These risks appear to be only slightly higher

  6. Phase II study of 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy with radiotherapy for treating malignant glioma in children.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, V. A.; Lamborn, K.; Wara, W.; Davis, R.; Edwards, M.; Rabbitt, J.; Malec, M.; Prados, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a single-arm phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with 6-thioguanine, procarbazine, dibromodulcitol, lomustine, and vincristine (TPDCV) chemotherapy for treating malignant astrocytoma in children and anaplastic ependymoma in patients of all ages. Between 1984 and 1992, 42 patients who had malignant astrocytomas (glioblastomas multiforme, anaplastic astrocytomas, or mixed anaplastic oligoastrocytomas) were treated with TPDCV chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Of these patients, 40 were younger than 18 years, but 2 were older (22 and 23 years) when treated. Cranial radiation averaged 58 Gy. TPDCV chemotherapy was given for 1 year or until progression. Between 1989 and 1991, 17 patients with malignant ependymoma were treated with TPDCV chemotherapy and craniospinal radiation. Radiation was given at an average dose of 54 Gy to the tumor, 28 Gy to the whole brain, and 31 Gy to the spinal axis. TPDCV chemotherapy was given for 1 year or until tumor progressed. Of the patients with glioblastoma multiforme, 13 of 17 died; the median time to progression was 49 weeks, and median survival was 85 weeks. The four patients surviving at this writing were followed a median 537 weeks (range 364-635 weeks). Of the patients with nonglioblastoma malignant astrocytoma, 14 of 25 died; the median time to progression was 224 weeks. Median survival was not reached in this group. The median follow-up for those surviving was 494 weeks. For the patients with ependymoma, 11 of 17 died with a median time to progression of 141 weeks. The median follow-up for the eight who survive was 469 weeks. Nine patients died with a median survival of 183 weeks. The combination of TPDCV and radiotherapy has activity against childhood anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, and anaplastic ependymoma. The results of this study for children with glioblastoma were comparable to results in the literature, while the results for children with anaplastic

  7. All children with malignant rhabdoid tumors should be treated initially with intensive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Marqués, C; Lassaletta, A; Cormenzana, M; García-Esparza, E; Madero-López, L

    2015-04-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) of soft tissues are aggressive tumors, which can be detected in almost any part of the body. MRT are rare, and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Prognosis of these tumors is extremely poor despite intensive therapy. Some risk factors such as young age or disseminated disease are associated with an aggressive and almost always lethal clinical course. Some clinicians even recommend initial palliative care due to this outcome. We report a case of metastatic MRT in a 6-month-old child with excellent initial response to chemotherapy. PMID:24852450

  8. [Diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y C; Liu, G L; Zhou, J W; Hu, H; Shen, D H

    2016-04-18

    Pheochromocytoma is rare in pregn'ancy. Clinical features of a case of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy in the Peking University People's Hospital was investigated and the literature reviewed to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The patient manifested with hypertension and proteinuria, who was easily misdiagnosed with gestational hypertension disease. When she was transferred to our hospital, the symptoms such as, paroxysmal palpitation, dizziness, vomiting were noticed, and the possibility of pheochromocytoma was considered due to the accompanying abdominal mass. An emergent cesarean section was performed successfully due to preterm labor during the treatment of the disease. After the delivery the drug preparation continued. And the laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma proceeded when the blood pressure was steady. The patient recovered fully after the surgery. The final diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed with the pathology. Its diagnosis and treatment experiences could improve our understanding and treatment of secondary hypertension due to pheochromocytoma in pregnancy. PMID:27080299

  9. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  10. Contralateral breast cancer and other second malignancies in patients treated by breast-conserving therapy with radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.M.; Amalric, R.; Brandone, H.; Ayme, Y.; Spitalier, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    Metachronous contralateral breast cancers and other second malignancies were evaluated in 2,850 patients treated between 1960 and 1981 primarily with radiotherapy (RT) either alone or following breast-conserving surgery. One hundred eighty-four contralateral cancers were observed in 22,491 patient-years of observation (818 per 10(5) patient-years), with a cumulative probability of 4.5% at 5, 7.9% at 10, and 11% at 15 and 20 years. Compared to patients with unilateral tumors, those destined to develop contralateral cancers were younger (mean age 51.9 vs 56.6) and more often gave a family history of breast cancer. Contralateral breast cancers were more frequent for more extensive tumors (T3 10% vs T1-26%; with inflammatory signs 10.6% without 6%), and in patients with ipsilateral local recurrence (with 9.1%, without 5.6%). Patients with contralateral cancers had a significantly less favorable survival experience (15-year actuarial survival after primary therapy 42%) than patients without contralateral cancer (15-year survival 65.5%). In early stage patients treated with conservative surgery and RT, contralateral cancer was not prognostically more favorable than ipsilateral breast recurrence. Among 72 other second malignancies (320 per 10(5) patient-years) were 2 soft tissue sarcomas in the irradiated area. This corresponds to an incidence of 21 cases per 10(5) patient-years for survivors beyond the fifth year. The possible influence of RT on contralateral cancers and other second malignancies is discussed.

  11. A case of recurrent malignant triton tumor successfully treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Makoto; Muto, Yoko; Kuremoto, Toshihiro; Murakami, Kentaro; Onisihi, Toshinori; Koida, Atsuhide; Inui, Takaaki; Hisa, Yasuo

    2016-12-01

    A 15-year-old female was previously admitted to another hospital because of painless swelling of the lateral right nasal ala for 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an expansive enhancing lesion in close proximity to the anterior surface of the right maxillary sinus and lateral wall of the right nasal cavity. Tumor extirpation was performed via the supragingival transantral approach under general anesthesia. Histopathological study revealed a malignant triton tumor (MTT) arising from the nasal vestibule. The patient was referred to our department for consultation regarding additional treatment. Because the surgical margin was positive and MTT has high malignant potential, we recommended expansion re-surgical treatment following immediate free-flap reconstruction and postoperative radiotherapy, but family consent was not obtained. Tumor regrowth was noted 1 month after her first visit to our department. The patient and her family accepted radiotherapy instead of surgical treatment. Complete remission was achieved by radiotherapy alone. No local recurrence or distant metastasis was observed for 30 months after radiotherapy. The conventional mode of treatment for MTT is radical excision followed by high-dose radiotherapy. However, this case is remarkable because our patient experienced complete remission by simple radiotherapy. PMID:27146005

  12. [Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma discovered peroperatively].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Idali, B; Joual, A; Sarf, I; Naciri, K; Hafiani, M; Bennani, S; Harti, A; El Mrini, M; Barrou, L; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    In this study, an uncommon case has been reported of an ectopic pheochromocytoma without the presence of any clinical symptoms. The radiological investigations showed a right retroperitoneal tumor without any kidney involvement. The diagnosis was established by biopsy and subsequent histological findings. In the course of surgery as the large tumor mass was being removed, tachycardia was observed which caused the resection to be performed as rapidly as possible. Once the tumor had been removed, bradycardia occurred, followed by cardiac arrest: although the latter was stabilized after cardiac massage, the patient died one hour after the operative field had been closed. In addition to this case report, the diagnosis, therapeutic strategy and prognosis regarding an ectopically located pheochromocytoma have been discussed. PMID:11233313

  13. Regulation of the differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Lazarovici, P; Guroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle cells in culture. The changes induced by nerve growth factor lead to cells that, by any number of criteria, resemble mature sympathetic neurons. These changes are accompanied by a series of biochemical alterations occurring in the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus of the cell. Some of these events are independent of changes in transcription, while others clearly involve changes in gene expression. A number of the alterations seen in the cells involve increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of key cellular proteins. The information available thus far allows the construction of a hypothesis regarding the biochemical basis of PC12 differentiation. PMID:2647474

  14. Azacitidine and Sonidegib or Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-25

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. Discovery of selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors to treat hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingyu; Hou, Tingjun; Mao, Xinliang

    2015-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis of many cancers, including hematological malignancies (HM), such as leukemia, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma (MM). Targeting PI3K is emerging as a promising strategy in the treatment of these blood cancers. Recent approval of idelalisib, a specific inhibitor of PI3Kδ, for the treatment of several types of HM, is likely to attract more interest in search for novel PI3K inhibitors. Here, we discuss classic and cutting-edge techniques and strategies to identify PI3K inhibitors for the treatment of HM. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and their combined application will accelerate the drug discovery process with fewer associated costs. PMID:25857437

  16. Maximizing anthracycline tolerability in hematologic malignancies: Treat to each heart's content.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Guilherme H; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Caimi, Paolo F; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2016-05-01

    Anthracyclines are the cornerstone of therapy for a wide spectrum of malignancies and have improved patient survival. Concern for anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity often leads to dose reductions or use of second-line regimens, which may adversely impact survival. Development of cardiotoxicity depends on a combination of cumulative dose modulated by individual patient characteristics, which we have termed individual cardiotoxic threshold (ICT). Patients with cancer often have characteristics such as age, gender, genetic predisposition and preexisting cardiovascular disease that can potentiate cardiotoxicity. Specialty cardiovascular assessment, more sensitive monitoring technology, and timely interventions in selected patients can decrease cardiotoxicity and improve patient outcomes. Prophylaxis with cardioprotective agents and other strategies have shown promising results in randomized trials and may improve tolerance to anthracyclines. In this review we introduce the concept of ICT and critically analyze the evidence supporting existing strategies to modulate it and increase cardiovascular tolerability of anthracyclines. PMID:26578029

  17. [Malignant esophageal-respiratory fistula and esophageal stenosis treated with a Gianturco-Z-stent].

    PubMed

    Solt, J; Boros, S; Zoltán, I; Horváth, O P; Andics, L; Bajor, J

    1998-10-11

    Oesophago-respiratory fistula in most instances in a complication of advanced malignant tumours of the oesophagus or the lung. In our patient group eleven oesophago-respiratory and one gastro-respiratory fistulas were encountered. Three patients were operated upon. In one of them with achalasia, early oesophageal carcinoma was discovered in the background of the fistula. Two patients had fistulas without of oesophageal narrowing, therefore, stent implantation into the trachea and bronchus was performed. One of them was previously managed endoscopically with lyodura plug and fibrin glue, but only temporary occlusion of the fistula was obtained. In five patients, seven conventional oesophageal prosthesis (6 Cook, 1 Rüsch) were used to close the fistulas. In one of these patients, three oesophago-respiratory fistulas developed one after the other at the level of the prosthesis funnel. They were closed with three prostheses connected with short silicone tubes. In the last two patients, Gianturco-Z stent was employed. Its advantages over the plastic prostheses include small basic and lager final luminal diameter, lesser predilatation, easier implantation, lower complication and mortality rate. The silicone coated and double funnel stent with expansile force is effective in fistulas closure. On implantation, stent shortening in minimal, allowing precise placement of the stent even in proximal malignant oesophageal stenosis with oesophago-bronchial fistula. The high price of the stent is compensated for by the lower complication rate, shorter hospitalization and subsequent reduction is hospital expenses. Therefore these metal stents should be financed by the National Health Service, at least in specialized centers for managing patients with dysphagia. PMID:9805459

  18. Ipilimumab or Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma

  19. Long-term follow-up of patients of intrahepatic malignancies treated with Iodine-125 brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, Subir . E-mail: nag.1@osu.edu; DeHaan, Megan; Scruggs, Granger; Mayr, Nina; Martin, Edward W.

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: We investigated the role of intraoperative iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) brachytherapy as a treatment option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2002, 64 patients with unresectable or residual disease after surgical resection for intrahepatic malignancies underwent 160-Gy permanent {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Results: The median length of follow-up was 13.2 years. The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial intrahepatic local control rates were 44%, 22%, and 22%, respectively, with a median time to liver recurrence of 9 months (95% CI, 6-12 months). The 5-year actuarial intrahepatic control was higher for patients with solitary metastasis (38%) than for those with multiple metastases (6%, p = 0.04). The 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial overall survival rates were 73%, 23%, and 5%, respectively (median, 20 months; 95% CI, 16-24; longest survival, 7.5 years). Overall survival was higher for patients with smaller-volume implants (p = 0.003) and for patients without prior liver resection (p = 0.002). No mortality occurred. Radiation-related complications were minimal. Conclusions: For select patients with unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors for whom curative surgical resection is not an option, {sup 125}I brachytherapy is a safe and effective alternative to other locally ablative techniques and can provide long-term local control and increased survival.

  20. Double primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx treated with laser laryngeal conservation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karkos, PD; Dova, S; Sotiriou, S; Markou, K; Kostopoulos, I

    2016-01-01

    Βackground Synchronous multiple malignancies of the larynx are rare. We present a case here of synchronous primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in a patient with hoarseness though with no history of exposure to radiation. Clinical, intraoperative, and histopathological findings in this patient are discussed. Methods Wide laser excision of the left supraglottic lesion and laser cordectomy of the right true vocal cord were performed. Results The patient presented with a recurrence of the ΜFH alone (with no recurrence of the SCC) two months after the first operation and was managed with an extended second look laser cordectomy. The patient is under regular follow-up and remained disease-free nine months from diagnosis. Conclusions Our results show that early-stage simultaneous tumours of the larynx and particularly MFH and SCC can be treated efficiently with endoscopic laryngeal surgery alone. Close follow-up is of paramount importance because of the aggressive nature of MFH. PMID:27170836

  1. Electrogustometry and contact endoscopy findings in patients with head and neck malignancies treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Gouveris, Haralampos; Gorgulla, Harald; Hast, Hans-Jochem; Maurer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate in parallel changes in gustatory function, changes in morphology of the fungiform papillae, as well as changes in the shape and density of the vessels of the tip of the tongue in patients treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiochemotherapy. Twenty patients (7 females and 13 males; age range: 42-78 years) with head and neck malignancies (hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, and parotid) treated with radiochemotherapy (n = 8), chemotherapy (n = 8), or radiotherapy (n = 4) were prospectively studied. In all patients, electrogustometry and contact endoscopy were performed. Radiotherapy-treated patients exhibited higher electrogustometry thresholds and greater alterations in the morphology and vascularization of the fungiform papillae than the other two groups. Radiochemotherapy patients had less pronounced changes of the electrogustometry threshold and fungiform papillae structure compared with radiotherapy patients. Chemotherapy alone caused less severe change in both electrogustometry threshold and fungiform papillae structure than radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Radiotherapy alone caused greater disorders of taste-related anatomic parameters and electrogustometry thresholds compared with chemotherapy and combined radiochemotherapy. PMID:25715386

  2. An Assessment of Radiologically Inserted Transoral and Transgastric Gastroduodenal Stents to Treat Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bethany H. T.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Pursnani, Kishore G. Ward, Jeremy B.; Stockwell, Robert C.

    2013-12-15

    IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients' case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39-89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1-624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival.

  3. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  4. [Low dose vasopressin is effective for catecholamine-resistant hypotension after resection of pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Shinya; Uehara, Naoko; Seo, Hideya; Miyawaki, Ikuko; Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    The perioperative management of pheochromocytoma is challenging for anesthesiologists and persistent hypotension secondary to cathecholamine depletion after tumor resection can be refractory to treatment. A 64-year-old man underwent right adrenalectomy for treatment of massive pheochromocytoma. Doxazosin administration was started and increased gradually to 12 mg daily. He was premedicated with doxazosin on the day of the surgery. Induction was uneventful but there was a sudden increase of blood pressure with tachycardia on handling of tumor which was controlled by intravenous remifentanil, landiolol, diltiazem, and magnesium sulfate. With dissection of the tumor, the blood pressure dropped to 65/40 mmHg, which was resistant to fluid and cathecholamine treatment. After commencement of low dose vasopressin administration (two boluses of 0.08 U followed by 1.6 U x hr(-1)), blood pressure gradually recovered to normal ranges. Low dose vasopressin can be safely used to treat postadrenalectomy hypotension and also can reduce the cathecholamine dose. PMID:24228460

  5. A rare case of Ganglioneuroblastoma Encapsulated in Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nathália Vieira; Marques de Oliveira, Luísa Coelho; Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Garner, David Mathew; Irulegui, Roseane de Souza Candido; Moreira, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma are separate diseases and a rare combination in which the diagnosis can only be confirmed by pathological examination after tumor excision. We reported here a case of ganglioneuroblastoma encapsulated in pheochromocytoma. The patient is a woman, 73 years old, hypertensive, with hypothyroidism, associated for 15 years with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, which had frequent complaints of low back pain. She underwent magnetic resonance and the findings were consistent with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. After surgery, anatomic, pathologic and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma composed by small ganglioneuroblastoma representation with the identification of small focus of infiltration of the adrenal capsule and adipose tissue by pheochromocytoma. This rare association can instigate the discussion of methods of diagnosis, more effective and more appropriate treatments for each patient. PMID:27526309

  6. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Survivors of Pediatric Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With Low-Dose Radiation and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Maureen M.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Balise, Raymond R.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Link, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are at risk for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is theorized that this risk may be attenuated in patients treated with lower doses of radiation. We report the first long-term outcomes of a cohort of pediatric survivors of HL treated with chemotherapy and low-dose radiation. Patients and Methods Pediatric patients with HL (n = 112) treated at Stanford from 1970 to 1990 on two combined modality treatment protocols were identified. Treatment included six cycles of chemotherapy with 15 to 25.5 Gy involved-field radiation with optional 10 Gy boosts to bulky sites. Follow-up through September 1, 2007, was obtained from retrospective chart review and patient questionnaires. Results One hundred ten children completed HL therapy; median follow-up was 20.6 years. Eighteen patients developed one or more SMNs, including four leukemias, five thyroid carcinomas, six breast carcinomas, and four sarcomas. Cumulative incidence of first SMN was 17% (95% CI, 10.5 to 26.7) at 20 years after HL diagnosis. The standard incidence ratio for any SMN was 22.9 (95% CI, 14.2 to 35) with an absolute excess risk of 93.7 cases per 10,000 person-years. All four secondary leukemias were fatal. For those with second solid tumors, the mean (± SE) 5-year disease-free and overall survival were 76% ± 12% and 85% ± 10% with median follow-up 5 years from SMN diagnosis. Conclusion Despite treatment with low-dose radiation, children treated for HL remain at significant risk for SMN. Sarcomas, breast and thyroid carcinomas occurred with similar frequency and latency as found in studies of children with HL who received high-dose radiation. PMID:20124178

  7. [Rare forms of hypertension : From pheochromocytoma to vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Limbourg, F; Schmidt, B M; Menne, J

    2015-03-01

    Secondary hypertension affects only 5-10 % of hypertensive patients. Screening is expensive and time-consuming and should be performed only in patients for whom there is a high clinical suspicion of secondary hypertension. Clinical signs of secondary forms of hypertension are new-onset hypertension in patients without other risk factors (i.e., family history, obesity, etc.), sudden increase of blood pressure (BP) in a previously stable patient, increased BP in prepubertal children, resistant hypertension, and severe hypertension or hypertensive emergencies. In adults, renal parenchymal and vascular diseases as well as obstructive sleep apnea are the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Medication-induced hypertension and non-adherence to medication have to be ruled out. Of the endocrine causes associated with hypertension, primary aldosteronism is the most common. Other endocrine causes of hypertension such as thyroid disease (hypo- or hyperthyroidism), hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma are rare. Monogenetic forms of hypertension are mostly of tubular origin and associated with alterations in mineralocorticoid handling or signaling. Rare causes of hypertension also include inflammatory vascular disease. Acute forms of vasculitis may present as "malignant" hypertension with associated thrombotic microangiopathy and organ damage/failure. It is important to diagnose these rare forms of hypertension in order to prevent acute organ damage in these patients or unnecessary invasive treatment strategies. PMID:25700646

  8. Thyroid abnormalities in patients treated with lenalidomide for hematological malignancies: results of a retrospective case review.

    PubMed

    Figaro, M Kathleen; Clayton, Warren; Usoh, Chinenye; Brown, Kara; Kassim, Adetola; Lakhani, Vipul T; Jagasia, Shubhada

    2011-06-01

    Lenalidomide is an antiangiogenic drug associated with hypothyroidism. We describe a case-series of lenalidomide use in hematological cancers and the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities. We reviewed medical records of patients treated with lenalidomide at a single center form 2005 to 2010 and extracted demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Of 170 patients with confirmed lenalidomide use (age 64.9 ± 15 years), 148 were treated for multiple myeloma and 6% had thyroid abnormalities attributable only to lenalidomide. In patients with a previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction, the addition of lenalidomide therapy was associated with a higher incidence of subsequent TFTF abnormality (17%) as compared to patients with no previous diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction (6%) (P=0.0001). Many patients (44%) with pre-existing disease and a change in thyroid function before or while on lenalidomide had no further follow-up of their thyroid abnormalities, Of 20 patients who did not undergo any thyroid function testing either before starting or while on lenalidomide for a median of 9.4 months (± 6.5), 35% developed new symptoms compatible with hypothyroidism, including worsened fating, constipation or cold intolerance. Symptoms of thyroid dysfunction overlap with side effects of lenalidomide. Thyroid hormone levels are not regularly evaluated in patients on lenalidomide. While on this treatment, thyroid abnormalities can occur in patients with no previous diagnoses and in patients with pre-existing abnormalities. Because symptoms of thyroid dysfunction could be alleviated by appropriate treatment, thyroid function should be evaluated during the course of lenalidomide to improve patients quality of life. PMID:21544854

  9. Pheochromocytoma Masquerading as “Diabetic Ketoacidosis”

    PubMed Central

    Hedley, Jeffrey Stephen; Law, Sidney; Phookan, Sujoy; Lee, Maria Nien-Feng; Ioachimescu, Adriana; Levit, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a routinely encountered diagnosis in medicine. Physicians are trained early on to look for precipitants. Most clinicians assess for medication compliance, infection, ischemia, and the like. We present a case of pheochromocytoma presenting as “diabetic ketoacidosis.” The case serves as an example for broadening the differential diagnosis for patients with similar presentations. Additionally, the case helps inform our understanding of the so-called “stress reactions” that are commonly invoked in clinical rationale. PMID:27152317

  10. Somatic and occult germ-line mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in nonfamilial pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gimm, O; Armanios, M; Dziema, H; Neumann, H P; Eng, C

    2000-12-15

    Most pheochromocytomas are sporadic but about 10% are though to be hereditary. Although the etiology of most inherited pheochromocytoma is well known, little is known about the etiology of the more common sporadic tumor. Recently, germ-line mutations of SDHD, a mitochondria complex II gene, were found in patients with hereditary paraganglioma. We sought to determine whether SDHD plays a role in the development of sporadic pheochromocytomas and performed a mutation and deletion analysis of SDHD. Among 18 samples, we identified 4 heterozygous sequence variants (3 germ-line, 1 somatic). One germ-line SDHD mutation IVS1+2T>G (absent among 78 control alleles) is predicted to cause aberrant splicing. On reinvestigation, this patient was found to have a tumor of the carotid body, which was likely a paraganglioma. Another patient with malignant, extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma was found to have germ-line c.34G> A (G12S). However, this sequence variant was also found in 1 of 78 control alleles. The third, germ-line nonsense mutation R38X was found in a patient with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The only somatic heterozygous mutation, c.242C>T (P81L), has been found in the germ line of two families with hereditary paraganglioma and is conserved among four eukaryotic multicellular organisms. Hence, this mutation is most likely of functional significance too. Overall, loss of heterozygosity in at least one of the two markers flanking SDHD was found in 13 tumors (72%). All of the tumors that already harbored intragenic SDHD mutations, whether germ-line or somatic, also had loss of heterozygosity. Our results indicate that SDHD plays a role in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. Given the minimum estimated germline SDHD mutation frequency of 11% (maximum estimate up to 17%) in this set of apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma cases and if these data can be replicated in other populations, our observations might suggest that all such patients be considered for SDHD mutation

  11. Setup errors in patients treated with intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy for gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, Joshua J.; Lujan, Anthony E.; Mundt, Arno J.; Bonta, Dacian V.; Roeske, John C. . E-mail: Roeske@rover.uchicago.edu

    2005-03-31

    Intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT) has decreased the incidence of gastrointestinal complications by reducing the volume of normal tissue irradiated in gynecologic patients. However, IM-WPRT plans result in steep dose gradients around the target volume, and thus accurate patient setup is essential. To quantify the accuracy of our patient positioning, we examined the weekly portal films of 46 women treated with IM-WPRT at our institution. All patients were positioned using a customized immobilization device that was indexed to the treatment table. Setup errors were evaluated by comparing portal images to simulation images using an algorithm that registers user-defined open curve segments drawn on both sets of film. The setup errors, which were separated into systematic and random components, ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 mm for the translations and 1.3 deg to 4.4 deg for the 2 in-plane translations. The systematic errors were all less than the respective random errors, with the largest error in the anterior/posterior direction. In addition, there was no correlation between the magnitude of these errors and patient-specific factors (age, weight, height). In the future, we will investigate the effect of these setup errors on the delivered dose distribution.

  12. FDG PET/CT Response Evaluation in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients Treated with Talc Pleurodesis and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Genestreti, Giovenzio; Moretti, Andrea; Piciucchi, Sara; Giovannini, Noemi; Galassi, Riccardo; Scarpi, Emanuela; Burgio, Marco Angelo; Amadori, Dino; Sanna, Stefano; Poletti, Venerino; Matteucci, Federica; Gavelli, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Talc pleurodesis (TP) is employed worldwide for the management of persistent pneumothorax or pleural effusion, particularly of malignant origin. However, there are very little available data on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F FDG PET/CT) response evaluation in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated with TP and chemotherapy. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed MPM underwent TP and FDG PET/CT staging and restaging after 3-4 courses of chemotherapy. All patients fasted and received a dose of 5.18 MBq 18F-FDG per kilogram of body weight. Whole-body emission scans were acquired with and without Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm. Results: From January 2004 to March 2010, 8 patients with biopsy confirmed MPM (7 epithelial, 1 biphasic), with a median age of 65 years (range: 54-77), were evaluated. Median follow-up was 31 months (range: 4-44). After TP treatment, there was a mean interval of 14 days (range: 9-22) and 125 days (range: 76-162) between FDG PET/CT staging and restaging. According to modified RECIST and EORTC criteria, there was a concordance between the radiologic and metabolic SUVmean and SUVmax responses in 6 (75%) and 3 (37.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion: TP produces an increased FDG PET uptake which may interfere with the post-chemotherapy disease evaluation. In our case series, the metabolic response measured by SUVmean seems to be in better agreement with the radiologic response compared to the SUVmax. PMID:22670158

  13. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

  14. Donor T Cells After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood

  15. Synchronous and metachronous malignancy in endometrial cancer patients treated in a tertiary care center of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Khunnarong, Jakkapan; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and features of non-endometrial cancers in Thai endometrial cancer (EC) patients. Methods EC patients treated in our institution were identified and the following data were collected: age, EC stage, histopathology, adjuvant therapy, other cancers, living status, and cause of death. Results The mean age of the 344 patients was 56.8±10.8 years. Fifty (14.5%) had other synchronous and metachronous cancers. Mean ages of the patients with or without other cancers were not significantly different, 55.7±10.04 years versus 57.1±11.0 years, respectively (p=0.358). History of any cancer in the family and tumor in the lower uterine segment were more frequent among the patients with other cancers (6.0% vs. 1.7%, p=0.095; 12.0% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001; respectively). Six patients had ≥2 other cancers. Ovarian, breast, and colon were the three most common other cancers. After a median follow-up of 57.1 months, 18.3% of patients had died: 30.0% of patients with other cancers and 16.3% of those without other cancers. The corresponding EC deaths were 14.0% and 11.2%. The 5-year overall survival was significantly lower in patients who had other cancers: 79.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.3 to 90.3) vs. 86.0% (95% CI, 81.7 to 90.3) than in those without (p=0.023). However, the corresponding disease-specific survival was not significantly different: 85.1% (95% CI, 75.5 to 94.7) compared with 89.0% (95% CI, 85.1 to 92.9), respectively (p=0.514). Conclusion Thai EC patients had a high incidence of other cancers. Overall survival of EC patients who had other cancers was worse than those without, while disease-specific survival was not significantly different. PMID:26197770

  16. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult

  17. [Hyperlactemia during undiagnosed pheochromocytoma resection under laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masashi; Kawabata, Yasuyo; Hayashi, Tomoko; Nishimae, Hiroji; Masuko, Shinya

    2012-02-01

    A 51-year-old man was scheduled to undergo adrenal tumor resection. Because his general physical findings and labolatory tests were not particular, and his serum concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline were within normal limit, the tumor was diagnosed as nonfunctional adrenal tumor. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl and maintained with oxygen, air, propofol and remifentanil. When the surgeons started to work around the tumor, his blood pressure and heart rate increased suddenly. We decided to deal with the tumor as pheochromocytoma and started administering landiolol and prostaglandin E1. After the administration of the drugs, hemodynamic changes became stabilized; however, the increasing serum concentration of lactate continued until ligation of the adrenal vein. There were no clinical manifestations of circulatory failure and his liver function was within normal limits from his blood test. After the operation, we found his plasma concentration of adrenaline extremely high during the operation. Adrenaline increases blood lactate concentration due to metabolic effects. Hyperlactemia should be considered as one of the typical symptoms of pheochromocytoma. PMID:22413446

  18. Pheochromocytoma in an African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).

    PubMed

    Cole, Gretchen; Suedmeyer, W Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

    2008-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with a chronic history of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and intermittent weakness in the distal lumbar trunk was evaluated to determine the source of epistaxis. No obvious cause was determined, and in light of severe osteoarthritis and a holosystolic cardiac murmur, the animal was euthanized. A tumor of the right adrenal gland involving the medulla was found at gross necropsy. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor was positive for chromogranin and negative for neurofilament protein, which was diagnostic for pheochromocytoma. No lesions were observed in either nasal cavity. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures measured at the time of immobilization were elevated when compared with another African warthog immobilized with a similar anesthetic regimen. Additionally, the warthog had pronounced serum norepinephrine dominance with a norepinephrine:epinephrine ratio of 10.0, compared with 0.36 from clinically normal warthogs. Practitioners should consider pheochromocytoma when evaluating warthogs or swine for epistaxis. PMID:19110715

  19. Hypertensive retinopathy in a child caused by pheochromocytoma: identification after a failed school vision screening.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Michael D; Wise, Richard; Forbes, Brian; Hedrick, Holly L; Levin, Alex V

    2012-02-01

    A 7-year-old girl was referred for ophthalmological examination after the result of a routine school vision screening identified unilateral vision loss. Fundus examination showed bilateral but markedly asymmetric macular exudates and optic disk edema. After the results of two blood pressure measurements were within normal limits, a third markedly elevated measurement revealed malignant hypertension and led to a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, a rare catecholamine-secreting tumor. The tumor was resected, and 6 months later the patient's blood pressure had normalized; however, although visual acuity had improved to 20/20 in the right eye, it remained 20/200 in the left eye, with decreased disk edema but the persistence of the macular exudates. The identification of an abdominal malignancy through a school vision screening may have saved this child's life. The need for repeated blood pressure measurement is also highlighted. PMID:22245022

  20. Unexpected triggers for pheochromocytoma-induced recurrent heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis typically presents as paroxysmal episodes of headache, tachycardia, diaphoresis or hypertension. We describe an uncommon case of recurrent non-hypertensive heart failure with systolic dysfunction in a young female due to pheochromocytoma compression. It presented as acute pulmonary oedema while straining during pregnancy and later on as cardiogenic shock after a recreational body massage. Such crisis occurring during pregnancy is rare. Moreover, of the few reported cases of pheochromocytoma-induced cardiogenic shock, recreational body massage has not yet been reported as a trigger for this condition. PMID:24987459

  1. Unexpected triggers for pheochromocytoma-induced recurrent heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Tiago; Abreu, João; Ramos, Ruben; Galrinho, Ana; Fortuna, Philip; Tavares, Nuno Jalles; Ferreira, Rui Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis typically presents as paroxysmal episodes of headache, tachycardia, diaphoresis or hypertension. We describe an uncommon case of recurrent non-hypertensive heart failure with systolic dysfunction in a young female due to pheochromocytoma compression. It presented as acute pulmonary oedema while straining during pregnancy and later on as cardiogenic shock after a recreational body massage. Such crisis occurring during pregnancy is rare. Moreover, of the few reported cases of pheochromocytoma-induced cardiogenic shock, recreational body massage has not yet been reported as a trigger for this condition. PMID:24987459

  2. Deferasirox in Treating Iron Overload Caused By Blood Transfusions in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    ; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  3. Targeted Marrow Irradiation, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Busulfan Before Donor Progenitor Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-03

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Hematologic Malignancies; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma,; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Syndrome

  4. Pheochromocytoma with inferior vena cava thrombosis: An unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil K.; Kota, Siva K.; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit K.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas have been described in association with vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of headache, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and hypertension. For last several days, he was having a dull aching abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. An inferior vena cava (IVC) venogram via the right jugular vein demonstrated occlusion of the IVC inferior to the right atrium. Surgical removal of pheochromocytoma was done, followed by anticoagulant treatment for IVC thrombosis, initially with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, and then with oral warfarin, resulting in restoration of patency. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of pheochromocytoma in IVC thrombosis has not been reported so far from India. Possible mechanisms of such an involvement are discussed. PMID:22629039

  5. Radiobiologic comparison of helical tomotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and conformal radiotherapy in treating lung cancer accounting for secondary malignancy risks

    SciTech Connect

    Komisopoulos, Georgios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Rodriguez, Salvador; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, Georgios C.; Sakellaropoulos, Georgios C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the importance of using measures to predict the risk of inducing secondary malignancies in association with the clinical effectiveness of treatment plans in terms of tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. This is achieved by using radiobiologic parameters and measures, which may provide a closer association between clinical outcome and treatment delivery. Overall, 4 patients having been treated for lung cancer were examined. For each of them, 3 treatment plans were developed based on the helical tomotherapy (HT), multileaf collimator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT) modalities. The different plans were evaluated using the complication-free tumor control probability (p{sub +}), the overall probability of injury (p{sub I}), the overall probability of control/benefit (p{sub B}), and the biologically effective uniform dose (D{sup ¯¯}). These radiobiologic measures were used to develop dose-response curves (p-D{sup ¯¯} diagram), which can help to evaluate different treatment plans when used in conjunction with standard dosimetric criteria. The risks for secondary malignancies in the heart and the contralateral lung were calculated for the 3 radiation modalities based on the corresponding dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each patient. Regarding the overall evaluation of the different radiation modalities based on the p{sub +} index, the average values of the HT, IMRT, and CRT are 67.3%, 61.2%, and 68.2%, respectively. The corresponding average values of p{sub B} are 75.6%, 70.5%, and 71.0%, respectively, whereas the average values of p{sub I} are 8.3%, 9.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among the organs at risk (OARs), lungs show the highest probabilities for complications, which are 7.1%, 8.0%, and 1.3% for the HT, IMRT, and CRT modalities, respectively. Similarly, the biologically effective prescription doses (D{sub B}{sup ¯¯}) for the

  6. Reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy due to pheochromocytoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Satendra, Milan; de Jesus, Cláudia; Bordalo e Sá, Armando L; Rosário, Luís; Rocha, José; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Correia, Maria José; Nunes Diogo, António

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor originating from chromaffin tissue. It commonly presents with symptoms and signs of catecholamine excess, such as hypertension, tachycardia, headache and sweating. Cardiovascular manifestations include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, which may present as severe left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. We report a case of pheochromocytoma which was diagnosed following investigation of dilated cardiomyopathy. We highlight the dramatic symptomatic improvement and reversal of cardiomyopathy, with recovery of left ventricular function after treatment. PMID:24684896

  7. Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas: Clinical and Genetic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcia Helena Soares; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M.; Violante, Alice Dutra; Vaisman, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from the chromaffin tissue. Diagnosis of these tumors is extremely important as they are linked to the hypertension syndrome with great cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A great majority of PCCs and PGLs are sporadic and benign tumors; however, the classic idea of 10% exception of these features is changing. The description of new genes linked to familial forms of PCC/PGLs, such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunits, KIF1Bβ, EGLN1, TMEM127, and MAX, added to the well-known PCC familial syndrome (MEN2, VHL, and neurofibromatosis type 1) presents new challenges for diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the diversity of clinical and genetic approaches to this syndrome as well the diverse criteria that should guide genetic investigation. PMID:26347711

  8. Childhood neuroblastoma masquerading as pheochromocytoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Mild hypertension is a frequent symptom, presumably an effect of catecholamines that tumors release. Reported herein is the rare occurrence of severe hypertension and subsequent heart failure attributable to adrenal gland neuroblastoma. A 3-year-old boy presented with anterior chest wall protrusion. Physical examination revealed severe hypertension, and left-sided cardiac failure was evident by echocardiography. Catecholamine metabolite (norepinephrine) levels were increased in serum (>2,000 pg/mL) and in urine (1,350.5 µg/day). Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a 7 cm solid mass arising from right adrenal gland. Oral phenoxybenzamine was given for hemodynamic stabilization, and right adrenalectomy was performed to remove an apparent pheochromocytoma. Ultimately, the pathologic diagnosis was ganglioneuroblastoma. Both hypertension and cardiac failure resolved postoperatively. PMID:27051319

  9. Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy: a deceptive connection.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Jacques W M

    2012-02-01

    A pheochromocytoma in a pregnant patient is one of the most threatening medical conditions for mother, fetus, and physician. Although extraordinarily rare with a frequency of 0.002% of all pregnancies, this tumor is notorious for its devastating consequences. As in non-pregnant patients, the signs and symptoms are quite variable but not specific, with hypertension being one of the most prominent signs. Confusion with the much more prevalent forms of pregnancy-related hypertension is the main cause of overlooking the diagnosis. If undiagnosed, maternal and fetal mortality is around 50%. Conversely, early detection and proper treatment during pregnancy decrease the maternal and fetal mortality to <5 and 15% respectively. For the biochemical diagnosis, plasma or urinary metanephrines are the tests of first choice since they have a nearly maximal negative predictive value. For reliable localization, only magnetic resonance imaging is suitable, with a sensitivity of more than 90%. When the tumor is diagnosed in the first 24 weeks of gestation, it should be removed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy after 10-14 days of medical preparation with the same drugs as in non-pregnant patients. If the tumor is diagnosed in the third trimester, the patient should be managed until the fetus is viable using the same drug regimen as for regular surgical preparation. Cesarean section with tumor removal in the same session or at a later stage is then preferred since vaginal delivery is possibly associated with higher mortality. Despite all technical diagnostic and therapeutic progress over the last decades, the key factor for further reduction of maternal and fetal mortality is early awareness and recognition of the potential presence of a pheochromocytoma in a pregnant patient with hypertension. PMID:21890650

  10. An ectopic renin-secreting adrenal corticoadenoma in a child with malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kaslow, Abraham M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Shillingford, Nick; HaDuong, Josephine; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Gayer, Christopher P

    2016-03-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old male presented with hypertensive emergency, hypokalemia, and elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels. There was no evidence of virilization or cushingoid features. MRI of the abdomen revealed a large (5 × 5 × 3 cm) peripherally enhancing, heterogeneous mass arising from the left adrenal gland. The patient was treated for a suspected pheochromocytoma. However, his blood pressure was not responsive to alpha-blockade. Blood pressure was controlled with a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. A complete surgical resection of the mass was performed. Postoperatively, his blood pressure normalized and he did not require antihypertensives. On pathological examination, the tumor tissue stained negative for chromogranin and positive for renin. The final diagnosis was renin-secreting adrenal corticoadenoma, an extremely rare adrenal tumor not previously reported in a pediatric patient. Malignant hypertension due to a renin-secreting tumor may need to be distinguished from a pheochromocytoma if alpha-adrenergic blockade is ineffective. PMID:26997629

  11. Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christopher; Fishbane, Steven; Shapiro, Lawrence; Courgi, Robert G; Kostadinov, Stefan; Donovan, Virginia; Epstein, David

    2002-06-01

    A patient with pyelonephritis developed multiorgan failure resulting in death. Clinical findings were consistent with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, with bilateral pheochromocytomas identified by computed tomography scan. We hypothesize that either the infection or the administration of radiocontrast media led to a massive release of catecholamines from the pheochromocytomas. As a result, tissue perfusion was severely compromised, and multiorgan failure developed. This exceedingly rare complication of pheochromocytoma has been termed pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. PMID:12046054

  12. Left Ventricular Noncompaction Combined With Epinephrine-Secreted Pheochromocytoma Inducing Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Luo, Jing-Gang; Chen, Xin; Hu, Wen-Ze; Chen, Li-Wei; Xin, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Ming; Duan, Jun; Zou, Feng-Jun; Teng, Xu; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-03-22

    Pheochromocytomas and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) are both rare diseases. In this patient, the long duration of the catecholamine-secreted pheochromocytoma caused myocardial ischemia, pressure overload, and hypertrophy, resulting in the onset of heart failure (HF). The LVNC might be associated with the acute attack of HF induced by the pheochromocytoma. This is the first case reporting LVNC in combination with HF secondary to pheochromocytoma. PMID:26973259

  13. Under the volcano, or pheochromocytoma revisited

    PubMed Central

    van Tellingen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a well-defined clinical entity often remembered in clinical practice, but seldom encountered. Rather often, however, these patients are initially referred to a cardiologist and then a correct diagnosis is important because this disease is curable and may otherwise be lethal. Somehow clinical signs and symptoms are embedded in a sort of subconscious memory but specific knowledge is rather limited as far as, for example, the pathophysiological background is concerned. Perhaps this has something to do with the fact that already in 1922 a syndrome of paroxysmal hypertension associated with an adrenal medullary tumour was reported and that its nature and clinicopathological manifestations were described as early as the 1950s. Nevertheless it is not amiss to shed some new light upon old and established views not only for the better of our patients but as a catalyst for the motivation in search of coherence as well. The patient presented here pairs a very unusual case with unusual features. The pathophysiology is revealed with the closely monitored sequence of events. At a time where the medical professional leans heavily on test results and sophisticated technology it is refreshing to see how basic diagnostic tools pay off in clarifying and understanding as well. PMID:25696286

  14. Endoscopic treatment of bilateral pheochromocytoma in MEN 2A syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iusco, D; Sarli, L; Di Mauro, D; Violi, V; Roncoroni, L

    2007-10-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for single adrenal lesion have been well documented in literature; less experience though has been reported with simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. This operation is indicated in case of primary hypercortisolism caused by bilateral adrenocortical hyperfunction, Cushing's disease after failure of pituitary surgery, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by a tumour inaccessible for surgical intervention, and pheochromocytoma when it occurs bilaterally in case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B. Different laparoscopic approaches have been described to perform this operation, such as the "anterior" approach (transperitoneal), the "lateral" approach (transperitoneal and retroperitoneal), and the "posterior" approach (retroperitoneal). We report a case of bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy in a 33 years old female affected with bilateral pheochromocytoma due to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A treated with a bilateral transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy and disease free after 18 months follow-up. PMID:17915049

  15. Reduced Intensity Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-23

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Aplastic Anemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  16. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-07-28

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  17. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  18. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine].

