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Sample records for malignant tumours excluding

  1. Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.

    PubMed

    Powari, Manish; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, S K; Rai, R S; Jogai, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. PMID:11803271

  2. The Laser Treatment of Experimental Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    McGuff, Paul E.; Deterling, Ralph A.; Gottlieb, Leonard S.; Fahimi, H. Dariush; Bushnell, David; Roeber, Fred

    1964-01-01

    Some of the results of experiments performed during the past two years to assess effects of laser energy on experimental malignant tumours are reviewed. Twenty types of malignant tumours (most in the cheek pouch and 11 of human origin) were treated in over 700 Syrian hamsters. Results of laser treatment of malignant melanomas and thyroidal carcinomas are presented. A human patient with malignant melanoma treated by laser energy is described. Investigation of thermal effect revealed that the laser-treated tumour remained warm for about one minute, while the cautery-treated tumour cooled to normal temperature in five seconds. Direct action of laser on superficial tumours is possible; deeper lesions must be exposed surgically. Laser energy has a selective effect on certain malignant tumours, resulting in their progressive regression and ultimate dissolution. All hamsters with implanted malignant melanomas and carcinomas of human origin, after completion of a course of laser treatment, showed no gross or histologic evidence of tumour up to the date of last observation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 2eFig. 2fFig. 3Fig. 4aFig. 4bFig. 4cFig. 4dFig. 4eFig. 4fFig. 4gFig. 6 PMID:14229757

  3. [34 epibulbar malignant tumours (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwartzenberg, T; Vancea, P P; Dobrescu, G

    1979-02-01

    Based on a study of 34 cases, the authors make therapeutical and diagnostical references concerning the epibulbar malignant tumours. These were met with a frequency of 10% of the total amount of the malignant tumours of the visual apparatus. The most frequent setting were at the level of the bulbar conjunctiva and of the sclero-corneal limb, especially in front of the opening of the palpebral slit and in the temporal area. The histological examination of the tumours pointed out the following morphological types; epitheliomas (61%), especially spino-cellular, malignant melanomas (32%) and sarcomas (6%). The therapeutical attitude was the surgical one -- the accurate extirpation -- in the limited tumours, followed by radiotherapy when neoplasic lesions were found at the limit of section. In the invaded tumours, the exenteration of the orbit was performed followed by radiotherapy. On the terms of such a therapeutical conduct, the distant prognosis proved to be dependent on two factors: a. The early diagnosis, that is the stage of the therapeutical action. It is insisted upon the importance of the signs of malignization of some benign tumors: papillomas or naevi. b. The nature and origin of the tumour: the secondary tumours are more severe from the beginning. PMID:444115

  4. Primary malignant tumours of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Nix, G A; Wilson, J H; Dees, J

    1985-04-01

    The clinical and radiological findings in 19 patients with primary duodenal malignancy are described. Weight loss, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting were the main symptoms. Diagnosis was made by endoscopy or ERCP (71%) or by barium studies (68%). In retrospect the tumour was visible in 97% of the studies. Tumour growth was longitudinal, circular or spiral, the inner curvature being involved over a greater length than the outer curvature. Exophytic tumour growth, involvement of the papilla of Vater, malignant spikes, transient, non-constant tumour image, skip lesions and ulceration were often seen. Mean survival time was 18 months from start of symptoms in 10 inoperable patients, and 24 months in 9 patients undergoing resection. PMID:2986213

  5. Giant malignant phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32 cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10 kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence. PMID:25548696

  6. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. PMID:26114606

  7. Rare emerging malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Rongioletti, F; Ferreli, C; Pinna, A L; Atzori, L

    2015-08-01

    As clinical skills improve and innovative diagnostic techniques become available in the field of dermatology and dermatopathology, new types or additional variants of malignant skin tumors are described. This article reviews the current nomenclature, clinico-pathological features, differential diagnosis, prognostic and therapeutic implications of some new dermato(patho)logical rare emerging skin tumors, including epithelial tumors (squamous cell carcinoma with mucinous metaplasia), adnexal tumors (endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma), soft tissue tumors of vascular differentiation (pseudolymphomatous cutaneous angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma), hematopoietic tumors (blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm) and mixed epithelial/melanocytic tumor (squamomelanocytic tumor). PMID:26086411

  8. Role of tumour angiogenesis in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Medinger, Michael; Passweg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Tumour angiogenesis plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of haematological malignancies. Thereby, pro- and anti-angiogenic growth factors and cytokines regulate the angiogenic process. The most important growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its signaling through its receptors 1 and 2, is not only involved in solid tumours, but there is also emerging evidence that tumour progression in haematological malignancies also depends on the induction of new blood vessel formation. The evidence supporting this theory includes the finding of increased bone marrow microvessel density and increased levels of plasma pro-angiogenic cytokines. Leukaemia cells interact with surrounding host cells and extracellular matrix, this crosstalk affecting the most important aspects of the malignant phenotype. The pathophysiology of leukaemia induced angiogenesis involves both direct production of angiogenic cytokines by leukaemia cells and their interaction with bone marrow microenvironment. The inhibition of VEGF signalling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully used for the treatment of different cancer entities, and multiple new drugs are being tested. This review summarises recent advances in the basic understanding of the role of angiogenesis in haematological malignancies and the translation of such basic findings into clinical studies. PMID:25375891