    PubMed

    Pucar, Dragan; Marković, Stevan

    2002-07-01

    Excess secretion of any of the adrenal cortical or medullary hormones contributes to a number of well-known clinical syndromes.. They may result from benign or malignant adrenal tumours, adrenal hyperplasia or, least frequently, from extra-adrenal disease. Differentiation among these possibilities is often impossible on clinical or biochemical grounds alone. Location of the site(s) of excess hormone production in the past depended on relatively insensitive or invasive radiological methods. The non-invasive evaluation began with X-ray computed tomography but the functional significance of anatomical abnormalities cannot be determined from CT scan. Incorporation of specific radiopharmaceuticals into the abnormal tissues allows scintigraphic localization of functional abnormalities with a high degree of efficacy. The combination of adrenal scintigraphy and kompjuterizovanom tomografijom CT or magnetskom rezonancijom MRI should in most cases obviatc the need for more invasive procedures. Phaeochromocytoma is rare in hypertensive population, affecting only an estimated of 0.1%. However, a high index of suspicion is essential, since these tumours have potentially life-threatening cardiovascular effects and their successful resection is curative. Important clinical clues include the presence of orthostatic hypotension in an untreated hypertensive, resistance of hypertension to standard therapy (including possible exacerbation by (beta-blockers). In most cases, the diagnosis can be established by demonstrating high levels of free catecholamines and their metabolites (metanephrines and Vanillylmandelic acid). Clonidine test may be important in some cases. The purpose of this study is to point that metaiodobenzylguanidine (mlBG) has proved to be a safe, sensitive and highly specific agent for the location of phaeochromocytoma. The first successful schinigraphic demonstration of phaeochromocytomas in man was reported in 1981, using a new radiopharmaceutical, 131l

  19. Risk factors for hypertensive attack during pheochromocytoma resection

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Se Yun; Lee, Kyung Seop; Lee, Jun Nyung; Ha, Yun-Sok; Choi, Seock Hwan; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the risk factors for hypertensive attack during adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Despite the development of newer surgical and anesthetic techniques for the management of pheochromocytoma, intraoperative hypertensive attack continues to present a challenge. Materials and Methods Data from 53 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma at Kyungpook National Uriversity Medical Center between January 2000 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence or absence of hypertensive attack at the time of surgery. Patient demographic characteristics and preoperative evaluations were assessed for their prognostic relevance with respect to hypertensive attack. A univariate analysis was conducted, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. Results In the univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure at presentation, preoperative hormonal status (including epinephrine, norepinephrine, vanillylmandelic acid, and metanephrine levels in a 24-hour urine sample), tumor size, and postoperative systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the development of hypertensive attack. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative epinephrine level and tumor size were independent factors that predicted hypertensive attack. The highest odds ratio for tumor size (2.169) was obtained at a cutoff value of 4.25 cm and the highest odds ratio for preoperative epinephrine (1.020) was obtained at a cutoff value of 166.3 µg/d. Conclusions In this study, a large tumor size and an elevated preoperative urinary epinephrine level were risk factors for intraoperative hypertensive attack in patients with pheochromocytoma. PMID:27194549

  20. [Two primary malignant neoplasms and recurrent neoplasms in patients treated at the Regional Cancer Center in Lodź in 1976-1989].

    PubMed

    Płuzańska, A; Dyczka, J; Stempoczyńska, J; Wator, A; Alwasiak, J

    1997-04-01

    In 1976-1989, 90, 128 patients with malignancies were recorded at the Regional Cancer Center in Lódź. Two different tumors have been diagnosed in 294 of these patients (0.31%), and the second pathologic growth corresponding to the secondary cancer criteria (occurrence within at least 6 months following radio- and/or chemotherapy) only in 148 of patients. Most frequently second tumors have been diagnosed in patients with: lip, skin, uterus and laryngeal cancers (2.8-0.8%). Relatively rare have been second tumors in patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (0.73%). The incidence of each type of the second tumors have been different than the types of neoplasma in all registered patients. Second tumors most frequently diagnosed in the same patient have been: skin cancer of different histological structure (two cases), breast cancer and tumors of the reproductive tract as well as laryngeal or lip cancer, and carcinoma of the lungs. A risk of the secondary malignancy in patients treated with radio- and chemotherapy in comparison with the risk of the second cancer in patients treated with chemotherapy only have been 2.71% and 1.36%, respectively. PMID:9377666

  1. Dental caries and dental anomalies in children treated by chemotherapy for malignant disease: a study in the north of England.

    PubMed

    Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R; Gordon, P H; Kernahan, J; Craft, A W

    1991-12-01

    Fifty-two children in remission from childhood cancer and 41 siblings underwent a full clinical and radiographic dental examination. All the children had received chemotherapy. The leukaemic patients had received radiotherapy also, but not involving the jaws. There was no significant difference in dental caries experience between the treated children and the siblings, but significantly more dental anomalies were detected radiographically in the treated group. PMID:1812966

  2. Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: Karnofsky score and neurological score in patients with recurrent gloms treated with Photofrin PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Yang, Victor X.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

    2002-06-01

    In our previous phase II studies we treated 112 patients with malignant brain tumors with 2-mg/kg Photofrin i.v. and intra-operative cavitary PDT. We concluded that PDT was safe in patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent supratentorial malignant gliomas. Pathology, performance grade and light dose were significantly related to survival time. In selected patients when an adequate light dose was used survival time improved. The surgical mortality rate was less than 3%. [spie 2000] We have initiated two randomized prospective trials - the first, to determine if the addition of PDT to standard therapy [surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy] prolongs the survival of patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytic tumors; and the second, to determine whether high light dose PDT [120 J/cm2] is superior to low light dose PDT [40 J/cm2] in patients with recurrent malignant astrocytic tumors. To date, 158 patients have been recruited - 72 to the newly diagnosed malignant glioma study and 86 to the recurrent glioma study. In the recurrent glioma study we compared the pre-operative KS and elements of the neurological examination [speech function, visual fields, cognitive function, sensory examination and gait] to the post-operative examinations at hospital discharge. The means were compared by paired student-t test. The KS in 86 of 88 patients with recurrent gliomas were assessable. The mean [s.d.] preoperative and post-operative KS were 82+/- 14 and 79+/- 17, respectively [p=0.003]. The mean decline in KS, although statistically significant, was small and of no clinical importance. The median Karnofsky score changed from 90 to 80. The KS improved in 8 patients; their post-operative average length of stay (alos) was =9.7 days. There was no change in 47 [alos=8.3], a decline of 10 points in 24 [aloc=13.4] and declined by more than 10 points in 7 [alos=23.3]. Three of these 7 patients who had a decline of >10 points improved in follow-up but did not reach their

  3. Carcinoma-like nonfunctional pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Araki, Saori; Tokairin, Takuo; Kagawa, Makoto; Chiba, Koji; Adachi, Akiko; Noro, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the malignant potential of a pheochromocytoma (PCC) remains controversial. PCC is regarded as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and the classification of NETs has gradually been defined over the last decade, particularly for gastroenteropancreatic NET. The present study describes a case of locally advanced, carcinoma-like, nonfunctional PCC, which may be regarded as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) rather than a malignant PCC. A 72-year-old man was referred to Saitama Red Cross Hospital (Saitama, Japan), presenting with a 2-month history of right flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a right adrenal gland tumor, which measured 6.0 cm in diameter, invading the hilum of the right kidney, liver and inferior vena cava (IVC). Radical surgery was performed with en bloc resection of the right kidney, and adjacent parts of the liver and IVC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that all of the resected tissues were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and Ki-67, and the specimen had a Ki-67 index of 80%. A diagnosis of carcinoma-like PCC or NEC of the adrenal gland was confirmed. Reports of NEC of the adrenal gland are extremely rare in the literature, and classification of PCC as a NET has not yet been fully discussed. The present case may therefore contribute to the classification of NETs in the adrenal gland. PMID:27446458

  4. 18F-FDOPA and 18F-FLT positron emission tomography parametric response maps predict response in recurrent malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Pope, Whitney B; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Lai, Albert; Zaw, Taryar; Czernin, Johannes; Phelps, Michael E; Chen, Wei; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined the use of voxel-wise changes in (18)F-FDOPA and (18)F-FLT PET uptake, referred to as parametric response maps (PRMs), to determine whether they were predictive of response to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Twenty-four patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who underwent bevacizumab treatment were analyzed. Patients had MR and PET images acquired before and at 2 time points after bevacizumab treatment. PRMs were created by examining the percentage change in tracer uptake between time points in each image voxel. Voxel-wise increase in PET uptake in areas of pretreatment contrast enhancement defined by MRI stratified 3-month progression-free survival (PFS) and 6-month overall survival (OS) according to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. A decrease in PET tracer uptake was associated with longer PFS and OS, whereas an increase in PET uptake was associated with short PFS and OS. The volume fraction of increased (18)F-FDOPA PET uptake between the 2 posttreatment time points also stratified long- and short-term PFS and OS (log-rank, P < .05); however, (18)F-FLT uptake did not stratify OS. This study suggests that an increase in FDOPA or FLT PET uptake on PRMs after bevacizumab treatment may be a useful biomarker for predicting PFS and that FDOPA PET PRMs are also predictive of OS in recurrent gliomas treated with bevacizumab. PMID:22711609

  5. IL-6-Producing, Noncatecholamines Secreting Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Polidoro, Alessandro; Pacelli, Antonio; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Stefanelli, Federica; Clemenzi, Piera; Carini, Luisa; Alessandri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be an unusual first clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, several cases of IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas have been reported. This report describes a 45-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who was admitted with FUO, normal blood pressure levels, microcytic and hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal levels of urine and plasma metanephrines. After adrenalectomy, fever and all inflammatory findings disappeared. PMID:27579040

  6. IL-6-Producing, Noncatecholamines Secreting Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Ciacciarelli, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Polidoro, Alessandro; Pacelli, Antonio; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Stefanelli, Federica; Clemenzi, Piera; Carini, Luisa; Iuliano, Luigi; Alessandri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be an unusual first clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, several cases of IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas have been reported. This report describes a 45-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who was admitted with FUO, normal blood pressure levels, microcytic and hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal levels of urine and plasma metanephrines. After adrenalectomy, fever and all inflammatory findings disappeared. PMID:27579040

  7. Pheochromocytoma: clinical review based on a rare case in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Alface, Marisa Maibel; Moniz, Patricia; Jesus, Susana; Fonseca, Cândida

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours originating in chromaffin cells, representing 0.1-1% of all secondary hypertension (HT) cases. The majority are benign and unilateral, characterised by the production of catecholamines and other neuropeptides. Mainly located in the adrenal gland, they are more frequent between the 3rd and 5th decades of life; however, 10-25% can be associated with genetic familial syndromes (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), type 1 neurofibromatosis and Von-Hippel-Landau disease in younger ages. The authors present a rare case of secondary HT due to a pheochromocytoma in a 15-year-old patient, whose metanephrine assay confirmed the diagnosis, and abdominal ultrasound and CT localised the tumour in the adrenal gland. HT was controlled with α and β blockers, with posterior retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgical intervention and subsequent resolution of HT. Age and concomitant hyperparathyroidism compelled genetic testing for the exclusion of MEN 2, which was negative. PMID:26243750

  8. On-pump beating resection of cardiac pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yuji; Saito, Satoshi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of 34-year-old woman with a cardiac pheochromocytoma that was diagnosed by scintigraphy using iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine. For preoperative evaluation, we chose multidetector computed tomography instead of coronary angiography, for fear that catheter manipulation might trigger catecholamine release from the tumor; it showed that no major coronary artery branches run through the tumor. The tumor resection was carried out safely with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and without cardiac arrest. PMID:24585652

  9. Childhood familial pheochromocytoma. Conflicting results of localization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.C.; DeQuattro, V.; Falk, R.; Ansari, A.; Lieberman, E.

    1986-10-01

    Childhood familial pheochromocytoma was investigated in four patients by abdominal computed tomographic scan, (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scan, and vena caval catecholamine sampling. Results conflicted with surgical findings. Computed tomographic scan identified all four adrenal tumors but missed two midline tumors in one patient. (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scan identified two of three adrenal tumors but also suggested extra-adrenal tumors not confirmed at operation in two of three patients. Vena caval sampling for catecholamines confirmed all adrenal tumors but suggested additional tumors not verified at operation in two of three patients. All patients are asymptomatic and have normal urinary catecholamines 15 to 51 months after operation. Because of the frequency of multiple tumors in familial pheochromocytoma, different diagnostic techniques were employed. False-positive results were more frequent with (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine and vena caval sampling. Reinterpretation of the (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans at a later date led to less false-positive interpretation, although the false-negative rate remained unchanged. More pediatric experience with (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans and vena caval sampling in familial pheochromocytoma is needed. Confirmation of tumor and its localization rest with meticulous surgical exploration.

  10. Composite pheochromocytoma masquerading as solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Geetanjali; Saran, Ravindra Kumar; Godhi, Satyajit; Srivastava, Siddharth; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2015-05-16

    Pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma form rare composite tumours of the adrenal medulla comprising less than 3% of all sympathoadrenal tumours. We present a case of intraoperatively detected adrenal medullary tumour of composite pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma diagnosed on histopathology, in a normotensive patient. A 50-year-old male with a past history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with abdominal pain and significant weight loss since one month. Ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography abdomen revealed a large lobulated lesion in the distal body and tail of pancreas suggestive of solid and papillary neoplasm of body and tail of pancreas. Intra-operatively, a 15 cm × 10 cm solid lesion with cystic areas was seen arising from the left lower pole of the adrenal gland pushing the pancreas which appeared unremarkable. In our case, exploratory laparotomy with tumour excision was done. Extensive sectioning and microscopic examination of this adrenal tumour confirmed a diagnosis of composite Pheochromocytoma with Ganglioneuroma on histopathology. Immunophenotyping with S-100 further supported the diagnosis. The goal of this report is to increase the awareness of this rare disease and to further identify its variable presentation. PMID:25984524

  11. Organ-Sparing Marrow-Targeted Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. [Clinical observation of 100 patients with malignant lymphoma treating with different preconditioning regimens followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Shao, Lan-Lan; Xiao, Xiu-Bin; Zhong, Kai-Li; Lu, Yun; Chen, Xi-Lin; DA, Yong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Ma, Yi; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Su, Hang; Zhang, Wei-Jing

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the curative effect, prognosis and safety of different preconditioning regimens for patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) for malignant lymphoma (ML). The clinical data of 100 ML patients (Sep 1992 to Aug 2010 in 307 Hospital) were retrospectively analyzed, and were divided into two groups by different preconditioning regimens: the high-dose chemotherapy preconditioning group and high-dose chemotherapy/radiotherapy preconditioning group. The overall survival (OS) rate, progress free survival (PFS) rate and adverse effect were analyzed. The results showed that until Feb 2011, the median follow-up was 33.5 months. All patients were engrafted and their hematopoiesis was reconstituted. The median time of WBC recovery up to > 1.0×1.0(9)/L in high-dose chemotherapy preconditioning group and high-dose chemotherapy/radiotherapy preconditioning group were (6.0 ± 0.4) d and (8.2 ± 0.4) d, platelet up to > 20.0×1.0(9)/L in two groups were (7.1 ± 0.8) d and (11.4 ± 2.5) d (P < 0.05). The 3-year OS rate of the two groups were 67.3% and 68.9%. 5-year OS rates of two groups were 62.8% and 60.6%, 10-year OS rates of two groups were 57.6% and 56.2% respectively; 3-year PFS of two group were 63.6% and 63.2%, 5-year of two group were 59.4% and 58.3%, 10-year of two group were 50.8% and 55.3% respectively (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, the incidence of fever, infection, bleeding, secondary cancer between two groups was not significant different (P > 0.05). It is concluded that the hematopoietic reconstitution of high-dose chemotherapy/radiotherapy preconditioning group is later than that of high-dose chemotherapy preconditioning group. However, there is no significant difference in curative effect and prognosis between the two groups. PMID:22739163

  13. Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George; Grossman, Ashley; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  14. Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumor of breast treated with a multi-modality approach in a tertiary cancer care centre in North India

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Supriya; Joshi, Nikhil P.; Roy, Soumyajit; Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Pandit, Subhash; Sharma, Dayanand; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast can be categorized into benign, borderline and malignant subgroups depending on various histopathological factors. Although malignant PTs may be indolent and controlled by local excision, they frequently show local and distant relapses. Literature reveals local recurrence to be the predominant pattern of failure and thus emphasizes the importance of adjuvant radiation in these tumors. The role of systemic chemotherapy has remained doubtful. Materials and Methods: We have analyzed details of all patients of PT (n = 33) treated with adjuvant multi-modality approach in our institute since 1994–2009. The demographic data, treatment details, recurrence patterns and salvage treatment options were documented. Results: All patients received adjuvant radiation. Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean survival of the entire cohort was 150.618 months. There was a trend for better overall survival with borderline grade (193.6 vs. 160.2 months; P = 0.08, log rank). The disease free survival (DFS) favored borderline grade (193.6 months vs. 82.9 months for high grade; P = 0.02, log rank). The DFS was significantly better in tumors having negative margins on postoperative histopathological examination (DFS rate at 5 years being 100% vs. 69.2% for positive or close margins; P = 0.015). The mode of surgery did not have any impact on survival. Conclusion: Adjuvant Radiation should be discussed taking into account surgical margins, size and various pathological factors of the primary. Adjuvant radiation may be utilized in high risk patients to enhance loco-regional control. Systemic chemotherapy is an option, worth exploring, in cases of systemic failure. PMID:27169106

  15. Infection Prophylaxis and Management in Treating Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    ; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Adult

  16. Single or Double Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-13

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory

  17. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Pheochromocytoma Crisis With Multiple Organ Failure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamada, Takahisa; Ozu, Kentaro; Fukunami, Masatake

    2015-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a feared and potentially lethal complication associated with excess release of catecholamine from the tumor, which might lead to multiple organ failure (MOF). The definitive treatment for pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. To safely proceed with surgery, hemodynamic stabilization in the acute phase is indispensable, but it might be extremely challenging in case of pheochromocytoma crisis with MOF even if the sufficient pharmacological drugs would be administered. Catecholamine is a dialyzable substance and is removed by renal replacement therapy. In this report, we described 2 cases of pheochromocytoma crisis with MOF, in which we succeeded in controlling acute unstable hemodynamics by means of catecholamine removal with continuous renal replacement therapy. These cases suggest that continuous renal replacement therapy may be effective to manage unstable hemodynamics because of massive catecholamine excretion in patients with pheochromocytoma crisis and MOF. PMID:25719978

  18. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non

  19. Multi-omics analysis defines core genomic alterations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vega, Luis Jaime; Letouzé, Eric; Burnichon, Nelly; Buffet, Alexandre; Disderot, Pierre-Hélie; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Loriot, Céline; Elarouci, Nabila; Morin, Aurélie; Menara, Mélanie; Lepoutre-Lussey, Charlotte; Badoual, Cécile; Sibony, Mathilde; Dousset, Bertrand; Libé, Rossella; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Plouin, Pierre François; Bertherat, Jérôme; Amar, Laurence; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) are neural crest-derived tumours with a very strong genetic component. Here we report the first integrated genomic examination of a large collection of PCC/PGL. SNP array analysis reveals distinct copy-number patterns associated with genetic background. Whole-exome sequencing shows a low mutation rate of 0.3 mutations per megabase, with few recurrent somatic mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL. DNA methylation arrays and miRNA sequencing identify DNA methylation changes and miRNA expression clusters strongly associated with messenger RNA expression profiling. Overexpression of the miRNA cluster 182/96/183 is specific in SDHB-mutated tumours and induces malignant traits, whereas silencing of the imprinted DLK1-MEG3 miRNA cluster appears as a potential driver in a subgroup of sporadic tumours. Altogether, the complete genomic landscape of PCC/PGL is mainly driven by distinct germline and/or somatic mutations in susceptibility genes and reveals different molecular entities, characterized by a set of unique genomic alterations. PMID:25625332

  20. Involvement of Ras in survival responsiveness to nitric oxide toxicity in pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seong Won; Baek, Kwang Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Yun, Hye-Young

    2002-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in attenuation of tumor growth by activated macrophages that generate large amount of cytotoxic/cytostatic free radicals. However, some tumor cells may survive from NO cytotoxicity and continue to proliferate to malignant tumors. Since a protooncogene product Ras was shown to be activated by NO, this study investigated the involvement of Ras in the cell survival in response to NO cytotoxicity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Treatment with Ras inhibitor or constitutive expression of dominant negative Ras markedly increased NO-induced cell death. NO-resistant PC12 cells (PC12-NO-R) exhibited higher steady state Ras activity than the parental PC12 cells. Inducible expression using tetracycline-on (Tet-on) system of Ras mutants (dominant negative Ras or dominant active Ras) demonstrated that blockade of Ras activity increased NO-induced cell death whereas enhancement of Ras activity attenuated NO-induced cell death. Furthermore, inducible expression of NO-insensitive mutant Ras selectively increased cellular vulnerability to NO but not to ROS. NO, Ras inhibitor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) blocker synergistically increased cell death. These observations suggest that Ras activity may be a critical factor for survival response of tumor cells to NO toxicity and pharmacological agents affecting Ras activity may enhance efficacy of NO-mediated tumor therapies. PMID:12635656

  1. A novel RET gene mutation in a patient with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Claudia; Russo, Marco; De Gregorio, Laura; Terranova, Rosa; Mangione, Erika; Castoro, Carlotta; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Pellegriti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is a chromaffin tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. The recent discovery of new germline mutations in RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, NF1, TMEM127, MAX genes, increased the rate of genetic disease from 10% to 28% in patients with apparently sporadic tumor. RET germline mutations cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN 2A) characterized by complete penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and lower prevalence of Pheo and hyperparathyroidism. We describe the genetic etiology of an apparently sporadic case of monolateral Pheo in a 42-year-old male patient. A new (not previously reported) MEN 2A-associated germline RET mutation located in exon 11 (Glu632Gly, caused by an A>G point mutation at position 1895 of the RET cDNA) was found in the patient but not in his living first-degree relatives. This observation increases the number of possible germline RET mutations. Genotype-phenotype correlation of this new genetic alteration is unknown, but this rare mutation is probably associated with a low risk for MTC (usually the first tumor diagnosed in MEN 2A syndrome) and with the development of Pheo before the onset of MTC. Since we expect MTC to occur in our patient, strict follow-up is mandatory. Our findings emphasize the relevance of genetic testing in patients with Pheo, especially when the clinical presentation (family history, young age at diagnosis, multiple locations, malignant lesions, and bilateralism) is suggestive. PMID:26497911

  2. Exome sequencing identifies MAX mutations as a cause of hereditary pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Gracia-Aznárez, Francisco J; Schiavi, Francesca; Landa, Iñigo; Leandro-García, Luis J; Letón, Rocío; Honrado, Emiliano; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Caronia, Daniela; Pita, Guillermo; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Taschin, Elisa; Bobisse, Sara; Pica, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Hernández-Lavado, Rafael; Díaz, José A; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; González-Neira, Anna; Roncador, Giovanna; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Benítez, Javier; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary pheochromocytoma (PCC) is often caused by germline mutations in one of nine susceptibility genes described to date, but there are familial cases without mutations in these known genes. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with hereditary PCC (cases) and identified mutations in MAX, the MYC associated factor X gene. Absence of MAX protein in the tumors and loss of heterozygosity caused by uniparental disomy supported the involvement of MAX alterations in the disease. A follow-up study of a selected series of 59 cases with PCC identified five additional MAX mutations and suggested an association with malignant outcome and preferential paternal transmission of MAX mutations. The involvement of the MYC-MAX-MXD1 network in the development and progression of neural crest cell tumors is further supported by the lack of functional MAX in rat PCC (PC12) cells and by the amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma and suggests that loss of MAX function is correlated with metastatic potential. PMID:21685915

  3. Hypoglycemia as a complication of removal of a pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, C. T.; Imrie, D.

    1977-01-01

    In a patient with a solitary pheochromocytoma severe hypoglycemia developed following excision of the tumour. The possible causative mechanism was thought to be a reactive relative increase in insulin production secondary to increased endogenous production of glucose, induced by the large amounts of epinephrine produced by the tumour. Alternatively, epinephrine withdrawal following removal of the tumour under phentolamine infusion may have induced increased insulin production and hence potentiated the development of hypoglycemia. Careful monitoring of the blood glucose concentration during and after the operation is recommended to obviate this potentially fatal complication. PMID:844018

  4. Tyrosine kinase receptors as molecular targets In pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Clarissa A.; Winer, Daniel; Liu, Wei; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors shown to be responsive to multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Despite growing knowledge regarding their genetic basis, the ability to predict behavior in these tumors remains challenging. There is also limited knowledge of their tyrosine kinase receptor expression and whether the clinical response observed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib relates only to its anti-angiogenic properties or also due to a direct effect on tumor cells. To answer these questions, an in vitro model of sunitinib treatment of a pheochromocytoma cell line was created. Sunitinib targets (VEGFRs, PDGFRs, C-KIT), FGFRs and cell cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in human tissue microarrays. SDHB immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate marker for the presence of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. The FGFR4 G388R SNP was also investigated. Sunitinib treatment in vitro decreases cell proliferation mainly by targeting cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cell organization genes. FGFR1, -2 and -4, VEGFR2, PDGFRα and p16 were overexpressed in primary human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Discordant results were observed for VEGFR1, p27 and p21 (overexpressed in paragangliomas but underexpressed in pheochromoctyomas); PDGFRβ, Rb and Cyclin D1 (overexpressed in paragangliomas only) and FGFR3 (overexpressed in pheochromocytomas and underexpressed in paragangliomas). Low expression of C-KIT, p53, Aurora Kinase A and B was observed. Nuclear FGFR2 expression was associated with increased risk of metastasis (odds ratio [OR]=7.61; p=0.008), as was membranous PDGFRα (OR= 13.71, p=0.015), membranous VEGFR1 (OR=8.01; p=0.037), nuclear MIB1 (OR=1.26, p=0.008) and cytoplasmic p27 (OR=1.037, p=0.030). FGFR3, VEGFR2 and C-KIT levels were associated with decreased risk of metastasis. We provide new insights into the mechanistic actions of sunitinib in pheochromoctyomas and paragangliomas and support current

  5. Outcome of Patients with Relapsed/Refractory AIDS-Related Lymphoma Diagnosed 1999–2008 and Treated with Curative Intent in the AIDS Malignancy Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, U. D.; Ramos, J. C.; Petrich, A.; Gupta, N.; Lensing, S.; Moore, Page; Reid, E. G.; Aboulafia, D. M.; Ratner, L.; Mitsuyasu, R.; Cooley, Timothy; Henry, D. H.; Barr, P.; Noy, A.

    2012-01-01

    No comparative studies exist for relapsed/refractory (rel/rfr) AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs). To determine practices over the last decade and to assess the outcomes of salvage chemotherapy with curative intent and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), we retrospectively evaluated treatment outcomes in patients with rel/rfr ARL who were treated in 13 national AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) sites between 1999 and 2008 (N=88). The most commonly used second line therapies were ICE (n=34), dose adjusted EPOCH (n=17), and ESHAP (n=11). The odds of achieving a response were lower for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than those with HL and for those with primary refractory disease than those with relapse. Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for those with relapsed disease compared to those with refractory disease and for those with non-Burkitt NHL compared to those with Burkitt. OS was longer in patients who underwent ASCT compared to those who did not (1-year OS: 63.2% vs. 37.2%). However, among 32 patients (36%) who achieved CR/PR after second-line therapy 1-year OS was not different between the 2 groups (87.5% for ASCT vs. 81.8% for non-ASCT). Long-term survival in some patients with rel/rfr ARL may be possible without transplant, although transplant remains the standard of care for chemotherapy sensitive disease. PMID:22642936

  6. Limitations of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy in locating pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, I.R.; Thompson, N.W.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-07-01

    /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) scintigraphy for the location of pheochromocytomas has proved to be a major advance in patient management. In combination with computerized tomographic scanning, nearly all pheochromocytomas can be located before surgery and invasive investigations are now indicated only in exceptional cases. However, there are still lessons to be learned concerning the optimal administration and interpretation of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. With careful attention to detail and an awareness of isotope distribution, false positive studies should be extremely rare. While the incidence of false negative studies is uncommon, these certainly occur. A patient with sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, bilateral pheochromocytomas, and additional benign pheochromocytomas arising in paraganglia tissue anterior to the abdominal aorta is presented. The right adrenal pheochromocytoma was not identified on /sup 131/I-MIBG imaging. The authors conclude that even with current locating techniques, the traditional surgical approach to pheochromocytoma should not be abandoned. This involves transabdominal exploration of both adrenal glands and careful examination of all possible sites of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

  7. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: IMPLICATIONS IN TUMORIGENESIS AND THE ACTUAL MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Urvi; Giubellino, Alessio; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumors with varied clinical presentations, biochemistries and genetic makeup. These features outline the complexity and the difficulties in studying and understanding the oncogenesis of these tumors. The study of families with genetically inherited mutations in pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes has greatly enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of oncogenesis of the disease, and consequently changed our clinical approach. Several molecular pathways and mutations in their important regulatory proteins have been identified. Such mutations are responsible for the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen and nutrient sensing, apoptosis regulation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The knowledge derived from the study of these pathways will be fundamental in the future clinical management of these patients. As a rare disease that often masks its clinical presentation, the diagnosis is frequently missed and a high level of suspicion is required. Management of this disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach and has been discussed along with advances in its treatment. PMID:22691888

  8. Acute cardiomyopathy and multiorgan failure in a patient with pheochromocytoma and neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Darrat, Yousef; Hamoudeh, Eyad; Elhamdani, Mehair Omar; Yaqub, Abid

    2014-02-01

    Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine secreting tumours of the adrenal gland, discovered in 0.1% of patients with hypertension. Our case highlights an atypical presentation of pheochromocytoma in a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed cardiogenic shock with multi-organ failure. The patient demonstrated reversible dilated cardiomyopathy during her hospital stay, and her blood pressure fluctuated widely. Discovery of right adrenal mass followed by biochemical testing facilitated the diagnosis. Judicious medical management led to an uneventful surgical removal of the tumour followed by marked stabilization of her blood pressure. We discuss the characteristics of pheochromocytoma associated with Neurofibromatosis type 1 via reversible cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24640818

  9. Anesthetic management of a rare case of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Pratibha, S. D.; Katti, Vijay; Patil, Basvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetic management of pheochromocytoma is complicated and challenging. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that produces, stores and secretes catecholamines. The main-stay in the management of pheochromocytoma surgeries is Preoperative preparation which has improved perioperative outcome. Modern anesthetic drugs with advanced monitoring have contributed to intraoperative stability. Resection of the tumor results in acute withdrawal of catecholamines, which may lead to severe hypotension. In perioperative period, adequate hydration should be maintained. Beta-blockers, nitroglycerine, sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine are required to avoid hemodynamic fluctuations and should be used appropriately. PMID:26957701

  10. Outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma diagnosed 1999-2008 and treated with curative intent in the AIDS Malignancy Consortium.

    PubMed

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Petrich, Adam; Gupta, Neel; Lensing, Shelly; Moore, P C; Reid, Erin G; Aboulafia, David M; Ratner, Lee; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Cooley, Timothy; Henry, David H; Barr, Paul; Noy, Ariela

    2012-12-01

    No comparative studies exist for relapsed/refractory (rel/rfr) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL). To determine practices over the last decade and to assess the outcomes of salvage chemotherapy with curative intent and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), we retrospectively evaluated treatment outcomes in patients with rel/rfr ARL who were treated in 13 national AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) sites between 1999 and 2008 (n = 88). The most commonly used second-line therapies were ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide, n = 34), dose adjusted EPOCH (etoposide/prednisone/vincristine/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin, n = 17) and ESHAP (etoposide/methylprednisolone/cytarabine/cisplatin, n = 11). The odds of achieving a response were lower for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than for those with HL and for those with primary refractory disease than for those with relapse. Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for those with relapsed disease compared to those with refractory disease and for those with non-Burkitt NHL compared to those with Burkitt. OS was longer in patients who underwent ASCT compared to those who did not (1-year OS: 63.2% vs. 37.2%). However, among 32 patients (36%) who achieved a complete or partial response (CR/PR) after second-line therapy, 1-year OS was not different between the two groups (87.5% for ASCT vs. 81.8% for non-ASCT). Long-term survival in some patients with rel/rfr ARL may be possible without transplant, although transplant remains the standard of care for chemotherapy sensitive disease. PMID:22642936

  11. Risk of a Second Malignant Neoplasm After Cancer in Childhood Treated With Radiotherapy: Correlation With the Integral Dose Restricted to the Irradiated Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, France Rubino, Carole; Guerin, Sylvie; Diallo, Ibrahima; Samand, Akthar; Hawkins, Mike; Oberlin, Odile; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; De Vathaire, Florent

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: After successful treatment of cancers in childhood, the occurrence of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) came to the fore. Few studies have considered the relationship between the radiation dose received and the risk of developing an SMN. To take into account the heterogeneity of the dose distribution so as to evaluate the overall risk of an SMN after a childhood cancer, we therefore focused on the integral dose restricted to the irradiated fields. Methods and Materials: The study was performed in a cohort of 4,401 patients who were 3-year survivors of all types of childhood cancer treated between 1947 and 1986 in France and Great Britain. For each patient, the integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. Results: We found a significant dose-response relationship between the overall risk of an SMN and the estimated integral dose. The excess relative risk for each incremental unit of the integral dose was only 0.008 in a linear model and 0.017 when a negative exponential term was considered, when adjusted for chemotherapy. The risk of SMN occurrence was 2.6 times higher in the case of irradiation. However among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those who had received the highest integral dose actually had a higher risk. Conclusions: The integral dose in our study cannot be considered as a good predictor of later risks. However other studies with the same study design are obviously needed to evaluate the use of the integral dose as a tool for decision making concerning different radiotherapy techniques.

  12. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  13. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2015-11-17

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  14. Triple synchronous primary malignancies of the colon, endometrium and kidney in a patient with Lynch syndrome treated via minimally invasive techniques.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Luis E; Atlass, Jacqueline

    2016-08-01

    Coexisting primary malignancies have been described at length in the literature. While double primary malignancies are relatively common, three synchronous primary malignancies are extremely rare. We describe a case of a 60-year-old woman undergoing surgery for a known endometrial carcinoma. The patient also had a renal mass that was identified as a clear cell renal cell carcinoma and an additional lesion in the colon that was a mucinous adenocarcinoma. Further genetic testing of the patient revealed a deleterious MSH6 mutation suggestive of Lynch syndrome. The patient had all tumors addressed by minimally invasive techniques at the same operative intervention. It is important to consider hereditary cancer syndromes in women with a strong family history presenting with synchronous multiple primary malignancies. A multidisciplinary surgical approach is key to best practices and optimal patient outcomes. PMID:27331139

  15. Treatment with Sunitinib for Patients with Progressive Metastatic Pheochromocytomas and Sympathetic Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Chougnet, Cecile N.; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Palmer, J. Lynn; Leboulleux, Sophie; Cabanillas, Maria E.; Caramella, Caroline; Anderson, Pete; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Waguespack, Steven G.; Deandreis, Desirée

    2012-01-01

    Context: Patients with progressive metastatic pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) or sympathetic paragangliomas (SPGLs) face a dismal prognosis. Current systemic therapies are limited. Objectives: The primary end point was progression-free survival determined by RECIST 1.1 criteria or positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT), in the absence of measurable soft tissue targets. Secondary endpoints were tumor response according to RECIST criteria version 1.1 or FDG uptake, blood pressure control, and safety. Design: We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of patients with metastatic PHEO/SPGL treated with sunitinib from December 2007 through December 2011. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Patients and Setting: Seventeen patients with progressive metastatic PHEO/SPGLs treated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Interventions: Patients treated with sunitinib. Results: According to RECIST 1.1, eight patients experienced clinical benefit; three experienced partial response, and five had stable disease, including four with predominant skeletal metastases that showed a 30% or greater reduction in glucose uptake on [18F]FDG-PET/CT. Of 14 patients who had hypertension, six became normotensive and two discontinued antihypertensives. One patient treated with sunitinib and rapamycin experienced a durable benefit beyond 36 months. The median overall survival from the time sunitinib was initiated was 26.7 months with a progression-free survival of 4.1 months (95% confidence interval = 1.4–11.0). Most patients who experienced a clinical benefit were carriers of SDHB mutations. Conclusion: Sunitinib is associated with tumor size reduction, decreased [18F]FDG-PET/CT uptake, disease stabilization, and hypertension improvement in some patients with progressive metastatic PHEO/PGL. Prospective multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to determine the true benefits of sunitinib. PMID

  16. Pheochromocytoma of the pancreas: A report of three cases and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Ding, Hui; Cai, Min; He, Yan-An; Cai, Yu; Zeng, Yong; Tian, Bo-Le

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is primarily derived from the adrenal medulla. The majority of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma cases occur in the superior para-aortic region and para-adrenal area. However, pheochromocytoma originating from the pancreas is rare. The present study reports the cases of three patients who had no history of hypertension but were post-operatively diagnosed with pheochromocytoma located in the pancreas. Of the three patients, two were admitted to hospital due to abdominal pain, and imaging examinations revealed a soft-tissue lesion in the head of pancreas. Local resection of the pancreatic tumor was successfully performed and a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma derived from the pancreas was subsequently made by pathologists. The third patient was admitted to hospital for surgical treatment due to the identification of a continuously growing lesion in the tail of pancreas during physical examinations. Distal resection of the pancreas was stopped during surgery when the patient's blood pressure and heart rate suddenly increased to 180/110 mmHg and 140 beats/min, respectively. Due to a marked rise in noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in the blood subsequent to surgery, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic pheochromocytoma. The present study additionally reviewed the associated literature concerning pheochromocytoma in order to improve the understanding of this rare clinical phenomenon. The aim of the present study is to highlight to surgeons that although patients may not present with typical clinical manifestations due to the non-functional status of the tumor, undiagnosed pheochromocytoma of the pancreas should be considered when surgeons observe an unexpected hypertensive crisis during pancreatic tumor surgery.

  17. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  18. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient. PMID:16475029

  19. [A Case of Adrenergic Crisis Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Cystic Pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Kanno, Toru; Nakamae, Keichiro; Kubota, Masashi; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening situation. Herein we report a case of catecholamineinduced crisis caused by the rupture of cystic pheochromocytoma. A 76-year-old man with hypertension was referred to our hospital because of a cystic tumor in the retroperitoneal space adjacent to the aorta, which was suspicious of pheochromocytoma. Two days after admission, lower abdominal pain suddenly appeared, followed by hypertension with systolic pressure of 260 mmHg. Computed tomography revealed that the cystic tumor was ruptured spontaneously, leading to diagnosis of pheochromocytoma crisis. His blood pressure was successfully managed by medical treatment and he could recover from crisis. After adequate medical preparation by an α-adrenergic blocker, the tumor was successfully removed by laparoscopy, though the adhesion around the tumor was severe. To our knowledge adrenergic crisis caused by spontaneous rupture of cystic pheochromocytoma is rare, but we have to keep in mind that cystic pheochromocytoma can cause life-threatening crisis by the release of catecholamine due to rupture. PMID:26699885

  20. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Radiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Immunosuppression in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T

  1. Genotype and Tumor Locus Determine Expression Profile of Pseudohypoxic Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas12

    PubMed Central

    Shankavaram, Uma; Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Barb, Jenifer J; Munson, Peter J; Huynh, Thanh T; Matro, Joey C; Turkova, Hana; Linehan, W Marston; Timmers, Henri J; Tischler, Arthur S; Powers, James F; de Krijger, Ronald; Baysal, Bora E; Takacova, Martina; Pastorekova, Silvia; Gius, David; Lehnert, Hendrik; Camphausen, Kevin; Pacak, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) related to mutations in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D, SDH complex assembly factor 2, and the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes share a pseudohypoxic expression profile. However, genotype-specific differences in expression have been emerging. Development of effective new therapies for distinctive manifestations, e.g., a high rate of malignancy in SDHB- or predisposition to multifocal PGLs in SDHD patients, mandates improved stratification. To identify mutation/location-related characteristics among pseudohypoxic PHEOs/PGLs, we used comprehensive microarray profiling (SDHB: n = 18, SDHD-abdominal/thoracic (AT): n = 6, SDHD-head/neck (HN): n = 8, VHL: n = 13). To avoid location-specific bias, typical adrenal medulla genes were derived from matched normal medullas and cortices (n = 8) for data normalization. Unsupervised analysis identified two dominant clusters, separating SDHB and SDHD-AT PHEOs/PGLs (cluster A) from VHL PHEOs and SDHD-HN PGLs (cluster B). Supervised analysis yielded 6937 highly predictive genes (misclassification error rate of 0.175). Enrichment analysis revealed that energy metabolism and inflammation/fibrosis-related genes were most pronouncedly changed in clusters A and B, respectively. A minimum subset of 40 classifiers was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction vs. microarray: r = 0.87). Expression of several individual classifiers was identified as characteristic for VHL and SDHD-HN PHEOs and PGLs. In the present study, we show for the first time that SDHD-HN PGLs share more features with VHL PHEOs than with SDHD-AT PGLs. The presented data suggest novel subclassification of pseudohypoxic PHEOs/PGLs and implies cluster-specific pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies. PMID:23555188

  2. Genotype and tumor locus determine expression profile of pseudohypoxic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Shankavaram, Uma; Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Barb, Jenifer J; Munson, Peter J; Huynh, Thanh T; Matro, Joey C; Turkova, Hana; Linehan, W Marston; Timmers, Henri J; Tischler, Arthur S; Powers, James F; de Krijger, Ronald; Baysal, Bora E; Takacova, Martina; Pastorekova, Silvia; Gius, David; Lehnert, Hendrik; Camphausen, Kevin; Pacak, Karel

    2013-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) related to mutations in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D, SDH complex assembly factor 2, and the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes share a pseudohypoxic expression profile. However, genotype-specific differences in expression have been emerging. Development of effective new therapies for distinctive manifestations, e.g., a high rate of malignancy in SDHB- or predisposition to multifocal PGLs in SDHD patients, mandates improved stratification. To identify mutation/location-related characteristics among pseudohypoxic PHEOs/PGLs, we used comprehensive microarray profiling (SDHB: n = 18, SDHD-abdominal/thoracic (AT): n = 6, SDHD-head/neck (HN): n = 8, VHL: n = 13). To avoid location-specific bias, typical adrenal medulla genes were derived from matched normal medullas and cortices (n = 8) for data normalization. Unsupervised analysis identified two dominant clusters, separating SDHB and SDHD-AT PHEOs/PGLs (cluster A) from VHL PHEOs and SDHD-HN PGLs (cluster B). Supervised analysis yielded 6937 highly predictive genes (misclassification error rate of 0.175). Enrichment analysis revealed that energy metabolism and inflammation/fibrosis-related genes were most pronouncedly changed in clusters A and B, respectively. A minimum subset of 40 classifiers was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction vs. microarray: r = 0.87). Expression of several individual classifiers was identified as characteristic for VHL and SDHD-HN PHEOs and PGLs. In the present study, we show for the first time that SDHD-HN PGLs share more features with VHL PHEOs than with SDHD-AT PGLs. The presented data suggest novel subclassification of pseudohypoxic PHEOs/PGLs and implies cluster-specific pathogenic mechanisms and treatment strategies. PMID:23555188

  3. Cortex Fraxini (Qingpi) Protects Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ya; Zhang, Huan; Lam, Kim-Hung; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder having close relationship with oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cortex Fraxini (QP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant properties. It may be a potential candidate for preventing the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the key objective of the current study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of QP water extract on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It was found that QP water extract possesses strong antioxidant property with SC50 = 0.15 mg/mL. Total phenolic content of QP water extract was found to be 200.78 ± 2.65 mg GAE/g. QP water extract's free radical scavenging capacity was demonstrated by reversing the increased level of intracellular ROS induced by 6-OHDA, using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Moreover, QP water extract (0.5 mg/mL) could remarkably increase the viability of PC12 cells treated with 6-OHDA. The protective effect of QP water extract was found to be via inhibiting MEK/ERK pathway and reversing PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current results suggest that QP might be a potential candidate for preventing the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. PMID:26347850

  4. Evidence that Human Prostate Cancer is a ZIP1-Deficient Malignancy that could be Effectively Treated with a Zinc Ionophore (Clioquinol) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Leslie C; Franklin, Renty B; Zou, Jing; Naslund, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, no efficacious chemotherapy exists for the treatment of prostate cancer. Malignant prostate zinc levels are markedly decreased in all cases of prostate cancer compared to normal/benign prostate. ZIP1 zinc transporter down regulation decreases zinc to prevent its cytotoxic effects. Thus, prostate cancer is a “ZIP1-deficient” malignancy. A zinc ionophore (e.g. Clioquinol) treatment to increase malignant zinc levels is a plausible treatment of prostate cancer. However, skepticism within the clinical/biomedical research community impedes significant progress leading to such a zinc treatment. This report reviews the clinical and experimental background, and presents new experimental data showing Clioquinol suppression of prostate malignancy; which provides strong support for a zinc ionophore treatment for prostate cancer. Evaluation of often-raised opposing issues is presented. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the compelling evidence dictates that a zinc-treatment approach for prostate cancer should be pursued with additional research leading to clinical trials. PMID:26273543

  5. Progenitor Cell Line (hPheo1) Derived from a Human Pheochromocytoma Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Victor; Click, Arielle; Ding, Liang-Hao; Mizrachi, Dario; Zou, Ying S.; Chari, Raj; Lam, Wan L.; Bachoo, Robert M.; Smith, Alice L.; Story, Michael D.; Sidhu, Stan; Robinson, Bruce G.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Auchus, Richard J.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors generally arising in the medullary region of the adrenal gland. These tumors release excessive epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in hypertension and cardiovascular crises for which surgery is the only definitive treatment. Molecular mechanisms that control tumor development and hormone production are poorly understood, and progress has been hampered by the lack of human cellular model systems. To study pheochromocytomas, we developed a stable progenitor pheochromocytoma cell line derived from a primary human tumor. Methods After IRB approval and written informed consent, human pheochromocytoma tissue was excised, minced, dispersed enzymatically, and cultured in vitro. Primary pheochromocytoma cells were infected with a lentivirus vector carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The hTERT immortalized cells (hPheo1) have been passaged >300 population doublings. The resulting cell line was characterized morphologically, biochemically and for expression of neuroendocrine properties. The expression of marker enzymes and proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. Telomerase activity was determined by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Results We have established a human pheochromocytoma precursor cell line that expresses the neuroendocrine marker, chromogranin A, when differentiated in the presence of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), nerve growth factor (NGF), and dexamethasone. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression is also detected with this differentiation regimen. CD-56 (also known as NCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule) is expressed in these cells, but CD31 (also known as PECAM-1, a marker of endothelial cells) is negative. Conclusions We have maintained hTERT-immortalized progenitor cells derived from a pheochromocytoma (hPheo1) in culture for over 300 population doublings. This progenitor human

  6. Clinical Benefits of Systemic Chemotherapy for Patients with Metastatic Pheochromocytomas or Sympathetic Extra-Adrenal Paragangliomas: Insights from the Largest Single Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Feng, Lei; Habra, Mouhammed A.; Rich, Thereasa; Dickson, Paxton V.; Perrier, Nancy; Phan, Alexandria; Waguespack, Steven; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Jimenez, Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefits of systemic chemotherapy for patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas or sympathetic paragangliomas by assessing reduction in tumor size, blood pressure, and improvement in overall survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with metastatic pheochromocytomas-sympathetic paragangliomas who had received chemotherapy at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Results Clinical benefit and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Of fifty-four patients treated with chemotherapy, fifty-two were evaluable for response. Seventeen (33%) experienced a response, defined as decreased or normalized blood pressure/decreased number and dosage of antihypertensive medications and/or reduced tumor size after the first chemotherapy regimen. The median OS time was 6.4 years (95 confidence interval (CI): 5.2–16.4) for responders and 3.7 (95% CI: 3.0–7.5) years for non-responders. Of patients who had synchronous metastatic disease, a positive response at 1 year after the start of chemotherapy was associated with a trend toward a longer overall survival (log-rank test, P-value =0.095). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, the effect of response to chemotherapy on overall survival was significant (hazard ratio=0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–1.0; P-value = 0.05). All responders had been treated with dacarbazine and cyclophosphamide. Vincristine was included for 14 responders and doxorubicin was included for 12 responders. We could not identify clinical factors that predicted response to chemotherapy. Conclusion Chemotherapy may decrease tumor size and facilitate blood pressure control in about 33% of patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma-sympathetic paraganglioma. These patients exhibit a longer survival. PMID:22006217

  7. Cardiorespiratory crisis at the end of pregnancy: a case of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Samir; Al-Raiy, Basel; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Qahtani, Saad; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Arabi, Yaseen

    2013-06-01

    Pheochromocytoma during pregnancy is extremely rare. Its clinical manifestation includes hypertension with various clinical presentations, possibly resembling those of pregnancy-induced hypertension. The real challenge for clinicians is differentiating pheochromocytoma from other causes of hypertension (preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and pre-existing or essential hypertension), from other cause of pulmonary edema (preeclampsia, peripartum cardiomyopathy, stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, pre-existing cardiac disease [mitral stenosis], and high doses betamimetics), and from other causes of cardiovascular collapse (pulmonary embolism, and amniotic fluid embolism). Although, several cases of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy have been published, fetal and maternal mortalities due to undiagnosed cases are still reported. We report a case of a patient whose delivery by cesarean section was complicated by severe hemodynamic instability resulting in a cardiac arrest. Later on, pheochromocytoma was suspected based on computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Diagnosis was confirmed with special biochemical investigations that showed markedly elevated catecholamines in urine and metanephrines in serum, and later by histopathology of the excised left adrenal mass. This case illustrates the difficulty of diagnosing pheochromocytoma in pregnancy and raises the awareness to when this rare disease should be suspected. PMID:24180171

  8. Essential Oils from the Medicinal Herbs Upregulate Dopamine Transporter in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50 μM of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100 μg/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users. PMID:26295793

  9. Phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoproteins of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.K.; Goossen, B.; Margolis, R.U.

    1988-05-03

    PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and cultures of early postnatal rat cerebellium were labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 3/H)fucose, (/sup 3/H)leucine, (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, or sodium (/sup 35/S)sulfate and treated with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Enzyme treatment of (/sup 3/H) glucosamine- or (/sup 3/H)fucose-labeled PC12 cells led to a 15-fold increase in released glycoproteins. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ectrophoresis, most of the released material migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular size of 32,000 daltons (Da), which was specifically immunoprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody to the Thy-l glycoprotein. A second glycoprotein, with an apparent molecular size of 158,000 Da, was also released. After treatment with endo-..beta..-galactosidase, 40-45% of the (/sup 3/H)glucosamine of (/sup 3/H)fucose radioactivity in the phospholipase-released glycoproteins was converted to products of disaccharide size, and the molecular size of the 158-kDa glycoprotein decreased to 145 kDa, demonstrating that it contains fucosylated poly-(N-acetyllactosaminyl) oligosaccharides. The phospholipase also released labeled Thy-1 and the 158-kDa glycoprotein from PC12 cells cultured in the presence of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, which specifically labels this component of the phosphatidylinositol membrane-anchoring sequence,while in the lipid-free protein residue of cells not treated with phospholipase, Thy-1 and a doublet at 46/48 kDa were the only labeled proteins. Sulfated glycoproteins of 155, 132/134, 61, and 21 kDa are the predominant species released by phospholipase, which does not affect a major 44-kDa protein seen in (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled brain cultures. The 44-48- and 155/158-kDa proteins may be common to both PC12 cells and brain.

  10. Immunomonitoring results of a phase II/III study of malignant ascites patients treated with the trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-EpCAM x anti-CD3).

    PubMed

    Jäger, Michael; Schoberth, Alexandra; Ruf, Peter; Hess, Juergen; Hennig, Michael; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Wimberger, Pauline; Ströhlein, Michael; Theissen, Bettina; Heiss, Markus M; Lindhofer, Horst

    2012-01-01

    Patients with malignant ascites secondary to primary carcinomas benefit from intraperitoneal therapy with the trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-EpCAM × anti-CD3). Here, we report the analysis of peritoneal fluid samples from 258 patients with malignant ascites randomized to catumaxomab or control groups to investigate the molecular effects of catumaxomab treatment. In the catumaxomab group, tumor cell numbers and peritoneal levels of VEGF decreased, whereas the activation status of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell populations increased more than two-fold after treatment. Notably, CD133(+)/EpCAM(+) cancer stem cells vanished from the catumaxomab samples but not from the control samples. In vitro investigations indicated that catumaxomab eliminated tumor cells in a manner associated with release of proinflammatory Th1 cytokines. Together, our findings show that catumaxomab therapy activates peritoneal T cells and eliminates EpCAM(+) tumor cells, establishing a molecular and cellular basis to understand in vivo efficacy within the immunosuppressed malignant ascites tissue microenvironment. PMID:22044753

  11. [Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma with neurofibromatosis type 1 : a case report].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Akiyama, Kotaro; Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2012-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma occurs in 0.1-5.7% of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), while dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma is rare. We report here a rare case of dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma in a patient with NF1. A 46-year-old woman with NF1 was referred to our hospital with epigastralgia. The patient had no history of hypertension. Abdominal sonography incidentally revealed a left adrenal tumor, while abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings showed a left adrenal tumor, sized 63×58 mm. Laboratory evaluations revealed exclusively elevated urine dopamine levels in addition to elevated serum adrenaline and noradrenaline levels. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed and the dopamine levels and other cathecolamine levels returned to normal postoperatively. PMID:23235276

  12. [The Use of Arginine Vasopressin and PhosphodiesteraseIII Inhibitor for Circulatory Shock after the Resection of a Massive Adrenal Pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Yusuke; Nishinarita, Reiko; Mizutani, Kenji; Goto, Takahisa

    2016-06-01

    A 72-year-old man developed hypertensive crisis five month previously, and was diagnosed with massive adrenal pheochromocytoma, with a diameter of 14.5 cm. Preoperative echocardiography revealed normal cardiac function. The open abdominal surgery was performed under general anesthesia. During manipulation of the tumor he developed hypertension and tachycardia. Severe hypotension (50/25 mmHg) and mild bradycardia (70 beats x min(-1)) followed the resection of the tumor. In addition to volume replacement noradrenaline and adrenaline were administered, but the systolic blood pressure rose only to 60-70 mmHg. In order to treat vasodilatory shock, we started to administer arginine vasopressin infusion at 0.03 units x min(-1). His systolic blood pressure rose to 90 mmHg. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) postoperatively. The echocardiography revealed diffuse hypokinetic cardiac function. In order to treat cardiogenic shock, we started to administer olprinone (phosphodiesteraseIII inhibitor, infusion of 0.1 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). On postoperative day 2, circulatory shock improved and the patient was discharged from the ICU. In conclusion, circulatory shock after the resection of a massive pheochromocytoma was due to the down regulation of α and β adrenergic receptors. The non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor and inotrope were useful for this situation. PMID:27483661

  13. Neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated on a phase Ib trial evaluating topotecan by convection-enhanced delivery

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Jennifer A.; Dave, Amie N.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Sands, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant gliomas are highly proliferative, invasive tumors that are resistant to conventional treatment, and disease progression is often accompanied by physical and mental debilitation. Neurocognitive functioning (NCF) and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated as part of a prospective phase Ib dose-escalation study of topotecan by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for adult patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Methods Sixteen patients were enrolled, and NCF and QoL were evaluated using the Cognitive Stability Index and SF-36 at baseline and monthly for 4 months post treatment. Descriptive analyses included the reliable change index for serial evaluations and correlations for associations between outcome variables and age, tumor volume, total topotecan dose, and treatment effect. Results Individual classifications of response to treatment indicated that a majority of patients reported stable scores over the follow-up period. Demographic and treatment-related variables were not associated with outcomes. Baseline processing speed scores were invalid for 6 subjects. Higher rates of valid scores were observed on subsequent administrations. Conclusions As the first study to use CED of any kind to evaluate the impact of CED on NCF or QoL, there was no evidence of severe detriment to either outcome. Long-term evaluation is necessary to track changes in NCF and QoL related to disease progression. Invalid scores suggest that computer-based assessments may not be suitable for all patients with malignant gliomas, especially those with cognitive deficits secondary to their disease. Future trials should include a wider range of sensitive measures to assess the impact of CED on patient NCF and QoL. PMID:26034621

  14. Unsuspected pheochromocytoma: Risk of blood-pressure alterations during percutaneous adrenal biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Casola, G.; Nicolet, V.; van Sonnenberg, E.; Withers, C.; Bretagnolle, M.; Saba, R.M.; Bret, P.M.

    1986-06-01

    Four unsuspected pheochromocytomas were discovered during percutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the adrenal gland under ultrasound (n = 1) and computed tomographic (n = 3) guidance. One patient suffered an acute episode of alternating hypertension and hypotension during the procedure. A second patient had no alterations in vital signs during the procedure but had a severe hypertensive crisis during induction of anesthesia at surgery. Neither biopsy nor surgery affected the vital signs in the other two patients. During biopsy study of adrenal lesions, the possibility of unsuspected pheo-chromocytoma should be considered, and the interventional radiologist must be familiar with the emergency treatment of hypotensive or hypertensive crises that may occur.

  15. A novel von Hippel-Lindau point mutation presents as apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Rich, Thereasa A; Jonasch, Eric; Matin, Surena; Waguespack, Steven G; Gombos, Dan S; Santarpia, Libero; Stolle, Catherine; Jimenez, Camilo

    2008-07-01

    Von Hippel Lindau disease is a common cause of apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas. Herein, we describe a 20-year-old man with an apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma associated with a novel, relatively conservative germline Gly104Val VHL gene mutation, which is localized within exon 1 of the VHL gene corresponding to the beta -domain of the VHL protein (pVHL). The nearly asymptomatic patient's father also carries the same mutation. Similar to other mutations localized in the same codon, the Gly104Val VHL mutation seems to have an attenuated disease phenotype. PMID:18584357

  16. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Methods Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Results Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times. PMID:26244367

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Pediatric Patients with Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Batsis, M; Dagalakis, U; Stratakis, C A; Prodanov, T; Papadakis, G Z; Adams, K; Lodish, M; Pacak, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is an association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) in pediatric patients. A case series study of 43 patients under the age of 18 with PHEO/PGL tumors who were evaluated at the National Institute of Health between January 2006 and May 2014 is reported. Prior diagnosis of ADHD and treatment course with stimulant medications was recorded. Patient symptoms, catecholamine and metanephrine levels, tumor characteristics, and genetic analyses for syndromes associated with PHEO/PGL were evaluated. A chi-squared test was used to assess the prevalence of ADHD in the PHEO/PGL patients compared to the general population. Nine out of 43 (21%) of patients diagnosed with PHEO/PGL had been diagnosed with ADHD prior to tumor identification. Four of the 9 patients had been treated with amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and/or methylphenidate, potentially exacerbating an adrenergic crisis. In addition, 4 patients exhibited hypertension at the initial diagnosis of their PHEO/PGL. Three patients had resolution of their ADHD symptoms after successful surgical removal of PHEO/PGL. Our study found a prevalence of ADHD in 21% of our PHEO/PGL patients, significantly higher than 7.2% seen in the general pediatric population. Symptoms of anxiety and difficulty in concentration in these patients may have been related to their underlying PHEO/PGL and were not recognized as part of the constellation of symptoms in a child with PHEO/PGL. In pediatric patients with hypertension and ADHD symptomatology, an evaluation to rule out PHEO/PGL is warranted prior to treatment with stimulant medications. PMID:27171833

  18. Anti-hypertensive treatment in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current management and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Alberto; Armigliato, Michela; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Schiavon, Laura; Montemurro, Domenico; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zuin, Marco; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Ravenni, Roberta; Opocher, Giuseppe; Colletti, Patrick M; Rubello, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PH) and paraganglioma (PG) are neuroendocrine neoplasms arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia, respectively. Although are unusual cause of hypertension (HT) accounting for at most 0.1-0.2 % of cases, they may lead to severe and potentially lethal hypertensive crisis due to the effects of the released catecholamines. However, both PH and PG may be asymptomatic as ~30 % of subjects are normotensive or have orthostatic hypotension and in these cases the 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is an important toll to diagnose and treat HT. HT treatment may be difficult when PH or PG occurs in pregnancy or in the elderly subjects and in these cases a multidisciplinary team is required. When surgical excision is mandatory the perioperative management requires the administration of selective α1-adrenergic blocking agents (i.e., doxazosin, prazosin or terazosin) followed by a β-adrenergic blockade (i.e., propranolol, atenolol). This latter should never be started first because blockade of vasodilatory peripheral β-adrenergic receptors with unopposed α-adrenergic receptor stimulation can lead to a further elevation of BP. Although labetalol is traditionally considered the ideal agent due to its α- and β-adrenergic antagonism, experimental studies do not support its use in this clinical setting. As second regimen, the administration of vasodilators as calcium channel blockers (i.e., nicardipine, nifedipine) may be required to control BP. Oral and sublingual short-acting nifedipine are potentially dangerous in patients with hypertensive emergencies and are not recommend. The latest evidences into the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive crisis due to PH and PG are reviewed here. PMID:23817839

  19. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  20. Pheochromocytoma in the organ of Zukerkandl: I-131 MIBG scintigraphic localization

    SciTech Connect

    el-Desouki, M.; al-Nuaim, A.; Mofti, A.; Shanna, A.

    1989-06-01

    Scintigraphic localization of an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma in a 27 year-old female with clinical and biochemical evidence of the disease is presented. While both ultrasonography and computed tomography were negative, I-131 MIBG scintigraphy successfully localized the extra-adrenal lesion in the organ of Zukerkandl.

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Catecholamine Release Owing to Cocaine Abuse and Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Quintana, Efren; Jaimes-Vivas, Ricardo; Cuba-Herrera, Javiel; Saiz-Udaeta, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Fayna; Martinez-Martin, Maria Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Most pheochromocytomas are not suspected clinically while a high percentage of them are curable with surgery. We present the case of an adult cocaine-addicted male patient with an underlying pheochromocytoma and repeated myocardial infarctions. Computed tomography showed a left round adrenal mass, also high 24-hour urine levels of catecholamines and metanephrines were detected from urinalysis. The patient was given alpha and beta blockers, moreover a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. Cocaine can block the reuptake of noradrenaline, leading to increasing its concentration and consequently its effects as well, and induce local or diffuse coronary vasoconstriction in normal coronary artery segments per se, cocaine can also trigger pheochromocytoma crisis, and therefore, cardiac complications such as myocardial infarction due to these additive effects are intended to occur. For this reason, in the presence of typical clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma, such as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, headache, sweating, tachycardia and abdominal pain, probable association of this tumor in patients with cocaine abuse and associated cardiac complications must be ruled out. PMID:23853620

  2. INFLUENCE OF 50-HZ ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ON NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the ability of electric and magnetic fields to substitute for nerve growth factor in the stimulation of trite growth in a subline of PC-12 cells, derived from a pheochromocytoma in rat adrenal medulla. he cells were plated on collagen-coated, 60-mm plastic di...

  3. ACTION OF 50 HZ MAGNETIC FIELDS ON NEURITE OUTGROWTH IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study tests the capacity of 50-Hz magnetic and electric fields to stimulate neurite outgrowth in PC-12D cells, a cell line which originated from a pheochromocytoma in rat adrenal medulla. he cells were plated on collagen-coated plastic petri dishes and exposed to sinusoidal ...

  4. Brain metastasis from pheochromocytoma in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A.

    PubMed

    Gentile, S; Rainero, I; Savi, L; Rivoiro, C; Pinessi, L

    2001-12-01

    Neurological involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome is uncommon. Notalgia paresthetica (pruritus localized in an area between D2 and D6 dermatomes) is the neurological symptom more frequently described in patients with MEN 2A. The authors report the unusual case of a MEN 2A patient with a brain metastasis from a pheochromocytoma. PMID:11677427

  5. POTENTIAL MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHLOROTRIAZINE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CATECHOLAMINES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Potential Mechanisms Responsible for Chlorotriazine-induced Changes in Catecholamine Metabolism in Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells*
    PARIKSHIT C. DAS1, WILLIAM K. McELROY2 , AND RALPH L. COOPER2+
    1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chape...

  6. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.

    Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...

  7. Adrenal Metastasis of a Poorly Differentiated Adenocarcinoma Mimicking a Pheochromocytoma on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Heimburger, Céline; Averous, Gerlinde; Charlin, Emmanuelle; Lang, Hervé; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Imperiale, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    We report the surprising intense uptake of F-FDOPA in a right adrenal metastasis of a poorly differentiated metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary mimicking a pheochromocytoma in a hemodialyzed patient with the typical Menard's triad and increased serum catecholamines. Our observation emphasizes that F-FDOPA is not a specific radiotracer for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma investigation, although it is currently and successfully used in this clinical setting. Moreover, we underline that kidney failure may be responsible for abnormally high serum catecholamines values even in subjects without pheochromocytoma, leading to erroneous diagnostic conclusions particularly in patients with adrenal masses. PMID:27355847

  8. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  9. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Nixon, Alexander M.; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Kakiopoulos, George; Zorzos, Charalampos; Margaris, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary malignant hepatic mesotheliomas are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma who was treated in our department. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 66-year old male patient was admitted to our department for the evaluation of anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large space occupying lesion in the right liver lobe. DISCUSSION The tumor was subsequently resected and a diagnosis of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma was made after pathologic examination. The patient did not receive adjuvant therapy and is currently alive and free of disease, 36 months after the resection. CONCLUSION To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy. PMID:25460485

  10. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moko, Lilamarie E.; Ginns, Jonathan; Rosenbaum, Marlon; Greutmann, Matthias; Aboulhosn, Jamil; Hageman, Abbie; Kim, Yuli; Deng, Lisa X.; Grewal, Jasmine; Zaidi, Ali N.; Almansoori, Ghadeera; Oechslin, Erwin; Earing, Michael; Landzberg, Michael J.; Singh, Michael N.; Wu, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Context: Aberrant cellular oxygen sensing is a leading theory for development of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL). Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) increases the risk for PHEO-PGL. Design/Setting/Participants: We investigated the association between CCHD and PHEO-PGL with two complementary studies: study 1) an international consortium was established to identify congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with a PHEO-PGL diagnosis confirmed by pathology or biochemistry and imaging; study 2) the 2000–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Survey, a nationally representative discharge database, was used to determine population-based cross-sectional PHEO-PGL frequency in hospitalized CCHD patients compared with noncyanotic CHD and those without CHD using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, and genetic PHEO-PGL syndromes. Results: In study 1, we identified 20 PHEO-PGL cases, of which 18 had CCHD. Most presented with cardiovascular or psychiatric symptoms. Median cyanosis duration for the CCHD PHEO-PGL cases was 20 years (range 1–57 y). Cases were young at diagnosis (median 31.5 y, range 15–57 y) and 7 of 18 had multiple tumors (two bilateral PHEO; six multifocal or recurrent PGL), whereas 11 had single tumors (seven PHEO; four PGL). PGLs were abdominal (13 of 17) or head/neck (4 of 17). Cases displayed a noradrenergic biochemical phenotype similar to reported hypoxia-related PHEO-PGL genetic syndromes but without clinical signs of such syndromes. In study 2, hospitalized CCHD patients had an increased likelihood of PHEO-PGL (adjusted odds ratio 6.0, 95% confidence interval 2.6–13.7, P < .0001) compared with those without CHD; patients with noncyanotic CHD had no increased risk (odds ratio 0.9, P = .48). Conclusions: There is a strong link between CCHD and PHEO-PGL. Whether these rare diseases coassociate due to hypoxic stress, common

  11. Loss of heterozygosity suggests multiple genetic alterations in pheochromocytomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, S; Patel, V M; Hay, I D; Schaid, D J; Grant, C S; van Heerden, J A; Thibodeau, S N

    1991-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at specific loci may help localize tumor suppressor genes involved in the formation of various familial and sporadic tumors. In addition, the genetic loci for a number of familial tumor syndromes have been mapped by linkage analysis. To explore the possible role of tumor suppressor genes in endocrine tumors, we tested 41 pheochromocytomas (34 sporadic and 7 familial) and 11 medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) (10 sporadic and 1 familial) for LOH near a variety of potentially important genetic loci: (a) the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) locus on chromosome 10; (b) the von Hippel-Lindau locus on 3p; and (c) the p53 and neurofibromatosis 1 loci on 17. We also examined chromosomes 1p and 22q because previous studies in a small number of pheochromocytomas and MTCs suggested LOH in these regions. Background rates for LOH were assessed using several "random" probes. Finally, we examined a number of clinical and histologic characteristics of these tumors for possible correlations with specific genetic alterations. LOH in the region of the MEN 2A locus was uncommon (0% for MTCs, 5% for pheochromocytomas). However, we found significant allelic losses in pheochromocytomas on chromosomes 1p (42%), 3p (16%), 17p (24%), and 22q (31%). We also noted a correlation between LOH on 1p and urinary excretion of metanephrine by these patients (P = 0.02). LOH on 1p, 3p, and 17p also appeared to be associated with increased tumor volume. Analysis of the smaller number of MTCs demonstrated allelic losses on chromosomes 1p and 22q. Our results suggest that tumor formation and/or progression in pheochromocytomas and MTCs involves multiple genes, analogous with the model proposed for colon carcinoma. Images PMID:2022740

  12. Phase I Trial of AZD1775 and Belinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myeloid Malignancies or Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. PMID:25037101

  14. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30–1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. PMID:25037101

  15. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  16. Intracerebral malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a child with neurofibromatosis Type 1 and middle cerebral artery aneurysm treated with endovascular coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Michael J; Cheshier, Samuel; Sharma, Sunjay; Armstrong, Derek; Hawkins, Cynthia; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Taylor, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Among the neoplastic conditions that affect patients with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), which typically arise from peripheral nerves of the limbs, trunk, and lumbar and brachial plexuses. Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for MPNST development, especially in susceptible patients such as those with NF1. Patients with NF1 are also at risk for intracranial aneurysms, which are increasingly being successfully managed with endovascular therapies. The authors describe the case of a 9-year-old, previously healthy girl who presented in extremis with a right frontal intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured right middle cerebral artery (MCA) trifurcation aneurysm. Following urgent decompressive craniectomy, the patient underwent endovascular coil embolization of the MCA aneurysm without complication. Given her mother's history of NF1, the child underwent genetic testing, which disclosed signs positive for NF1. The patient recovered well, but follow-up MR imaging and MR angiography performed at 14 months demonstrated a large frontotemporal mass encasing the right MCA trifurcation. The patient underwent frontotemporal craniotomy and subtotal resection of the mass, which was histologically found to be an intracranial MPNST. The patient received chemotherapy and focal radiation therapy and remains alive at 6 months postresection. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the only known case of intracranial neoplasm arising in the region of an intracranial aneurysm repaired by endovascular coil embolization. While patients with NF1 represent a population with genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced tumors, the pathogenesis of intracerebral MPNSTs remains poorly understood. PMID:21961539

  17. Cell-cycle-controlled radiation therapy was effective for treating a murine malignant melanoma cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Otani, Keisuke; Naito, Yoko; Sakaguchi, Yukako; Seo, Yuji; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kikuta, Junichi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a commonly used regimen for treating various types of intractable cancers, although the effects depend on the cell cycle of the targeted cancer cell lines, and for irradiation purposes it is therefore critical to establish a protocol for controlling the cell cycle. Here, we showed that a common murine melanoma cell line B16BL6 was more vulnerable to irradiation during the early S phase, and that synchronisation of the cell cycle greatly increased the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy. Cell-sorting experiments, according to cell-cycle phase, using B16BL6 cells demonstrated that cells in the early S phase were the most susceptible to radiotherapy. Gemcitabine, a clinically utilised anti-cancer drug, induced cell-cycle arrest during the early S phase in B16BL6 cells, and thus a synergistic therapeutic effect was observed when irradiation was administered at the right time. Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 exhibited similar properties to B16BL6 in terms of its radiosensitivity during the S/G2/M phase and also demonstrated a synergistic effect of cell cycle synchronisation. These results show the importance of cell-cycle control in the application of irradiation and suggest a suitable time interval between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as providing useful information for treating intractable cancer. PMID:27480052

  18. Chimerism Analysis of Cell-Free DNA in Patients Treated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation May Predict Early Relapse in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aljurf, Mahmoud; Abalkhail, Hala; Alseraihy, Amal; Mohamed, Said Y.; Ayas, Mouhab; Alsharif, Fahad; Alzahrani, Hazza; Al-Jefri, Abdullah; Aldawsari, Ghuzayel; Al-Ahmari, Ali; Belgaumi, Asim F.; Walter, Claudia Ulrike; El-Solh, Hassan; Rasheed, Walid; Albitar, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Background. We studied DNA chimerism in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in patients treated with HSCT. Methods. Chimerism analysis was performed on CD3+ cells, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, and cfDNA using 16 small tandem repeat loci. The resulting labeled PCR-products were size-fractionated and quantified. Results. Analyzing samples from 191 patients treated with HSCT for nonneoplastic hematologic disorders demonstrated that the cfDNA chimerism is comparable to that seen in PMN cells. Analyzing leukemia patients (N = 126) showed that, of 84 patients with 100% donor DNA in PMN, 16 (19%) had evidence of clinical relapse and >10% recipient DNA in the plasma. Additional 16 patients of the 84 (19%) showed >10% recipient DNA in plasma, but without evidence of relapse. Eight patients had mixed chimerism in granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma, but three of these patients had >10% recipient DNA in plasma compared to PMN cells and these three patients had clinical evidence of relapse. The remaining 34 patients showed 100% donor DNA in both PMN and lymphocytes, but cfDNA showed various levels of chimerism. Of these patients 14 (41%) showed laboratory or clinical evidence of relapse and all had >10% recipient DNA in cfDNA. Conclusion. Monitoring patients after HSCT using cfDNA might be more reliable than cellular DNA in predicting early relapse. PMID:27006832

  19. Cell-cycle-controlled radiation therapy was effective for treating a murine malignant melanoma cell line in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Keisuke; Naito, Yoko; Sakaguchi, Yukako; Seo, Yuji; Takahashi, Yutaka; Kikuta, Junichi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a commonly used regimen for treating various types of intractable cancers, although the effects depend on the cell cycle of the targeted cancer cell lines, and for irradiation purposes it is therefore critical to establish a protocol for controlling the cell cycle. Here, we showed that a common murine melanoma cell line B16BL6 was more vulnerable to irradiation during the early S phase, and that synchronisation of the cell cycle greatly increased the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy. Cell-sorting experiments, according to cell-cycle phase, using B16BL6 cells demonstrated that cells in the early S phase were the most susceptible to radiotherapy. Gemcitabine, a clinically utilised anti-cancer drug, induced cell-cycle arrest during the early S phase in B16BL6 cells, and thus a synergistic therapeutic effect was observed when irradiation was administered at the right time. Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 exhibited similar properties to B16BL6 in terms of its radiosensitivity during the S/G2/M phase and also demonstrated a synergistic effect of cell cycle synchronisation. These results show the importance of cell-cycle control in the application of irradiation and suggest a suitable time interval between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as providing useful information for treating intractable cancer. PMID:27480052

  20. Total-Body Irradiation and Fludarabine Phosphate Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Renal Medullary Carcinoma; Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  1. Fludarabine Phosphate, Busulfan, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant, Tacrolimus, and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  2. Anti-cancer potential of MAPK pathway inhibition in paragangliomas-effect of different statins on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Engel, Tobias; Lendvai, Nikoletta K; Shankavaram, Uma; Nölting, Svenja; Wesley, Robert; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Ungefroren, Hendrik; Oldoerp, Angela; Lampert, Gary; Lehnert, Hendrik; Timmers, Henri; Pacak, Karel

    2014-01-01

    To date, malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) cannot be effectively cured and thus novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Lovastatin has been shown to effectively induce apoptosis in mouse PHEO cells (MPC) and the more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived cells (MTT), which was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway players. The MAPK pathway plays a role in numerous aggressive tumors and has been associated with a subgroup of PHEOs/PGLs, including K-RAS-, RET-, and NF1-mutated tumors. Our aim was to establish whether MAPK signaling may also play a role in aggressive, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B mutation-derived PHEOs/PGLs. Expression profiling and western blot analysis indicated that specific aspects of MAPK-signaling are active in SDHB PHEOs/PGLs, suggesting that inhibition by statin treatment could be beneficial. Moreover, we aimed to assess whether the anti-proliferative effect of lovastatin on MPC and MTT differed from that exerted by fluvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, or rosuvastatin. Simvastatin and fluvastatin decreased cell proliferation most effectively and the more aggressive MTT cells appeared more sensitive in this respect. Inhibition of MAPK1 and 3 phosphorylation following treatment with fluvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin was confirmed by western blot. Increased levels of CASP-3 and PARP cleavage confirmed induction of apoptosis following the treatment. At a concentration low enough not to affect cell proliferation, spontaneous migration of MPC and MTT was significantly inhibited within 24 hours of treatment. In conclusion, lipophilic statins may present a promising therapeutic option for treatment of aggressive human paragangliomas by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor spread. PMID:24846270

  3. Anti-Cancer Potential of MAPK Pathway Inhibition in Paragangliomas–Effect of Different Statins on Mouse Pheochromocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lendvai, Nikoletta K.; Shankavaram, Uma; Nölting, Svenja; Wesley, Robert; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Ungefroren, Hendrik; Oldoerp, Angela; Lampert, Gary; Lehnert, Hendrik; Timmers, Henri; Pacak, Karel

    2014-01-01

    To date, malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) cannot be effectively cured and thus novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Lovastatin has been shown to effectively induce apoptosis in mouse PHEO cells (MPC) and the more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived cells (MTT), which was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway players. The MAPK pathway plays a role in numerous aggressive tumors and has been associated with a subgroup of PHEOs/PGLs, including K-RAS-, RET-, and NF1-mutated tumors. Our aim was to establish whether MAPK signaling may also play a role in aggressive, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B mutation-derived PHEOs/PGLs. Expression profiling and western blot analysis indicated that specific aspects of MAPK-signaling are active in SDHB PHEOs/PGLs, suggesting that inhibition by statin treatment could be beneficial. Moreover, we aimed to assess whether the anti-proliferative effect of lovastatin on MPC and MTT differed from that exerted by fluvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin, or rosuvastatin. Simvastatin and fluvastatin decreased cell proliferation most effectively and the more aggressive MTT cells appeared more sensitive in this respect. Inhibition of MAPK1 and 3 phosphorylation following treatment with fluvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin was confirmed by western blot. Increased levels of CASP-3 and PARP cleavage confirmed induction of apoptosis following the treatment. At a concentration low enough not to affect cell proliferation, spontaneous migration of MPC and MTT was significantly inhibited within 24 hours of treatment. In conclusion, lipophilic statins may present a promising therapeutic option for treatment of aggressive human paragangliomas by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor spread. PMID:24846270

  4. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in a hemodialysis patient through measurement of plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Vantomme, Bram; Donck, Jan; van Hooland, Simon; Wauters, Anne; De Clippele, Marc; Neirynck, Valerie; Huysman, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a patient on chronic hemodialysis treatment with paroxysms of severe arterial hypertension accompanied by tachycardia, pallor, sweating and tremor. Measurement of plasma catecholamines revealed norepinephrine level of 4625 pg/mL (reference range 191-225 pg/mL), epinephrine level of 1035 pg/mL (58-76 pg/mL) and dopamine level of 148 pg/mL (50-100 pg/mL). MRI showed a left adrenal mass of 2 cm. After the patient was started on an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker, she underwent a left adrenalectomy. Anatomopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Although urinary testing is not possible in anuric hemodialysis patients, diagnosis of pheochromocytoma can be made through measurement of plasma free metanephrines and/or plasma catecholamines. PMID:26749316

  5. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-(123I)iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Meyers, L.J.; Glowniak, J.V.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    The radiopharmaceutical m-(131I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), which is readily taken up by adrenergic vesicles, produces scintigraphic images of pheochromocytomas in man but rarely visualizes normal adrenal glands. Iodine-123 has many potential advantages over I-131 as a radiolabel for MIBG, including shorter half-life, freedom from beta emissions, and increased gamma-camera efficiency. In this study, diagnostic doses of MIBG labeled with I-131 and I-123, with nearly equivalent radiation dosimetry, were compared as imaging agents in eight patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG, and lesions not visualized using I-131 MIBG were portrayed. In addition, the normal adrenal medullae were visualized on the I-123 MIBG scintigrams in six out of eight patients.

  6. [Successful anesthetic management of a patient with giant pheochromocytoma using high-dose landiolol hydrochloride].

    PubMed

    Kitano, Manabu; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Sawai, Toshiyuki; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    We report successful anesthetic management of a patient with pheochromocytoma using high-dose landiolol hydrochloride. A 55-year-old man was scheduled to undergo resection of giant pheochromocytoma. Epidural anesthesia was not performed due to anticoagulant therapy for lower limb thrombus. Tracheal intubation was performed with the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope. Preoperative screening revealed urine adrenaline 2.567.0 microg x day(-1) urine noradrenaline 1,734.0 microg x day(-1), and a tumor diameter of 96 x 60 mm. Catecholamine surge was controlled with 50 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) continuous infusion of landiolol hydrochloride and IV bolus phentolamine. On tumor resection, although systemic blood pressure increased to 294 mmHg and was unresponsive to repeated phentolamine administration, the heart rate remained at 70-105 beats x min(-1) and there were no significant ST changes. PMID:25199327

  7. Long-Term Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Malignant Meningiomas-Clinical Results in 85 Patients Treated in a Single Institution Leading to Optimized Guidelines for Early Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Hartmann, Christian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Deimling, Andreas von; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Previously, we could show that the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of meningiomas significantly correlated with outcome in patients with atypical and anaplastic histology. In the present work, we analyzed our long-term experience in radiotherapy for atypical and malignant meningioma diagnosed according to the most recent WHO categorization system. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients with atypical and 23 patients with malignant meningioma have been treated with radiotherapy. Sixty percent of all patients received radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection, 19% at disease progression and 8.3% as a primary treatment. Radiation was applied using different techniques including fractionated stereotactic RT (FSRT), intensity-modulated RT, and combination treatment with carbon ions. The median PTV was 156.0 mL. An average dose of 57.6 Gy (range, 30-68.4 Gy) in 1.8-3 Gy fractions was applied. All patients were followed regularly including clinical-neurological follow-up as well as computed tomographies or magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Overall survival was impacted significantly by histological grade, with 81% and 53% at 5 years for atypical or anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. This difference was significant at p = 0.022. Eighteen patients died of tumor progression during follow-up. Progression-free survival was 95% and 50% for atypical, and 63% and 13% for anaplastic histology at 2 and 5 years. This difference was significant at p = 0.017. Despite histology, we could not observe any prognostic factors including age, resection status, or Karnofsky performance score. However, preexisting clinical symptoms observed in 63 patients improved in 29.3% of these patients. Conclusion: RT resulted in improvement of preexisting clinical symptoms; outcome is comparable to other series reported in the literature. RT should be offered after surgical resection after initial diagnosis to increase progression-free survival as well as overall

  8. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  9. Opioids inhibit dopamine secretion from PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells in a naloxone-reversible manner.