  9. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anirban; Pratap, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment. PMID:27034865

  10. A benign maxillary tumour with malignant features.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, Rosario R; Lim, Aimee Caroline E; Lopa, Ramon Antonio B; Carnate, Jose M

    2010-06-01

    Non-specific biopsy results such as chronic inflammation, hemorrhage, necrosis can be frustrating to the clinician. This is especially true if the patient presents with clinical features suggestive of an aggressive tumour. This is a review of the clinical features, diagnostic dilemmas and surgical management of a benign maxillary mass with malignant features - a disease called hematoma-like mass of the maxillary sinus (HLMMS). Our experience with five cases will also be cited. PMID:20502750

  11. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  12. Malignant Extra Renal Rhabdoid Tumour Presenting as Central Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh; Das, Ashim

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumours are one of the most aggressive childhood neoplasms associated with high mortality. The commonest age group affected is children less than five years of age. Rhabdoid tumour presenting as an endoluminal tracheal mass leading to central airway obstruction has not been previously reported. We describe the case of a 17-year-old male patient where malignant rhabdoid tumour masqueraded as bronchial asthma leading to a delayed diagnosis of upper airway obstruction by tracheal growth. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour. PMID:25243090

  13. A composite malignant tumour of the elderly female breast

    PubMed Central

    Wayte, D. M.; Stewart, J. B.; McKenzie, C. G.

    1970-01-01

    A composite malignant tumour arising in the breast of an elderly woman is described. The cystic tumour containing areas of squamous metaplasia, bone formation, adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma was surrounded by the typical changes of mammary dysplasia (fibroadenosis). The classification and acceptance of such tumours is highly debatable. There is no one acceptable classification of breast sarcomas and hence the prognosis of such neoplasms, particularly those containing heterologous tissues, is poorly defined. Evidence is presented in support of such composite tumours as being definite entities which arise from the closely associated epithelial and mesenchymal components of the breast simultaneously. Images PMID:4320045

  14. EGFR and microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Guimarães, Maria João; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2013-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor which has been shown to have an important role in human breast cancer. Its role appears to be associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. In order to clarify its role in canine mammary tumours (CMT), 61 malignant neoplasms were studied by using immunohistochemistry, comparing expression of EGFR, microvessel density (MVD) by CD31 immunolabelling and characteristics of tumour aggressiveness. High EGFR immunoexpression was statistically significantly associated with tumour size, tumour necrosis, mitotic grade, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. High CD31 immunoreactivity was statistically significantly associated with tubule formation, histological grade of malignancy and clinical stage. A positive correlation between EGFR and CD31 immunoexpression (r = 0.843; P < 0.001) was also observed. Results suggest that an over-expression of EGFR may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant CMT, presenting the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors in the context of metastatic disease treatment. PMID:24091029

  15. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  16. Ovarian tuberculosis mimicking a malignant tumour

    PubMed Central

    Yebouet, Eric; Olivier, Moulot Martial; Koui, Sylvanus; Bankole, Sanni R.

    2015-01-01

    There has been reported increased incidence of ovarian tuberculosis in the tropics since the advent of HIV/AIDS disease. We report a case of bilateral ovarian tuberculosis associated with a single right kidney of uncertain origin in an immunocompetent 15-year-old generally healthy-looking girl. Abdominopelvic scan was equivocal about the diagnosis of the lesion as it failed to differentiate it from malignancy. Tuberculin and histopathology were necessary to confirm the diagnosis of ovarian tuberculosis. Antituberculous medical therapy successfully resolved the disease. PMID:26168758

  17. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Massimiliano; Di Poce, Isabelle; Ricci, Aurora; Di Trapano, Roberta; Costanzo, Elisa; Di Cello, Pierfrancesco; Pelle, Fabio; Izzo, Luciano; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is extremely rare malignancy in the general population, occurring more frequently in patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In the literature five cases of MPNST arising from the parapharyngeal space (PPS) in patients without neurofibromatosis have been reported. We report imaging techniques in a patient with MPNST in the PPS, who had neither a family history nor sign of NF1. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for a correct therapeutic planning. CT and MRI findings were correlated with hystopathological diagnosis. PMID:23970990

  18. [Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: malignant tumour as triggering factor].