    PubMed

    Venihaki, M; Gravanis, A; Margioris, A N

    1996-01-01

    Opioids inhibit the release of catecholamines in the nervous system. Normal adrenal chromaffin cells produce delta opioids and they respond to them by suppressing the release of their catecholamines. Chromaffin cell tumors, the pheochromocytomas, produce mainly kappa opioids. The aim of this work was: (a) to test if pheochromocytomas retain the response of normal chromaffin cell catecholamines to delta opioids and to naloxone (a general opioid antagonist), and (b) to test if kappa opioids exert any specific effect on catecholamine release from these tumors. Since we have previously shown that, in common with human pheochromocytomas, the PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells express the prodynorphin gene and secret its kappa opioid products, we used these cells to examine the effect of several opioid agonists and of naloxone on basal, nicotine-, and KCl-induced dopamine release. Dopamine is the main PC12 catecholamine. We have found that the specific kappa opioid agonist U-69593 inhibited the release of dopamine in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=0.5 x 10(-8)M). Under basal conditions the mean concentration of dopamine in the culture media was 11.25 +/- 0.57 ng/mg of total cellular protein (n=13). A 30 min exposure to U-69593 at 10(-6) M suppressed basal dopamine release to 58 +/- 2% (n=7) of controls. A 12 hr pre-incubation with U-69593 caused the same degree of suppression. The effect of the synthetic kappa opioid agonist dynorphin A was indistinguishable from that of U-69593. DADLE (a mu and delta synthetic opioid agonist) was significantly less effective in suppressing dopamine release (IC50=10(-7)M). The concentration of dopamine following exposure to 10-6 M of DADLE for 30 min was 74 +/- 5% of the controls (n=4). The mu opioid agonist DAGO was ineffective. The suppressive effect of all opioid agonists was blocked by naloxone suggesting that conventional opioid receptors were involved. PMID:8628113

  10. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-Qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias.A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone.The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia.As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  11. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  12. Evolution of management in peritoneal surface malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Canbay, Emel; Torun, Bahar Canbay; Torun, Ege Sinan; Yonemura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Management of peritoneal surface malignancies has gradually evolved by the introduction of cytoreductive surgery in combination with intraperitoneal chemotherapy applications. Recently, peritoneal metastases of intraabdominal solid organ tumors and primary peritoneal malignancies such as peritoneal mesothelioma are being treated with this new approach. Selection criteria are important to reduce morbidity and mortality rates of patients who will experience minimal or no benefit from these combined treatment modalities. Management of peritoneal surface malignancies with this current trend is presented in this review. PMID:27528813

  13. Monitored anesthesia care in a case of pheochromocytoma and atrial myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Manvikar, Laxmi P.; Adhye, Bharati A.

    2012-01-01

    Anesthesia for a patient with pheochromocytoma is challenging; irrespective of whether it is a diagnosed case for planned surgery or an occult case, it can be a nightmare. The patient may be given anesthesia for removal of the primary tumor or for surgery other than for the removal of the primary tumor. Hemodynamic derangements like hypertension and arrhythmia can be catastrophic. Monitored anesthesia care, though used for many cases, is unusual for a patient with diagnosed pheochromocytoma, with vertebral metastasis leading to paraplegia and atrial myxoma. In the case described below, the patient was operated for closed reduction, internal fixation with interlock nail femur, for pathological fracture. Surgery was done under monitored anesthesia care as there was no need for regional, spinal, or general anesthesia because of coexisting paraplegia. Surgery was uneventful and the postoperative period was smooth. This case is presented for its uniqueness of multiple diseases and uneventful recovery without any complications of anesthesia. The nightmare of pheochromocytoma eased without any morbidity for the patient, but this may not always be the case. PMID:25885632

  14. Recurrence and metastasis of pheochromocytoma mimic acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Tsai, Wei-Che

    2015-02-01

    Pheochromocytomas are cathecholamine-secreting tumor and may present with numerous of general symptoms, such as hypertension,pallor, headache tachycardia, chest pain, and cold sweating. Cardiac manifestations include typical angina, electrocardiographic change, and elevated cardiac biomarker. Transient systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle sometimes may happen with, the worst, heart failure and cardiogenic shock, in a similar manner of apical ballooning syndrome (Tokotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy) and mimics ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Here,we presented a case with past medical record of pheochromocytoma status postsuccessful surgical adrenalectomy many years ago, and she came to the emergency department with angina symptom. As first presentation of acute coronary syndrome via symptoms, electrocardiographic change, and elevated cardiac biomarkers,she underwent coronary angiography. No significant coronary occlusion but regional wall motion abnormality was found. However, a big adrenal mass in the left abdomen and multiple hepatic radiolucent lesions were detected accidentally by the meanwhile computed tomography that supposed to rule out the acute aortic syndrome.Recurrent pheochromocytoma with cathecholamine-related stress cardiomyopathy was confirmed thereafter. PMID:25195042

  15. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, C G; Ullrich, M; Schally, A V; Bergmann, R; Pietzsch, J; Gebauer, L; Gondek, K; Qin, N; Pacak, K; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Eisenhofer, G; Bornstein, S R

    2013-05-22

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment. Peptide hormone receptors are frequently overexpressed on endocrine tumor cells and can be specifically targeted by various anti-tumor peptide analogs. The present study carried out on mouse pheochromocytoma cells (MPCs) and a more aggressive mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cell line revealed that these cells are characterized by pronounced expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 (sst2), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor. We further demonstrated significant anti-tumor effects mediated by cytotoxic somatostatin analogs, AN-162 and AN-238, by LHRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, by the cytotoxic LHRH analog, AN-152, and by recently developed GHRH antagonist, MIA-602, on MPC and for AN-152 and MIA-602 on MTT cells. Studies of novel anti-tumor compounds on these mouse cell lines serve as an important basis for mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma, which we are currently establishing. PMID:23267837

  16. Fludarabine Phosphate, Melphalan, and Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  17. Familial pheochromocytoma, hypercalcemia, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. A ten year study of a large family.

    PubMed

    Atuk, N O; McDonald, T; Wood, T; Carpenter, J T; Walzak, M P; Donaldson, M; Gillenwater, J Y

    1979-05-01

    Long-term epidemiological and laboratory studies were carried out in a kindred with familial pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Thirteen members were affected by the syndrome and the trait appears to be transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Of 13 patients, 7 had pheochromocytoma alone. Of the remaining six patients, one had pheochromocytoma combined with von Hippel-Lindau disease, four had pheochromocytoma with retinal disease only, and a single patient had a retinal lesion without pheochromocytoma. In four patients, pheochromocytoma antedated the development of retinal lesions. Ten members also had mild hypercalcemia without accompanying elevations of PTH in the 4 patients in whom this was determined. In all, hypercalcemia was corrected with removal of tumors, and no patient had a return of hypercalcemia in the absence of recurrent increases in urinary catecholamines. The clinical presentations in 12 patients varied markedly, as did their urinary excretion rates of norepinephrine, epinephrine and their metabolites. However, an analysis of the data revealed significant correlations not previously described between the urinary excretion of free catecholamines (norepinephrine plus epinephrine), blood pressure, the free catecholamine content of the tumor and the age of the patient. Urinary excretion of free norepinephrine plus epinephrine appear to be decreased with advancing age (p less than 0.001). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the age of the patient were inversely correlated (p less than 0.01). A significant inverse relationship between the tumor content of free catecholamines and the age of the patients was, although to a lesser degree, also present (p less than 0.05). As a whole, the size of the tumors and their norepinephrine content were not correlated. We present a concept that, in familial pheochromocytoma, the metabolism of catecholamines is altered by the process of aging, and that this change modifies the

  18. [Malignant biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hucl, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma are the most common causes of malignant biliary obstruction. They are diseases of increasing incidence and unfavorable prognosis. Only patients with localized disease indicated for surgery have a chance of long-term survival. These patients represent less than 20 % of all patients, despite the progress in our diagnostic abilities.Locally advanced and metastatic tumors are treated with palliative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy; the results of such treatments are unsatisfactory. The average survival of patients with unresectable disease is 6 months and only 5-10 % of patients survive 5 years.Biliary drainage is an integral part of palliative treatment. Endoscopically or percutaneosly placed stents improve quality of life, decrease cholestasis and pruritus, but do not significantly improve survival. Biliary stents get occluded over time, possibly resulting in acute cholangitis and require repeated replacement.Photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation, locally active endoscopic methods, have been increasingly used in recent years in palliative treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer accumulates in tumor tissue and is activated 48 hours later by light of a specific wave length. Application of low voltage high frequency current during radiofrequency ablation results in tissue destruction by heat. Local ablation techniques can have a significant impact in a large group of patients with malignant biliary obstruction, leading to improved prognosis, quality of life and stent patency. PMID:26898789

  19. Malignant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, L S; Huang, M H; Lin, T S; Huang, B S; Chien, K Y

    1992-07-15

    Sixty-one patients underwent operations for malignant thymomas between 1961 and 1989. Twenty-three patients had associated myasthenia gravis (MG), an incidence of 37.7%. Upon being admitted to the hospital, the patients' most common symptoms included chest pain, MG, cough, and dyspnea. Only 7 of 61 (11.5%) patients had no symptom. Tumor staging of 58 patients with invasive thymomas was performed according to Masaoka classification. The patients were classified as follows: Stage II disease, 5; Stage III, 41; Stage IVa, 8; and Stage IVb, 4. In addition, thymic carcinoma was present in three patients. The series had a resection rate of 55.7%. The incidence of operative complications was 16.3%. Only one patient died of myocardial infarction; the incidence of operative mortality was 1.6%. The patients with MG had a higher rate of resection (69.6%) and a higher incidence of complete thymectomy (14 of 23 patients; 60.9%). Mixed lymphoepithelial tumors and epithelial cell predominant tumors were the most frequent histologic patterns (45.9% and 34.4%, respectively). Fifty-two patients had postoperative radiation therapy, and 10 patients had chemotherapy. The overall cumulative survival rates in the series were 59% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The results demonstrated that the factors affecting the prognosis may include resectability, postoperative irradiation or chemotherapy, MG, and tumor staging. The influence of histologic variation on survival rates could not be clearly defined in the series. Surgical resection, particularly complete thymectomy, followed by irradiation is the primary option of therapeutic management for malignant thymoma. PMID:1617594

  20. Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute

  1. Plerixafor and Filgrastim For Mobilization of Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Before A Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-25

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-II: possible local growth factor in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gelato, M C; Vassalotti, J

    1990-11-01

    Pheochromocytomas, neural crest tumors, express an abundance of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II). To assess further the potential for IGF-II to play an autocrine role for these tumors, we measured 1) IGF-II content by RRA in 7 pheochromocytomas and peripheral blood in these patients, 2) IGF-II receptors by Western analysis, and 3) characterized the tumor binding proteins by ligand blot studies. IGF-II levels in the tumors varied from 2.8-41 micrograms/g. Chromatography revealed that 60% of the peptide eluted as a large mol wt form of IGF-II (8.7-10 kDa); the remainder coeluted with mature peptide (7.5 kDa). This was in contrast to IGF-II levels in normal adrenal tissue (0.225 +/- 0.005 micrograms/g) or another neural crest-derived tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (0.63 +/- 0.02 micrograms/g). Serum IGF-II levels in the 7 patients with pheochromocytoma (720 +/- 71 ng/mL) were similar to those in 35 normal controls (762 +/- 69 ng/mL). Radiolabeled IGF-II (9 +/- 1%) and IGF-I (20 +/- 2%) bound specifically to pheochromocytoma membranes. Western analysis of these membranes using a specific antiserum directed against the type II receptor demonstrated a band at 210 kDa. Affinity cross-linking studies with [125I]IGF-I demonstrated a specific band at 140 kDa. Ligand blot analysis was performed on the void volume pools from the Sephadex G-75 column and demonstrated bands at about 30 and 25 kDa. In conclusion, these data 1) confirm that pheochromocytomas have increased levels of IGF-II; 2) demonstrate that despite high IGF-II concentrations in the tumors, peripheral levels are not elevated, suggesting that very little tumoral IGF-II is released into the circulation, unlike catecholamines; 3) demonstrate the presence of IGF-II and IGF-I receptors; 4) describe binding protein species similar to those present in other tissues. Thus, the presence of high levels of IGF-II and both type I and type II receptors suggests that IGF II may act through both receptors to

  3. Inhibitory Effect of the Noncamptothecin Topoisomerase I Inhibitor LMP-400 on Female Mice Models and Human Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Schovanek, Jan; Bullova, Petra; Tayem, Yasin; Giubellino, Alessio; Wesley, Robert; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Nölting, Svenja; Kopacek, Juraj; Frysak, Zdenek; Pommier, Yves; Kummar, Shivaani; Pacak, Karel

    2015-11-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma continues to be an incurable disease, and treatment with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy offers limited efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor, LMP-400, as a potential treatment for this devastating disease. We found a high expression of topoisomerase I in human metastatic pheochromocytoma, providing a basis for the evaluation of a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor as a therapeutic strategy. LMP-400 inhibited the cell growth of established mouse pheochromocytoma cell lines and primary human tumor tissue cultures. In a study performed in athymic female mice, LMP-400 demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth with two drug administration regimens. Furthermore, low doses of LMP-400 decreased the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), one of a family of factors studied as potential metastatic drivers in these tumors. The HIF-1α decrease resulted in changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1 transcriptional targets. In vitro, LMP-400 showed an increase in the growth-inhibitory effects in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs that are currently used for the treatment of pheochromocytoma. We conclude that LMP-400 has promising antitumor activity in preclinical models of metastatic pheochromocytoma and its use should be considered in future clinical trials. PMID:26267380

  4. Malignant hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Hyam; Barlow, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The history, clinical presentation, and management of malignant hyperpyrexia are presented. The aetiology seems to be associated with some inherited abnormality which affects the movement and binding of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm, and mitochondria. Whether this is a primary muscular defect or secondary to some trophic neural influence is yet to be established. The subjects carrying the abnormal trait show evidence of a myopathy which is subclinical in most instances and revealed only by estimation of serum CPK or biopsy. In some families where the myopathy is clinically obvious there may be, in addition, a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities. A plea is made for routine monitoring of temperature during anaesthesia and for procainamide or procaine to be readily available in all operating theatres. A history of anaesthetic deaths in a family calls for special care, and, if the serum CPK is elevated, suxamethonium and halothane are to be avoided. Families with orthopaedic and muscular abnormalities are at increased risk and should have estimation of serum CPK before surgery. As a bonus of this study it is suggested that serum CPK estimations be used to screen pigs for selective breeding and so eliminate the disease, which causes soft exudative pork. Images PMID:4708457

  5. A Rare Case of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma with Unusual Clinical and Biochemical Presentation: 
A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Ahmed, Riyaz; Ramadhan, Fatima A.; Al-Kindi, Manal K.; Al-Busaidi, Noor B.; Al-Muslahi, Hilal N.; Al-Lamki, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old Omani woman presented to the Outpatient Clinic, Royal Hospital, Oman with right upper abdominal pain and backache that had lasted 10 days. She had no palpitation, sweating, or hypertension (blood pressure 122/78mmHg). The patient’s history revealed that she had a similar incidence of abdominal pain two months prior, which was a "dull ache" in nature and somewhat associated with headache. The pain was relieved using a mild analgesic drug. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a right adrenal mass, and both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands confirmed a right adrenal mass consistent with adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, clinical biochemistry tests revealed normal levels of plasma catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and metanephrine, which are unusual findings in adrenal pheochromocytoma. Meanwhile, the patient had markedly raised plasma normetanephrine (10-fold) which, together with the normal metanephrine, constitutes a metabolic profile that is compatible with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The patient also had markedly raised chromogranin A (16-fold), consistent with the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor. Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was done and the adrenal tumor was excised and retrieved in total. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma; the tumor cells being positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein. Following surgery, the patient did well and showed full recovery at follow-up after three months. Molecular genetic testing showed no pathogenic mutation in pheochromocytoma genes: MAX, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, and PRKAR1A. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the pathophysiology and any previous reports of such case. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Oman of the extremely rare entity of pheochromocytoma with an unusual clinical and biochemical scenario. PMID:26421121

  6. A Rare Case of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma with Unusual Clinical and Biochemical Presentation: 
A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S; Ahmed, Riyaz; Ramadhan, Fatima A; Al-Kindi, Manal K; Al-Busaidi, Noor B; Al-Muslahi, Hilal N; Al-Lamki, Mohammad A

    2015-09-01

    A 50-year-old Omani woman presented to the Outpatient Clinic, Royal Hospital, Oman with right upper abdominal pain and backache that had lasted 10 days. She had no palpitation, sweating, or hypertension (blood pressure 122/78mmHg). The patient's history revealed that she had a similar incidence of abdominal pain two months prior, which was a "dull ache" in nature and somewhat associated with headache. The pain was relieved using a mild analgesic drug. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a right adrenal mass, and both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands confirmed a right adrenal mass consistent with adrenal pheochromocytoma. However, clinical biochemistry tests revealed normal levels of plasma catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and metanephrine, which are unusual findings in adrenal pheochromocytoma. Meanwhile, the patient had markedly raised plasma normetanephrine (10-fold) which, together with the normal metanephrine, constitutes a metabolic profile that is compatible with extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. The patient also had markedly raised chromogranin A (16-fold), consistent with the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor. Laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was done and the adrenal tumor was excised and retrieved in total. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma; the tumor cells being positive for chromogranin, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein. Following surgery, the patient did well and showed full recovery at follow-up after three months. Molecular genetic testing showed no pathogenic mutation in pheochromocytoma genes: MAX, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, VHL, and PRKAR1A. A review of the literature was conducted to identify the pathophysiology and any previous reports of such case. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Oman of the extremely rare entity of pheochromocytoma with an unusual clinical and biochemical scenario. PMID:26421121

  7. SDH Subunit Mutation Status in Saliva: Genetic Testing in Patients with Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Osinga, T E; Xekouki, P; Nambuba, J; Faucz, F R; de la Luz Sierra, M; Links, T P; Kema, I P; Adams, K; Stratakis, C A; van der Horst-Schrivers, A N A; Pacak, K

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations occur in up to 30-40% of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) being the most common. Blood samples are favored for obtaining high quality DNA, however, leukocytes can also be obtained by collecting saliva. The aim of this study was to determine whether SDHB and SDHD gene mutations in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma could be determined using a salivary sample. Paired blood and salivary samples were collected from 30 patients: 9 SDHB mutation positive, 13 with a SDHD mutation, and 8 without any SDHx mutations. The Oragene DISCOVER kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. Blood DNA was extracted from EDTA blood samples. The DNA purification and concentration were measured by spectrophotometry. The 8 exons of SDHB and the 4 exons of SDHD were amplified and sequenced by PCR-based bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Total DNA yields from blood DNA were similar to those obtained from saliva DNA [mean (±SD) saliva vs. blood DNA concentration 514.6 (±580.8) ng/µl vs. 360.9 (±262.7) ng/µl; p=0.2)]. The purity of the saliva DNA samples was lower than that of blood [mean OD260/OD280 ratio 1.78 (±0.13) vs. 1.87 (±0.04); p=0.001, respectively], indicating more protein contamination in the saliva-extracted DNA. This study shows that salivary DNA collected from patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is a good alternative for extraction of genomic DNA for its high DNA concentration and acceptable purity and can be used as an alternative to blood derived DNA in screening for SDHB and SDHD mutations. PMID:26916530

  8. Quantitative determination of dopamine in single rat pheochromocytoma cells by microchip electrophoresis with only one high-voltage power supply.

    PubMed

    Sha, Cuicui; Fan, Yuejuan; Cheng, Jieke; Cheng, Han

    2015-07-01

    We developed a method for the direct identification of dopamine in single cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells by capillary electrophoresis using an end-channel carbon fiber nanoelectrode amperometric detector. The operation mode was designed to achieve single-cell injection and lysis in microfluidic chip electrophoresis with only one high-voltage power supply. The separation and detection conditions were optimized. Four catecholamines were baseline-separated and determined with this system, and the cell density and liquid height of the reservoirs were accommodated for single cell loading, docking and analysis. The microchip capillary electrophoresis system was successfully applied to determine dopamine in single cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells. PMID:25893961

  9. Gastrointestinal malignancy and the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Maria T; Peek, Richard M

    2014-05-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies-in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in human beings and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:24406471

  10. An in vivo OctreoScan-negative adrenal pheochromocytoma expresses somatostatin receptors and responds to somatostatin analogs treatment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, M C; Piccin, D; Bondanelli, M; Tagliati, F; De Carlo, E; Culler, M D; Uberti, E C degli

    2003-06-01

    A 52-yr-old woman presented with hypertension, elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid, metanephrines, normetanephrines, and plasma chromogranin A (CgA), but normal urinary catecholamine levels. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent MRI imaging showed a 3 cm nodular lesion of the right adrenal gland also visualized by 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy consistent with a pheochromocytoma (PC). Her OctreoScan was negative. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy and histological examination showed a PC. The adrenal medulla tissue was examined for somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtypes 1 to 5 (SSTR1 to 5) expression by RT-PCR. Cultured tumor cells were treated with either SRIH, Lanreotide (Lan), or an SSTR2 (BIM-23 120) or SSTR5 (BIM-23 206) selective agonist. CgA secretion was measured in the medium by ELISA and catecholamine levels by HPLC after 6h. Cell viability was assessed after 48h. RT-PCR analysis showed that SSTR1, 2, 3 and 4 were expressed. CgA secretion was significantly reduced by SRIH (- 80 %), Lan (- 35 %), and the SSTR2 selective agonist (- 65 %). Norepinephrine secretion was reduced by SRIH (- 66 %), Lan (- 40 %), and BIM-23 120 (- 70 %). Epinephrine and dopamine secretion was also inhibited by treatment with SRIH (- 90 % and - 93 %, respectively) and BIM-23 120 (- 33 % and - 75 %, respectively) but not by Lan. Cell viability was also significantly reduced by SRIH (- 30 %), Lan (- 10 %), and the SSTR2 selective agonist (- 20 %). The SSTR5 selective agonist did not modify either CgA and catecholamine secretion or cell viability. Our data show that SSTRs may be present in a PC although OctreoScan is negative in vivo, and that SRIH and its analogs may reduce both differentiated and proliferative functions in chromaffin cells in vitro. These findings suggest that SRIH analogs with enhanced SSTR2 affinity might be useful in the medical therapy of PC, even when an OctreoScan is negative. PMID:12920656

  11. Radioimmunotherapy of malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, R.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The critical issues in radioimmunotherapy are highlighted, and novel ways of improving the therapeutic indexes of radioimmunotherapeutic agents are outlined. The use of radioactively labeled monoclonal antibodies to treat malignant tumors has been investigated in animals and humans. Radionuclides suitable for labeling antibodies for such use include iodine 125, iodine 131, yttrium 90, rhenium 188, and copper 67. Radiobiological factors to be considered in radioimmunotherapy include the size and density of the tumor and the ability of a radiolabeled antibody to penetrate the tumor nodule. The dose of radiation required to destroy a tumor varies; however, the whole-body dose must not exceed 200 rads to avoid irreversible toxicity to the bone marrow. Despite the theoretical inadequacy of radiation doses to tumors indicated by conventional dosimetry, responses have been observed in animals and humans. More reliable and accurate dosimetric methods are under development. The induction of human antimouse antibodies can alter the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies. Improving the therapeutic index of radioimmunotherapeutic agents may be achieved through regional therapy, administering a secondary antibody to improve clearance, combining radioimmunotherapy with external-beam irradiation, using an avidin-biotin conjugate system to deliver the radiolabeled antibodies, and addressing the problem of tumor antigen heterogeneity. Researchers are working to reduce or eliminate the clinical problems associated with radioimmunotherapy. Hematologic malignancies, such as lymphomas, are more likely than solid tumors to respond satisfactorily. 110 refs.

  12. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.

    1985-04-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand.

  13. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  14. Current views on cell metabolism in SDHx-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Vicha, Ales; Taieb, David; Pacak, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Warburg’s metabolic hypothesis is based on the assumption that a cancer cell’s respiration must be under attack, leading to its damage, in order to obtain increased glycolysis. Although this may not apply to all cancers, there is some evidence proving that primarily abnormally functioning mitochondrial complexes are indeed related to cancer development. Thus, mutations in complex II (succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)) lead to the formation of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Mutations in one of the SDH genes (SDHx mutations) lead to succinate accumulation associated with very low fumarate levels, increased glutaminolysis, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pseudohypoxia. This results in significant changes in signaling pathways (many of them dependent on the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)) including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, specific expression profiles, as well as genomic instability and increased mutability resulting in tumor development. Although there is currently no very effective therapy for SDHx-related metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas, targeting their fundamental metabolic abnormalities may provide a unique opportunity for the development of novel and more effective forms of therapy for these tumors. PMID:24500761

  15. Efficacy and safety of doxazosin for perioperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, Cedric; Farndon, John R

    2002-08-01

    Despite adverse side effects, phenoxybenzamine has been widely used for the preoperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma. Doxazosin, a specific a 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has a pharmacologic profile more suited to controlling blood pressure in such patients. A sequential study of 35 patients with pheochromocytoma encompassed a definite and prescribed change in preoperative drug management from phenoxybenzamine to doxazosin. Hemodynamic, pharmacologic, and biochemical indicators of a- and b-adrenoceptor blockade were measured before, during, and after anesthesia and surgery in 8 patients pretreated with phenoxybenzamine and 27 patients pretreated with doxazosin. Doxazosin (2-16 mg/day) was as effective as phenoxybenzamine in controlling arterial pressure and heart rate before and during surgery, but doxazosin caused fewer undesirable side effects both before and after surgery. Following phenoxybenzamine therapy substantial a 1-adrenoceptor blockade, detected as a right shift of phenylephrine dose-response curves, persisted for more than 2 days postoperatively, whereas after doxazosin it was undetectable on the first postoperative day. Doxazosin provided safe, efficacious pre- and perioperative control of arterial pressure. In patients with predominantly norepinephrine-secreting tumors, pretreatment 24-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion gave an indication of the daily doxazosin requirement. PMID:12192533

  16. Hypertensive emergency due to pheochromocytoma crisis complicated with refractory hemodynamic collapse.

    PubMed

    Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Yıldırımtürk, Özlem; Bozbay, Mehmet; Eren, Mehmet; Pehlivanoğlu, Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Hypertensive emergency usually appears in older patients with previous recurrent episodes, and is among the most frequent admissions to emergency departments. A 29-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with the diagnosis of hypertensive emergency. The patient complained of severe headache, dyspnea, palpitation, diaphoresis, and confusion due to hypertensive encephalopathy. Her blood pressure was 250/150 mmHg on admission. At the referral hospital, the patient had undergone cranial CT because of her confused state and this excluded acute cerebral hemorrhage. Also at that hospital, thoracoabdominal CT for differential diagnosis depicted an adrenal mass with a necrotic core. After admission to our clinic, initial control of excessive blood pressure was not achieved despite high dose intravenous nitrate therapy. Thereafter intravenous esmolol treatment was initiated simultaneously with oral alpha blocker therapy in order to counterbalance the unopposed alpha adrenergic activity with beta blocker therapy. After 12 hours, sudden onset of hypotension developed and deepened despite IV saline, inotropic and vasopressor agents such as IV dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. The patient died at the 24th hour due to hemodynamic collapse as a result of hyperadrenergic state due to possible pheochromocytoma crisis. This case is an exceptional example of hypertensive emergency secondary to fulminant pheochromocytoma crisis failing to respond to intensive antihypertensive treatment, and in which patient death was unavoidable due to uncontrolled excessive adrenergic activity which led to profound cardiogenic shock. PMID:26717337

  17. The Laser Treatment of Experimental Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    McGuff, Paul E.; Deterling, Ralph A.; Gottlieb, Leonard S.; Fahimi, H. Dariush; Bushnell, David; Roeber, Fred

    1964-01-01

    Some of the results of experiments performed during the past two years to assess effects of laser energy on experimental malignant tumours are reviewed. Twenty types of malignant tumours (most in the cheek pouch and 11 of human origin) were treated in over 700 Syrian hamsters. Results of laser treatment of malignant melanomas and thyroidal carcinomas are presented. A human patient with malignant melanoma treated by laser energy is described. Investigation of thermal effect revealed that the laser-treated tumour remained warm for about one minute, while the cautery-treated tumour cooled to normal temperature in five seconds. Direct action of laser on superficial tumours is possible; deeper lesions must be exposed surgically. Laser energy has a selective effect on certain malignant tumours, resulting in their progressive regression and ultimate dissolution. All hamsters with implanted malignant melanomas and carcinomas of human origin, after completion of a course of laser treatment, showed no gross or histologic evidence of tumour up to the date of last observation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 2eFig. 2fFig. 3Fig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 4cFig. 4dFig. 4eFig. 4fFig. 4gFig. 6 PMID:14229757

  18. [Local recurrence of pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease 26 years after bilateral adrenalectomy : a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Naoki; Mikami, Jotaro; Murasawa, Hiromi; Okamoto, Akiko; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Ishimura, Hirofumi; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Koie, Takuya; Kamimura, Noritaka; Ohyama, Chikara; Morohashi, Satoko; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    A 60-year-old man who had undergone left adrenalectomy and right partial adrenalectomy for bilateral pheochromocytoma 26 years ago was found to have an elevated serum noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) during a long-term follow-up. At the time of right partial adrenalectomy, the normal part of the right adrenal gland was preserved. His cousin and second cousin had pheochromocytoma associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. His eldest daughter had cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor which was 17 mm in diameter with contrast enhancement in the vicinity of the S6 region in the liver. 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed an abnormal accumulation in the same area. The tumor was surgically removed under the diagnosis of recurrence of pheochromocytoma. Histopathological examination revealed findings consistent with recurrent pheochromocytoma. After operation, serum NA and DA returned to normal range and the abnormal up-take on 123I-MIBG scintigraphy disappeared. Genetic testing revealed that the patient and his daughter had VHL disease. An extensive genetic examination and long-term follow-up should be considered for the present family. PMID:23945322

  19. 68Ga DOTANOC PET/CT aiding in the diagnosis of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome by detecting cerebellar hemangioblastoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Karunanithi, Sellam; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    A 35-year-old man with clinical suspicion of adrenal pheochromocytoma was evaluated using Ga DOTANOC PET/CT. PET/CT demonstrated Ga DOTANOC-avid right adrenal mass and cerebellar lesion, raising the suspicion of adrenal pheochromocytoma with cerebellar hemangioblastoma suggesting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Cerebellar lesion on further evaluation with MRI was suggestive of cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Surgical resection of the adrenal mass revealed pheochromocytoma, and genetic analysis revealed mutation involving the chromosome 3p, confirming the diagnosis of VHL syndrome. Ga DOTANOC PET/CT in our patient helped in the diagnosis of VHL syndrome and changed the disease management. PMID:24999687

  20. Malignant teratoma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, ...

  1. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  2. Pheochromocytoma - when acute medicine comes to the surgeon's rescue and vice versa. Case report of a patient presenting unmanageable haemodynamic instability during elective surgery for pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Jakus, Lien; Jacquet, Luc-Marie; Maiter, Dominique; Mourad, Michel; Jonas, Corinne; Scholtes, Jean-Louis

    2016-06-01

    We report and discuss the case of a 51-year-old patient undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma after 10 days of medical pre-treatment. After anaesthetic induction, a deep level of anaesthesia could not prevent the onset of repeated hypertensive peaks, followed by severe hypotensive periods. Once the surgical incision was made, the patient developed acute pulmonary oedema along with significant oxygen desaturation. The decision was made to stop the surgery and transfer the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU) for further support and management. Unfortunately, additional monitoring and symptomatic treatment did not help haemodynamic stabilisation. In the absence of any external stimulation or medical support, the oscillation of blood pressure (BP) continued with peaks every 20 minutes up to 300 mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) and falls down to 30 mmHg SBP. The patient also sustained two episodes of cardiac arrest from which he recovered. Facing this unmanageable situation, a decision was made after a multi-disciplinary discussion to go back to surgery in order to remove the source of adrenergic stimulation. Surgery by laparotomy was performed and catecholamine substitution was provided. Nevertheless, after tumour removal, BP dropped leading to a third cardiac arrest that was successfully managed. Following a 10-day stay in the ICU, the patient left with subsequent cardiac stabilisation and full recovery. PMID:26365780

  3. Bladder pheochromocytoma: case presentation and the use of OctreoScan for localization of extra-adrenal tumor sites in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Fournier, José R; Baez-Trinidad, Luis; Acosta, Alex; Marrero, Miguel; Correa-Rivas, María; Rodríguez-Becerra, Javier; Nieves, Francisco

    2008-03-01

    An eleven year old boy presented with headaches and dizziness associated to micturition. On radiologic imaging, he was found with a bladder mass. The biochemical work up was suggestive of pheochromocytoma. An OctreoScan (111In-pentreotide) was used to rule out metastatic extension or other extra-adrenal locations of the pheochromocytoma. OctreoScan data correlated well with other radiologic studies, operative findings and with the final diagnosis, validating its use on pediatric patients. PMID:18450243

  4. Cerebellospinal hemangioblastoma with bilateral pheochromocytoma and hepatic cyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Mrinal; Dutta, Deep; Baishya, Basanta Kumar; Hussain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old gentleman presented with headache, dizziness, and unsteadiness of gait. On imaging, he was found to have a cerebellar and a spinal intramedullary hemangioblastoma. To rule out Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease, we did screening of the whole abdomen with ultrasonography followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen, and surprisingly, the patient was having bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma and a hepatic cyst. A diagnosis of VHL disease was made on this basis. The patient was operated and he made a very good recovery. We are reporting this interesting case because of its typical findings and its rarity. Disease management and review of literature were also discussed at the end. PMID:27366269

  5. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  6. Cerebellospinal hemangioblastoma with bilateral pheochromocytoma and hepatic cyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Mrinal; Dutta, Deep; Baishya, Basanta Kumar; Hussain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old gentleman presented with headache, dizziness, and unsteadiness of gait. On imaging, he was found to have a cerebellar and a spinal intramedullary hemangioblastoma. To rule out Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, we did screening of the whole abdomen with ultrasonography followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen, and surprisingly, the patient was having bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma and a hepatic cyst. A diagnosis of VHL disease was made on this basis. The patient was operated and he made a very good recovery. We are reporting this interesting case because of its typical findings and its rarity. Disease management and review of literature were also discussed at the end. PMID:27366269

  7. Pheochromocytoma presenting as acute decompensated heart failure reversed with medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Christopher M; Marik, Paul Ellis

    2012-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented to hospital with acute chest pain, hypertension, tachycardia and an elevated serum creatinine. She developed respiratory distress requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. She progressed to multiorgan failure due to decompensated congestive heart failure. Echocardiography demonstrated global hypokinesis and an ejection fraction of <10%. Her cardiac function improved with fluid resuscitation and β blockade, and she was eventually discharged home. She was readmitted a few days later with pancreatitis after presenting with nausea, abdominal pain and hypertension. During hospitalisation she had paroxysms of headache, nausea and diaphoresis associated with hypertension and tachycardia. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed an adrenal mass and serum metanephrine studies confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. After fluid resuscitation and sympathetic blockade her ejection fraction improved to 55%. The patient underwent an uneventful adrenalectomy and made a complete recovery. PMID:22814979

  8. [Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder without typical symptoms: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kenichiro; Tsuchiya, Kunihiro; Kamei, Shingo; Taniguchi, Mitsuhiro; Tada, Kouji; Takahashi, Yoshito; Iwata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with bladder tumor. It was detected by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an examination for hysteromyoma. She had neither hypertention, gross hematuria nor the classic symptoms of cathecholamine excess during micturition. The diameter of the tumor was 33 mm. Cystoscopic examination showed a submucosal tumor in the left anterior wall of the bladder. Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed. Biopsy specimens revealed as a pheochromocytoma. 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy showed abnormal accumulation in the bladder, and no abnormal accumulation in the other lesion. Endocrinologic examination disclosed increased levels of serum and urinary noradrenalin. On May 18, 2005, partial cystectomy was performed. The catecholamine levels normalized after partial cystectomy. The patient has been followed up for 9 months and shown no recurrence. PMID:17176875

  9. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I. PMID:21137621

  10. Pituitary Adenoma With Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma (3PAs) and Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Bullova, Petra; Giubellino, Alessio; Quezado, Martha; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Wassif, Christopher A.; Raygada, Margarita; Rentia, Nadia; Dye, Louis; Cougnoux, Antony; Koziol, Deloris; Sierra, Maria de La Luz; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Malchoff, Carl; Moline, Jessica; Eng, Charis; Maher, Louis James; Pacak, Karel; Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Germline mutations in genes coding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D have been identified in familial paragangliomas (PGLs)/pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and other tumors. We described a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) caused by SDHD mutation in a patient with familial PGLs. Additional patients with PAs and SDHx defects have since been reported. Design: We studied 168 patients with unselected sporadic PA and with the association of PAs, PGLs, and/or pheochromocytomas, a condition we named the 3P association (3PAs) for SDHx germline mutations. We also studied the pituitary gland and hormonal profile of Sdhb+/− mice and their wild-type littermates at different ages. Results: No SDHx mutations were detected among sporadic PA, whereas three of four familial cases were positive for a mutation (75%). Most of the SDHx-deficient PAs were either prolactinomas or somatotropinomas. Pituitaries of Sdhb+/− mice older than 12 months had an increased number mainly of prolactin-secreting cells and several ultrastructural abnormalities such as intranuclear inclusions, altered chromatin nuclear pattern, and abnormal mitochondria. Igf-1 levels of mutant mice tended to be higher across age groups, whereas Prl and Gh levels varied according to age and sex. Conclusion: The present study confirms the existence of a new association that we termed 3PAs. It is due mostly to germline SDHx defects, although sporadic cases of 3PAs without SDHx defects also exist. Using Sdhb+/− mice, we provide evidence that pituitary hyperplasia in SDHx-deficient cells may be the initial abnormality in the cascade of events leading to PA formation. PMID:25695889

  11. The incremental benefit of functional imaging in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brito, Juan P; Asi, Noor; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Norman, Catalina; Leppin, Aaron L; Zeballos-Palacios, Claudia; Undavalli, Chaitanya; Wang, Zhen; Domecq, Juan P; Prustsky, Gabriela; Elraiyah, Tarig A; Prokop, Larry J; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the major imaging modalities used for the localization of catecholamine-producing tumors (pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma). Functional imaging (FI) offers an alternative approach to localize, evaluate, and stage these tumors. Our objective was to describe the additive benefit of FI studies for patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPG) who have undergone MRI or CT scan evaluation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus from database inception through June 2012 for studies that included patients with biochemically proven PPGs who underwent CT or MRI and additional FI for the localization of PPGs. We included 32 studies enrolling a total of 1,264 patients with a mean age of 43-years old. The studies were uncontrolled and evaluated six FI modalities. FI tests provided small additive value to CT/MRI, aiding in the localization of only 24/1,445 primary cases (1.4 %) and 28/805 metastatic cases (3.5 %). In metastatic cases, 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and fluorodopamine-PET (FDA) were the FI tests most successful at identifying disease missed by CT/MRI, providing additional benefit in 6/60 (10 %) and 5/78 (6.4 %) cases, respectively. No clinically significant findings were observed in any of the predefined subgroups. No study evaluated the impact of FI on the completeness of surgical resection or other patient-important outcomes. Observational evidence suggests that FI tests have a limited additional role in patients with PPGs who have undergone CT/MRI evaluation. However, the role of FI tests in specific subgroups of patients with atypical presentations (metastatic, extra-adrenal) as well as the use of hybrid FI tests should be explored. Further research should also evaluate the impact of FI tests on patient-important outcomes. PMID:25663601

  12. Gastrointestinal Malignancy and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria T.; Peek, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies—in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in humans and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain GI cancers. PMID:24406471

  13. Chemotherapy and targeted agents for thymic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Thymic malignancies are rare epithelial tumors that may be aggressive and difficult to treat. Thymomas are usually localized to the anterior mediastinum and are frequently eligible for upfront surgical resection. However, nearly 30% of patients present with locally advanced tumors at time of diagnosis, and chemotherapy is then used to reduce the tumor burden, possibly allowing subsequent surgery and/or radiotherapy. Metastatic and recurrent thymic malignancies may similarly be treated with chemotherapy. More recently, the molecular characterization of thymoma and thymic carcinoma led to the identification of potentially druggable targets, laying the foundations to implement personalized medicine for patients. PMID:22594902

  14. Temsirolimus and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Unresectable or Metastatic Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-09

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Hereditary Paraganglioma; Male Breast Cancer; Malignant Paraganglioma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Pheochromocytoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Regional Pheochromocytoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Prostate Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  15. Portrayal of pheochromocytoma and normal human adrenal medulla by m-(/sup 123/I)iodobenzylguanidine: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.; Swanson, D.P.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.; Meyers, L.J.; Glowniak, J.V.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    The radiopharmaceutical m-(/sup 131/I)iodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG), which is readily taken up by adrenergic vesicles, produces scintigraphic images of pheochromocytomas in man but rarely visualizes normal adrenal glands. Iodine-123 has many potential advantages over I-131 as a radiolabel for MIBG, including shorter half-life, freedom from beta emissions, and increased gamma-camera efficiency. In this study, diagnostic doses of MIBG labeled with I-131 and I-123, with nearly equivalent radiation dosimetry, were compared as imaging agents in eight patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma. Images of superior quality were obtained with I-123 MIBG. In addition, the normal adrenal medullae were visualized on the I-123 MIBG scintigrams in six out of eight patients.

  16. Cushing Syndrome Due to ACTH-Secreting Pheochromocytoma, Aggravated by Glucocorticoid-Driven Positive-Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Ikki; Higuchi, Seiichiro; Fujimoto, Masanori; Takiguchi, Tomoko; Nakayama, Akitoshi; Tamura, Ai; Kohno, Takashi; Komai, Eri; Shiga, Akina; Nagano, Hidekazu; Hashimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Sawako; Mayama, Takafumi; Koide, Hisashi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Sasano, Hironobu; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor that originates from adrenal chromaffin cells and is capable of secreting various hormones, including ACTH. Case Description: A 56-year-old female presented with Cushingoid appearance and diabetic ketoacidosis. Endocrinological examinations demonstrated ectopic ACTH production with hypercortisolemia and excess urinary cortisol accompanied by elevated plasma and urine catecholamines. Computed tomography revealed a large left adrenal tumor with bilateral adrenal enlargement. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy revealed abnormal accumulation in the tumor, which was eventually diagnosed as pheochromocytoma with ectopic ACTH secretion with subsequent manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. Ectopic ACTH secretion and catecholamine production were blocked by metyrapone treatment, whereas dexamethasone paradoxically increased ACTH secretion. Left adrenalectomy resulted in complete remission of Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. In Vitro Studies: Immunohistological analysis revealed that the tumor contained two functionally distinct chromaffin-like cell types. The majority of tumor cells stained positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), whereas a minor population of ACTH-positive tumor cells was negative for TH. Furthermore, gene expression and in vitro functional analyses using primary tumor tissue cultures demonstrated that dexamethasone facilitated ACTH as well as catecholamine secretion with parallel induction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), TH, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA, supporting a glucocorticoid-dependent positive-feedback loop of ACTH secretion in vivo. DNA methylation analysis revealed that the POMC promoter of this tumor, particularly the E2F binding site, was hypomethylated. Conclusion: We present a case of ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with pheochromocytoma. ACTH up-regulation with paradoxical response to glucocorticoid, possibly through the hypomethylation of the POMC

  17. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature. PMID:25712400

  18. The Importance of Exclusion of Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Screening for Adrenal Adenoma and Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Alicia C.; Kimple, Michelle E.; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-01-01

    Context. As catecholamine elevation is a key element in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, more commonplace causes of sympathetic excess, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), should be excluded as standard practice prior to diagnosis. This is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas identified in the estimated 42 million Americans with OSA, with greater than 4 million projected to undergo a computed tomography study annually. Case Description. A 56-year-old woman presented with a several year history of paroxysmal hypertension, palpitations, and diaphoresis. Abdominal/pelvic computed tomography performed during an unrelated hospitalization revealed a 2-cm left-sided adrenal nodule initially quantified at 37 Hounsfield units. Posthospitalization, 24-hour urine normetanephrine level was markedly elevated. Reassessment 2 weeks later revealed continued normetanephrine excess. Following normal thyroid function tests, morning cortisol, aldosterone, and plasma renin activity, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Surgical pathology identified an adrenal cortical adenoma. As paroxysms continued postoperatively, repeat 24-hour urine metanephrines were measured, demonstrating essentially unchanged normetanephrine elevation. Search for an alternate cause ensued, revealing OSA with progressive continuous positive airway pressure noncompliance over the preceding year. Regular continuous positive airway pressure therapy was resumed, and at the end of 7 weeks, 24-hour urine normetanephrine levels had declined. Conclusion. Pheochromocytomas are rare and sleep apnea is common. However, the overlap of clinical symptoms between these disorders is substantial, as is their ability to produce catecholamine excess. Thus, excluding uncontrolled or undiagnosed OSA in high-risk patients should be standard practice before diagnosing pheochromocytoma. PMID:26904704

  19. The Importance of Exclusion of Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Screening for Adrenal Adenoma and Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Alicia C; Kimple, Michelle E; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-01-01

    Context. As catecholamine elevation is a key element in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, more commonplace causes of sympathetic excess, such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), should be excluded as standard practice prior to diagnosis. This is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas identified in the estimated 42 million Americans with OSA, with greater than 4 million projected to undergo a computed tomography study annually. Case Description. A 56-year-old woman presented with a several year history of paroxysmal hypertension, palpitations, and diaphoresis. Abdominal/pelvic computed tomography performed during an unrelated hospitalization revealed a 2-cm left-sided adrenal nodule initially quantified at 37 Hounsfield units. Posthospitalization, 24-hour urine normetanephrine level was markedly elevated. Reassessment 2 weeks later revealed continued normetanephrine excess. Following normal thyroid function tests, morning cortisol, aldosterone, and plasma renin activity, laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. Surgical pathology identified an adrenal cortical adenoma. As paroxysms continued postoperatively, repeat 24-hour urine metanephrines were measured, demonstrating essentially unchanged normetanephrine elevation. Search for an alternate cause ensued, revealing OSA with progressive continuous positive airway pressure noncompliance over the preceding year. Regular continuous positive airway pressure therapy was resumed, and at the end of 7 weeks, 24-hour urine normetanephrine levels had declined. Conclusion. Pheochromocytomas are rare and sleep apnea is common. However, the overlap of clinical symptoms between these disorders is substantial, as is their ability to produce catecholamine excess. Thus, excluding uncontrolled or undiagnosed OSA in high-risk patients should be standard practice before diagnosing pheochromocytoma. PMID:26904704

  20. Simultaneous presentation of giant pheochromocytoma, primary hyperparathyroidism, and mixed-medullary-papillary thyroid cancer in MEN 2A.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a young man with probably the largest pheochromocytoma associated with MEN 2A, described till date. The patient, a non-vegetarian, fifth of eight siblings, married, having five children, presented with episodes of difficult-to-control hypertension requiring over five antihypertensives. He was referred to us with an abdominal CT scan that revealed a 16 cm left-sided adrenal mass. Biochemical testing confirmed a catecholamine secreting pathology. Histopathology confirmed the mass as a pheochromocytoma weighing 1.8 kg. Further evaluation suggested a parathormone-dependent hypercalcemia and a left-sided thyroid mass. Histopathology confirmed parathyroid hyperplasia and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid mixed with papillary carcinoma of thyroid. Putting all the findings together showed that the patient was suffering from multiple endocrine neoplasia 2. Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A is a rare syndrome. The case is unique in the way it presented, with all the three tumors at the same time. The management was bold and addressed all the three lesions in the same hospital admission. We are also reporting the largest described case of pheochromocytoma from India. PMID:23961501

  1. Multidisciplinary management of prostate malignancy.

    PubMed

    Basler, Joseph W; Jenkins, Carol; Swanson, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Most urologic malignancies are diagnosed initially and managed by urologists. However, better outcomes may be attained by integrating the surgical, medical, and radiologic disciplines. The primary care physician remains an important cornerstone whose talents should not be underestimated in the overall patient management scheme. Additional services such as endocrinology, physical therapy, pain control, hospice, nutrition, biofeedback, and hyperbarics, among others, should be considered in the overall health care team. The organization of the team, including definition of the duties of key personnel and even the physical framework of the clinic, contribute to its success in treating patients with prostate cancer. Pitfalls of the process also are discussed in this article. PMID:15869728

  2. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  3. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  4. Malignancy after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Martin; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Wiesel, Manfred; Lehnert, Thomas; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-01-01

    Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the long-term follow-up. The overall incidence of malignancy at this time is 3 to 5 times higher than in the general population. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse are additional risk factors. Malignancy may even be transplanted by the graft. Previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and postmalignancy screening. Finally, every dialysis patient on the waiting list should undergo a regular screening program before and after renal transplantation to detect a potentially malignant tumor in an early stage. In addition to specific oncological treatment, managing a malignancy after renal transplantation should include modification of immunosuppression. PMID:11774131

  5. Clinical Features and Outcome of Pheochromocytoma-Induced Takotsubo Syndrome: Analysis of 80 Published Cases.

    PubMed

    Y-Hassan, Shams

    2016-06-01

    Myriads of physical stress factors including pheochromocytoma have been reported triggering takotsubo syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to report on the clinical features and outcome of pheochromocytoma-induced TS (Pheo-TS) in a large cohort of patients. Eighty published cases of Pheo-TS were retrieved from the literature and compared with 1,750 cases of all patients with TS (All-TS) published recently by Templin et al. Patients with Pheo-TS were on average 19.87 years younger than those with All-TS (p <0.0001). The women were still predominating in Pheo-TS but significantly in a lower percentage (70% in Pheo-TS vs 89.8% in All-TS, p <0.00001). Almost 1/3 (30%) of Pheo-TS cases had basal TS pattern compared with 2.2% of cases in All-TS (p <0.00001) and 1/5 (20%) had global TS compared with no cases in All-TS. Two thirds of Pheo-TS cases (67.9%) developed complications, which was significantly higher than complication rates in All-TS (21.8%), but there was no difference in the inhospital mortality between the 2 studies. The most important risk factors for the development of complications in Pheo-TS were age <50 years and global and basal TS localization patterns. The recurrence rate of 17.7% in Pheo-TS was significantly higher than the 3.26% in All-TS (p <0.00001). In conclusion, Pheo-TS is characterized by a dramatic clinical presentation with high complication rates and relatively high recurrence rate. Patients with Pheo-TS are significantly younger than All-TS. The TS localization pattern in Pheo-TS differed significantly from All-TS with basal pattern in almost 1/3 of cases and global pattern in 1/5 of the cases. PMID:27103159

  6. Malignant eroticized countertransference.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1997-01-01

    . Countertransference enactments are a creation between the patient and the therapist on a continuum from one pole, where the patient has just walked into the office and contributes almost nothing directly, to the other pole, where the therapist loses control of himself or herself as a response to the unbearable pressure of the patient's lust. In the treatment of malignant eroticized countertransference it seems clear from this discussion that every case should be evaluated psychodynamically and the treatment should be made to fit the patient, not the patient to the treatment. Each situation should be studied in psychodynamic depth without preconceptions based on generalizations or formulas. Therapists who are psychotic should of course be treated with antipsychotic drugs and usually should not be allowed to practice any further. Therapists who are psychopathic or sociopathic predators should certainly never be allowed to practice. Some of the individuals who are "lovesick," or, as I put it "love/lust obsessed," or those who have made a masochistic surrender to a sadistic destructive patient, are in need of reanalysis and have the potential to continue as effective therapists under careful supervision. Therapists like this do not deserve to be summarily dismissed from the profession but, like therapists who develop other serious neurotic problems, should receive appropriate help from us. PMID:9395991

  7. Primary malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mısır, A. Ferhat; Durmuşlar, Mustafa C.; Zerener, Tamer; Gün, Banu D.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanomas (MM) of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period. PMID:27052289

  8. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma This page lists cancer ... in malignant mesothelioma that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium) Pemetrexed ...

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling in Pheochromocytoma: Turning the Rudder in the Right Direction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many solid tumors, including pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL), are characterized by a (pseudo)hypoxic signature. (Pseudo)hypoxia has been shown to promote both tumor progression and resistance to therapy. The major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). High levels of HIFs lead to transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes, which are involved in tumorigenesis. PHEOs and PGLs are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from sympathetic- or parasympathetic-derived chromaffin tissue. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the metabolic disturbances present in PHEO and PGL, especially because of the identification of some disease-susceptibility genes. To date, fifteen PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes have been identified. Based on the main transcription signatures of the mutated genes, PHEOs and PGLs have been divided into two clusters, pseudohypoxic cluster 1 and cluster 2, rich in kinase receptor signaling and protein translation pathways. Although these two clusters seem to show distinct signaling pathways, recent data suggest that both clusters are interconnected by HIF signaling as the important driver in their tumorigenesis, and mutations in most PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes seem to affect HIF-α regulation and its downstream signaling pathways. HIF signaling appears to play an important role in the development and growth of PHEOs and PGLs, which could suggest new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors. PMID:23940289

  10. An Adrenal Mass and Increased Catecholamines: Monoamine Oxidase or Pheochromocytoma Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; Wentholt, Iris M.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Nieveen van Dijkum, Els J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal evaluation in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma can be difficult in patients with comorbidities or in patients using interfering drugs. We present a case of a 54-year-old man who was evaluated for an adrenal mass. The medical history reported treatment with a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor for recurrent psychoses. Hormonal screening showed elevated levels of normetanephrine and metanephrine in plasma and urine, suggesting a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and an adrenalectomy was performed. Histologic examination showed that the tumor had an origin of the adrenal cortex. MAO inhibitors are also known to cause elevated levels of catecholamines. In this case, a PHEO seemed more likely the cause due to repeatedly elevated levels of metanephrines and normal levels of catecholamines. Since the tumor had an origin of the adrenal cortex, the use of MAO inhibitors was the most likely explanation for the elevated levels of metanephrines. This case illustrated the difficulties in diagnosing PHEO, especially in patients with comorbidities and interfering drugs. PMID:25584109

  11. Lead exposure in pheochromocytoma cells induces persistent changes in amyloid precursor protein gene methylation patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Tian; Wan, Yanjian; Xu, Shun-qing

    2012-08-01

    It has been suggested that lead (Pb) exposure in early life may increase amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and promote the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease in old age. The current study examined whether the DNA methylation patterns of APP gene in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells changed after Pb acetate exposure. Undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to three doses of Pb acetate (50, 250, and 500 nM) and one control for 2 days or 1 week. The methylation patterns of APP promoter and global DNA methylation were analyzed. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and the level of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) were also investigated. The results showed that the exposure of the three concentrations of Pb acetate could make the APP promoter hypomethylated. The global DNA methylation level and the expression of DNMT1 were changed in the 500 nM group after 2 days exposure and in the 250 and 500 nM group after 7 days exposure. Thus, Pb may exert neurotoxic effects through mechanisms that alter the global and promoter methylation patterns of APP gene. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. PMID:22764079

  12. Identification of flavonoids from Flammulina velutipes and its neuroprotective effect on pheochromocytoma-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiuhui; Yu, Jie; Yang, Wenjian; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Fang, Yong; Ma, Ning; Pei, Fei

    2016-08-01

    The flavonoids from Flammulina velutipes (FVF) were isolated and the chemical composition of FVF was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The antioxidant activity and the neuroprotective effect against H2O2-induced pheochromocytoma-12 cells (PC12) cytotoxicity of FVF was investigated. Six flavonoids from FVF were identified as arbutin, epicatechin, phillyrin, apigenin, kaempferol and formononetin. Obtained results suggested that FVF possesses strong antioxidant properties in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities as well as reducing power. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with FVF significantly increased the survival rate of cells, glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity. Conversely, the pretreatment reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase and the accumulation of both intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. These findings collectively suggested that the protective effects of FVF against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells as well as the potential for neuroprotection of FVF could be due to its antioxidant action. PMID:26988502

  13. Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Neurotoxic Effects of Mg, Pb, and Fe on Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yi-Ming; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Metals such as lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) are ubiquitous in the environment as a result of natural occurrence and anthropogenic activities. Although Mg, Fe and others are considered essential elements, high level of exposure has been associated with severe adverse health effects including cardiovascular, hematological, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and neurologic abnormalities in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that Mg, Pb, and Fe are cytotoxic, genotoxic and neurotoxic, and their toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress and alteration in protein expression. To test the hypothesis, we used the pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line as a neuro cell model and performed the LDH assay for cell viability, Comet assay for DNA damage, Western blot for oxidative stress, and HPLC-MS to assess the concentration levels of neurological biomarkers such as glutamate, dopamine (DA), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT). The results of this study clearly show that Mg, Pb, and Fe, respectively in the form of MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in PC-12 cells. In addition, exposure to these metallic compounds caused significant changes in the concentration levels of glutamate, dopamine, and 3-MT in PC-12 cells. Taken together the findings suggest that MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 have the potential to induce substantial toxicity to PC-12 cells. PMID:24942330

  14. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Tamara C.; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis. PMID:26567213

  15. The potential neurotoxicity of emerging tetrabromobisphenol A derivatives based on rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Ren, Xiaomin; Long, Yanmin; Hu, Ligang; Qu, Guangbo; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-07-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) can cause diverse adverse effects including neurotoxicity. Emerging TBBPA derivatives, with high structure similarity to the parent compound, are now being concerned. In this study, the potential neurotoxicities of four TBBPA derivatives and their parent compound were studied by cell viability inhibition in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and the corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The cellular toxicity was correlated with the chemical hydrophobicity. Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl ether) (TBBPA-BHEE) exhibited the highest cellular toxicity to PC12 due to its lowest hydrophobicity among these 5 tested compounds. Further experiments showed that TBBPA-BHEE disturbed dopamine (DA) secretion and altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymatic activity in PC12 cells. The molecular mechanism study indicated that TBBPA-BHEE induced cellular toxicity to PC12 cells through ROS-mediated caspase activation to a large extent, which was partially attenuated by the anti-oxidation of Vitamin E. Moreover, in contrast to TBBPA, the occurrence of TBBPA-BHEE toxicity to PC12 was not attributed to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) or thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway. These findings suggest TBBPA derivatives, especially TBBPA-BHEE, as potential neurotoxins need urgent attention. PMID:27055180

  16. Regulation of gene expression and secretory functions in oxygen-sensing pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Conforti, L; Kobayashi, S; Beitner-Johnson, D; Conrad, P W; Freeman, T; Millhorn, D E

    1999-04-01

    The cellular response to hypoxia is complex. Specialized oxygen chemosensitive cells that are excitable respond to reduced O2 by membrane depolarization, altered gene expression, and neurotransmitter secretion. We have used the O2-sensitive pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line to investigate the cellular response to hypoxia. Here, we present evidence that membrane depolarization and increased intracellular free Ca2+ are major regulatory events in these cells. Membrane depolarization is mediated by the inhibition of a slow-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium (K) channel. Evidence from molecular biology and patch-clamp studies indicate that the O2-sensitive K channel is a member of the Kv1 family. We also reviewed findings on the regulation of gene expression in PC12 cells during hypoxia. An increase in intracellular free Ca2+ is required for hypoxia-induced transcription of a number of genes including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, and several of the immediate early genes. We also reviewed the role of dopamine (DA) and adenosine (ADO) receptors in regulation of membrane depolarization and gene expression. PMID:10385038

  17. Identification of coffee components that stimulate dopamine release from pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12).

    PubMed

    Walker, J; Rohm, B; Lang, R; Pariza, M W; Hofmann, T; Somoza, V

    2012-02-01

    Coffee and caffeine are known to affect the limbic system, but data on the influence of coffee and coffee constituents on neurotransmitter release is limited. We investigated dopamine release and Ca(2+)-mobilization in pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12 cells) after stimulation with two lyophilized coffee beverages prepared from either Coffea arabica (AR) or Coffea canephora var. robusta (RB) beans and constituents thereof. Both coffee lyophilizates showed effects in dilutions between 1:100 and 1:10,000. To identify the active coffee compound, coffee constituents were tested in beverage and plasma representative concentrations. Caffeine, trigonelline, N-methylpyridinium, chlorogenic acid, catechol, pyrogallol and 5-hydroxytryptamides increased calcium signaling and dopamine release, although with different efficacies. While N-methylpyridinium stimulated the Ca(2+)-mobilization most potently (EC(200): 0.14±0.29μM), treatment of the cells with pyrogallol (EC(200): 48±14nM) or 5-hydroxytryptamides (EC(200): 10±3nM) lead to the most pronounced effect on dopamine release. In contrast, no effect was seen for the reconstituted biomimetic mixture. We therefore conclude that each of the coffee constituents tested stimulated the dopamine release in PC-12 cells. Since no effect was found for their biomimetic mixture, we hypothesize other coffee constituents being responsible for the dopamine release demonstrated for AR and RB coffee brews. PMID:22019894

  18. Addition of High-Dose Cytarabine to Fludarabine-Based Conditioning for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treating Fanconi Anemia Patients with Advanced Myeloid Malignancy: A Single-Center Experience and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takahiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Ikeda, Yuhachi; Sekinaka, Yujin; Akiyama, Kosuke; Mori, Makiko; Arakawa, Yuki; Hanada, Ryoji

    2016-09-01

    The complication of Fanconi anemia (FA) with acute leukemia is rare and challenging to treat because of high relapse rates, despite the improved outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine-based conditioning for treating FA patients with hematological abnormalities. We added high-dose cytarabine to fludarabine-based conditioning to promote an enhanced antitumor effect and successfully subjected 4 patients with FA, including 3 with acute leukemia, to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All patients remain alive without treatment-related mortality or evidence of disease. Adding high-dose cytarabine to fludarabine-based conditioning may be tolerable and effective for treating FA patients with acute leukemia. PMID:27246371

  19. Malignant melanoma maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Seema; Sinha, Richi; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm. A neoplasm usually affects the skin. Malignant melanomas in the head and neck region are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Malignant melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses is an aggressive disease typically presenting at an advanced stage, with a 5-year survival rate ranging 20-30%. Melanomas are tumors arising from melanocytes, which are neuroectodermally derived cells located in the basal layers of the skin. This is a case report of a 35-year-old male, who presented with very aggressive disease and developed liver metastasis. PMID:26668467

  20. Procaine in Malignant Hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, R. F. W.; Denborough, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The caffeine contracture of normal human muscle, which has been used as a model for malignant hyperpyrexia, is greatly potentiated by halothane. Prior administration of procaine markedly reduces the halothane-potentiated caffeine contracture, and procaine given at the height of the contracture induces relaxation. Lignocaine, on the other hand, produces a variable response and sometimes increases the contracture. The muscle from a patient with an inherited susceptibility to malignant hyperpyrexia contracted spontaneously with halothane alone, and this contracture was reversed by procaine. These experiments support the therapeutic use of procaine in malignant hyperpyrexia. PMID:4642792

  1. Radiation-induced intracranial malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.; Mealey, J. Jr.; Sartorius, C.

    1989-07-01

    The authors present seven cases of malignant gliomas that occurred after radiation therapy administered for diseases different from the subsequent glial tumor. Included among these seven are three patients who were treated with interstitial brachytherapy. Previously reported cases of radiation-induced glioma are reviewed and analyzed for common characteristics. Children receiving central nervous system irradiation appear particularly susceptible to induction of malignant gliomas by radiation. Interstitial brachytherapy may be used successfully instead of external beam radiotherapy in previously irradiated, tumor-free brain, and thus may reduce the risk of radiation necrosis. 31 references.

  2. Panuveal malignant mesenchymoma.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, J; Neudorfer, M; Ron, N; Anteby, I; Lazar, M; Rosenmann, E

    1995-09-01

    Intraocular malignant mesenchymal tumors are very rare, and only a few case reports of such primary and metastatic tumors have been reported. We report a case of a malignant mesenchymoma involving the entire uveal tract. A 21-year-old woman presented with a tumor on the whole iris of the right eye, which caused intractable glaucoma. Upon enucleation of the eye, a very anaplastic tumor was found to occupy the whole uveal tract; its features were compatible with a tumor of mesenchymal origin, including rhabdomyosarcomatous and liposarcomatous characteristics. Choroidal osteoma was a coincidental finding. The histologic findings of the tumor were of two types of malignant mesenchymal tumors, and therefore the diagnosis of malignant mesenchymoma was made. This is to our knowledge the first tumor of its kind to be reported intraocularly. PMID:7668945

  3. [Rheumatoid arthritis and malignancy].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohiro; Dobashi, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with excess mortality. Especially, malignancy is a major cause of mortality. According to previous reports, the overall incidence of malignancies in RA patients has been reported to be comparable or slightly higher than that in general population. The increased incidence of malignant lymphoma and lung cancer has been reported to be consistent in most studies. The use of some csDMARD was also reported as risk factors for malignancy. Recently, MTX associated lymphoproliferative disorder(MTX-LPD) is one of the important complications in RA treatment. We revealed the mean MTX dose was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor regarding MTX-LPD onset in RA patients. This data suggest that the treatment with higher MTX dose promotes LPD onset in Japanese RA patients. PMID:27311195

  4. Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Il

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

  5. Chemoembolization of hepatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies with transarterial chemoembolization represents an essential component of interventional oncology. This article discusses patient selection, procedure technique, results, and complications associated with transarterial chemoembolization. PMID:18668189

  6. The Malignant Protein Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    When most people hear the words malignant and brain, cancer immediately comes to mind. But our authors argue that proteins can be malignant too, and can spread harmfully through the brain in neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, CTE, and ALS. Studying how proteins such as PrP, amyloid beta, tau, and others aggregate and spread, and kill brain cells, represents a crucial new frontier in neuroscience. PMID:27408676

  7. Malignant Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Min-Yuen Cynthia; Shahed, Joohi; Jankovic, Joseph

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work was to draw attention to potentially life-threatening symptoms associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) and to explore their relationship to TS comorbidities. Medical records of all patients with TS evaluated at our Movement Disorders Clinic between July 2003 and July 2006 were reviewed. Data on patients with malignant TS, defined as >or=2 emergency room (ER) visits or >or=1 hospitalizations for TS symptoms or its associated behavioral comorbidities, were entered into a dataset and analyzed. Five illustrative cases are described. Of 333 TS patients evaluated during the 3-year period, 17 (5.1%) met the criteria for malignant TS. Hospital admission or ER visits were for tic-related injuries, self-injurious behavior (SIB), uncontrollable violence and temper, and suicidal ideation/attempts. Compared with patients with nonmalignant TS, those with malignant TS were significantly more likely to have a personal history of obsessive compulsive behavior/disorder (OCB/OCD), complex phonic tics, coprolalia, copropraxia, SIB, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and poor response to medications. Although TS is rarely a disabling disorder, about 5% of patients referred to a specialty clinic have life-threatening symptoms. Malignant TS is associated with greater severity of motor symptoms and the presence of >or=2 behavioral comorbidities. OCD/OCB in particular may play a central role in malignant TS; obsessive compulsive qualities were associated with life-threatening tics, SIB, and suicidal ideation. Malignant TS is more refractory to medical treatment than nonmalignant TS. PMID:17566119

  8. Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    HU, WEI; SHI, LEI; ZHOU, PANG-HU; ZHANG, XIAO-BIN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC). The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were measured in 45 healthy control individuals and 90 untreated patients with PC, who consisted of 20 normotensive patients, 30 borderline hypertensive patients and 40 hypertensive patients. After 4 weeks of effective antihypertensive therapy for hypertensive PC patients, the concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were measured again, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was then performed for all PC patients with values that were measured 2 weeks later. The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive and hypertensive patients compared with the concentrations in control individuals and normotensive patients. In addition, there were significant differences between the levels of ADM, ANP and BNP in the borderline and hypertensive groups. The plasma ADM concentration was not associated with the blood urea nitrogen levels, serum creatinine levels or glomerular filtration rate, but was correlated with the serum epinephrine, serum norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid levels. In addition, the ADM concentration was associated with the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP in the hypertensive patients with PC. After 4 weeks of antihypertensive treatment, the values of the three peptides in the hypertensive patients with PC were not significantly changed. As expected, the values in borderline and hypertensive groups were significantly decreased 2 weeks subsequent to surgery, whereas there were no significant changes in the normotensive group. ADM may participate, along with ANP and BNP, in the mechanisms that counteract further elevation

  9. Morphology, Biochemistry, and Pathophysiology of MENX-Related Pheochromocytoma Recapitulate the Clinical Features.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Peitzsch, Mirko; Qin, Nan; Neff, Frauke; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2016-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are tumors arising from neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. There are currently few animal models of PCC that recapitulate the key features of human tumors. Because such models may be useful for investigations of molecular pathomechanisms and development of novel therapeutic interventions, we characterized a spontaneous animal model (multiple endocrine neoplasia [MENX] rats) that develops endogenous PCCs with complete penetrance. Urine was longitudinally collected from wild-type (wt) and MENX-affected (mutant) rats and outputs of catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites determined by mass spectrometry. Adrenal catecholamine contents, cellular ultrastructure, and expression of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine, were also determined in wt and mutant rats. Blood pressure was longitudinally measured and end-organ pathology assessed. Compared with wt rats, mutant animals showed age-dependent increases in urinary outputs of norepinephrine (P = .0079) and normetanephrine (P = .0014) that correlated in time with development of tumor nodules, increases in blood pressure, and development of hypertension-related end-organ pathology. Development of tumor nodules, which lacked expression of N-methyltransferase, occurred on a background of adrenal medullary morphological and biochemical changes occurring as early as 1 month of age and involving increased adrenal medullary concentrations of dense cored vesicles, tissue contents of both norepinephrine and epinephrine, and urinary outputs of metanephrine, the metabolite of epinephrine. Taken together, MENX-affected rats share several biochemical and pathophysiological features with PCC patients. This model thus provides a suitable platform to study the pathogenesis of PCC for preclinical translational studies aimed at the development of novel therapies for aggressive forms of human tumors. PMID:27254000

  10. Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    PAN, DONGFENG; LIANG, PEIFENG; XIAO, HONGYAN

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder associated with neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene mutation, which generates an increased risk of variety of tumor types. The current study reports a case involving NF1, pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). A 56-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and polypnea. Clinical investigation revealed multiple diffuse soft-tissue lesions throughout his body, and pigmented macules on the skin. Imaging analyses revealed thoracic scoliosis, multiple subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and trunk, and a 7.0×7.7×8.9-cm oval-shaped, cystic mass in the left upper abdominal cavity. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that S-100 protein and synaptophysin were highly expressed in adrenal gland neoplasm, whilst CD117 and CD34 were highly expressed in small intestine tumors. The overall clinical and pathological finding suggested a diagnosis of NF1, giant PHEO and small intestinal stromal tumor. In addition, a literature review was conducted to identify the specific clinical features of patients with this condition. Only 11 similar cases have been reported worldwide. In the present study, paroxysmal hypertension occurred in the majority of patients, and GISTs tended to be located in the small intestine. In addition, the present study demonstrated that many of the patients had a poor prognosis. Therefore, the present study indicates that NF1-PHEO-GIST is a special type tumor with varied clinical symptoms, which may be associated with an increased risk for poor prognosis; however, more studies are required to confirm this. PMID:27347193

  11. Catecholamine Metabolism in Paraganglioma and Pheochromocytoma: Similar Tumors in Different Sites?

    PubMed Central

    Grouzmann, Eric; Tschopp, Oliver; Triponez, Frédéric; Matter, Maurice; Bilz, Stefan; Brändle, Michael; Drechser, Tilman; Sigrist, Sarah; Zulewski, Henryk; Henzen, Christoph; Fischli, Stefan; Abid, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that arise respectively inside or outside the adrenal medulla. Several reports have shown that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) play an important regulatory role on the genes encoding the main enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) synthesis i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). To assess the influence of tumor location on CAT metabolism, 66 tissue samples (53 PHEO, 13 PGL) and 73 plasma samples (50 PHEO, 23 PGL) were studied. Western blot and qPCR were performed for TH, DBH and PNMT expression. We found a significantly lower intra-tumoral concentration of CAT and metanephrines (MNs) in PGL along with a downregulation of TH and PNMT at both mRNA and protein level compared with PHEO. However, when PHEO were partitioned into noradrenergic (NorAd) and mixed tumors based on an intra-tumoral CAT ratio (NE/E >90%), PGL and NorAd PHEO sustained similar TH, DBH and PNMT gene and protein expression. CAT concentration and composition were also similar between NorAd PHEO and PGL, excluding the use of CAT or MNs to discriminate between PGL and PHEO on the basis of biochemical tests. We observed an increase of TH mRNA concentration without correlation with TH protein expression in primary cell culture of PHEO and PGL incubated with dexamethasone during 24 hours; no changes were monitored for PNMT and DBH at both mRNA and protein level in PHEO and PGL. Altogether, these results indicate that long term CAT synthesis is not driven by the close environment where the tumor develops and suggest that GC alone is not sufficient to regulate CAT synthesis pathway in PHEO/PGL. PMID:25946206

  12. Differential expression of the regulated catecholamine secretory pathway in different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Huynh, Thanh-Truc; Elkahloun, Abdel; Morris, John C.; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Linehan, W. Marston; Zhuang, Zhengping; Balgley, Brian M.; Lee, Cheng S.; Mannelli, Massimo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) differ in the types and amounts of catecholamines produced and the resulting signs and symptoms. We hypothesized the presence of different processes of catecholamine release reflecting differential expression of components of the regulated secretory pathway among the two types of hereditary tumors. Differences in catecholamine secretion from tumors in patients with VHL syndrome (n = 47) and MEN 2 (n = 32) were examined using measurements of catecholamines in tumor tissue, urine, and plasma, the last of which was under baseline conditions in all subjects and in a subgroup of patients who received intravenous glucagon to provoke catecholamine release. Microarray and proteomics analyses, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting were used to assess expression of tumor tissue secretory pathway components. The rate constant for baseline catecholamine secretion was 20-fold higher in VHL than in MEN 2 tumors (0.359 ± 0.094 vs. 0.018 ± 0.009 day−1), but catecholamine release was responsive only to glucagon in MEN 2 tumors. Compared with tumors from MEN 2 patients, those from VHL patients were characterized by reduced expression of numerous components of the regulated secretory pathway (e.g., SNAP25, syntaxin, rabphilin 3A, annexin A7, calcium-dependent secretion activator). The mutation-dependent differences in expression of secretory pathway components indicate a more mature regulated secretory pathway in MEN 2 than VHL tumors. These data provide a unique mechanistic link to explain how variations in the molecular machinery governing exocytosis may contribute to clinical differences in the secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones and the subsequent presentation of a disease. PMID:18854424

  13. Differential expression of the regulated catecholamine secretory pathway in different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Huynh, Thanh-Truc; Elkahloun, Abdel; Morris, John C; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Linehan, W Marston; Zhuang, Zhengping; Balgley, Brian M; Lee, Cheng S; Mannelli, Massimo; Lenders, Jacques W M; Bornstein, Stefan R; Pacak, Karel

    2008-11-01

    Pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) differ in the types and amounts of catecholamines produced and the resulting signs and symptoms. We hypothesized the presence of different processes of catecholamine release reflecting differential expression of components of the regulated secretory pathway among the two types of hereditary tumors. Differences in catecholamine secretion from tumors in patients with VHL syndrome (n = 47) and MEN 2 (n = 32) were examined using measurements of catecholamines in tumor tissue, urine, and plasma, the last of which was under baseline conditions in all subjects and in a subgroup of patients who received intravenous glucagon to provoke catecholamine release. Microarray and proteomics analyses, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting were used to assess expression of tumor tissue secretory pathway components. The rate constant for baseline catecholamine secretion was 20-fold higher in VHL than in MEN 2 tumors (0.359 +/- 0.094 vs. 0.018 +/- 0.009 day(-1)), but catecholamine release was responsive only to glucagon in MEN 2 tumors. Compared with tumors from MEN 2 patients, those from VHL patients were characterized by reduced expression of numerous components of the regulated secretory pathway (e.g., SNAP25, syntaxin, rabphilin 3A, annexin A7, calcium-dependent secretion activator). The mutation-dependent differences in expression of secretory pathway components indicate a more mature regulated secretory pathway in MEN 2 than VHL tumors. These data provide a unique mechanistic link to explain how variations in the molecular machinery governing exocytosis may contribute to clinical differences in the secretion of neurotransmitters or hormones and the subsequent presentation of a disease. PMID:18854424

  14. Catecholamine metabolism in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: similar tumors in different sites?

    PubMed

    Grouzmann, Eric; Tschopp, Oliver; Triponez, Frédéric; Matter, Maurice; Bilz, Stefan; Brändle, Michael; Drechser, Tilman; Sigrist, Sarah; Zulewski, Henryk; Henzen, Christoph; Fischli, Stefan; Abid, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors that arise respectively inside or outside the adrenal medulla. Several reports have shown that adrenal glucocorticoids (GC) play an important regulatory role on the genes encoding the main enzymes involved in catecholamine (CAT) synthesis i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). To assess the influence of tumor location on CAT metabolism, 66 tissue samples (53 PHEO, 13 PGL) and 73 plasma samples (50 PHEO, 23 PGL) were studied. Western blot and qPCR were performed for TH, DBH and PNMT expression. We found a significantly lower intra-tumoral concentration of CAT and metanephrines (MNs) in PGL along with a downregulation of TH and PNMT at both mRNA and protein level compared with PHEO. However, when PHEO were partitioned into noradrenergic (NorAd) and mixed tumors based on an intra-tumoral CAT ratio (NE/E >90%), PGL and NorAd PHEO sustained similar TH, DBH and PNMT gene and protein expression. CAT concentration and composition were also similar between NorAd PHEO and PGL, excluding the use of CAT or MNs to discriminate between PGL and PHEO on the basis of biochemical tests. We observed an increase of TH mRNA concentration without correlation with TH protein expression in primary cell culture of PHEO and PGL incubated with dexamethasone during 24 hours; no changes were monitored for PNMT and DBH at both mRNA and protein level in PHEO and PGL. Altogether, these results indicate that long term CAT synthesis is not driven by the close environment where the tumor develops and suggest that GC alone is not sufficient to regulate CAT synthesis pathway in PHEO/PGL. PMID:25946206

  15. Malignancies after mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seuffert, Linda; Mäder, Uwe; Toyka, Klaus V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the therapy-related risk of malignancies in mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included all mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis seen at our department between 1994 and 2007. We collected follow-up information on medically confirmed malignancies, life status, and cause of death, as of 2010. Malignancy rates were compared to the German national cancer registry matched for sex, age, and year of occurrence. Results: Follow-up was completed in 676 of 677 identified patients. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (interquartile range 6.8–11.2), corresponding to 6,220 person-years. Median cumulative mitoxantrone dose was 79.0 mg/m2 (interquartile range 50.8–102.4). Thirty-seven patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with a malignancy after mitoxantrone initiation, revealing a standardized incidence ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.08). Entities included breast cancer (n = 9), colorectal cancer (n = 7), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4, 0.6%), and others (each entity n = 1 or 2). The standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer was 2.98 (95% CI 1.20–6.14) and of acute myeloid leukemia 10.44 (95% CI 3.39–24.36). It was not increased for other entities including breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression identified higher age at treatment initiation but neither cumulative mitoxantrone dose (>75 vs ≤75 mg/m2) nor treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs or sex as a risk factor. Fifty-five patients had died, among them 12 of a malignancy and 43 reportedly of other causes. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of malignancies was only mildly increased, the risk of leukemia and colorectal cancer was heightened. If confirmed, posttherapy colonoscopy could become advisable. PMID:27170571

  16. The Role of De Novo Catecholamine Synthesis in Mediating Methylmercury-Induced Vesicular Dopamine Release From Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize methylmercury (MeHg)–induced dopamine (DA) release from undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and to examine the potential role for DA synthesis in this process. MeHg caused a significant increase in DA release that was both concentration- and time-dependent. DA release was significantly increased by 2µM MeHg at 60min and by 5µM MeHg at 30min; 1µM MeHg was without effect. Because DA release induced by 5µM MeHg was associated with a significant percentage of cell death at 60 and 120min, 2µM MeHg was chosen for further characterization of release mechanisms. MeHg-induced DA release was attenuated but not abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium, whereas the vesicular content depleting drug reserpine (50nM) abolished release. Thus, MeHg-induced DA release requires vesicular exocytosis but not extracellular calcium. MeHg also increased intracellular DA and the rate of DA storage utilization, suggesting a role for DA synthesis in MeHg-induced DA release. The tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-methyltyrosine (300µM, 24h) completely abolished MeHg-induced DA release. MeHg significantly increased DA precursor accumulation in cells treated with 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (10µM), revealing that MeHg increases tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Overall, these data demonstrate that MeHg facilitates DA synthesis, increases intracellular DA, and augments vesicular exocytosis. PMID:23425605

  17. SDHB/SDHA immunohistochemistry in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a multicenter interobserver variation analysis using virtual microscopy: a Multinational Study of the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENS@T).