    PubMed

    Guisado, J; Carbonell, C; Donaire, L; De Miguel, J; Vaz, F

    2001-01-01

    Gastrectomy, alcoholism and malignant tumour are three predisponing risk factors for the development of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We described the clinical case of a patient with history of alcoholism that developed Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome 30 years after undergoing gastrectomy. This patient had, in the last year, a diagnostic for prostatic adenocarcinoma and changes in dietary habits. We presented the clinical and neuropathological features of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. As well as some aspects in the treatment and prognosis. PMID:11470064

  19. A New Model for Inducing Malignant Ovarian Tumours in Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Hilfrich, J.

    1973-01-01

    After the implantation of ovarian tissue into the spleen of gonadectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats (splenic ovary), luteomata and later benign granulosa or granulosa-theca cell tumours develop. Treatment of these rats with 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), given intravenously, 2 mg/kg body weight weekly, total dosage 40 mg/kg, immediately and especially 25 weeks after implantation of ovarian tissue into the spleen, led to malignant, partially metastasizing granulosa, and in one case theca cell tumours, 16-46 weeks after beginning the carcinogen treatment. No malignant neoplastic growth was seen when diethylnitrosamine (DEN), 20 mg/kg once weekly for life, was injected subcutaneously immediately or 25 weeks after implanting ovarian tissue. Since the normal, non-implanted rat ovary was not affected by DMBA treatment the malignant transformation of splenic ovaries in the respective experimental groups may be related to the increased stimulation by pituitary gonadotrophins and formation of luteomata or beginning granulosa and theca cell proliferations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4353388

  20. [Considerations of malignant ocular tumours in children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwartzenberg, T; Vancea, P P; Dobrescu, G

    1977-01-01

    The authors undertake a clinico-anatomical study of 27 malignant tumours of the orbit and eye in children seen at the Ophthalmological Clinic in Jassy over the last 12 years. The majority (18 cases) were intra-ocular tumours which were clinically and anatomically retinoblastomas. After presenting the clinical symptoms, drawing attention to the signs of the disease presenting to paediatricians, the treatment is described. This was surgical in all cases followed by radiotherapy according to the case. Analysis of fatal cases and those which survived demonstrate certain degrees of seriousness in clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects. It can be appreciated that the long-term prognosis of these cases depends on the early diagnosis and the institution of the correct treatment as well as the anatomopathological form. PMID:146473

  1. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in a sow.

    PubMed

    Resende, Talita P; Pereira, Carlos E R; Vannucci, Fabio A; Araujo, Fernando S; dos Santos, José Lúcio; Cassali, Geovanni D; Damasceno, Karine A; Guedes, Roberto M C

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lung lesions in swine are frequently due to abscesses or granulomatous pneumonia. Although tumours are rarely reported in modern pig farming, they should be considered as a differential diagnosis when nodular lung lesions are found. A first-parity sow exhibiting respiratory signs was euthanized. Several whitish firm nodules, not encapsulated, ranging in diameter from 0.5 to 5 cm were present in all lung lobes. Microscopically, the nodules were composed of dense neoplastic cells, mainly in Antoni types A and B patterns, infiltrative and with development of emboli. All neoplastic cells stained positively by immunohistochemistry for vimentin and S-100 protein, with variable immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and stained negative for cytokeratin. Based on the gross, histological and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:26407677

  2. Germ-cell malignant tumours in father and son.

    PubMed Central

    Musa, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Germ-cell malignant tumours occurred in a man and his son. The father, who had a teratoma of the right testicle removed 24 years ago, is presently alive and well. The son, who had a choriocarcinoma presenting as an abdominal mass, possibly originating in the testicle, died within 7 months of the diagnosis with metastases in the lungs, liver and retroperitoneum. This report documents the third such case of germ-cell neoplasms occurring in father and son. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1168534

  3. Oral pyogenic granuloma (excluding pregnancy tumour)--a clinical analysis of 304 cases.

    PubMed

    Zain, R B; Khoo, S P; Yeo, J F

    1995-07-01

    A clinical analysis of 304 cases of pyogenic granuloma (excluding pregnancy tumour) were obtained from the clinical evaluations submitted by clinicians while sending specimens for biopsy. The average age of the patients with pyogenic granuloma was 28.9 years with a peak age incidence in the second decade. More female patients were affected and the lesions present mainly in the Chinese. The majority of the lesions were ulcerated and pedunculated. The lesions had a mean diameter of 10.8 mm with a mean lesion duration of 6.0 months. The gingiva was the prevalent site for these lesions with a greater number being located in the maxilla. The recurrence rate was found to be 14.1%. PMID:9582682