    PubMed

    Papathomas, Thomas G; Oudijk, Lindsey; Persu, Alexandre; Gill, Anthony J; van Nederveen, Francien; Tischler, Arthur S; Tissier, Frédérique; Volante, Marco; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Smid, Marcel; Favier, Judith; Rapizzi, Elena; Libe, Rosella; Currás-Freixes, Maria; Aydin, Selda; Huynh, Thanh; Lichtenauer, Urs; van Berkel, Anouk; Canu, Letizia; Domingues, Rita; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Bialas, Magdalena; Vikkula, Miikka; Baretton, Gustavo; Papotti, Mauro; Nesi, Gabriella; Badoual, Cécile; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Timmers, Henri J; Beuschlein, Felix; Bertherat, Jérôme; Mannelli, Massimo; Robledo, Mercedes; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Dinjens, Winand Nm; Korpershoek, Esther; de Krijger, Ronald R

    2015-06-01

    Despite the established role of SDHB/SDHA immunohistochemistry as a valuable tool to identify patients at risk for familial succinate dehydrogenase-related pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes, the reproducibility of the assessment methods has not as yet been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate interobserver variability among seven expert endocrine pathologists using a web-based virtual microscopy approach in a large multicenter pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cohort (n=351): (1) 73 SDH mutated, (2) 105 non-SDH mutated, (3) 128 samples without identified SDH-x mutations, and (4) 45 with incomplete SDH molecular genetic analysis. Substantial agreement among all the reviewers was observed either with a two-tiered classification (SDHB κ=0.7338; SDHA κ=0.6707) or a three-tiered classification approach (SDHB κ=0.6543; SDHA κ=0.7516). Consensus was achieved in 315 cases (89.74%) for SDHB immunohistochemistry and in 348 cases (99.15%) for SDHA immunohistochemistry. Among the concordant cases, 62 of 69 (~90%) SDHB-/C-/D-/AF2-mutated cases displayed SDHB immunonegativity and SDHA immunopositivity, 3 of 4 (75%) with SDHA mutations showed loss of SDHA/SDHB protein expression, whereas 98 of 105 (93%) non-SDH-x-mutated counterparts demonstrated retention of SDHA/SDHB protein expression. Two SDHD-mutated extra-adrenal paragangliomas were scored as SDHB immunopositive, whereas 9 of 128 (7%) tumors without identified SDH-x mutations, 6 of 37 (~16%) VHL-mutated, as well as 1 of 21 (~5%) NF1-mutated tumors were evaluated as SDHB immunonegative. Although 14 out of those 16 SDHB-immunonegative cases were nonmetastatic, an overall significant correlation between SDHB immunonegativity and malignancy was observed (P=0.00019). We conclude that SDHB/SDHA immunohistochemistry is a reliable tool to identify patients with SDH-x mutations with an additional value in the assessment of genetic variants of unknown significance. If SDH molecular genetic analysis fails to

  18. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe Dos Santos; Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa de; Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  19. Secondary Malignancy Risk Following Proton Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Bree R.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced secondary malignancies are a significant, yet uncommon cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. Secondary malignancy risk is dependent upon multiple factors including patient age, the biological and genetic predisposition of the individual, the volume and location of tissue irradiated, and the dose of radiation received. Proton therapy (PRT) is an advanced particle therapy with unique dosimetric properties resulting in reduced entrance dose and minimal to no exit dose when compared with standard photon radiation therapy. Multiple dosimetric studies in varying cancer subtypes have demonstrated that PRT enables the delivery of adequate target volume coverage with reduced integral dose delivered to surrounding tissues, and modeling studies taking into account dosimetry and radiation cell biology have estimated a significantly reduced risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy with PRT. Clinical data are emerging supporting the lower incidence of secondary malignancies after PRT compared with historical photon data, though longer follow-up in proton treated cohorts is awaited. This article reviews the current dosimetric and clinical literature evaluating the incidence of and risk factors associated with radiation-induced secondary malignancy following PRT. PMID:26636040

  20. Simulants of Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN) of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential) and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential). In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas), and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present. PMID:26779311

  1. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  2. Rare Malignancies in Eastern India, Socio-Economic Impact.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Surendranath; Samanta, Diptirani; Mishra, Saumyaranjan; Bose, Chaitali

    2016-06-28

    The etiology of cancer is multifactorial. Various factors, including physical carcinogens, chemicals and viral carcinogens affect patients with known predisposing factors who subsequently develop malignancies. Here is a retrospective study of 18 patients who developed rare malignancies in clinical situations like xeroderma pigmentosum, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, hereditary multiple exostosis, second malignancies due to radiotherapy and chronic irritation. The predisposing factors like chronic infection in leprosy, filariasis, poverty and ignorance leading to the chronicity of the lesion, lack of available health care facilities and socio-cultural background, i.e. consanguinity marriage in some community are responsible for the development of these rare malignancies. They were treated at A.H Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, which is located at Eastern part of India for various malignancies, between January 1989 and January 2008. Malignancies that developed in patients with the above predisposing factors are being reported here due to their rarity and to highlight the impact of socio cultural background in developing these malignancies. Patients with above clinical situations should be kept under close observation for early detection of malignancy so their chances of survival can be improved. In addition, those oncogenic stimuli that initiated or propagated the malignancies, due to socio-economic factors, should be addressed promptly to prevent their eventual development. PMID:27441070

  3. A novel mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene in siblings with the hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Gerard J; Yip, Linwah; Coyne, Christopher; Rangaswamy, Balasubramanya; Dixit, Sanjay B

    2014-01-01

    Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene are now known to be associated with hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndromes. Since the initial succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene mutation was identified about a decade ago, more than 131 unique variants have been reported. We report the case of two siblings presenting with multiple paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas; they were both found to carry a mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene involving a substitution of thymine to guanine at nucleotide 236 in exon 3. This particular mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene has only been reported in one previous patient in Japan; this is, therefore, the first report of this pathogenic mutation in siblings and the first report of this mutation in North America. With continued screening of more individuals, we will be able to create a robust mutation database that can help us understand disease patterns associated with particular variants and may be a starting point in the development of new therapies for familial paraganglioma syndromes. PMID:27489656

  4. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Anal Canal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Anal Canal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Appendix Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cholangiocarcinoma; Chordoma; Colorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fibromyxoid Tumor; Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Giant Cell Carcinoma; Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Sarcomatoid Carcinoma; Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Malignant Odontogenic Neoplasm; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Malignant Skin Neoplasm; Malignant Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm of Unknown Primary Origin; Mixed Mesodermal (Mullerian) Tumor; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Paraganglioma; Paranasal Sinus Adenocarcinoma; Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma; Parathyroid Gland Carcinoma; Pituitary Gland Carcinoma; Placental Choriocarcinoma; Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Scrotal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Seminal Vesicle Adenocarcinoma; Seminoma; Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestinal Squamous

  5. Immunotherapy advances in uro-genital malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Raffaele; Zappasodi, Roberta; Raggi, Daniele; Grassi, Paolo; Verzoni, Elena; Necchi, Andrea; Di Nicola, Massimo; Salvioni, Roberto; de Braud, Filippo; Procopio, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has made significant progresses over the last 20 years. Multiple efforts have been attempted to restore immune-mediated tumor elimination, leading to the development of several targeted immunotherapies. Data from recent clinical trials suggest that these agents might improve the prognosis of patients with advanced genito-urinary (GU) malignancies. Nivolumab has been the first immune checkpoint-inhibitor approved for pre-treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have shown promising results in both phase I and II trials in urothelial carcinoma. Brentuximab vedotin has demonstrated early signals of clinical activity and immunomodulatory effects in highly pre-treated patients with testicular germ cell tumors. In this review, we have summarized the major clinical achievements of immunotherapy in GU cancers, focusing on immune checkpoint blockade as well as the new immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) under clinical evaluation for these malignancies. PMID:27372200

  6. Craniotomy for cerebellar hemangioblastoma excision in a patient with von Hippel–Lindau disease complicated by uncontrolled hypertension due to pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Tadashi, Yamaguchi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This report describes a patient with Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) syndrome and uncontrolled hypertension due to pheochromocytoma who underwent craniotomy for the excision of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma combined with a laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case report A 31-year-old man presented with severe headache. MRI showed areas of abnormal enhancement in the left cerebellum that were determined to be hemangioblastoma with mass effect and obstructive hydrocephalus. His blood pressure rose abruptly and could not be controlled. CT of the abdomen revealed bilateral suprarenal tumors, and the patient was diagnosed as having VHL syndrome.On the third day, he presented with increasing headache, a decreased level of consciousness, and hemiparesis. We were not able to perform an craniotomy because abdominal compression in the prone or sitting position resulted in severe hypertension. We performed ventricular drainage to control his ICP. On the fifth day, we first performed a bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy to control ICP and then moved the patient to the prone position before performing a craniotomy to remove the left cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Discu ssion & conclusion In patients with pheochromocytoma, the effects of catecholamine oversecretion can cause significant perioperative morbidity and mortality, but these can be prevented by appropriate preoperative medical management. When carrying out an excision of cerebellar hemangioblastomas in patients with intracranial hypertension complicated by abnormal hypertension due to pheochromocytoma whose blood pressure is not sufficiently controlled, tumor resection of the pheochromocytoma prior to cerebellar hemangioblastoma excision in the same surgery may prevent increased ICP and reduce perioperative risk. PMID:26595895

  7. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  8. Potential therapeutic target for malignant paragangliomas: ATP synthase on the surface of paraganglioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fliedner, Stephanie MJ; Yang, Chunzhang; Thompson, Eli; Abu-Asab, Mones; Hsu, Chang-Mei; Lampert, Gary; Eiden, Lee; Tischler, Arthur S; Wesley, Robert; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2015-01-01

    F1FoATP synthase (ATP synthase) is a ubiquitous enzyme complex in eukaryotes. In general it is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane and serves as the last step in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, utilizing a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane built by the complexes of the electron transfer chain. However some cell types, including tumors, carry ATP synthase on the cell surface. It was suggested that cell surface ATP synthase helps tumor cells thriving on glycolysis to survive their high acid generation. Angiostatin, aurovertin, resveratrol, and antibodies against the α and β subunits of ATP synthase were shown to bind and selectively inhibit cell surface ATP synthase, promoting tumor cell death. Here we show that ATP synthase β (ATP5B) is present on the cell surface of mouse pheochromocytoma cells as well as tumor cells of human SDHB-derived paragangliomas (PGLs), while being virtually absent on chromaffin primary cells from bovine adrenal medulla by confocal microscopy. The cell surface location of ATP5B was verified in the tissue of an SDHB-derived PGL by immunoelectron microscopy. Treatment of mouse pheochromocytoma cells with resveratrol as well as ATP5B antibody led to statistically significant proliferation inhibition. Our data suggest that PGLs carry ATP synthase on their surface that promotes cell survival or proliferation. Thus, cell surface ATP synthase may present a novel therapeutic target in treating metastatic or inoperable PGLs. PMID:26101719

  9. Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal viral disease of ruminant species, particularly cattle, bison, and deer. Clinical signs vary between species. Two major epidemiologic types of MCF exist, and are defined by the ruminant species that serve as natural reservoir hosts for infection...

  10. [Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Scripcariu, V; Dajbog, Elena; Lefter, L; Ferariu, D; Pricop, Adriana; Grigoraş, M; Dragomir, Cr

    2006-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a neoplasm originating from the mesothelial surface lining cells of the serous human cavities. It may involve the pleura, less frequently the peritoneum rarely, the pericardium, the tunica vaginalis testis and ovarian epithelium. Asbestos has been widely used in industry. A causal relationship between asbestos exposure and pleural, peritoneal and pericardial malign mesothelioma was suggested, the risk of cancer being correlated to cumulate exposure. Studies from National Cancer Institute, USA, show that the malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos related malignancy. The symptomatology is insidious and poses difficult problems in diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents the case of a 59 year old patient with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma who worked almost 40 years as an electrician, exposed to asbestos fibers. He was hospitalized for important weight loss, abdominal pain and tiredness being diagnosed after imaging tests with a giant tumor, localized at the abdominal upper level, which seems to originate from the spleen's superior pole. During surgery we discovered a tumor with cystic parts, intense vascularized, which turn to be adherent in the upper side to the lower face of the left midriff cupola, to the spleen superior pole and 1/3 middle level of the great gastric curve. It was performed surgical ablation of the tumor, splenectomy with favorable postoperative evolution, the patient being now under chemotherapy treatment. PMID:17283842

  11. Immunotherapy for malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Suryadevara, Carter M.; Verla, Terence; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Reap, Elizabeth A.; Choi, Bryan D.; Fecci, Peter E.; Sampson, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas (MG) are the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Most patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and malignant glial tumor, die within 12–15 months. Moreover, conventional treatment, which includes surgery followed by radiation and chemotherapy, can be highly toxic by causing nonspecific damage to healthy brain and other tissues. The shortcomings of standard-of-care have thus created a stimulus for the development of novel therapies that can target central nervous system (CNS)-based tumors specifically and efficiently, while minimizing off-target collateral damage to normal brain. Immunotherapy represents an investigational avenue with the promise of meeting this need, already having demonstrated its potential against B-cell malignancy and solid tumors in clinical trials. T-cell engineering with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is one proven approach that aims to redirect autologous patient T-cells to sites of tumor. This platform has evolved dramatically over the past two decades to include an improved construct design, and these modern CARs have only recently been translated into the clinic for brain tumors. We review here emerging immunotherapeutic platforms for the treatment of MG, focusing on the development and application of a CAR-based strategy against GBM. PMID:25722935

  12. Potentiation of neuritogenic activity of medicinal mushrooms in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Senescence of the neurons is believed to be a focal factor in the development of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Diminutions in the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to major declines in brain cell performance. Functional foods, believed to mitigate this deficiency, will be reaching a plateau in the near future market of alternative and preventive medicine. In the search for neuroactive compounds that mimic the NGF activity for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, the potential medicinal values of culinary and medicinal mushrooms attract intense interest. Methods Cytotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of three medicinal mushrooms basidiocarps, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma neo-japonicum and Grifola frondosa towards rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The potentiation of neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay. Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) in mushrooms-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Alteration of neuronal morphology by inhibitors was visualized by immunofluorescence staining of the neurofilament. Results All the aqueous extracts tested caused a marked stimulation of neuritogenesis with no detectable cytotoxic effects towards PC-12 cells. The aqueous extract of G. neo-japonicum triggered maximal stimulation of neurite outgrowth at a lower concentration (50 μg/ml) with 14.22 ± 0.43% of neurite-bearing cells, compared to G. lucidum and G. frondosa that act at a higher concentration (75 μg/ml), with 12.61 ± 0.11% and 12.07 ± 0.46% of neurite-bearing cells, respectively. The activation of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were necessary for the

  13. Cytocidal activities of topoisomerase 1 inhibitors and 5-azacytidine against pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cells in primary human tumor cultures and mouse cell lines.

    PubMed

    Powers, James F; Korgaonkar, Parimal G; Fliedner, Stephanie; Giubellino, Alessio; Pacak, Karel; Sahagian, G Gary; Tischler, Arthur S

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no effective treatment for metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. A deficiency in current chemotherapy regimens is that the metastases usually grow very slowly. Drugs that target dividing tumor cells have therefore had limited success. To improve treatment, new strategies and valid experimental models are required for pre-clinical testing. However, development of models has itself been hampered by the absence of human pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cell lines for cultures or xenografts. Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitors are drugs that interfere with mechanisms that maintain DNA integrity during transcription in both quiescent and dividing cells. We used primary cultures of representative human tumors to establish the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a prototypical TOP1 inhibitor, against non-dividing pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cells, and then employed a mouse pheochromocytoma model (MPC) to show that efficacy of low concentrations of camptothecin and other TOP1 inhibitors is increased by intermittent coadministration of sub-toxic concentrations of 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor that modulates transcription. We then tested the same drugs against a clonal MPC derivative that expresses CMV reporter-driven luciferase and GFP, intended for in vivo drug testing. Unexpectedly, luciferase expression, bioluminescence and GFP expression were paradoxically increased by both camptothecin and SN38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, thereby masking cell death. Expression of chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine secretory granules, was not increased, indicating that the drug effects on levels of luciferase and GFP are specific to the GFP-luciferase construct rather than generalized cellular responses. Our findings provide proof of principle for use of TOP1 inhibitors against pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suggest novel strategies for enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity by optimizing the combination and timing of their

  14. Cytocidal Activities of Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitors and 5-Azacytidine against Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Cells in Primary Human Tumor Cultures and Mouse Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Powers, James F.; Korgaonkar, Parimal G.; Fliedner, Stephanie; Giubellino, Alessio; Sahagian, Karel Pacak, G. Gary.; Tischler, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no effective treatment for metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. A deficiency in current chemotherapy regimens is that the metastases usually grow very slowly. Drugs that target dividing tumor cells have therefore had limited success. To improve treatment, new strategies and valid experimental models are required for pre-clinical testing. However, development of models has itself been hampered by the absence of human pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cell lines for cultures or xenografts. Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitors are drugs that interfere with mechanisms that maintain DNA integrity during transcription in both quiescent and dividing cells. We used primary cultures of representative human tumors to establish the cytotoxicity of camptothecin, a prototypical TOP1 inhibitor, against non-dividing pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma cells, and then employed a mouse pheochromocytoma model (MPC) to show that efficacy of low concentrations of camptothecin and other TOP1 inhibitors is increased by intermittent coadministration of sub-toxic concentrations of 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor that modulates transcription. We then tested the same drugs against a clonal MPC derivative that expresses CMV reporter-driven luciferase and GFP, intended for in vivo drug testing. Unexpectedly, luciferase expression, bioluminescence and GFP expression were paradoxically increased by both camptothecin and SN38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, thereby masking cell death. Expression of chromogranin A, a marker for neuroendocrine secretory granules, was not increased, indicating that the drug effects on levels of luciferase and GFP are specific to the GFP-luciferase construct rather than generalized cellular responses. Our findings provide proof of principle for use of TOP1 inhibitors against pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suggest novel strategies for enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity by optimizing the combination and timing of their

  15. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  16. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  17. A Case of Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Initially Misdiagnosed as Malignant B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Byoung Jo

    2016-01-01

    Errors that occur in anatomic pathology influence the treatment strategy of patients with malignancy. There are four general types of error with three subtypes in the category of defective interpretation. The first subtype is a false-negative diagnosis or undercall of the extent or severity of the lesion, the second is a false-positive diagnosis, and the third is misclassification. We herein report a 65-year-old female patient with malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor that was diagnosed after reevaluation of the lesion at our hospital – and treated with proximal gastrectomy – after initial diagnosis as malignant B-cell lymphoma on esophagogastroduodenoscopy biopsy of a small gastric fundic mass and subsequent treatment with six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy with aggravation of the mass at another hospital. PMID:27462236

  18. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  19. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-06-15

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  20. Microbiome and Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Plottel, Claudia S.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge is insufficient to explain why only a proportion of individuals exposed to environmental carcinogens or carrying a genetic predisposition to cancer develop disease. Clearly, other factors must be important and one such element that has recently received attention is the human microbiome, the residential microbes including Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes, and viruses that colonize humans. Here, we review principles and paradigms of microbiome-related malignancy, as illustrated by three specific microbial-host interactions. We review the effects of the microbiota on local and adjacent-neoplasia, present the estrobolome model of distant effects, and discuss the complex interactions with a latent virus leading to malignancy. These are separate facets of a complex biology interfacing all the microbial species we harbor from birth onward toward early reproductive success and eventual senescence. PMID:22018233

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.G.; Norman, J.; Cruse, C.W.; Reintgen, D.S.; Clark, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable.

  2. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  3. Endometriosis-associated Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, N.; Banys-Paluchowski, M.; Schmidt, D.; Ulrich, U.; Fehm, T.

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age. According to several epidemiological studies endometriosis may be associated with increased risk of various malignancies. However, endometriosis-associated malignancy (EAM) is defined by certain histological criteria. About 80 % of EAM have been found in the ovary, whereas 20 % are localized in extragonadal sites like intestine, rectovaginal septum, abdominal wall, pleura and others. Some authors suggest that EAM arise from atypical endometriosis as an intermediate lesion between endometriosis and cancer. Moreover, a number of genetic alterations, like loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, ARID1 A and p53 mutations have been found in both endometriosis and EAM. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) is mostly a well or intermediately differentiated tumor of endometrioid or clear cell histological sub-type. Women affected by EAOC are on average five to ten years younger than non-EAOC patients; in most of the cases EAOC is a low stage disease with favorable clinical outcome. Since EAM is a rare condition systematic data on EAM are still missing. A systematic retrospective study on endometriosis-associated malignancies (EAM study) is currently being conducted by the Endometriosis Research Foundation together with the study groups on ovarian and uterine tumors of the working group for gynecological oncology (AGO) (gyn@mlk-berlin.de). PMID:26941451

  4. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  5. Epigenetics in the hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Chun Yew; Morison, Jessica; Dawson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of genomic and epigenomic data has identified abnormal regulation of epigenetic processes as a prominent theme in hematologic malignancies. Recurrent somatic alterations in myeloid malignancies of key proteins involved in DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and chromatin remodeling have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the initiation and maintenance of various malignancies. The rational use of targeted epigenetic therapies requires a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of malignant transformation driven by aberrant epigenetic regulators. In this review we provide an overview of the major protagonists in epigenetic regulation, their aberrant role in myeloid malignancies, prognostic significance and potential for therapeutic targeting. PMID:25472952

  6. Oxygen sensing in neuroendocrine cells and other cell types: pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Zachary; Millhorn, David E

    2003-01-01

    A steady supply of oxygen is an absolute requirement for mammalian cells to maintain normal cellular functions. To answer the challenge that oxygen deprivation represents, mammals have evolved specialized cell types that can sense changes in oxygen tension and alter gene expression to enhance oxygen delivery to hypoxic areas. These oxygensensing cells are rare and difficult to study in vivo. As a result, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have become a vital in vitro model system for deciphering the molecular events that confer the hypoxia-resistant and oxygen-sensing phenotypes. Research over the last few years has revealed that the hypoxia response in PC12 cells involves the interactions of several signal transduction pathways (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases, Akt, SAPKs, and MAPKs) and transcription factors (HIFs, CREB, and c-fos/junB). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role these signal transduction pathways and transcription factors play in determining the hypoxic response. PMID:14739486

  7. Cdc42 and Rac1 activity is reduced in human pheochromocytoma and correlates with FARP1 and ARHGEF1 expression.

    PubMed

    Croisé, Pauline; Houy, Sébastien; Gand, Mathieu; Lanoix, Joël; Calco, Valérie; Tóth, Petra; Brunaud, Laurent; Lomazzi, Sandra; Paramithiotis, Eustache; Chelsky, Daniel; Ory, Stéphane; Gasman, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Among small GTPases from the Rho family, Cdc42, RAC, and Rho are well known to mediate a large variety of cellular processes linked with cancer biology through their ability to cycle between an inactive (GDP-bound) and an active (GTP-bound) state. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate the exchange of GDP for GTP to generate the activated form, whereas the GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze GTP hydrolysis, leading to the inactivated form. Modulation of Rho GTPase activity following altered expression of RHO-GEFs and/or RHO-GAPs has already been reported in various human tumors. However, nothing is known about the Rho GTPase activity or the expression of their regulators in human pheochromocytomas, a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. In this study, we demonstrate, through an ELISA-based activity assay, that Rac1 and Cdc42 activities decrease in human pheochromocytomas (PCCs) compared with the matched adjacent non-tumor tissue. Furthermore, through quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) approaches, we show that the expression of two RHO-GEF proteins, namely ARHGEF1 and FARP1, is significantly reduced in tumors compared with matched non-tumor tissue, whereas ARHGAP36 expression is increased. Moreover, siRNA-based knockdown of ARHGEF1 and FARP1 in PC12 cells leads to a significant inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42 activities, respectively. Finally, a principal component analysis (PCA) of our dataset was able to discriminate PCC from non-tumor tissue and indicates a close correlation between Cdc42/Rac1 activity and FARP1/ARHGEF1 expression. Altogether, our findings reveal for the first time the importance of modulation of Rho GTPase activities and expression of their regulators in human PCCs. PMID:26911374

  8. Heterogeneous Genetic Background of the Association of Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma and Pituitary Adenoma: Results From a Large Patient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Judit; Swords, Francesca; Rattenberry, Eleanor; Stals, Karen; Owens, Martina; Cranston, Treena; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Moran, Linda; Kumar, Ajith; Wassif, Christopher; Fersht, Naomi; Baldeweg, Stephanie E.; Morris, Damian; Lightman, Stafford; Agha, Amar; Rees, Aled; Grieve, Joan; Powell, Michael; Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Dutta, Pinaki; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Thompson, Chris J.; Druce, Maralyn; Higham, Claire; Davis, Julian; Eeles, Rosalind; Stevenson, Mark; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Phillipe; Skordilis, Kassiani; Gabrovska, Plamena; Barlier, Anne; Webb, Susan M.; Aulinas, Anna; Drake, William M.; Bevan, John S.; Preda, Cristina; Dalantaeva, Nadezhda; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Garcia, Isabel Tena; Yordanova, Galina; Iotova, Violeta; Evanson, Jane; Grossman, Ashley B.; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Ellard, Sian; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Roncaroli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL. Design: Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples. Setting: The study was conducted at university hospitals. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study. Outcome: Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics. Results: Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context. Conclusions: Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma. PMID:25494863

  9. Radiofrequency Ablation of Unresectable Primary and Metastatic Hepatic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Curley, Steven A.; Izzo, Francesco; Delrio, Paolo; Ellis, Lee M.; Granchi, Jennifer; Vallone, Paolo; Fiore, Francesco; Pignata, Sandro; Daniele, Bruno; Cremona, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    Objective To describe the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to treat unresectable malignant hepatic tumors in 123 patients. Background The majority of patients with primary or metastatic malignancies confined to the liver are not candidates for resection because of tumor size, location, or multifocality or inadequate functional hepatic reserve. Local application of heat is tumoricidal; therefore, the authors investigated a novel RFA system to treat patients with unresectable hepatic cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with hepatic malignancies were entered into a prospective, nonrandomized trial. The liver tumors were treated percutaneously or during surgery under ultrasound guidance using a novel LeVeen monopolar array needle electrode and an RF 2000 generator. All patients were followed to assess complications, treatment response, and recurrence of malignant disease. Results RFA was used to treat 169 tumors (median diameter 3.4 cm, range 0.5 to 12 cm) in 123 patients. Primary liver cancer was treated in 48 patients (39.1%), and metastatic liver tumors were treated in 75 patients (60.9%). Percutaneous and intraoperative RFA was performed in 31 patients (35.2%) and 92 patients (74.8%), respectively. There were no treatment-related deaths, and the complication rate after RFA was 2.4%. All treated tumors were completely necrotic on imaging studies after completion of RFA treatments. With a median follow-up of 15 months, tumor has recurred in 3 of 169 treated lesions (1.8%), but metastatic disease has developed at other sites in 34 patients (27.6%). Conclusions RFA is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment to achieve tumor destruction in patients with unresectable hepatic malignancies. Because patients are at risk for the development of new metastatic disease after RFA, multimodality treatment approaches that include RFA should be investigated. PMID:10400029

  10. Systemic malignancies presenting as primary osteolytic lesion.

    PubMed

    Sirelkhatim, A; Kaiserova, E; Kolenova, A; Puskacova, J; Subova, Z; Petrzalkova, D; Banikova, K; Suvada, J; Sejnova, D

    2009-01-01

    The tumor formation may be the earliest manifestation preceeding other symptoms, signs and bone marrow evidence of systemic malignancy - leukemia/lymphoma. Here we present three cases of systemic malignancy in which bone lesions were the first manifested signs of the disease. All three cases were thought to be orthopedic cases and had been treated as so without genuing improvement. We would like to draw an attention to children who present with multifocal musculoskeletal pain and the importance of whole-body scaning. We describe interesting cases of diffuse large cell lymphoma and leukemia that initially presented as primary osteolytic bone lesion and discuss the differential diagnosis, literature review of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in bone as the primary site (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:20017455

  11. Intraoral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Babburi, Suresh; Subramanyam, R. V.; Aparna, V.; Sowjanya, P.

    2013-01-01

    Primary oral mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm and accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas. It is a malignant neoplasm of melanocytes that may arise from a benign melanocytic lesion or de novo from melanocytes within normal skin or mucosa. It is considered to be the most deadly and biologically unpredictable of all human neoplasms, having the worst prognosis. In this article, we report a case of oral melanoma in a 52-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of black discolouration of the maxillary gingiva and palate. PMID:24249959

  12. Pleural malignancies including mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, G

    1995-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is caused almost exclusively by occupational exposure to asbestos. During the past few years, however, increasing evidence has mounted that background exposure to asbestos could be sufficient to cause mesothelioma. Treatment of malignant mesothelioma remains a big problem. Some new approaches are on their way, and the most exciting ones are local immunotherapy in very early cases. Some success has been reported with local interferon treatment. As for treatment of metastatic pleural disease, the main purpose is symptomatic relief of dyspnea caused by fluid accumulation. The best way to achieve a lasting palliation is pleurodesis, and the most common way to do this, is by chemical means. The drug of choice in the United States has for many years been tetracycline, but since injectable tetracycline is no longer available, some substitute must be found. The substance that will "win" is not yet clear, but the two leading contestants are talc and doxycycline. Bleomycin also has its supporters, and a dark horse is quinacrine, which although not easily available in the United States, has been used in many European centers for decades. PMID:9363074

  13. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  14. [A Case of Undiagnosed Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytoma in an Adult Patient with Single Ventricle Circulation after the Bidirectional Glenn Operation].

    PubMed

    Kohno, Masaki; Nagamine, Yusuke; Goto, Takahisa

    2015-09-01

    We experienced a case of undiagnosed extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma in an adult patient with single ventricle circulation after the bidirectional Glenn operation. A 32-year-old woman was scheduled for open abdominal surgery for incidental retroperitoneal tumor. She had undergone the bidirectional Glenn operation for complex congenital heart disease consisting of double outlet right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary artery stenosis. She had not undergone the Fontan operation because of insufficient development of pulmonary circulation. Her physical status was New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II, and her oxygen saturation was 80% in room air. She reported no symptoms for the abdominal tumor preoperatively. The surgery was performed under general and epidural anesthesia. After induction of general anesthesia, she developed hypertension and tachycardia, and the manipulation of the tumor worsened them. Landiolol, a short acting beta blocker, and nicardipine were administrated. After the resection of the tumor, hypotension refractory to volume replacement emerged, and we administrated low dose noradrenaline. She was extubated in'the operating room and was transferred to the intensive care unit. The histopathological examination of the tumor revealed extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma). Catecholamine release from pheochromocytoma can be dangerous in patients with single ventricular circulation because it may elevate pulmonary resistance and thereby decrease cardiac output. Thorough preoperative examination is desirable. PMID:26466501

  15. No significant association between malignancy and topical use of pimecrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David J; Abuabara, Katrina; Hoffstad, Ole; Wan, Joy; Raimondo, Denise; Bilker, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Importance A black box warning describes a potential risk of malignancy associated with the topical use of pimecrolimus to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) due to its similarity to oral calcineurin inhibitors used in solid organ transplantation and spontaneous reporting of malignancies including lymphomas and cutaneous malignancies. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of malignancy in a post marketing study of children exposed to pimecrolimus. Design A longitudinal cohort study. Setting A nation-wide ongoing long-term cohort of children with AD. Participants Children enrolled in the Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry (PEER) who had a history of AD and pimecrolimus use. Main outcome Reports of malignancy in those in PEER as compared to expected rates from the Surveillance Research (SEER) Program. Results 7,457 subjects were enrolled in the PEER study for a total of 26,792 person-years. Children used a mean of 793 (SD 1356) grams of pimecrolimus while enrolled in the study. As of May 2014, 5 malignancies had been reported. These include 2 leukemias, 1 osteosarcoma, and 2 lymphomas. No skin cancers were reported. The Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) for all malignancies (primary outcome) based on the age standardized SEER population was 1.2 (0.5, 2.8). As secondary analyses, the SIR (based on 2 cases for each) for lymphoma was 2.9 (0.7, 11.7) and for leukemia was 2.0 (0.5, 8.2). None of these findings were statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance Based on more than 25,000 person-years of follow-up it seems unlikely that topical pimecrolimus as it was used in the PEER cohort to treat AD is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. PMID:25692459

  16. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  17. Erlotinib and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  18. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  19. Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, I. Vijay; Jain, S. K.; Kurmi, Dhrubajyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Chopra, Sanjeev; Singhvi, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors. PMID:27366273

  20. Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Sundar, I Vijay; Jain, S K; Kurmi, Dhrubajyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Chopra, Sanjeev; Singhvi, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors. PMID:27366273

  1. [Mitigated presentation of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Grandiek, M; Ramlal, A D; Blom, J D

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between catatonia and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). A female patient with an intellectual disability was treated in hospital with the help of risperidon because of conduct disorders. A few months later readmission followed with an NMS, which was initially interpreted as catatonia because of its mitigated nature, and its appearance several days after the cessation of the antipsychotic medication. On the basis of this case description, we discuss the clinical picture of the nms and its overlap with catatonia. PMID:24535768

  2. Anisakidosis: a fortuitous mimicker of gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Qasim; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Her sister was recently diagnosed with duodenal adenocarcinoma, manifesting similar symptoms. Imaging revealed thickened gastric antrum with enlarged local lymph nodes. Endoscopy illustrated 3 worms embedded in the antral wall, identified as Anisakis simplex larvae. Larvae removal and a 2-week albendazole regimen treated the symptoms. With globalisation of cultural culinary practices, physicians must be vigilant of anisakidosis. Its ability to mimic peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis and malignancy necessitates broader differential diagnoses and lower thresholds for endoscopy. PMID:27600057

  3. Multiparametric MR Imaging in Abdominal Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Luna, Antonio; Pahwa, Shivani; Bonini, Claudio; Alcalá-Mata, Lidia; Wright, Katherine L; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    Modern MR imaging protocols can yield both anatomic and functional information for the assessment of hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancies. Diffusion-weighted imaging is fully integrated into state-of-the-art protocols for tumor detection, characterization, and therapy monitoring. Hepatobiliary contrast agents have gained ground in the evaluation of focal liver lesions during the last years. Perfusion MR imaging is expected to have a central role for monitoring therapy in body tumors treated with antivascular drugs. Approaches such as Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and (1)H-MR spectroscopy are still confined to research centers, but with the potential to grow in a short time frame. PMID:26613880

  4. Malignant cystosarcoma phylloides. Treatment and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Browder, W; McQuitty, J T; McDonald, J C

    1978-08-01

    Twenty-six cases of malignant cystosarcoma phylloides treated at The Charity Hospital of Louisiana were reviewed. No metastases to axillary lymph nodes was observed. The lesion appears to metastasize seldom, if ever, to lymphatics, and axillary dissection is seldom required. Local recurrence was common, however, and justifies wide resection of the primary. Mortality was related more to the size of the lesion than to other findings such as skin or muscle involvement. No lesion with less than three mitoses per ten high power fields and minimal stromal atypia proved fatal. Associated neoplasia was common, particularly in the opposite breast. PMID:210686

  5. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; Bain, C.; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose-response relationship (P less than 0.05): the estimated relative risk associated with 2-5 sunburns in life was 1.5, and with 6 or more was 2.4. This observation extends the hitherto circumstantial evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and melanoma, and suggests that precautionary measures could prevent the development of this disease in a proportion of cases in fair-skinned populations. PMID:3970815

  6. Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ann; Davies, Drew; Menon, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man was admitted to a psychiatric ward in a confused state. He had a 30-year history of lately stable schizophrenia and antipsychotic medication had recently been reduced. The clinical picture was characterised by confusion, agitation, autonomic instability, muscle rigidity and elevated creatine kinase. Despite no other identifiable cause, physicians were reluctant to accept a diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) due to the absence of fever. Despite acute renal failure, the patient was repeatedly transferred between medical and psychiatric wards; diagnosis and management were delayed, with potentially catastrophic consequences. NMS is a rare, life-threatening neurological disorder that can present atypically and requires emergency medical rather than psychiatric care. Clinicians must proactively distinguish between medical emergencies (including acute confusional states/delirium) and mental illness. Prompt, accurate diagnosis, management on the appropriate ward and effective teamwork between specialties are essential to improve patient outcomes in this potentially fatal condition. PMID:27298291

  7. Malignant Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm (PEComa) of the Pelvis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    D'Andrea, David; Hanspeter, Esther; D'Elia, Carolina; Martini, Thomas; Pycha, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComa) are rare mesenchymal tumors that can occur in any part of the body and have unpredictable pathological behavior. They are usually benign, but may be malignant. We present a case of malignant PEComa of the pelvic retroperitoneum treated with radical surgery. PMID:27169023

  8. Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation for malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    WANG, FEI; LI, QUANPENG; ZHANG, XIUHUA; JIANG, GUOBING; GE, XIANXIU; YU, HONG; NIE, JUNJIE; JI, GUOZHONG; MIAO, LIN

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a novel palliation therapy for malignant biliary stricture; however, its feasibility and safety has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic RFA for the treatment of malignant biliary strictures. A total of 12 patients treated by endoscopic RFA between December 2011 and October 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Adverse events within 30 days post-intervention, stricture diameters prior to and following RFA, stent patency and survival time were investigated. A total of 12 patients underwent 20 RFA procedures as a treatment for malignant biliary strictures. Two patients required repeated elective RFA (4 and 6 times, respectively). All 20 RFA procedures were successfully performed without technical problems. During a 30 day period following each RFA procedure, two patients experienced fever (38.2 and 38.9°C, respectively) and another patient exhibited post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. The 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 0 and 8.3%, respectively. Mean stricture diameter prior to RFA was 5.3 mm (standard deviation (SD), 0.9 mm; range, 5–8 mm), and the mean diameter following RFA was 12.6 mm (SD, 3.1 mm; range, 8–15 mm). There was a significant increase of 7.3 mm in the bile duct diameter following RFA in comparison with prior to RFA (t=8.6; P≤0.001). Of the 11 patients with stents inserted following RFA, the median stent patency was 125.0 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 94.7–155.3 days]. Extrapolated median survival following the first RFA was 232 days (95% CI, 94.3–369.7 days). In conclusion, RFA appears to be an efficient and safe treatment strategy for the palliation of unresectable malignant biliary strictures. PMID:27284336

  9. Photodynamic therapy for lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of non-ionizing radiation therapy that uses a drug, called a photosensitizer, combined with light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2) that can exert anti-cancer activity through apoptotic, necrotic, or autophagic tumor cell death. PDT is increasingly being used to treat thoracic malignancies. For early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PDT is primarily employed as an endobronchial therapy to definitively treat endobronchial or roentgenographically occult tumors. Similarly, patients with multiple primary lung cancers may be definitively treated with PDT. For advanced or metastatic NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), PDT is primarily employed to palliate symptoms from obstructing endobronchial lesions causing airway compromise or hemoptysis. PDT can be used in advanced NSCLC to attempt to increase operability or to reduce the extent of operation intervention required, and selectively to treat pleural dissemination intraoperatively following macroscopically complete surgical resection. Intraoperative PDT can be safely combined with macroscopically complete surgical resection and other treatment modalities for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) to improve local control and prolong survival. This report reviews the mechanism of and rationale for using PDT to treat thoracic malignancies, details prospective and major retrospectives studies of PDT to treat NSCLC, SCLC, and MPM, and describes improvements in and future roles and directions of PDT. PMID:25499640

  10. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Sadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD). Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD. PMID:27429612

  11. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Sadahiro; Kaneko, Sadao

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD). Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD. PMID:27429612

  12. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Xu, Huiren; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Xu, Shengwei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Juntao; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells' communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 μm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 μA·μM−1·μm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ∼562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research. PMID:25569759

  13. Outcomes and Timing for Intervention of Partial Adrenalectomy in Patients with a Solitary Adrenal Remnant and History of Bilateral Pheochromocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Thomas H.; Storey, B. Barckley; Linehan, W. Marston; Rogers, Craig A.; Pinto, Peter A.; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To evaluate the outcomes and timing of intervention for adrenal sparing surgery in patients left with a solitary adrenal remnant after bilateral adrenal surgeries. Subjects/Patients and Methods Patients were included in the study if they had undergone bilateral adrenal surgery as a treatment for pheochromocytoma and were left with a solitary adrenal remnant. Perioperative, functional, and oncologic outcomes were evaluated on 21 patients that met the inclusion criteria. Results There was minimal perioperative morbidity and no perioperative mortality. After a median follow up of 21 months (range 3–143) there were two cases of persistent disease. Ten patients (48%) required steroid supplementation upon discharge with 4 subsequently discontinuing steroid supplementation. Patients were more likely to require steroid supplementation postoperatively if they underwent simultaneous adrenalectomy and contralateral partial adrenalectomy, rather than staged procedures (86% versus 40%, p=0.02). Additionally, patients who underwent surgery for tumors greater than 4 cm were more likely to require long-term steroids than patients who underwent surgery for lesions less than 4 cm (75% versus 18%, p=0.05). Conclusions Patients left with a solitary adrenal remnant after bilateral adrenal surgery have low surgical morbidity, reasonable functional outcomes and low rates of recurrence at an intermediate follow-up period. A staged approach may decrease the immediate postoperative need for steroids, and intervention before the largest tumor reaches 4 cm may decrease the rate of long-term steroid dependence. PMID:20726977

  14. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  15. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  16. [Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas].

    PubMed

    Biancosino, C; Redwan, B; Krüger, M; Eberlein, M; Bölükbas, S

    2016-09-01

    Malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPM) are very aggressive tumors, which originate from the mesothelial cells of the pleural surface. The main risk factor associated with MPM is exposure to asbestos. The latency period between asbestos exposure and MPM can be 30-60 years. Clinical symptoms and signs are often nonspecifc. The diagnosis of MPM requires an adequate tissue specimen for pathological examination, and video assisted thoracoscopic surgey (VATS) is associated with the highest diagnostic yield. MPM are histologically classified into epitheloid, sacromatoid and biphasic (mixed) sub-types. Accurate staging with invasive tests, if needed, is an important step before an interdisciplinary team can decide on an optimal (multi-modal) treatment approach. A multi-modal treatment approach (surgery, radiation oncology and chemotherapy) is superior to all approaches relying only on a single modality, if the patient qualifies for it from an oncological and functional standpoint. The goal of the surgical therapy is to achieve macroscopic complete resection. There are two competing surgical approaches and philosophies: extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and radical pleurectomy (RP). Over the last years a paradigm shift from EPP to RP occurred and RP is now often the preferred surgical option. PMID:27612329

  17. Malignancy in common variable immune deficiency: report of two rare cases of gastrointestinal malignancy and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Casey; Sahni, Ryan; Holla, Nikhil; Litchfield, John; Youngberg, George; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2012-09-01

    Patients can develop malignancies due to various reasons including genetic factors, chemical carcinogens, radiation, and defects in their immune system. The immune system is postulated to carry out routine surveillance for malignancy. Patients who have defective immune responses may be susceptible to malignancies due to complicated underlying mechanisms. These include defective immune response to cancer-causing bacteria, transforming viruses, and concomitant molecular, cellular and immunoregulatory defects. Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, impaired antibody responses and an increased susceptibility to infections. A disorderly immune response, or immune dysregulation, may also lead to autoimmune complications and possibly to malignancy. The treatment of CVID involves infusion of replacement doses of immunoglobulin, either intravenously (IGIV) or subcutaneously (SCIG). However, it is unclear whether adequate replacement of immunoglobulins is sufficient to prevent the increased risk of malignancy seen in this disease. We present two cases of unusual solid tumors complicating CVID treated with adequate doses of intravenous immunoglobulins. In this study we review the occurrence of malignancy in patients with CVID and postulate mechanisms that may be involved indigent to this disease. We will also review the role of replacement immunoglobulin and discuss cancer screening in these high risk individuals. PMID:22746346

  18. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  19. Large malignant ovarian tumors during pregnancy: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Liang, Cheng; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports two cases of large ovarian malignancy during pregnancy, which is very rare. The two patients were received between Nov 2012 and Feb 2013 at Gynecological and Obstetrical Department, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University (People’s Republic of China). Both cases present tumor sized more than 20 cm, with one case of 40 cm. Both patients underwent timely cesarean section, with survival of the Child, and successful removal of the tumor. All patients showed good outcome in the follow-up period. Therefore the large ovarian malignancy during pregnancy could be well treated after careful clinical evaluation. PMID:25484595

  20. Bile duct malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  1. Malignant hyperthermia: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Henry; Pollock, Neil; Schiemann, Anja; Bulger, Terasa; Stowell, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stressors such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:10,000 to 1: 250,000 anesthetics. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 400 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs and horses. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, hyperkalaemia, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. An increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide despite increased minute ventilation provides an early diagnostic clue. In humans the syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs it is autosomal recessive. Uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation leads to the pathophysiologic changes. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 400 variants have been identified in the RYR1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 34 are causal for MH. Less than 1 % of variants have been found in CACNA1S but not all of these are causal. Diagnostic testing involves the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and in some centres ryanodine and 4-chloro-m-cresol. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction of DNA testing for susceptibility to MH. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. Increased understanding of the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of the syndrome, has lead to the

  2. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  3. AMG 319 Lymphoid Malignancy FIH

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-20

    Cancer; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Hematologic Malignancies; Hematology; Leukemia; Low Grade Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Oncology; Oncology Patients; T Cell Lymphoma; Tumors

  4. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  6. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Schmalzle, Sarah A; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Gilliam, Bruce L; Riedel, David J

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic invasive fungal infection that is well described and easily recognised when it occurs as meningitis in HIV-infected persons. Malignancy and its treatment may also confer a higher risk of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, but this association has not been as well described. A case of cryptococcosis in a cancer patient is presented, and all cases of coincident C. neoformans infection and malignancy in adults published in the literature in English between 1970 and 2014 are reviewed. Data from these cases were aggregated in order to describe the demographics, type of malignancy, site of infection, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of cryptococcosis in patients with cancer. Haematologic malignancies accounted for 82% of cases, with lymphomas over-represented compared to US population data (66% vs. 53% respectively). Cryptococcosis was reported rarely in patients with solid tumours. Haematologic malignancy patients were more likely to have central nervous system (P < 0.001) or disseminated disease (P < 0.001), receive Amphotericin B as part of initial therapy (P = 0.023), and had higher reported mortality rates than those with solid tumours (P = 0.222). Providers should have heightened awareness of the possibility of cryptococcosis in patients with haematologic malignancy presenting with infection. PMID:26932366

  7. Malignant Adenomyoepithelioma of the Breast and Responsiveness to Eribulin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suee; Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dae Cheul; Cho, Se Heon; Lee, Miri

    2015-01-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) of the breast is an uncommon tumor characterized by its dual differentiation into luminal cells and myoepithelial cells. In most cases these tumors have a benign clinical course, but distant metastases have been reported. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman diagnosed with malignant AME. The patient underwent a right modified radical mastectomy, and pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant AME. Ten months after the operation, multiple hepatic, pleural, and abdominal wall metastases were detected. A number of palliative chemotherapeutic agents were tried, including anthracycline and taxanes. However, the disease continued to progress, and superior vena cava syndrome developed as a result of direct tumor invasion. The patient received salvage eribulin monotherapy. After two cycles of this treatment, her clinical symptoms were ameliorated, and a computed tomography scan showed a partial response. Eribulin chemotherapy was thus effective in treating malignant AME in this case. PMID:26770248

  8. Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation of Hepatic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a common site of primary and secondary malignancies, often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Evaluating these patients in a multidisciplinary setting allows for optimal utilization of all oncologic therapies including surgery, radiation, systemic chemotherapy, transarterial therapies, and ablation. While surgical intervention often provides the best outcomes when treating most hepatic tumors, many patients are not surgical candidates due to extensive tumor burden, underlying liver disease, or other comorbid conditions. The evolution of imaging and ablation devices has allowed for the increased utilization of percutaneous ablation as definitive and palliative treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. Ablation induces tumor necrosis by injection of chemicals (chemical ablation) or temperature modification (thermal ablation). The goal of this review is to provide an overview of different ablation techniques commonly used for hepatic malignancies, discuss the oncologic outcomes of these interventions, and outline the current indications, contraindications, and reported complications of these therapies. PMID:25071304

  9. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  10. Nerve growth factor inhibits the synthesis of a single-stranded DNA binding protein in pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12).

    PubMed Central

    Biocca, S; Cattaneo, A; Calissano, P

    1984-01-01

    Arrest of mitosis and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma cells (clone PC12) is accompanied by a progressive inhibition of the synthesis of a protein that binds to single-stranded but not to double-stranded DNA. Time course experiments show that this inhibition is already apparent after a 2-day incubation with NGF and is maximum (85-95%) upon achievement of complete PC12 cell differentiation. Inhibition of the synthesis of this single-stranded DNA binding protein after 48 hr of incubation with NGF is potentiated by concomitant treatment of PC12 cells with antimitotic drugs acting at different levels of DNA replication. Purification on a preparative scale of this protein and analysis of its major physicochemical properties show that: (i) it constitutes 0.5% of total soluble proteins of naive PC12 cells; (ii) its molecular weight measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE is Mr 34,000 (sucrose gradient centrifugation under nondenaturing conditions yields a sedimentation coefficient s20,w of 8.1 S, indicating that the native protein is an oligomer); (iii) amino acid analysis demonstrates a preponderance of acidic over basic residues, while electrofocusing experiments show that it has an isoelectric point around 8.0; (iv) approximately 15% of the protein is phosphorylated in vivo. It is postulated that control of the synthesis of this protein is connected with activation of a differentiative program triggered by NGF in the PC12 neoplastic cell line at some step(s) of DNA activity. Images PMID:6585787

  11. Metabolome profiling by HRMAS NMR spectroscopy of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas detects SDH deficiency: clinical and pathophysiological implications.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Alessio; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Roche, Philippe; Battini, Stéphanie; Cicek, A Ercument; Sebag, Frédéric; Brunaud, Laurent; Barlier, Anne; Elbayed, Karim; Loundou, Anderson; Bachellier, Philippe; Goichot, Bernard; Stratakis, Constantine A; Pacak, Karel; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Taïeb, David

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDHx) mutations increase susceptibility to develop pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs). In the present study, we evaluate the performance and clinical applications of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based global metabolomic profiling in a large series of PHEOs/PGLs of different genetic backgrounds. Eighty-seven PHEOs/PGLs (48 sporadic/23 SDHx/7 von Hippel-Lindau/5 REarranged during Transfection/3 neurofibromatosis type 1/1 hypoxia-inducible factor 2α), one SDHD variant of unknown significance, and two Carney triad (CTr)-related tumors were analyzed by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to sporadic, SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs exhibit a specific metabolic signature characterized by increased levels of succinate (P < .0001), methionine (P = .002), glutamine (P = .002), and myoinositol (P < .0007) and decreased levels of glutamate (P < .0007), regardless of their location and catecholamine levels. Uniquely, ATP/ascorbate/glutathione was found to be associated with the secretory phenotype of PHEOs/PGLs, regardless of their genotype (P < .0007). The use of succinate as a single screening test retained excellent accuracy in distinguishing SDHx versus non-SDHx-related tumors (sensitivity/specificity: 100/100%). Moreover, the quantification of succinate could be considered a diagnostic alternative for assessing SDHx-related mutations of unknown pathogenicity. We were also able, for the first time, to uncover an SDH-like pattern in the two CTr-related PGLs. The present study demonstrates that HRMAS-NMR provides important information for SDHx-related PHEO/PGL characterization. Besides the high succinate-low glutamate hallmark, SDHx tumors also exhibit high values of methionine, a finding consistent with the hypermethylation pattern of these tumors. We also found important levels of glutamine, suggesting that glutamine metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of SDHx

  12. Metabolome Profiling by HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy of Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas Detects SDH Deficiency: Clinical and Pathophysiological Implications12

    PubMed Central

    Imperiale, Alessio; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Roche, Philippe; Battini, Stéphanie; Cicek, A. Ercument; Sebag, Frédéric; Brunaud, Laurent; Barlier, Anne; Elbayed, Karim; Loundou, Anderson; Bachellier, Philippe; Goichot, Bernard; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Pacak, Karel; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Taïeb, David

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDHx) mutations increase susceptibility to develop pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs). In the present study, we evaluate the performance and clinical applications of 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy–based global metabolomic profiling in a large series of PHEOs/PGLs of different genetic backgrounds. Eighty-seven PHEOs/PGLs (48 sporadic/23 SDHx/7 von Hippel-Lindau/5 REarranged during Transfection/3 neurofibromatosis type 1/1 hypoxia-inducible factor 2α), one SDHD variant of unknown significance, and two Carney triad (CTr)–related tumors were analyzed by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to sporadic, SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs exhibit a specific metabolic signature characterized by increased levels of succinate (P < .0001), methionine (P = .002), glutamine (P = .002), and myoinositol (P < .0007) and decreased levels of glutamate (P < .0007), regardless of their location and catecholamine levels. Uniquely, ATP/ascorbate/glutathione was found to be associated with the secretory phenotype of PHEOs/PGLs, regardless of their genotype (P < .0007). The use of succinate as a single screening test retained excellent accuracy in distinguishing SDHx versus non–SDHx-related tumors (sensitivity/specificity: 100/100%). Moreover, the quantification of succinate could be considered a diagnostic alternative for assessing SDHx-related mutations of unknown pathogenicity. We were also able, for the first time, to uncover an SDH-like pattern in the two CTr-related PGLs. The present study demonstrates that HRMAS-NMR provides important information for SDHx-related PHEO/PGL characterization. Besides the high succinate–low glutamate hallmark, SDHx tumors also exhibit high values of methionine, a finding consistent with the hypermethylation pattern of these tumors. We also found important levels of glutamine, suggesting that glutamine metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of

  13. Whole‐exome sequencing defines the mutational landscape of pheochromocytoma and identifies KMT2D as a recurrently mutated gene

    PubMed Central

    Stenman, Adam; Haglund, Felix; Clark, Victoria E.; Brown, Taylor C.; Baranoski, Jacob; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goh, Gerald; Welander, Jenny; Svahn, Fredrika; Rubinstein, Jill C.; Caramuta, Stefano; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Günel, Murat; Bäckdahl, Martin; Gimm, Oliver; Söderkvist, Peter; Prasad, Manju L.; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole‐exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis‐related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well‐established cancer gene lysine (K)‐specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome‐sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D‐mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development. © 2015 The Authors. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032282

  14. Whole-exome sequencing defines the mutational landscape of pheochromocytoma and identifies KMT2D as a recurrently mutated gene.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, C Christofer; Stenman, Adam; Haglund, Felix; Clark, Victoria E; Brown, Taylor C; Baranoski, Jacob; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goh, Gerald; Welander, Jenny; Svahn, Fredrika; Rubinstein, Jill C; Caramuta, Stefano; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Günel, Murat; Bäckdahl, Martin; Gimm, Oliver; Söderkvist, Peter; Prasad, Manju L; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P; Carling, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole-exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis-related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well-established cancer gene lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome-sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D-mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development. PMID:26032282

  15. c-Myc inhibits Ras-mediated differentiation of pheochromocytoma cells by blocking c-Jun up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Vaqué, José P; Fernández-García, Belén; García-Sanz, Pablo; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Bretones, Gabriel; Calvo, Fernando; Crespo, Piero; Marín, María C; León, Javier

    2008-02-01

    Although mutant Ras proteins were originally described as transforming oncoproteins, they induce growth arrest, senescence, and/or differentiation in many cell types. c-Myc is an oncogenic transcription factor that cooperates with Ras in cellular transformation and oncogenesis. However, the Myc-Ras relationship in cellular differentiation is largely unknown. Here, we have analyzed the effects of c-Myc on PC12-derived cells (UR61 cell line), harboring an inducible N-Ras oncogene. In these cells, Ras activation induces neuronal-like differentiation by a process involving c-Jun activation. We found that c-Myc inhibited Ras-mediated differentiation by a mechanism that involves the blockade of c-Jun induction in response to Ras signal. Accordingly, ectopically expressed c-Jun could bypass c-Myc impediment of Ras-induced differentiation and activator protein 1 activation. Interestingly, it did not rescue the proliferative arrest elicited by Ras and did not enhance the differentiation-associated apoptosis. The blockade of Ras-mediated induction of c-Jun takes place at the level of c-Jun proximal promoter. Mutational analysis revealed that c-Myc regions involved in DNA binding and transactivation are required to block differentiation and c-Jun induction. c-Myc does not seem to require Miz-1 to inhibit differentiation and block c-Jun induction. Furthermore, Max is not required for c-Myc activity, as UR61 cells lack a functional Max gene. c-Myc-inhibitory effect on the Ras/c-Jun connection is not restricted to UR61 cells as it can occur in other cell types as K562 or HEK293. In conclusion, we describe a novel interplay between c-Myc and c-Jun that controls the ability of Ras to trigger the differentiation program of pheochromocytoma cells. PMID:18314492

  16. Hypoxia increases rate of transcription and stability of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Furnari, B A; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1994-01-01

    Reduced arterial oxygen tension (i.e. hypoxia) is a powerful physiological stimulus that induces synthesis and release of dopamine from O2-sensitive (type I) cells in the mammalian carotid bodies. We reported recently that hypoxia stimulates gene expression for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis in type I cells of the carotid body. Efforts to identify the mechanisms regulating TH gene expression in O2-sensitive cells during hypoxia have been hampered by the lack of an appropriate model cell culture system. Here we report that TH gene expression in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) is regulated during hypoxia in a manner similar to that measured in carotid body type I cells. PC12 cells might therefore be useful as an experimental model for identifying the molecular mechanisms that regulate TH gene expression during hypoxia. Nuclear runoff assays revealed that transcription of the wild type TH gene was enhanced during exposures to hypoxia lasting 12 h. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays with constructs that contained different fragments of TH promoter revealed that the regulatory sequences that mediate the hypoxia-induced increase in transcription are located between bases -272 and +27 of the TH gene. Findings from experiments in which transcription was inhibited either with actinomycin D or 5,6-dichloro-1-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, as well as pulse-chase experiments using 4-thiouridine showed that the half-life of TH mRNA was substantially increased during hypoxia. Thus, in the present paper we show that TH gene expression in PC12 cells during hypoxia is regulated by increases in both the rate of TH gene transcription and TH mRNA stability. PMID:7903970

  17. [Splenic metastases from female genital tract malignancies].

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Splenic metastases are rare. Usually, they are part of a disseminated disease and located on the splenic capsule. Common sources are breast cancer, lung cancer and malignant melanoma. SoLitary splenic metastases are rare, usuaLLy located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasizing via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from ovarian carcinoma are usuaLly part of a disseminated disease, located on the splenic capsule and metastasize via the peritoneum. Splenic metastases from endometriaL carcinoma are usuaLLy solitary, Located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasize via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from cervical carcinoma are divided equally between metastases as part of a disseminated disease and soLitary metastases. Less than 100 cases of solitary splenic metastases have been reported with half of them being metastases from female genital tract malignancies: 30--ovarian carcinoma; 11--endometriaL carcinoma; 8--cervical carcinoma; and 1--tubal carcinoma. Few cases have been reported of splenic rupture because of metastases from choriocarcinoma. Splenic metastases as part of a disseminated disease are associated with poor prognosis, and splenectomy--apart from cases in which it might assist in achieving optimaL debulking--is not effective. Solitary splenic metastases represent a more moderate disease and the treatment of choice is splenectomy. SoLitary splenic metastases may be detected after an interval from the diagnosis of the primary disease. Hence, patients who had been treated for female genital tract malignancy, even if they are asymptomatic, need a long-term follow-up, including serial imaging studies of the spleen. PMID:20929072

  18. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chaulagain, Chakra P; Pilichowska, Monika; Brinckerhoff, Laurence; Tabba, Maher; Erban, John K

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), characterized by deposition of intra-alveolar PAS positive protein and lipid rich material, is a rare cause of progressive respiratory failure first described by Rosen et al. in 1958. The intra-alveolar lipoproteinaceous material was subsequently proven to have been derived from pulmonary surfactant in 1980 by Singh et al. Levinson et al. also reported in 1958 the case of 19-year-old female with panmyelosis afflicted with a diffuse pulmonary disease characterized by filling of the alveoli with amorphous material described as "intra-alveolar coagulum". This is probably the first reported case of PAP in relation to hematologic malignancy. Much progress has been made on PAP first described by Rosen which is currently classified as idiopathic or primary or autoimmune PAP. Idiopathic PAP occurs as a result of auto-antibodies directed against granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) impeding the surfactant clearing function of alveolar macrophages leading to progressive respiratory failure. Whole lung lavage and GM-CSF therapy has improved outcomes in patients with idiopathic PAP. Despite major advancement in the management of hematologic malignancy and its complications, little is known about the type of PAP first described by Levinson and now known as secondary PAP; a term also used when PAP occurs due to other causes such as occupational dusts. In this article we review and analyze the limited literature available in secondary PAP due to hematologic malignancies and present a case of PAP associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia successfully treated with bendamustine and rituximab. PMID:25300566

  19. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Context Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went (Monascaceae) NTU 568 (red mould rice) was found to contain antioxidants, including dimerumic acid (DMA) and deferricoprogen (DFC). Objective The effects of DMA and DFC on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and potential protective mechanisms in differentiated PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated. Materials and methods DMA (0-60 μM) or DFC (0-10 μM) was co-treated with 6-OHDA (200 μM, 24 h exposure) in differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell viability and intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of cell protein expression. Results DMA and DFC significantly increased cell viability to 72% and 81% in 6-OHDA-induced differentiated PC-12 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, DMA and DFC reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of extracellular and intercellular ROS by 25% and 20%, respectively, and decreased NADPH oxidase-2 expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspase-3 via regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 protein expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. Conclusion DMA and DFC may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting ROS formation and apoptosis. These results showed that the metabolites from M. purpureus NTU 568 fermentation were potential therapeutic agents for PD induced by oxidative damage and should be encouraged for further research. PMID:26794209

  20. Treating Meningitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ways to treat bacterial meningitis. 1 They compared steroids (dexamethasone) with pla- cebo. The doctors gave medication ( ... compared anti- biotics by themselves with antibiotics plus steroids. Dr. Fritz and colleagues compared the mortality (deaths) ...

  1. Extrapleural pneumonectomy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Argote-Greene, Luis M; Chang, Michael Y; Sugarbaker, David J

    2005-01-01

    Extrapleural pneumonectomy was introduced in the 1940s for the treatment of extensive infections of the lung and pleural space. Over the past 20 years, the extrapleural pneumonectomy technique has been modified and applied to the treatment of locally advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma, achieving substantial reductions in mortality. The current mortality rate of 3.4% at the Brigham and Women's Hospital has permitted us to expand our use of this operation to treat locally advanced lung cancer and thymoma. The extrapleural pneumonectomy technique consists of five basic steps: (1) Incision and exposure of the parietal pleura: (2) Dissection of the tumor and parietal pleura from the chest wall, diaphragm, and mediastinum: (3) Division and control of the pulmonary vessels and bronchus followed by lymph node dissection: (4) En bloc resection of the lung, pleura, pericardium, and diaphragm; (5) Reconstruction of the diaphragm and pericardium. Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a complex and challenging operation. Accompanied by a 60% minor and major complication rate, it requires a unique management approach to achieve 3.4% mortality. Primary contributing factors to the reduction in mortality include a reduced operative time of 3 h, refinements in operative technique, and improved selection of patients. The technique discussed below is the culmination of 20 years' experience with malignant pleural mesothelioma at the Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA USA. PMID:24414726

  2. Treatment principles for peritoneal surface malignancies.

    PubMed

    Deraco, Marcello; Kusamura, Shigeki; Corbellini, Carlo; Guaglio, Marcello; Paviglianiti, Cosimo; Baratti, Dario

    2016-04-01

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in the clinical management of peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM). Once regarded as end-stage disseminated conditions only to be palliated, PSM are now increasingly recognized as local-regional disease entities amenable to potentially curative therapies. Better knowledge of the natural history and patterns of disease-progression has evolved into a novel treatment approach combining aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy, to treat the microscopic residual disease. Such a complex comprehensive treatment has reportedly resulted in a survival improvement over historical controls, and it is gaining an increasing acceptance as standard of care for selected patients with peritoneal metastases from gastrointestinal and gynecological tumor and rare primary peritoneal malignancies. This article addresses the rational bases supporting the comprehensive treatment of PSM. The biology and patho-physiology of peritoneal tumor dissemination, with their implication on surgical and local-regional management are reviewed. The cytoreductive surgical procedures and intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration techniques are described, together with the theoretical principles from which have originated. The main controversial issues in the operative management of PSM are discussed, focusing on the technical variants adopted in our institution. The most recent literature data on both patient selection and appropriate indications for combined treatment are presented. Additionally, a brief overview of treatment results and long-term outcomes following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the different PSM is provided. PMID:26847729

  3. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-01-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. Images PMID:6198739

  4. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. PMID:6198739

  5. Endoscopic laser palliation for advanced malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed Central

    Bown, S G; Hawes, R; Matthewson, K; Swain, C P; Barr, H; Boulos, P B; Clark, C G

    1987-01-01

    Palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia aims to optimise swallowing for the maximum time possible with the minimum of general distress to these seriously ill patients. Thirty four patients considered unsuitable for surgery because of advanced malignancy, other major pathology or in whom previous surgery had been unsuccessful were treated endoscopically with the Nd YAG laser. Significant improvement was achieved in 29 (85%). On a scale of 0-4 (0 = normal swallowing; 4 = dysphagia for all fluids), mean improvement was 1.7, with 25 patients (74%) able to swallow most, or all solids after treatment. With increasing experience, the average number of treatment sessions required for each patient became less; initial time in hospital became comparable to that needed for intubation. Failures were caused by inappropriate patient selection (3), or laser related perforation (2). The mean survival in the whole group was 19 weeks (range 2-44). Eighteen patients needed further treatment for recurrent dysphagia, a mean of six weeks (range 2-15) after initial therapy. Ten of these responded, but eight eventually required insertion of a prosthetic tube. The duration of good palliation was very variable after initial laser therapy. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2443431

  6. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-03-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time.

  7. Bronchial artery embolization for malignant hemoptysis: a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Zangan, Steve; Lorenz, Jonathan; Funaki, Brian; Van Ha, Thuong; Navuluri, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in patients with malignant hemoptysis. Methods An IRB-approved retrospective study at our academic institution was conducted on all patients treated by BAE for hemoptysis from lung malignancy. Outcome and safety measures were documented according to Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) practice guidelines. Results A total of 26 patients (13 male, 13 female) with lung malignancy underwent BAE for hemoptysis from 2003-2013. Histologic analysis revealed 80% (21/26) of cases were from primary lung malignancies, while the remaining 20% (4/26) represented metastatic disease. Sixty-five percent (17/26) of patients underwent bronchoscopy prior to BAE. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 1,909 days, with average of 155 days. Technical success was achieved in 77% of patients (20/26). Clinical success rate was 75% (15/20). Eighty-five percent of embolized patients (17/20) were treated with particles, 15% (3/20) with gelfoam, and 20% (4/20) with coils. Single-vessel embolization was performed in 70% (14/20), two-vessel in 20% (4/20), and multiple vessels in 10% (2/20). No complications were reported. Six-month all-cause mortality of treated cases was 55% (11/20) with an in-hospital mortality of 25% (5/20). Ten percent (2/20) had remote re-bleeding events beyond 6 months. Statistically significant predictors of mortality were intubation status, hemoglobin/hematocrit at presentation, and thrombocytopenia. Conclusions BAE is a safe and useful treatment for clinically significant hemoptysis in patients with primary or metastatic lung masses despite high overall mortality. Intubation status, low hemoglobin/hematocrit, and thrombocytopenia may represent clinical predictors of short term mortality following BAE. Advances in knowledge: Most patients undergoing BAE for malignant hemoptysis achieve high clinical success despite suffering a high mortality from underlying disease. PMID:26380767

  8. Cytology of canine malignant histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane E.; Thrall, Mary Anna; Getzy, David M.; Weiser, M. Glade; Ogilvie, Gregory K.

    1994-01-01

    Cytologic features of bone marrow, tissue, and abdominal fluid in seven cases of malignant histiocytosis in dogs are described, and histopathology, hematology, and serum biochemistry of the cases are reviewed. Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis was confirmed by tissue morphology and immunohistochemistry; neoplastic cells in all cases had positive immunoreactivity to lysozyme. This stain can be used to definitively establish the diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis on cytology specimens as well as tissue sections. Cytologic findings included numerous pleomorphic, large, discrete mononuclear cells with abundant, lightly basophilic, vacuolated, granular cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval to reniform with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis; nucleoli were prominent. Mitotic figures, often bizarre, were occasionally seen. Multinucleated giant cells and phagocytosis of erythrocytes and leukocytes were prominent features in cytologic preparations in four cases. Four dogs were anemic, five dogs were thrombocytopenic, and three dogs were hypercalcemic. Breeds affected included Doberman Pinscher (1), Golden Retriever (2), Flat Coated Retriever (3), and mixed-breed dog (1). PMID:12666013

  9. [Genodermatoses with malignant skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hübinger, L; Frank, J

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies can manifest as isolated and sporadic tumors as well as multiple and disseminated tumors. In the latter case they often point to a genetic disease, which either can be restricted to the skin exclusively or also involve extracutaneous organs in the context of a hereditary tumor syndrome. Such hereditary tumor syndromes are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Therefore, the prevailing specific skin tumors play an important diagnostic role in the case of complex symptom constellations. Elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenetically inherited disorders and syndromes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of frequently occurring cutaneous malignancies because the mutated genes often encode proteins, which have a key position in metabolic signaling pathways that are of high significance for the development of targeted therapies. Here we provide an overview of genodermatoses, which are associated with basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. PMID:24898507

  10. Primary malignant neoplasm of the female urethra

    SciTech Connect

    Ampil, F.L.

    1985-12-01

    This is a retrospective review of 11 cases of primary malignant neoplasm of the female urethra seen at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport from 1951 to 1984. The disease was relatively more frequent in the 60- to 79-year age-group. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common among the different observed histopathology. A modified clinical staging system is introduced. At diagnosis, eight of 11 subjects (73%) had locally extensive disease. The majority of the patients were treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery. The overall severe complication rate was low. The poor results (20% local control and survival) obtained in this small experience suggest that perhaps a study using promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agents is warranted. A literature review summary of reported radiotherapy results is included.

  11. Malignant pleural effusion: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Psallidas, Ioannis; Kalomenidis, Ioannis; Porcel, Jose M; Robinson, Bruce W; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2016-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common but serious condition that is related with poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. Its incidence and associated healthcare costs are rising and its management remains palliative, with median survival ranging from 3 to 12 months. During the last decade there has been significant progress in unravelling the pathophysiology of MPE, as well as its diagnostics, imaging, and management. Nowadays, formerly bed-ridden patients are genotyped, phenotyped, and treated on an ambulatory basis. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of current advances in MPE from bench to bedside. In addition, it highlights unanswered questions in current clinical practice and suggests future directions for basic and clinical research in the field. PMID:27246596

  12. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Dai, Lu-pin; Lu, Wen-qin

    1993-03-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with malignant cancers of the skin. The histology was as follows: squamous cell in 20, adenocarcinoma in 19, melanocarcinoma in 1. By TNM classification there were no cases of T1, 5 cases of T2, and 35 cases of T2 - T3. All patients were stage IV. The overall effective rate was 85%, our experience is that the PDT is suitable for the patients with advanced tumor, especially those whose tumor recurrences are hard to treat after conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The PDT appears to be a new and promising possibility to treat advanced tumors and to improve the patients' survival rates.

  13. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelson, Evan M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J.; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  14. Campomelic dysplasia and malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Andreia; Teixeira, Filomena; Camacho, Maria Carmo; Alves, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a rare clinical entity, usually fatal in the first year of life. It is characterised by bowing and angulations of long bones, along with other congenital anomalies. The occurrence of malignant hyperthermia is rare, but it has been associated with skeletal dysplasias. The authors present the case of a boy, born at 40 weeks of gestational age, with multiple congenital anomalies and subsequently diagnosed with CD, who died at 16 months of age as a consequence of malignant hyperthermia. PMID:22691592

  15. Dyskeratosis congenita with malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Jay Gopal; Swain, Niharika; Ghosh, Ranjan; Richa; Pattanayak (Mohanty), Sweta

    2011-01-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare genodermatosis characterised by a classic triad of dystrophic nails, reticular skin pigmentation and mucous membrane leukoplakic patches, which have a high rate of malignant transformation. The case report presented here deals with a sporadic case of DC without similar clinical presentation in the first-degree and second-degree relatives. Of note in this case, there was rapid malignant transformation in the non-homogeneous nodulo-speckled leukoplakic patch on the dorsum of the tongue. PMID:22715219

  16. Stenting in Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-10-01

    Decompression of the biliary system in patients with malignant biliary obstruction has been widely accepted and implemented as part of the care. Despite a wealth of literature, there remains a significant amount of uncertainty as to which approach would be most appropriate in different clinical settings. This review covers stenting of the biliary system in cases of resectable or palliative malignant biliary obstruction, potential candidates for biliary drainage, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as management of biliary stent dysfunction. Furthermore, periprocedural considerations including proper mapping of the location of obstruction and the use of antibiotics are addressed. PMID:26431598

  17. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Carboplatin, Dexamethasone, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-25

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  18. Malignant glioma following radiotherapy for unrelated primary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Marus, G.; Levin, C.V.; Rutherfoord, G.S.

    1986-08-15

    Four cases are documented where a glioma was histologically verified in the irradiation field of a previously treated malignancy of a different cell line. Radiation-induced neoplasia in the central nervous system now has been established in the induction of meningioma and sarcoma. The association between therapeutic irradiation and glioma in the reported cases lends to the evidence that a causal relation does exist. This incidence is small and does not detract from the overall benefit of irradiation as a therapeutic modality.

  19. Nivolumab in the treatment of malignant melanoma: review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Emi; Inoue, Akiha; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Sasaki, Natsuko; Hara, Yoko; Omoto, Daisuke; Ohmori, Shun; Haruyama, Sanehito; Sawada, Yu; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nishio, Daisuke; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2015-01-01

    Nivolumab was developed as a monoclonal antibody against programmed death receptor-1, an immune checkpoint inhibitor which negatively regulates T-cell proliferation and activation. Intravenous administration of nivolumab was approved for the treatment of unresectable malignant melanoma in 2014 in Japan. When advanced melanoma patients were treated with nivolumab, median overall survival became longer. Overall survival rate was significantly better in nivolumab-treated melanoma patients than dacarbazine-treated melanoma patients. Nivolumab had an acceptable long-term tolerability profile, with 22% of patients experiencing grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to the drug. Therefore, nivolumab can become an alternative therapy for advanced malignant melanoma. PMID:26273207

  20. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  1. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  2. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass. PMID:25003044

  3. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  4. ROS Production Is Essential for the Apoptotic Function of E2F1 in Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Espada, Lilia; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Sancho, Patricia; Real, Sebastian; Fabregat, Isabel; Ambrosio, Santiago; Tauler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell cycle activator

  5. Warburg effect's manifestation in aggressive pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: insights from a mouse cell model applied to human tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Kaludercic, Nina; Jiang, Xiao-Sheng; Hansikova, Hana; Hajkova, Zuzana; Sladkova, Jana; Limpuangthip, Andrea; Backlund, Peter S; Wesley, Robert; Martiniova, Lucia; Jochmanova, Ivana; Lendvai, Nikoletta K; Breza, Jan; Yergey, Alfred L; Paolocci, Nazareno; Tischler, Arthur S; Zeman, Jiri; Porter, Forbes D; Lehnert, Hendrik; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    A glycolytic profile unifies a group of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) with distinct underlying gene defects, including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutations. Nevertheless, their tumor aggressiveness is distinct: PHEOs/PGLs metastasize rarely in VHL-, but frequently in SDHB-patients. To date, the molecular mechanisms causing the more aggressive phenotype in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs remain largely unknown. Recently, however, an excellent model to study aggressive PHEOs (mouse tumor tissue (MTT) cells) has been developed from mouse PHEO cells (MPC). We employed this model for a proteomics based approach to identify changes characteristic for tumor aggressiveness, which we then explored in a homogeneous set of human SDHB- and VHL-PHEOs/PGLs. The increase of glucose transporter 1 in VHL, and of hexokinase 2 in VHL and SDHB, confirmed their glycolytic profile. In agreement with the cell model and in support of decoupling of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), SDHB tumors showed increased lactate dehydrogenase levels. In SDHB-PGLs OXPHOS complex activity was increased at complex III and, as expected, decreased at complex II. Moreover, protein and mRNA expression of all tested OXPHOS-related genes were higher in SDHB- than in VHL-derived tumors. Although there was no direct evidence for increased reactive oxygen species production, elevated superoxide dismutase 2 expression may reflect elevated oxidative stress in SDHB-derived PHEOs/PGLs. For the first time, we show that despite dysfunction in complex II and evidence for a glycolytic phenotype, the Warburg effect does not seem to fully apply to SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs with respect to decreased OXPHOS. In addition, we present evidence for increased LDHA and SOD2 expression in SDHB-PHEOs/PGLs, proteins that have been proposed as promising therapeutic targets in other cancers. This study provides new insight into pathogenic mechanisms in aggressive human

  6. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. Methods The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom’s aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. Results The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. Conclusions P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite

  7. Do We Know What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented? Do we know what causes malignant mesothelioma? Researchers have found ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  8. Oral complications in patients receiving treatment for malignancies other than of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Sonis, S T; Sonis, A L; Lieberman, A

    1978-09-01

    Oral complications in patients being treated for malignancies that were not in the head and neck were studied. Age, type of therapy, and type of malignancy were factors related to the prevalence of oral complications. Mucosal ulcerations, xerostomia, and bacterial and fungal infections were the most frequently encountered oral problems. The frequency of oral complications in these patients indicates the need for an awareness and involvement of dental practitioners in their management. PMID:279602

  9. Risk factors for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Keck, P E; Pope, H G; Cohen, B M; McElroy, S L; Nierenberg, A A

    1989-10-01

    A number of risk factors have been proposed for the development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, but these have not been subjected to controlled study. To address this problem, we performed a case-control study comparing 18 patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome and 36 matched neuroleptic-treated control patients with no known history of the syndrome to identify potential risk factors. Patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome displayed significantly greater psychomotor agitation, received significantly higher doses of neuroleptics at greater rates of dosage increase, and received a greater number of intramuscular injections than controls. PMID:2572206

  10. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the penis. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eran; Horev, Amir; Neulander, Endre Z

    2012-03-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) of the penis represents an uncommon form of genitourinary malignancies, which account for about 1% of all cases of melanoma. Amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM) lacks the pigmented elements, which is the hallmark of melanoma. This is a challenging diagnosis since confusion might be made with a variety of benign lesions, causing a delay in appropriate medical treatment. Taking into consideration that prognosis is the same for melanotic and amelanotic melanoma, early diagnosis is crucial. We describe a patient with amelanotic melanoma of the penis, treated with partial penectomy. PMID:22649961

  11. Malignant phylloides tumor in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blaker, Kristen M; Sahoo, Sunati; Schweichler, Maria R; Chagpar, Anees B

    2010-03-01

    Malignant phylloides tumors are exceedingly rare with few cases being reported in pregnancy. We describe the first case ever reported of a malignant phylloides tumor presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy and provide insight into the complexities of management as well as a review of the known literature. An extensive PubMed literature search for "cystosarcoma," "phylloides," and "pregnancy" was performed. References of each citation were reviewed. Only six previous cases of phylloides tumor in pregnancy were found, none of which were in the first trimester. Medical records of a patient presenting to our institution at 9 weeks gestation with a malignant phylloides tumor were reviewed. We further provide a review of the current literature of the management of phylloides tumor in pregnancy. A 27-year-old white G2P0SA1 woman with no family history of breast cancer presented with a right breast mass at her first prenatal examination at 9 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound confirmed a solid mass measuring 24 mm. Core needle biopsy demonstrated a malignant phylloides tumor. She previously had a fibroadenoma removed from the same breast 7 years previously. The current tumor was excised to clear margins. Histopathological examination revealed a 4-cm fibroepithelial tumor with marked stromal cellularity and a high mitotic count (five to seven mitoses/high-power field), confirming the diagnosis of malignant phylloides tumor. The patient continued her pregnancy without complications. Six other cases of phylloides tumor presenting in pregnancy have been reported in the literature, one of which had bilateral disease. Of these, the average patient age was 32 years (range, 28 to 35 years). The majority of these patients presented in their third trimester (mean, 29 weeks; range, 20 to 36 weeks) and often had large tumors (mean, 15 cm; range, 5 to 21 cm). Four of the seven tumors (57%) required a mastectomy. Previous cases have shown phylloides tumors to present in the third

  12. Midline Anterior Craniofacial Approach for Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Bryan John; Traynelis, Vincent C.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Funk, Gerry F.; Menezes, Arnold H.; Hoffman, Henry T.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty consecutive cases of midline anterior craniofacial procedures for the treatment of malignant neoplasms arising from the paranasal sinuses were reviewed. Posterior and lateral base craniofacial procedures were specifically excluded. This review compares the results, in terms of survival and major complication rate, between en bloc and piecemeal resections. The average follow-up was 4 years and 3 months. Sixteen patients were treated with an en bloc resection. The major complication rate was 31%. One-year survival rate was 94% for the en bloc resection group, 67% for patients with positive margins, and 100% for patients with clear margins. Three-year survival for en bloc resection dropped to 56, 33, and 67%, respectively. Fourteen patients were treated with piecemeal resections. The major complication rate was 21%. One-year survival rate was 83% for the piecemeal resection group, 60% for patients with positive margins, and 100% for patients with clear margins. Three-year survival dropped to 70, 60, and 80%, respectively. Although it is considered desirable to obtain an en bloc resection in some craniofacial procedures, we conclude that a piecemeal resection is a viable alternative in situations where an en bloc procedure is difficult to obtain safely. ImagesFigure 1p43-bFigure 2p44-b PMID:17171080

  13. [A Case of Anorectal Amelanotic Malignant Melanoma].

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Sakurao; Kuwahara, Taichi; Harada, Toshio; Kawaoka, Toru; Fukuda, Shintaro

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of primary anorectal amelanotic malignant melanoma (MM), treated with a laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR). A 75-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of anal bleeding and pain. A finger-tip sized, dark reddish tumor, which protruded from her anus, was observed. After a tumor biopsy, the diagnosis was MM. No cutaneous pigmented regions were observed, and distant metastases and regional lymphadenopathy were not detected by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, we performed laparoscopic APR in order to relieve her symptoms. The resected specimen showed a partially pigmented tumor with a diameter of 6.0×4.1 cm in the anorectal junction. Histopathological examination of the specimen showed an amelanotic MM (negative for melanin pigmentation, and positive for HMB-45, Melan-A, and S-100). The post-operative course was uneventful, and we could not find any obvious evidence of recurrence of the disease 11 months after surgery. The prognosis of anorectal MM is extremely poor, thus a less invasive surgical procedure is recommended for treatment of anorectal MM. Laparoscopic APR is useful for treating anorectal MM due to its minimally invasive nature. PMID:26805329

  14. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Chambers, Mark S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19 months, range: 4–72 months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50 Gy (1 case) to 70 Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. CONCLUSION While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8% to 14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a rare, but clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location is very important, with all cases that developed ORN having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. PMID:27208837

  15. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lee, Eun Bong; Kaplan, Irina V; Kwok, Kenneth; Geier, Jamie; Benda, Birgitta; Soma, Koshika; Wang, Lisy; Riese, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further assess the potential role of Janus kinase inhibition in the development of malignancies, we performed an integrated analysis of data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme. Methods Malignancy data (up to 10 April 2013) were pooled from six phase II, six Phase III and two long-term extension (LTE) studies involving tofacitinib. In the phase II and III studies, patients with moderate-to-severe RA were randomised to various tofacitinib doses as monotherapy or with background non-biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), mainly methotrexate. The LTE studies (tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily) enrolled patients from qualifying prior phase I, II and III index studies. Results Of 5671 tofacitinib-treated patients, 107 developed malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)). The most common malignancy was lung cancer (n=24) followed by breast cancer (n=19), lymphoma (n=10) and gastric cancer (n=6). The rate of malignancies by 6-month intervals of tofacitinib exposure indicates rates remained stable over time. Standardised incidence ratios (comparison with Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) for all malignancies (excluding NMSC) and selected malignancies (lung, breast, lymphoma, NMSC) were within the expected range of patients with moderate-to-severe RA. Conclusions The overall rates and types of malignancies observed in the tofacitinib clinical programme remained stable over time with increasing tofacitinib exposure. PMID:25902789

  16. Second malignant lesions after therapy for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schomberg, P.J.; Evans, R.G.; Banks, P.M.; White, W.L.; O'Connell, M.J.; Earle, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    Among 169 adult pathologically staged patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 1978, four cases of second malignant lesions were identified. The median duration of follow-up after diagnosis for the entire population was 4.1 years. Of the 169 patients, 73 received irradiation only, 19 received chemotherapy only, and 77 received both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In all four patients with second malignant lesions, Hodgkin's disease was in apparent remission at the time of diagnosis of the second tumor. These four patients had received either total nodal irradiation or six or more cycles of chemotherapy as initial treatment (and one of them had received both treatment modalities). Thus, intensive therapy might be hypothesized to have played a role in the development of the second malignant tumor. The development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma within a previously irradiated field after treatment of Hodgkin's disease with radiation therapy only is not know to have been reported previously. Although further studies with longer follow-up should be conducted, this analysis supports a definite risk for development of a second malignant lesion not only after combined-modality treatment or chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease but also after irradiation only.