  4. Anti-tumour immunity in malignant melanoma assay by tube leucocyte adherence inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Marti, J. H.; Thomson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Tumour antigen-induced inhibition of leucocyte adherence was modified for use in glass test tubes (Tube LAI assay) for the study of cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity to human malignant melanoma. Peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) of 20 out of 25 patients (80%) with active malignant melanoma responded to an extract of malignant melanoma with LAI, whereas only 4-5% of 475 control subjects showed a response. The malignant melanoma patients reacted to both allogeneic and autologous extracts of malignant melanoma which indicates a common cross-reacting antigen. Malignant melanoma patients did not respond to unrelated tumour extracts. The LAI was mediated by PBL (monocytes) "armed" with cytophilic anti-tumour antibody specific for the sensitizing tumour antigen. The anti-tumour response of the malignant melanoma patients was dependent on the stage of the cancer, and 11 out of 13 Stage I patients had a positive NAI, whereas patients with disseminated cancer had decreased response. The diminished LAI in patients with large tumour burdens appeared to be the result of release of tumour antigen systemically. Also, surgery and chemotherapy depressed LAI. Although LAI was depressed after surgical excision of the cutaneous melanoma, most patients showed LAI 1-3 months later. Tumour-free melanoma patients monitored for one year by the Tube LAI assay showed a decline in their anti-tumour immunity 5-6 months after surgery. The NAI was low or negative after the 8th post-surgical month in tumour-free patients. Patients with residual malignant melanoma showed persistent or recurrent LAI after the 8th post-surgical month. LAI reactivity monitored after "curative" surgery for malignant melanoma may assist in determining whether the patient is tumour-free or has a recurrence. PMID:962991

  5. Malignant transformation of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified as an odontogenic tumour. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is the malignant counterpart of CCOT. This paper aims to review the literature regarding malignant transformation of CCOT. A literature search was done via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface, searching for articles relating to malignant transformation of CCOT. From these articles, references were obtained, and from their references lists, pertinent secondary references were also identified and acquired. After reviewing the literature, we found 26 cases of GCOC which developed from CCOT. Malignant transformation of CCOT was seen more commonly in the maxilla. Histologically, changes such as increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, atypical mitotic figures have been reported after malignant transformation. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown an increased expression of ki-67 and p53 in tumour cells. Malignant transformation of CCOT, although rare, mostly takes place in recurrent and long standing cases. PMID:26557757

  6. Aggressive solitary intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma from a primary mediastinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Vinay S; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-08-01

    Malignant melanoma is the third most common tumour to cause cerebral metastases, following breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system metastases occur in 10-40% of patients with melanoma. Intracranial metastasis from a primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is uncommon. We report a case of solitary intracranial metastatic melanoma arising from a primary mediastinal tumour. We then discuss the clinico-radiological features and treatment options. PMID:27145991

  7. Excellent response of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of retroperitoneum to radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Ghannadi, Fazlollah; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours are high-grade sarcomas originating from Schwann cells or nerve sheath cells. Most of these tumours are associated with major nerves of the body wall and extremities. The lower extremity and the retroperitoneum are the most common sites. Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment, however, radiation therapy is usually used as an adjuvant treatment. In this paper we present a 57-year-old Iranian woman with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of retroperitoneum who was operated subtotally and then underwent radiation therapy which led to disappearance of all gross residual disease. PMID:23257269

  8. Malignant histiocytosis (histiocytic medullary reticulosis) with spindle cell differentiation and tumour formation.

    PubMed Central

    Macgillivray, J B; Duthie, J S

    1977-01-01

    Malignant histiocytosis (histiocytic medullary reticulosis) in a 45-year-old white man is described. Unusual features were presentation as a surgical emergency with signs of obstruction and peritonitis due to an ileal tumour and extensive spindle cell differentiation. Problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis are briefly discussed. Images PMID:845260

  9. [Malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumours: Two case reports and complete review of the literature cases].

    PubMed

    Le Fèvre, C; Castelli, J; Perrin, C; Hénaux, P L; Noël, G

    2016-04-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours are extremely rare and can be associated with neurofibramatosis type 1. Their prognosis is poor and surgery remains the mainstay of therapy and should be the first line of treatment. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are second line treatment and their effectiveness remains to demonstrate. The diagnosis is clinical, radiological, histological and immunohistochemical. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours have a potential of local tumour recurrence very high and can metastasize. They often occur in extremity of the members but also rarely into brain. We report two cases of intracerebral nerve sheath tumour. The first was a 68-year-old woman who was admitted with progressive symptoms of headache and diplopia. A left frontotemporal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours was diagnosed and was treated by surgery and irradiation. Ten months later, she presented a local recurrence and spine bone's metastases were treated by vertebroplasty and irradiation. The patient died 15 months after the diagnosis. The second case was a 47-year-old woman who was referred because headache and vomiting symptoms. A right frontal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours was diagnosed and treated by surgery and irradiation. After that, the patient had three local recurrence operated and pulmonary and cranial bone's metastases. She was still alive after 20 months. We propose a literature review with 25 cases of intracerebral nerve sheath tumour identified, including the two current cases. PMID:26934901

  10. Primary Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumour with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible; A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Arun; Parmar, Harshad; Chacko, Rabin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell Tumours (GCT) are neoplasm derived from germ cells. GCT usually occurs inside the gonads. Extragonadal GCT’s are rare. Most common GCT associated with head and neck region are the teratomas. Of the few teratomas found in the head and neck, malignant transformation of a teratomatous element is very uncommon, and primary bone involvement within the head and neck is even rare. We present a case of primary malignant mixed germ cell Tumour involving the mandible, the present case presented malignant transformation of the epithelial component showing foci of squamous cell carcinoma within the GCT. PMID:26266228

  11. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several histopathological and clinical features of canine mammary gland tumours have been widely studied from a prognostic standpoint, considerable variations in tumour individual biologic behaviour difficult the definition of accurate prognostic factors. It has been suggested that the malignant behaviour of tumours is the end result of several alterations in cellular physiology that culminate in tumour growth and spread. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine, using a multivariable model, the independent prognostic value of several immunohistochemically detected tumour-associated molecules, such as MMP-9 and uPA in stromal cells and Ki-67, TIMP-2 and VEGF in cancer cells. Results Eighty-five female dogs affected by spontaneous malignant mammary neoplasias were followed up for a 2-year post-operative period. In univariate analysis, tumour characteristics such as size, mode of growth, regional lymph node metastases, tumour cell MIB-1 LI and MMP-9 and uPA expressions in tumour-adjacent fibroblasts, were associated with both survival and disease-free intervals. Histological type and grade were related with overall survival while VEGF and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with none of the outcome parameters. In multivariable analysis, only a MIB-1 labelling index higher than 40% and a stromal expression of MMP-9 higher than 50% retained significant relationships with poor overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that MMP-9 and Ki-67 are independent prognostic markers of canine malignant mammary tumours. Furthermore, the high stromal expressions of uPA and MMP-9 in aggressive tumours suggest that these molecules are potential therapeutic targets in the post-operative treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:23289974

  12. Influences of Allee effects in the spreading of malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Sewalt, Lotte; Harley, Kristen; van Heijster, Peter; Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    2016-04-01

    A recent study by Korolev et al. [Nat. Rev. Cancer, 14:371-379, 2014] evidences that the Allee effect-in its strong form, the requirement of a minimum density for cell growth-is important in the spreading of cancerous tumours. We present one of the first mathematical models of tumour invasion that incorporates the Allee effect. Based on analysis of the existence of travelling wave solutions to this model, we argue that it is an improvement on previous models of its kind. We show that, with the strong Allee effect, the model admits biologically relevant travelling wave solutions, with well-defined edges. Furthermore, we uncover an experimentally observed biphasic relationship between the invasion speed of the tumour and the background extracellular matrix density. PMID:26802481

  13. Alpha-fetoprotein production by a malignant mixed müllerian tumour of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, K A; Scurry, J P; Toner, G

    1996-01-01

    A case of alpha-fetoprotein production by a uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumour is described. The patient was a 68 year old woman who developed intraabdominal recurrence of a stage 1 uterine tumour which had been treated surgically seven years previously. Her serum alpha-fetoprotein was raised at 21,000 micrograms/l (normal < 10 micrograms/l) and staining with immunoperoxidase confirmed that the tumour was the site of alpha-fetoprotein production. The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy but died two weeks after the first course. This is believed to be only the second such case reported. Images PMID:8655717

  14. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Ul'yanov, S S; Laskavyi, V N; Glova, Alina B; Polyanina, T I; Ul'yanova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Ul'yanov, A S

    2012-05-31

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  15. Adaptation of LASCA method for diagnostics of malignant tumours in laboratory animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ul'yanov, S. S.; Laskavyi, V. N.; Glova, Alina B.; Polyanina, T. I.; Ul'yanova, O. V.; Fedorova, V. A.; Ul'yanov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The LASCA method is adapted for diagnostics of malignant neoplasms in laboratory animals. Tumours are studied in mice of Balb/c inbred line after inoculation of cells of syngeneic myeloma cell line Sp.2/0 — Ag.8. The appropriateness of using the tLASCA method in tumour investigations is substantiated; its advantages in comparison with the sLASCA method are demonstrated. It is found that the most informative characteristic, indicating the presence of a tumour, is the fractal dimension of LASCA images.