  17. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  18. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  19. Laparoscopic approach to gastrointestinal malignancies: Toward the future with caution

    PubMed Central

    Bencini, Lapo; Bernini, Marco; Farsi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    After the rapid acceptance of laparoscopy to manage multiple benign diseases arising from gastrointestinal districts, some surgeons started to treat malignancies by the same way. However, if the limits of laparoscopy for benign diseases are mainly represented by technical issues, oncologic outcomes remain the foundation of any procedures to cure malignancies. Cancerous patients represent an important group with peculiar aspects including reduced survival expectancy, worsened quality of life due to surgery itself and adjuvant therapies, and challenging psychological impact. All these issues could, potentially, receive a better management with a laparoscopic surgical approach. In order to confirm such aspects, similarly to testing the newest weapons (surgical or pharmacologic) against cancer, long-term follow-up is always recommendable to assess the real benefits in terms of overall survival, cancer-free survival and quality of life. Furthermore, it seems of crucial importance that surgeons will be correctly trained in specific oncologic principles of surgical oncology as well as in modern miniinvasive technologies. Therefore, laparoscopic treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies requires more caution and deep analysis of published evidences, as compared to those achieved for inflammatory bowel diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease or diverticular disease. This review tries to examine the evidence available to date for the use of laparoscopy and robotics in malignancies arising from the gastrointestinal district. PMID:24587655

  20. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  1. Malignant Struma Ovarii With a Predominant Component of Anaplastic Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Tomomi; Koyama, Taig; Onoue, Kaoru; Kitai, Satomi; Tanaka, Kuniji; Isonishi, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Struma ovarii exhibiting malignant histology are uncommon, and aggressive clinical courses with initial extraovarian spread are even more rare. This report describes a case of malignant struma ovarii with a predominant anaplastic carcinoma component. A 65-yr-old, gravida 2, para 2, female presented with lower abdominal discomfort and pain. She had a 12×10×7.5 cm tumor in the right ovary. Intraoperative diagnosis was high-grade spindle cell tumor. Right salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy were performed. Macroscopically, the tumor invading the right tube was a yellow-white solid mass with focal microcysts containing greenish liquid and focal calcification. The tumor was histologically characterized by a spindle cell and pleomorphic sarcomatous component, and a minor component of benign-looking thyroid tissue with ossification. Immunohistochemically, the sarcomatous component was focally positive for CAM 5.2, EMA, thyroid transcription factor-1, and thyroglobulin, indicating anaplastic carcinoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and is alive, yet with tumor, 25 mo after surgery. This is the first case of malignant struma ovarii with a predominant component of anaplastic carcinoma. This type of malignant struma ovarii may lead to diagnostic problems, and sampling and differential diagnosis among sarcomatous ovarian tumors are important for making the correct diagnoses. PMID:26630220

  2. Malignant Triton Tumors in Sisters with Clinical Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Alina, Basnet; Sebastian, Jofre A.; Gerardo, Capo

    2015-01-01

    Malignant triton tumors (MTTs) are rare and aggressive sarcomas categorized as a subgroup of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). MTTs arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or existing neurofibromas and have elements of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. We report the occurrence of MTTs in two sisters. The first patient is a 36-year-old female who presented with left sided chest wall swelling. She also had clinical features consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Debulking of the mass showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with skeletal muscle differentiation (MTT). The patient was treated with ifosfamide and adriamycin along with radiation. Four years after treatment, she still has no evidence of disease recurrence. Her sister subsequently presented to us at the age of 42 with left sided lateral chest wall pain. Imaging showed a multicompartmental retroperitoneal cystic mass with left psoas involvement. The tumor was resected and, similarly to her sister, it showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (MTT). The patient was started on chemotherapy and radiation as described above. PMID:26114002

  3. Paranasal sinuses malignancies: A 12-year review of clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sarafraz, Alireza; Chamani, Mojtaba; Derakhshandeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate epidemiologic investigations of the paranasal sinuses malignancies prompted this retrospective study with special emphasis on a major group of 111 tumors. Material and Methods Clinical records of 111 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were investigated retrospectively from April 2000 to January 2012. Collection of data included demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment plans, and histopathology of the tumor. Results There were 69 (62.16%) male and 42 (37.83%) female patients (male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1), with a median age of 49±12.2 years (range 21 to 88 years). A high level of occurrence was noticed in the fifth (26.3%) decade of life. The most frequent histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (43.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (19%). Among clinical manifestations, nasal obstruction was the most frequent followed by diplopia, and facial swelling. Fifty three patients (47.74%) were treated with combined approach of surgery and radiation therapy. Conclusions Paranasal sinuses malignancies are rare conditions with nonspecific symptoms which make early diagnosis of the lesions more challenging. The optimal therapeutic protocol for patients suffering from these tumors is still a somewhat controversial entity and requires further studies. Key words:Paranasal sinuses, malignancy, surgery,radiotherapy. PMID:27475693

  4. [Histological spectrum of malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Brenn, T

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is one of the most problematic areas in dermatology and diagnostic pathology. Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic tumor and the risk for metastasis and associated mortality is mainly dependent on tumor thickness and depth of invasion. Early recognition and correct diagnosis is therefore important for successful and effective treatment. The correct diagnosis of melanoma is, however, challenging due to the wide morphological spectrum. Historically, the disease was subdivided into superficial spreading, nodular, lentigo maligna and acral lentiginous melanoma but many more subtypes have subsequently been added. Some of these melanoma variants also show differences relating to the genetic background, clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment and may be associated with a specific differential diagnosis. In this article four of these melanoma variants, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, malignant blue nevus and pigment synthesizing melanoma will be discussed in more detail. PMID:25589353

  5. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  6. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

  7. Immunological Aspects of Malignant Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Inbar, Or; Zaaroor, Menashe

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain neoplasm having a mean survival time of <24 months. This figure remains constant, despite significant progress in medical research and treatment. The lack of an efficient anti-tumor immune response and the micro-invasive nature of the glioma malignant cells have been explained by a multitude of immune-suppressive mechanisms, proven in different models. These immune-resistant capabilities of the tumor result in a complex interplay this tumor shares with the immune system. We present a short review on the immunology of GBM, discussing the different unique pathological and molecular features of GBM, current treatment modalities, the principles of cancer immunotherapy and the link between GBM and melanoma. Current knowledge on immunological features of GBM, as well as immunotherapy past and current clinical trials, is discussed in an attempt to broadly present the complex and formidable challenges posed by GBM. PMID:27324313

  8. IRF4: Immunity. Malignancy! Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Arthur L.; Tolga Emre, N. C.; Romesser, Paul B.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    IRF4, a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is expressed in cells of the immune system where it transduces signals from various receptors to activate or repress gene expression. IRF4 expression is a key regulator of several steps in lymphoid, myeloid and dendritic cell differentiation, including the differentiation of mature B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. IRF4 expression is also associated with many lymphoid malignancies, with recent evidence pointing to an essential role in multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells. Interference with IRF4 expression is lethal to multiple myeloma cells, irrespective of their genetic etiology, making IRF4 an “Achilles’ heel” that may be exploited therapeutically. PMID:19383829

  9. Clinicopathological analysis of eyelid malignancies - A review of 85 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Satish M.; Patil, Surendra B.; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh; Jain, Arvind; Jaiswal, Sumeet

    2012-01-01

    % at 5 years. Recurrence rate was 1.9% for BCC and 12.7% for SGC. Surgical methods used included wedge excision and primary closure, excision and skin grafting, and tarso-conjunctival flap. Conclusions: We recommend that the surgeons treating eyelid malignancies in India should have a high index of suspicion for SGC. A wider margin of 10 mm is recommended for SGC excision as opposed to 5 mm for BCC. PMID:22754148

  10. [Malignant wounds in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Rollot, Florence; Nicodeme, Marguerite; Kriegel, Iréne

    2015-01-01

    In the alsence of effective cancer treatment, malignant wounds evolve. The decisions taken by the multi-disciplinary team with regard to their care vary depending on whether the patient is in the initial, advanced or terminal phase of palliative care. Modern dressings can be used to control bleeding, odours and drainage. The aim is to control the symptoms and improve the quality of life, until its end. PMID:26027186

  11. Transcatheter therapy for malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Coldwell, D M; Mortimer, J E

    1989-01-01

    Interventional radiology has developed into a subspecialty with application in the treatment and palliation of patients with advanced malignant diseases. A directed catheter delivers high concentrations of chemotherapy directly into the tumor bed. Embolic particles may be injected to stop hemorrhage or to occlude the blood supply of a cancer, resulting in pain relief or tumor shrinkage. These techniques can be incorporated into a multidisciplinary approach to cancer. Images PMID:2686168

  12. Molecular biology of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Casado Sáenz, Enrique; Cejas Guerrero, Paloma; Perona, Rosario; González Barón, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours. In keeping with the degree of aggressiveness, gliomas are divided into four grades, with different biological behaviour. Furthermore, as different gliomas share a predominant histological appearance, the final classification includes both, histological features and degree of malignancy. For example, gliomas of astrocytic origin (astrocytomas) are classified into pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) (grade IV). Tumors derived from oligodendrocytes include grade II (oliogodendrogliomas) and grade III neoplasms (oligoastrocytoma). Each subtype has a specific prognosis that dictates the clinical management. In this regard, a patient diagnosed with an oligodendroglioma totally removed has 10-15 years of potential survival. On the opposite site, patients carrying a glioblastoma multiforme usually die within the first year after the diagnosis is made. Therefore, different approaches are needed in each case. Obviously, prognosis and biological behaviour of malignant gliomas are closely related and supported by the different molecular background that possesses each type of glioma. Furthermore, the ability that allows several low-grade gliomas to progress into more aggressive tumors has allowed cancer researchers to elucidate several pathways implicated in molecular biology of these devastating tumors. In this review, we describe classical pathways involved in human malignant gliomas with special focus with recent advances, such as glioma stem-like cells and expression patterns from microarray studies. PMID:17005465

  13. Management of Inoperable Malignant Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kiess, Ana P; Quon, Harry

    2016-01-01

    For patients with inoperable salivary gland malignancy, radiation therapy has significant limitations but has been the mainstay of treatment. With standard photon radiation (X-rays), the 10-year loco-regional control (LRC) and overall survival rates are only ∼25%. Neutron radiation has potential biological advantages over photon radiation because it causes increased DNA damage, and studies of patients with inoperable salivary gland malignancy have shown improved 6-year LRC and overall survival of ∼60%. However, neutron radiation may also increase the risk of late toxicities, especially central nervous system toxicities after treatment of tumors involving the base of the skull. Proton radiation has potential physical advantages due to minimal exit dose through normal tissues, and a recent study has demonstrated 90% 5-year LRC after combined proton/photon radiation for adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the base of the skull. Stereotactic radiosurgery has also been used in combination with neutrons or standard photons as a technique to boost the skull base. The use of concurrent chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer has been considered based on extrapolation of data on squamous cell carcinomas, but further data are needed on inoperable salivary gland malignancies. Newer targeted therapies are also under investigation, and clinical trial enrollment is encouraged. PMID:27093559

  14. Comparative effectiveness in hepatic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Page, Andrew J; Cosgrove, David; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of applying comparative effectiveness research (CER) strategies to the management of cancer are important. As the incidence of cancer increases both in the United States and worldwide, accurate analysis of which tests and treatments should be applied in which situations is critical, both in terms of measurable and meaningful clinical outcomes and health care costs. In the last 20 years alone, multiple controversies have arisen in the diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the liver, making the management of liver malignancies a prime example of CER. Contributing factors to the development of these controversies include improvements in molecular characterization of these diseases and technological advances in surgery and radiology. The relative speed of these advances has outpaced data from clinical trials, in turn making robust data to inform clinical practice lacking. Indeed, many of the current treatment recommendations for the management of liver malignancies are based primarily on retrospective data. We herein review select CER issues concerning select decision-making topics in the management of liver malignancies. PMID:25677025

  15. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  16. Oral leukoplakia-to treat or not to treat.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E

    2016-09-01

    Various treatment modalities have been described for reducing or eliminating malignant development of oral leukoplakia, but no treatment has gained universal approval due to lack of randomized clinical studies. At present, it is uncertain whether we can do harm to the patients by treating or by not treating them. An essential aspect is the observation of cancer development even after surgical removal of the clinical lesions. Inadequate resection of the lesions or field cancerization may account for this phenomenon. Another challenge is whether surgical removal of the lesions in fact is associated with a cancer promotional effect resulting in increased risk of cancer. Moreover, unidentified existing cancer in non-suspicious oral leukoplakias may for diagnostic purposes imply that surgical removal is recommendable as well as serial section of all excised tissue. Intensive follow-up programmes for leukoplakias are important, independent of surgical intervention. PMID:26785709

  17. Malignant Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Treatment with Self-Expanding Uncovered Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, Andreas Binkert, Christoph A.; Schoch, Eric; Sautter, Thomas; Jost, Res; Zollikofer, Christoph L.

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-expanding uncovered Wallstent in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Under combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, 29 patients with a malignant gastroduodenal stenosis were treated with a self-expanding uncovered metallic Wallstent. A dysphagia score was assessed before and after the intervention to measure the success of this palliative therapy. The dysphagia score ranged between grade 0 to grade 4: grade 0 = able to tolerate solid food, grade 1 = able to tolerate soft food, grade 2 = able to tolerate thick liquids, grade 3 = able to tolerate water or clear fluids, and grade 4 = unable to tolerate anything perorally. Stent patency and patients survival rates were calculated. Results: The insertion of the gastroduodenal stent was technically successful in 28 patients (96.5%). After stenting, 25 patients (86.2%) showed clinical improvement by at least one score point. During follow-up, 22 (78.5%) of 28 patients showed no stent occlusion until death and did not have to undergo any further intervention. In six patients (20.6%), all of whom were treated with secondary stent insertions, occlusion with tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth was observed after the intervention. The median period of primary stent patency in our study was 240 days. Conclusion: Placement of an uncovered Wallstent is clinically effective in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Stent placement is associated with high technical success, good palliation effect, and high durability of stent function.

  18. Multimodal Somatostatin Receptor Theranostics Using [(64)Cu]Cu-/[(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr(3))octreotate and AN-238 in a Mouse Pheochromocytoma Model.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Martin; Bergmann, Ralf; Peitzsch, Mirko; Zenker, Erik F; Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Pietzsch, Jens; Ziegler, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs) are rare catecholamine-producing chromaffin cell tumors. For metastatic disease, no effective therapy is available. Overexpression of somatostatin type 2 receptors (SSTR2) in PHEO/PGLs promotes interest in applying therapies using somatostatin analogs linked to radionuclides and/or cytotoxic compounds, such as [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr(3))octreotate (DOTATATE) and AN-238. Systematic evaluation of such therapies for the treatment of PHEO/PGLs requires sophisticated animal models. In this study, the mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC)-mCherry allograft model showed high tumor densities of murine SSTR2 (mSSTR2) and high tumor uptake of [(64)Cu]Cu-DOTATATE. Using tumor sections, we assessed mSSTR2-specific binding of DOTATATE, AN-238, and somatostatin-14. Therapeutic studies showed substantial reduction of tumor growth and tumor-related renal monoamine excretion in tumor-bearing mice after treatment with [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTATATE compared to AN-238 and doxorubicin. Analyses did not show agonist-dependent receptor downregulation after single mSSTR2-targeting therapies. This study demonstrates that the MPC-mCherry model is a uniquely powerful tool for the preclinical evaluation of SSTR2-targeting theranostic applications in vivo. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of somatostatin analogs, especially of [(177)Lu]Lu-DOTATATE, for the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGLs. Repeated treatment cycles, fractionated combinations of SSTR2-targeting radionuclide and cytotoxic therapies, and other adjuvant compounds addressing additional mechanisms may further enhance therapeutic outcome. PMID:27022413

  19. Multimodal Somatostatin Receptor Theranostics Using [64Cu]Cu-/[177Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr3)octreotate and AN-238 in a Mouse Pheochromocytoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Martin; Bergmann, Ralf; Peitzsch, Mirko; Zenker, Erik F.; Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Pietzsch, Jens; Ziegler, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PHEO/PGLs) are rare catecholamine-producing chromaffin cell tumors. For metastatic disease, no effective therapy is available. Overexpression of somatostatin type 2 receptors (SSTR2) in PHEO/PGLs promotes interest in applying therapies using somatostatin analogs linked to radionuclides and/or cytotoxic compounds, such as [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-(Tyr3)octreotate (DOTATATE) and AN-238. Systematic evaluation of such therapies for the treatment of PHEO/PGLs requires sophisticated animal models. In this study, the mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC)-mCherry allograft model showed high tumor densities of murine SSTR2 (mSSTR2) and high tumor uptake of [64Cu]Cu-DOTATATE. Using tumor sections, we assessed mSSTR2-specific binding of DOTATATE, AN-238, and somatostatin-14. Therapeutic studies showed substantial reduction of tumor growth and tumor-related renal monoamine excretion in tumor-bearing mice after treatment with [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE compared to AN-238 and doxorubicin. Analyses did not show agonist-dependent receptor downregulation after single mSSTR2-targeting therapies. This study demonstrates that the MPC-mCherry model is a uniquely powerful tool for the preclinical evaluation of SSTR2-targeting theranostic applications in vivo. Our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of somatostatin analogs, especially of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATATE, for the treatment of metastatic PHEO/PGLs. Repeated treatment cycles, fractionated combinations of SSTR2-targeting radionuclide and cytotoxic therapies, and other adjuvant compounds addressing additional mechanisms may further enhance therapeutic outcome. PMID:27022413

  20. Inactivation of SDH and FH cause loss of 5hmC and increased H3K9me3 in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and smooth muscle tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Attje S.; de Graaff, Marieke A.; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H.; Ras, Cor; Seifar, Reza Maleki; van Minderhout, Ivonne; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W.; Breuning, Martijn H.; Suijker, Johnny; Korpershoek, Esther; Kunst, Henricus P.M.; Frizzell, Norma; Devilee, Peter; Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Bovée, Judith V.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) are tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and tumor suppressors. Loss-of-function mutations give rise to hereditary paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Inactivation of SDH and FH results in an abnormal accumulation of their substrates succinate and fumarate, leading to inhibition of numerous α-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) hydroxylases. To evaluate the distribution of DNA and histone methylation, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of 5mC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), TET1, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 on tissue microarrays containing paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (n = 134) and hereditary and sporadic smooth muscle tumors (n = 56) in comparison to their normal counterparts. Our results demonstrate distinct loss of 5hmC in tumor cells in SDH- and FH-deficient tumors. Loss of 5hmC in SDH-deficient tumors was associated with nuclear exclusion of TET1, a known regulator of 5hmC levels. Moreover, increased methylation of H3K9me3 occurred predominantly in the chief cell component of SDH mutant tumors, while no changes were seen in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, data supported by in vitro knockdown of SDH genes. We also show for the first time that FH-deficient smooth muscle tumors exhibit increased H3K9me3 methylation compared to wildtype tumors. Our findings reveal broadly similar patterns of epigenetic deregulation in both FH- and SDH-deficient tumors, suggesting that defects in genes of the TCA cycle result in common mechanisms of inhibition of histone and DNA demethylases. PMID:26472283

  1. Inactivation of SDH and FH cause loss of 5hmC and increased H3K9me3 in paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma and smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Attje S; de Graaff, Marieke A; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Ras, Cor; Seifar, Reza Maleki; van Minderhout, Ivonne; Cornelisse, Cees J; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Breuning, Martijn H; Suijker, Johnny; Korpershoek, Esther; Kunst, Henricus P M; Frizzell, Norma; Devilee, Peter; Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-11-17

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) are tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and tumor suppressors. Loss-of-function mutations give rise to hereditary paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma. Inactivation of SDH and FH results in an abnormal accumulation of their substrates succinate and fumarate, leading to inhibition of numerous α-ketoglutarate dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and the ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) hydroxylases. To evaluate the distribution of DNA and histone methylation, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of 5 mC, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC), TET1, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3 on tissue microarrays containing paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (n = 134) and hereditary and sporadic smooth muscle tumors (n = 56) in comparison to their normal counterparts. Our results demonstrate distinct loss of 5 hmC in tumor cells in SDH- and FH-deficient tumors. Loss of 5 hmC in SDH-deficient tumors was associated with nuclear exclusion of TET1, a known regulator of 5 hmC levels. Moreover, increased methylation of H3K9me3 occurred predominantly in the chief cell component of SDH mutant tumors, while no changes were seen in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, data supported by in vitro knockdown of SDH genes. We also show for the first time that FH-deficient smooth muscle tumors exhibit increased H3K9me3 methylation compared to wildtype tumors. Our findings reveal broadly similar patterns of epigenetic deregulation in both FH- and SDH-deficient tumors, suggesting that defects in genes of the TCA cycle result in common mechanisms of inhibition of histone and DNA demethylases. PMID:26472283

  2. Pheochromocytoma during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). Genetic counseling is part of the treatment plan for ... to other parts of the body: CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  3. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... K. (2011). Phaeochromocytoma: a catecholamine and oxidative stress disorder. Endocrine Regulation 45: 65-90. [top] Parenti, G., Zampetti, B., Rapizzi, E., Ercolino, T., Giachè, V., & Mannelli, M. (2012). Updated and new perspectives on diagnosis, ... NICHD News and Spotlights Rare cancers may masquerade ...

  4. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Catecholamines include metanephrine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and dopamine. These hormones help regulate your responses to stress, heart rate, and blood pressure. Once your body encounters any stress, your adrenal glands secrete these ...

  5. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  6. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Mahesh, Nirujogi; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  7. Therapeutic radiation and the potential risk of second malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Ng, Andrea; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2016-06-15

    Radiation has long been associated with carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, it is an important part of multimodality therapy for many malignancies. It is critical to assess the risk of secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after radiation treatment. The authors reviewed the literature with a focus on radiation and associated SMNs for primary hematologic, breast, gynecologic, and pediatric tumors. Radiation appeared to increase the risk of SMN in all of these; however, this risk was found to be associated with age, hormonal influences, chemotherapy use, environmental influences, genetic predisposition, infection, and immunosuppression. The risk also appears to be altered with modern radiotherapy techniques. Practitioners of all specialties who treat cancer survivors in follow-up should be aware of this potential risk. Cancer 2016;122:1809-21. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26950597

  8. Endoscopic approach to malignant strictures at the hepatic hilum

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Giovanni D De; Masone, Stefania; Rega, Maria; Simeoli, Immacolata; Salvatori, Francesca; Siciliano, Saverio; Maione, Francesco; Girardi, Valerio; Celiento, Marta; Persico, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Hilar tumors have proven to be a challenge to treat and manage because of their poor sensitivity to conventional therapies and our inability to prevent or to detect early tumor formation. Endoscopic stent drainage has been proposed as an alternative to biliary-enteric bypass surgery and percutaneous drainage to palliate malignant biliary obstruction. Prosthetic palliation of patients with malignant hilar stenoses poses particular difficulties, especially in advanced lesions (type II lesions or higher). The risk of cholangitis after contrast injection into the biliary tree in cases where incomplete drainage is achieved is well known. The success rate of plastic stent insertion is around 80% in patients with proximal tumors. Relief of symptoms can be achieved in nearly all patients successfully stented. PMID:17696220

  9. Spontaneous malignant glaucoma in a patient with patent peripheral iridotomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To report a case of spontaneous malignant glaucoma in an Asian female. To propose the term “positive vitreous pressure glaucoma” to reflect the pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of the condition. Case presentation A 56-year old Chinese female was diagnosed of primary angle closure glaucoma and had bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy one year ago. She presented with spontaneous onset of malignant glaucoma involving the left eye. The condition was treated successfully; the final best corrected visual acuity was 0.67 (decimal notation). Conclusion This case highlights that acute angle closure attack can occur in an eye with patent peripheral iridotomy. Early recognition and treatment is essential for good visual prognosis. PMID:23241197

  10. Clinical systemic lupeol administration for canine oral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    YOKOE, INORU; AZUMA, KAZUO; HATA, KEISHI; MUKAIYAMA, TOSHIYUKI; GOTO, TAKAHIRO; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; ITOH, NORIHIKO; MURAHATA, YUSUKE; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; MINAMI, SABURO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2015-01-01

    Canine oral malignant melanoma (COMM) is the most aggressive malignant tumor in dogs. Lupeol is a triterpene extracted from various fruits and vegetables that reportedly inhibits melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the efficacy of subcutaneous lupeol for spontaneous COMM was evaluated. A total of 11 dogs (3, 5 and 3 dogs diagnosed with clinical stage I, II and III melanoma, respectively) were evaluated. Subcutaneous lupeol (10 mg/kg) was administered postoperatively at various time points to treat these 11 COMM cases. Of the 11 subjects, 7 exhibited no local recurrence 180 days postoperatively and no severe adverse effects were observed in any of the cases. Furthermore, no distant metastasis was observed during the experimental period. Therefore, systemic lupeol may prevent local tumor progression and distant metastasis and may be a novel adjuvant treatment for the treatment of COMM. PMID:25469276

  11. Cord blood transplantation in children with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, Alice; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Caniglia, Maurizio; Vinti, Luciana; Giorgiani, Giovanna; Locatelli, Franco

    2010-06-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is largely used to treat children affected by haematological malignant disorders. In comparison to bone marrow transplantation (BMT), advantages of UCBT include lower incidence and severity of graft-versus-host disease, easier procurement and prompter availability of cord blood cells, and the possibility of using donors having HLA disparities with the recipient. The large experience accumulated so far has shown that UCBT offers to children a probability of cure at least comparable to that of patients transplanted with bone marrow cells. Since it has been demonstrated that an inverse correlation between the number of nucleated cord blood cells infused per kg recipient body weight and the risk of dying for transplantation-related causes exists, recently developed strategies aimed at increasing the number of cord blood progenitors and at favouring stem cell homing could further optimize the outcome of children with leukemia or other malignancies receiving UCBT. PMID:20837330

  12. Cataract extraction after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, G.E.; Jost, B.F.; Snyder, W.I.; Fuller, D.G.; Birch, D.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Thirteen eyes of 55 consecutive patients treated with brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid developed postirradiation cataracts. Cataract development was more common in older patients and in patients with larger and more anterior tumors. Eleven eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Initial visual improvement occurred in 91% of eyes, with an average improvement of 5.5 lines. Visual acuity was maintained at 20/60 or better in 55% of the eyes over an average period of follow-up of 24 months (range, 6 to 40 months). These data suggest that, visually, cataract extraction can be helpful in selected patients who develop a cataract after brachytherapy for malignant melanoma of the choroid.

  13. Nelarabine in the Treatment of Refractory T-Cell Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Roecker, Andrew M.; Stockert, Amy; Kisor, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Nelarabine is a nucleoside analog indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) that is refractory or has relapsed after treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens. After being first synthesized in the late 1970s and receiving FDA approval in 2005, the appropriate use of nelarabine for refractory hematologic malignancies is still being elucidated. Nelarabine is the prodrug of 9-β-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G) which when phosphorylated intracellularly to ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), preferentially accumulates in cancerous T-cells. Dose-dependent toxicities, including neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, have been documented and may, in turn, limit the ability to appropriately treat the diagnosed malignancy. This article will summarize the pharmacologic properties of nelarabine and will address the current place in therapy nelarabine holds based upon the results of the available clinical trials to date. PMID:21151585

  14. Epiglottic diffuse B-cell malignant lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHANG, HUNG-MIN; LI, CHIUNG-CHON; TSAI, STELLA CHIN-SHAW; TSAO, TANG-YI

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient was admitted to our department with complaints of dysphagia and throat soreness for 2 months. A tumor of the left epiglottis, with an irregular surface, was identified by video laryngoscopy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was confirmed by biopsy during laryngomicrosurgery. The atypical diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma was positive for CD20 and Bcl-2, and negative for CD3, CD10 and Bcl-1. The diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell malignant lymphoma. The patient was treated with eight cycles of rituximab with cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristine + prednisolone (R-CHOP regimen). This is a rare case of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurring in the epiglottis. PMID:26870358

  15. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant

  16. Radiation-induced meningiomas after BNCT in patients with malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Kageji, T; Sogabe, S; Mizobichi, Y; Nakajima, K; Shinji, N; Nakagawa, Y

    2015-12-01

    Of the 180 patients with malignant brain tumors whom we treated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) since 1968, only one (0.56%) developed multiple radiation-induced meningiomas. The parasagittal meningioma that had received 42 Gy (w) for BNCT showed more rapid growth on Gd-enhanced MRI scans and more atypical features on histopathologic studies than the temporal convexity tumor that had received 20 Gy (w). Long-term follow up MRI studies are necessary in long-survivors of malignant brain tumors treated by BNCT. PMID:26122975

  17. [Angiogenesis in patients with hematologic malignancies].

    PubMed

    Mesters, R M; Padró, T; Steins, M; Bieker, R; Retzlaff, S; Kessler, T; Kienast, J; Berdel, W E

    2001-09-01

    patients aged 58-85 (median 69) years were recruited to this phase I/II study and were treated with a dose of 200-400 mg per os daily for a duration of 1-40 (median 6) weeks, dependent on the individual tolerability of the drug. In 4 patients we observed a partial response (PR - defined as more than 50% reduction in leukemic blast infiltration in the bone marrow). This was accompanied by an increase in platelet counts and hemoglobin values. One additional patient showed a significant improvement of peripheral blood counts without fulfilling the criteria of a PR. In parallel, we observed a significant decrease in microvessel density in these 5 patients during treatment with thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide seems to have anti-angiogenic as well as anti-leukemic activity in AML. The VEGF/VEGFR-2 pathway seems to play an important role in AML. Therefore, receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors like SU5416 or SU6668 are currently evaluated in the context of phase II studies in AML. We could recently induce a stable remission in a patient with second relapse of her AML refractory towards chemotherapy by administration of SU5416 (compassionate use), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR-2 and ckit. Current and future studies will clarify the role of anti-angiogenic treatment strategies in AML and other hematologic malignancies. PMID:11600818

  18. Meningioma after radiotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Peter F; Shah, Kalee; Dunkel, Ira J; Reiner, Anne S; Khakoo, Yasmin; Rosenblum, Marc K; Gutin, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RIM. Initial malignancies included acute lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%), medulloblastoma (26.7%) and glioma (16.7%) at a mean age of 8.1years (range 0.04-33years). The mean radiation dose was 34Gy (range 16-60Gy) and latency time to meningioma was 26years (range 8-51years). Twenty-one patients (70%) underwent surgery. Of these, 57.1% of tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) grade I while 42.9% were WHO II (atypical). The mean MIB-1 labeling index for patients with WHO I tumors was 5.44%, with 33.3% exhibiting at least 5% staining. Mean follow-up after meningioma diagnosis was 5.8years. Mortality was zero during the follow-up period. Meningioma is an important long-term complication of therapeutic radiation. While more aggressive pathology occurs more frequently in RIM than in sporadic meningioma, it remains unclear whether this translates into an effect on survival. Further study should be aimed at delineating the risks and benefits of routine surveillance for the development of secondary neoplasms after radiation therapy. PMID:27068012

  19. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  20. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  1. Primary malignant myelomatous pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Ankit; Agarwal, Nikki; Kim, George J; Catchatourian, Rosalind

    2016-08-01

    Primary malignant myelomatous pleural effusion (PMMPE) occurs in less than 1% of patients with multiple myeloma and is diagnosed either by visualization of plasma cells on cytology or by positive flow cytometry. The presence of immature plasma cells characterized by high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, visible nucleolus and presence of Mott cells and Russell bodies are independent poor prognostic factors. The clinician should differentiate PMMPE from secondary pleural effusion as it is associated with a significantly worse prognosis and poor overall survival. PMID:27525090

  2. Chemoradiotherapy in a Case of Malignant Syringocystadenocarcinoma Papilliferum of Vulva with Locoregional Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pamidimukkala Bramhananda; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Mohapatra, Manisha; Philip, N. Pramod; Kumar, P. Ravindra; Manam, Surendra; Karra, Pradeep; Jasti, Vijay Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (SCACP) is an extremely rare malignant adnexal tumor, which arises from syringocystadenoma papilliferum. To date, less than 30 cases of malignant SCACP have been reported, of which locoregional metastases were found in only four cases. Case Report. A 57-year-old female patient who presented to our Oncology Department with a recurrent malignant SCACP of the left labia along with right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant SCACP with right inguinal lymph node metastases. Due to the fixity of the right inguinal nodes, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered with Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil for four cycles, following which the primary tumor and the contralateral inguinal nodes regressed completely. Then definitive chemoradiation was delivered with five cycles of weekly Cisplatin and external beam pelvic irradiation up to a dose of 59.4 Gy. Patient is disease-free 11 months after treatment. Discussion. We here report the fifth case of malignant SCACP with locoregional metastases. This is the first case of malignant SCACP which has been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation. Although surgery has been used most commonly, chemoradiation may also have a role in the treatment of malignant SCACP, especially in cases of locoregional metastases. PMID:26697249

  3. Indium In 111 Pentetreotide in Treating Patients With Refractory Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-01

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Head and Neck Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Islet Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Melanoma (Skin); Neoplastic Syndrome; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Pheochromocytoma

  4. Mucosal malignant melanoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Norhafizah, M; Mustafa, W M B W; Sabariah, A R; Shiran, M S; Pathmanathan, R

    2010-09-01

    Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) is an aggressive tumour occurring in the upper respiratory tract. It is rare compared to malignant melanoma of the skin. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with left paranasal swelling. A biopsy showed high-grade spindle cell tumour. Subsequently a subtotal maxillectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a hypercellular tumour composed of mixed spindle and epitheloid cells with very occasional intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. The malignant cells were immunopositive for vimentin, S-100 protein and HMB-45. It was diagnosed as mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM). This article illustrates a rare case of MMM where the diagnosis may be missed or delayed without proper histopathological examination that include meticulous search for melanin pigment and appropriate immunohistochemical stains to confirm the diagnosis. Malignant melanoma can mimic many other types of high-grade malignancy and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in many of these instances. PMID:21939172

  5. Laparoscopic approaches to urologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Matin, Surena F

    2003-10-01

    Urologic laparoscopy has had its greatest impact on patients with genitourinary malignancies. Only pelvic lymph node dissection and the occasional nephrectomy were considered oncologically feasible early in the evolution of laparoscopic urology. Presently, multiple approaches are considered standard at centers of excellence and in the general community. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy and radical nephrectomy have gained overwhelming acceptance. Laparoscopic cytoreductive nephrectomy has been found to be feasible for select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Minimally invasive nephron-sparing approaches, such as cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, continue to generate great interest, but follow-up remains limited. Early data with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy suggest excellent continence rates and equivalent oncologic results based on pathologic surrogates of cure. However, long-term data are still needed, in addition to validated information regarding return of erectile function and quality of life. Other novel therapies, such as laparoscopic radical cystectomy with urinary diversion and laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, hold great promise of benefiting patients with urologic malignancies. PMID:12941197

  6. Multicentric malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Singh, Sanjeet K; Pujani, Mukta

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare type of sarcoma that is found in the digestive system, most often in the wall of the stomach. Multiple GISTs are extremely rare and usually associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and familial GIST.We report here a case of a 70-year-old woman who reported pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, and weight loss for six months. Ultrasound examination showed a small bowel mass along with multiple peritoneal deposits and a mass within the liver. Barium studies were suggestive of a neoplastic pathology of the distal ileum. A differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma/lymphoma with metastases was entertained. Perioperative findings showed two large growths arising from the jejunum and the distal ileum, along with multiple smaller nodules on the serosal surface and adjoining mesentery of the involved bowel segments. Segmental resection of the involved portions of the intestine was performed. Histopathological features were consistent with those of multicentric malignant GIST-not otherwise specified (GIST-NOS). Follow-up examination three months after surgery showed no evidence of recurrence. PMID:19568556

  7. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Piero; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    Malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract are rare, accounting for only 1% of all malignancies. Although they are associated with substantial histological heterogeneity, surgery plays a key role in their management. This review addresses the evolution of current treatments in view of the introduction of endoscopic resection techniques. The absence of facial incisions and osteotomies, decreased hospitalization time, better control of bleeding, improved visualization of tumor borders, and reduced morbidity and mortality rate are the major advantages of endoscopic techniques in comparison to traditional external approaches. The major criticisms focus on oncologic results in view of the short/intermediate follow-up of large series, which have commonly grouped together several histologies that may be associated with different prognoses. Since prospective studies contrasting the results of endoscopic and craniofacial resections are difficult to carry out given the rarity of the disease together with ethical issues, the creation of a large database would favor the analysis of several variables related to the patient, tumor, and treatment on survival performed on a large number of patients. PMID:21243539

  8. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida-Hata, Natsuyo; Katai, Naomichi; Oshitari, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was -0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  9. Cutaneous manifestations of genitourinary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary cancers are associated with a range of cutaneous syndromes, which can reflect direct metastatic spread, non-metastatic manifestations of malignancy or the consequences of treatment. More than 220,000 new cases of prostate cancer occur each year in the United States, and thus the associations with cutaneous involvement are quite well documented-rare metastatic spread, vasculitic and hemorrhagic syndromes. Cancers of the bladder and kidney may be associated with direct cutaneous metastases, vasculitic syndromes, hereditary leiomyomatosis, and other familial syndromes. Testicular cancer occasionally metastasizes to the skin but more commonly is associated with the dysplastic nevus (multiple atypical nevus) syndrome. A structured approach to history-taking, examination, and investigation is essential for optimal management, especially when these syndromes precede the diagnosis of a known malignancy. A brief review of the more common iatrogenic cutaneous complications is provided, and includes Raynaud's phenomenon, purpura, rash, hand-foot syndrome, the consequences of marrow failure, and bleomycin-induced pigmentation. PMID:27178687

  10. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  11. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the ocular findings in patients with hematopoietic malignancy with optic nerve involvement and abducens nerve palsy. Methods. The medical records of all cases of hematopoietic cancer with ophthalmic involvements seen in the Department of Ophthalmology of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Results. Eight patients with hematopoietic cancer with optic nerve invasion or abducens nerve palsy were studied. The primary diseases were 3 cases of multiple myeloma, 1 case of acute lymphocytic leukemia, 1 case of follicular lymphoma, and 3 cases of AIDS-related lymphoma. Six cases had optic nerve invasion, 2 cases had abducens nerve palsy, and 1 case had optic nerve invasion of both eyes. The median visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 0.885 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units. The final visual acuity of eyes with optic nerve invasion was 1.25 logMAR units, and that of those with sixth-nerve palsy was −0.1 logMAR units. Six cases died during the five-year follow-up period. An ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic cancer, especially AIDS-related lymphoma, was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion. Because ophthalmic involvement in patients with hematopoietic malignancy has a poor prognosis, an early diagnosis of the cancers by the ophthalmologic findings by ophthalmologists could improve the prognosis. PMID:27375913

  12. Whole Pelvic Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Gynecological Malignancies: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hymel, Rockne; Jones, Guy C.; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has long played a major role in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. There is increasing interest in the utility of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and its application to treat gynecological malignancies. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art use of IMRT for gynecological malignancies and report how it is being used alone as well as in combination with chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and definitive settings. Based on dosimetric and clinical evidence, IMRT can reduce gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematological toxicities compared with 3D conformal radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. We discuss how these attributes of IMRT may lead to improvements in disease outcomes by allowing for dose escalation of radiation therapy, intensification of chemotherapy, and limiting toxicity-related treatment breaks. Currently accruing trials investigating pelvic IMRT for cervical and endometrial cancers are discussed. PMID:25600840

  13. Recent development of optical coherence tomography for preoperative diagnosis of esophageal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kaname; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic diagnosis with histological evidence is necessary to decide the best strategy for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett’s-associated neoplasia, and the recent development of endoscopic technologies have made possible real-time information of malignant hallmarks. We focused on the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT), the only technology that can depict real-time cross-sectional images with high resolution. With the improvements in image resolution, acquisition rate and demonstrable area of three-dimensional devices with Doppler capability, OCT imaging was shown to enable visualization of structural/functional alterations in the mucosal/submucosal tissue of the esophagus, resulting in more accurate preoperative diagnosis of such malignancies. Moreover, it approved to be useful for targeting malignant areas for biopsy and treatment as well as for predicting the treatment effects. Therefore, further development of this technology is expected to overcome the current clinical issues in management strategies of esophageal malignancies. PMID:26240688

  14. Recent development of optical coherence tomography for preoperative diagnosis of esophageal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Uno, Kaname; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-25

    Endoscopic diagnosis with histological evidence is necessary to decide the best strategy for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Barrett's-associated neoplasia, and the recent development of endoscopic technologies have made possible real-time information of malignant hallmarks. We focused on the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT), the only technology that can depict real-time cross-sectional images with high resolution. With the improvements in image resolution, acquisition rate and demonstrable area of three-dimensional devices with Doppler capability, OCT imaging was shown to enable visualization of structural/functional alterations in the mucosal/submucosal tissue of the esophagus, resulting in more accurate preoperative diagnosis of such malignancies. Moreover, it approved to be useful for targeting malignant areas for biopsy and treatment as well as for predicting the treatment effects. Therefore, further development of this technology is expected to overcome the current clinical issues in management strategies of esophageal malignancies. PMID:26240688

  15. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  16. Photodynamic therapy of malignant mesothelioma of pleura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warloe, Trond; Heyerdahl, Helen; Peng, Qian; Hoie, J.; Normann, E.; Solheim, O.; Moan, Johan; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    1995-03-01

    Nine patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent extensive surgery followed by intra-operative photodynamic therapy. Two mg/kg Photofrin was given 48 hours prior to surgery. The thoracic cavity and eventual remaining lung were exposed to 15 - 30 Joules/cm2 of 630 nm laser light. Tumor tissue was analyzed by microscopic photometrical techniques. Five patients with mixed or epithelioid tumors with fluorescence intensity > 100 gray level/pixel seemed to benefit from the given therapy. One patient was free of disease 18 months after treatment. Two patients were treated for metastasis after 12 months with no sign of intrathoracic recurrence. Both are still alive, one without further sign of disease 32 months after initial treatment. Two patients presented generalized disease after 9 and 13 months and intrathoracic recurrence several months later. Two patients with poorly differentiated tumors and 2 patients with moderate to highly differentiated tumors, but with fluorescence intensity < 100 gray level/pixel, presented recurrences after 4 months. PDT-efficiency seems to be predicted by the intensity and distribution of drug-induced fluorescence in tumor tissue. PDT may enhance the possibility to achieve complete local tumor control after excision. Multimodal therapeutic approach of local and systemic disease seems mandatory to further improve survival.

  17. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Lithium Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaibhav; Gupta, Rishab; Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-07-01

    Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an idiosyncratic and potentially life-threatening reaction to neuroleptic drugs. Lithium is a first-line mood stabilizer used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. There are several case reports of lithium-associated NMS, but only when it was given in combination with antipsychotics. Therefore, the possibility of NMS being secondary to the antipsychotics could not be ruled out in those cases. Here we present a case of lithium-induced NMS in a patient who was not being treated concomitantly with any other agent known to cause NMS. The patient, a 74-year-old female with a 30-year history of bipolar affective disorder, was admitted to the emergency room of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, with history of high fever and generalized weakness for 10 days before the admission. NMS was established based the presence of three cardinal symptoms. She was started on intravenous fluids to correct her sodium levels slowly and requested to follow-up at the psychiatry clinic. PMID:27403245

  18. Anorectal malignant melanomas: experience of Uludag University.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Berna; Adim, Saduman Balaban; Yerci, Omer; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2010-12-01

    Anorectal melanomas represent a group of mucosal melanomas with unknown etiology and poor prognosis. The lesions can be misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids during clinical examination. We reviewed the morphological and clinical features of 14 anorectal melanomas, and discuss the treatment modalities of this entity. Fourteen patients who were diagnosed with anorectal malignant melanoma between 1997 and 2004 were evaluated with regard to age, sex, size, morphology, lymph node or distant metastasis, treatment modality and survival. Eight patients were female and six were male, and their mean age was 58 years. The size of melanoma ranged from 3 cm to 8 cm. Pathological evaluation revealed epithelioid and spindle cell type tumor in seven and two patients, respectively, whereas, in the remaining seven patients, the tumor was composed of both types. Pigmentation was apparent in all tumors. There was lymph node metastasis in 11 patients and distant metastasis in all patients. Eleven patients underwent abdominoperineal resection and three were treated by local excision. Mean survival was 8.7 months. Prognosis of anorectal melanoma remains poor. Awareness of the diverse clinicopathological features of these lesions, both on the part of the clinicians and pathologists, is crucial for their early detection and proper treatment. PMID:21186014

  19. Palliation of esophageal malignancy with photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, J S; Williams, T E; Bethel, B H

    1985-08-01

    Sixteen patients with esophageal malignancies received photodynamic therapy after 3 mg of hematoporphyrin derivative (Photofrin I) or 2 mg of Photofrin II per kilogram of body weight was injected intravenously two to six days prior to treatment. A tunable dye argon laser system delivered 630 nm light through quartz fibers passed through the biopsy channel of a gastroscope. All patients obtained improvement in swallowing, usually from total obstruction or clear liquids only to a regular diet within three weeks and with new techniques, at least liquids within three days of treatment. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and esophageal grades were measured before treatment, 1 month following treatment, and periodically until death. Ten patients died an average of 3.7 months after initial treatment (range, 0.6 to 19 months). Six patients are alive at 11, 10, 5, 2.5, 2 months, and 1 month after treatment. The median survival of 12 patients treated more than 6 months ago was 6.5 months and of 9 patients with an initial KPS higher than 30, 8.1 months. PMID:2411233

  20. Palliative laser therapy for malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Krasner, N; Barr, H; Skidmore, C; Morris, A I

    1987-07-01

    Seventy six patients with dysphagia caused by malignant tumours of the oesophagus or gastric cardia have been treated using the Neodymium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (NdYag) laser. The laser was set to deliver 80-100 watts of power for 0.5-1 second pulses. To obtain improvement, patients on average needed four treatment sessions with a mean energy per treatment of 3586 joules. Follow up endoscopy and laser treatment was at four week intervals, unless the clinical or endoscopic results indicated otherwise. The immediate result was to allow 32% of patients to swallow anything they liked, a further 54% were able to take most solids and 9% were improved, or maintained on liquids only. The mortality of laser recanalisation and associated treatment was 5%. The improvement in swallowing was maintained until death in all but 15% of these patients, some of the 15% needed intubation to allow adequate swallowing. Endoscopic, or surgical intubation was required immediately in five patients after an initial laser course failed to provide improvement. The mean survival of the whole group was 19 weeks (range one to 112 weeks). PMID:2443430