  16. Malignant skin tumours in patients with inherited ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, K; Akiyama, M; Shimizu, H

    2011-08-01

    Inherited ichthyoses are rare genodermatoses caused by mutations in the genes involved in epidermal development. Although there have been case reports on patients with ichthyosis who developed skin malignancies, it is still unknown whether or not patients with ichthyosis have an increased risk of skin malignancies. Here, we review case series of skin malignancies in patients with ichthyosis and show biological findings which might lead to cancer susceptibility. A survey of the literature revealed 28 cases of inherited ichthyoses with skin malignancy, including 12 cases of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, seven of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, three of Netherton syndrome and six of miscellaneous ichthyosis. Twenty-four of the 28 cases developed single or multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). The age at diagnosis of the first skin malignancy ranged from 15 to 54 years. As patients with these particular subtypes of ichthyosis seem to be prone to skin malignancies, including SCC, at an unusually young age, routine cancer surveillance of these patients is strongly recommended. PMID:21517795

  17. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  18. Primary Ovarian Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Çakir, Tansel; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Karabagli, Pinar; Çelik, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumour of the Ovary (OMMMT), also referred to as carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumour accounting for less than 1% of all ovarian cancers. Due to the rarity of OMMMT, little is known about the disease course and outcome of women with these tumours. It is important to evaluate because of its aggressive behaviour with extremely unfavourable prognosis. These tumours are composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Current data in the literature is still limited to small case series and case reports, therefore, its optimal treatment is somewhat controversial. In the current report, we introduce a case of OMMMT which was successfully treated with Platinum-based combination chemotherapy after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The clinical manifestations, pathologic characteristics, diagnosis and management of these tumours are reviewed here. Although the most effective treatment is currently unknown, optimal cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy appears to improve the outcomes. Despite the aggressive nature of this tumour and its poor response to the treatment, management works best when cancer is found early. The stage of the disease is the most important prognostic factor. Therefore, the crucial question is how to diagnose the cancer at earlier stages rather than seeking the optimal treatment. PMID:27134951

  19. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  20. New technologies to combat malignant tumours of the brain.

    PubMed

    Heppner, F

    1982-01-01

    1. The primary problem in an effective treatment of a glioblastoma is the prevention of a recurrence. 2. For that purpose were the following therapeutical procedures undertaken: (a) Temporary implantation of radio cobalt in the brain itself (1957): (b) Clostridium butyricum M 55 was used to render the centre of the tumour fluid (1967): (c) Podophyllin was used to destroy the border of the tumour (1980); (d) The CO2 Laser beam (1975); (e) The electromagnetic heat induction deep in the brain (1973-1978). 3. In order to make the operation and postoperative phase safer for the patient, the following precautions were drawn upon or employed: (a) Hyperbaric oxygenisation in the pressure chamber (1971); (b) The anti-G-suit (1974); (c) the computer controlled automatic infusion pump (1980), and (d) the telemetric measurement of intra-cranial pressure (1975). 4. Apart from the pressure chamber, the mentioned devices were all supervised and developed in the department of the author. 5. The first successful means in the prevention of the recurrence of a glioblastoma multiform seems to be the telethermic method mentioned in 2 (e) above. PMID:6287907

  1. Delay in treatment of primary malignant and aggressive musculoskeletal tumours.

    PubMed

    Pan, K L; Zolqarnain, A; Chia, Y Y

    2006-02-01

    Patients with aggressive musculoskeletal tumours often arrive at specialised treatment centres late. Such a delay could mean disfavour for potentially curable or long-term disease-free outcome of limb preserving surgery. This study was undertaken to identify the underlying problem-related delay with a view to propose solution for solving it. We reviewed 30 patients to determine the periods of delay between onset of the first symptom and the definitive treatment. The delays were categorized as 'patient' delay, 'referral' delay and 'treatment' delay. There was 'patient' delay in 57% of patients (n=17), ranging from 1 to 18 months; 'referral' delay in 67% of patients (n=20) ranging from 1 to 19 months and 23% of patients (n=7) had treatment delay (average 23 days) at the treatment centre. The causes of late arrival are not solely patient-related but are multifactorial. Measures to minimize such delays include enhancing awareness only with high index of suspicion among primary care practitioners, creating a special lane specialized imaging studies and establishing a dedicated musculoskeletal tumour unit. PMID:17042231

  2. Pleural fluid tumour markers in malignant pleural effusion with inconclusive cytologic results

    PubMed Central

    Antonangelo, L.; Sales, R.K.; Corá, A.P.; Acencio, M.M.P.; Teixeira, L.R.; Vargas, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of tumour cells in pleural fluid or tissue defines an effusion as malignant. Cytology analysis of the pleural fluid has about 60% diagnostic sensitivity. Several tests have been proposed to improve diagnosis—among them, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid. We evaluated whether the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural fluid could improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (mpe) when cytology is doubtful. Methods Lymphocytic pleural fluids secondary to tuberculosis or malignancy from 156 outpatients were submitted for cytology and tumour marker quantification [carcinoembryonic antigen (cea), cancer antigen 15-3 (ca15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (ca19-9), cancer antigen 72-4 (ca72-4), cancer antigen 125 (ca125), and cyfra 21-1). Oneway analysis of variance, the Student t-test or Mann–Whitney test, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the tumour markers cea, ca15-3, ca125, and cyfra 21-1 were higher in mpes than they were in the benign effusions (p < 0.001), regardless of cytology results. The markers ca19-9 and ca72-4 did not discriminate malignant from benign effusions. When comparing the concentrations of tumour markers in mpes having positive, suspicious, or negative cytology with concentrations in benign effusions, we observed higher levels of cea, ca15-3, cyfra 21-1, and ca125 in malignant effusions with positive cytology (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001 respectively). In pleural fluid, only ca125 was higher in mpes with suspicious or negative cytology (p = 0.001) than in benign effusions. Conclusions Given high specificity and a sensitivity of about 60%, the concentrations of tumour markers in pleural effusions could be evaluated in cases of inconclusive cytology in patients with a high pre-test chance of malignancy or a history of cancer. PMID:26628873

  3. Malignant Glomus Tumour (Glomangiosarcoma) with Additional Neuroendocrine Differentiation in a Horse.

    PubMed

    Peters, M; Grafen, J; Kuhnen, C; Wohlsein, P

    2016-05-01

    A 13-year-old Icelandic crossbred horse was presented with headshaking and progressive impairment of chewing. A slowly growing mass was identified in the anterior maxilla. This was associated with lysis of the alveolar bone and the roots of the incisors and there were nodular proliferations affecting the nasal septum and conchae. There was no response to chemotherapy and so the horse was humanely destroyed. Based on morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings the mass was classified as a malignant glomus tumour with multifocal vascular spaces and additional neuroendocrine differentiation. An oronasal glomus tumour with neuroendocrine differentiation has not been described previously in an animal. PMID:27102445

  4. Relative survival of patients with non-malignant central nervous system tumours: a descriptive study by the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry

    PubMed Central

    Woehrer, A; Hackl, M; Waldhör, T; Weis, S; Pichler, J; Olschowski, A; Buchroithner, J; Maier, H; Stockhammer, G; Thomé, C; Haybaeck, J; Payer, F; von Campe, G; Kiefer, A; Würtz, F; Vince, G H; Sedivy, R; Oberndorfer, S; Marhold, F; Bordihn, K; Stiglbauer, W; Gruber-Mösenbacher, U; Bauer, R; Feichtinger, J; Reiner-Concin, A; Grisold, W; Marosi, C; Preusser, M; Dieckmann, K; Slavc, I; Gatterbauer, B; Widhalm, G; Haberler, C; Hainfellner, J A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike malignant primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours outcome data on non-malignant CNS tumours are scarce. For patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2002 5-year relative survival of only 85.0% has been reported. We investigated this rate in a contemporary patient cohort to update information on survival. Methods: We followed a cohort of 3983 cases within the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry. All patients were newly diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 with a histologically confirmed non-malignant CNS tumour. Vital status, cause of death, and population life tables were obtained by 31 December 2011 to calculate relative survival. Results: Overall 5-year relative survival was 96.1% (95% CI 95.1–97.1%), being significantly lower in tumours of borderline (90.2%, 87.2–92.7%) than benign behaviour (97.4%, 96.3–98.3%). Benign tumour survival ranged from 86.8 for neurofibroma to 99.7% for Schwannoma; for borderline tumours survival rates varied from 83.2 for haemangiopericytoma to 98.4% for myxopapillary ependymoma. Cause of death was directly attributed to the CNS tumour in 39.6%, followed by other cancer (20.4%) and cardiovascular disease (15.8%). Conclusion: The overall excess mortality in patients with non-malignant CNS tumours is 5.5%, indicating a significant improvement in survival over the last decade. Still, the remaining adverse impact on survival underpins the importance of systematic registration of these tumours. PMID:24253501

  5. Multidisciplinary treatment including systemic chemotherapy for a malignant phyllodes tumour of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yasukiyo; Tabata, Ken-Ichi; Sugita, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Kohei; Maeyama, Ryota; Okazaki, Miyoko; Nishi, Morihiro; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Fujita, Tetsuo; Satoh, Takefumi; Jiang, Shi-Xu; Saegusa, Makoto; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2014-03-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred to our hospital with macroscopic hematuria and consistent anal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged prostate tumour invading the bladder and rectum. A biopsy revealed an unclassified spindle cell sarcoma. Subsequently, radical cystoprostatectomy and resection of the rectum were performed. A histopathological examination revealed a prostatic malignant phyllodes tumour with a negative surgical margin. However, a local recurrence was identified 2 months after surgery. Induction therapy included 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy comprising etoposide with ifosfamide and cisplatin. Although a partial response was observed at the local site, lung metastasis developed. Second-line chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin with radiotherapy to the pelvis was administered and led to complete regression; however, its efficacy was transient. Although additional chemotherapy was administered, the patient eventually died due to the rapidly growing, recurrent tumour. PMID:24839496

  6. USP11 regulates PML stability to control Notch-induced malignancy in brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Hsin; Chung, Hsiang-Ching; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Ya-Wen; Ma, Hsin-I; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lawler, Sean E; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein controls multiple tumour suppressive functions and is downregulated in diverse types of human cancers through incompletely characterized post-translational mechanisms. Here we identify USP11 as a PML regulator by RNAi screening. USP11 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PML, thereby counteracting the functions of PML ubiquitin ligases RNF4 and the KLHL20-Cul3 (Cullin 3)-Roc1 complex. We find that USP11 is transcriptionally repressed through a Notch/Hey1-dependent mechanism, leading to PML destabilization. In human glioma, Hey1 upregulation correlates with USP11 and PML downregulation and with high-grade malignancy. The Notch/Hey1-induced downregulation of USP11 and PML not only confers multiple malignant characteristics of aggressive glioma, including proliferation, invasiveness and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model, but also potentiates self-renewal, tumour-forming capacity and therapeutic resistance of patient-derived glioma-initiating cells. Our study uncovers a PML degradation mechanism through Notch/Hey1-induced repression of the PML deubiquitinase USP11 and suggests an important role for this pathway in brain tumour pathogenesis. PMID:24487962

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the renal parenchyma presenting as a fast growing atypical renal cyst.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Simon; Doueik, Alexandre; Sabbagh, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) of the kidney are very rare, with only 3 cases reported in the English and French literature. However, we report the first case of fast growing atypical renal cyst where a magnetic resonance imaging was an interesting adjunct to the computed tomography scan in imaging this rare tumour. PMID:24069105

  8. Superficial Cancer in the Sudan. A Study of 1225 Primary Malignant Superficial Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Malik, M. O. A.; Hidaytalla, A.; Daoud, E. H.; el Hassan, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Superficial cancer in the Sudan accounted for 17·2% of all malignant tumours examined histologically during the period 1962-72 inclusive. Of the 4 pathological types studied, squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest (63·3% of all superficial cancers) followed by malignant melanoma (18·8%) and basal cell carcinoma (14·9%) whilst Kaposi's sarcoma formed only 3% of the total. Generally, twice as many cases occurred in males as in females, with the exception of Kaposi's sarcoma where all the patients were males. Although a relatively high proportion of cases occurred in the young age groups, the age-specific incidence was noted to increase with age. Similarities and differences in the anatomical site of tumours compared with European and African series were noted. Certain differences emerged in the geographical distribution of these tumours in the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan—regions which differ both ethnologically and geographically—thus suggesting possible roles played by racial and environmental factors in this respect. PMID:4447778

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunctive therapy in treatment of malignancies, including brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Katarzyna; Ostrowski, Robert P; Matyja, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is widely used as an adjunctive treatment for various pathological states, predominantly related to hypoxic and/or ischaemic conditions. It also holds promise as an approach to overcoming the problem of oxygen deficiency in the poorly oxygenated regions of the neoplastic tissue. Occurrence of local hypoxia within the central areas of solid tumours is one of the major issues contributing to ineffective medical treatment. However, in anti-cancer therapy, HBO alone gives a limited curative effect and is typically not applied by itself. More often, HBO is used as an adjuvant treatment along with other therapeutic modalities, such as radio- and chemotherapy. This review outlines the existing data regarding the medical use of HBO in cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the use of HBO in the treatment of brain tumours. We conclude that the administration of HBO can provide many clinical benefits in the treatment of tumours, including management of highly malignant gliomas. Applied immediately before irradiation, it is safe and well tolerated by patients, causing rare and limited side effects. The results obtained with a combination of HBO/radiotherapy protocol proved to be especially favourable compared to radiation treatment alone. HBO can also increase the cytostatic effect of certain drugs, which may render standard chemotherapy more effective. The currently available data support the legitimacy of conducting further research on the use of HBO in the treatment of malignancies. PMID:27485098

  10. Early medical rehabilitation after neurosurgical treatment of malignant brain tumours in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Natasa; Kos, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of patients with malignant brain tumours is on the rise, but due to the novel treatment methods the survival rates are higher. Despite increased survival the consequences of tumour properties and treatment can have a significant negative effect on the patients’ quality of life. Providing timely and appropriate rehabilitation interventions is an important aspect of patient treatment and should be started immediately after surgery. The most important goal of rehabilitation is to prevent complications that could have a negative effect on the patients’ ability to function. Conclusions By using individually tailored early rehabilitation it is often possible to achieve the patients’ independence in mobility as well as in performing daily tasks before leaving the hospital. A more precise evaluation of the patients’ functional state after completing additional oncologic therapy should be performed to stratify the patients who should be directed to complex rehabilitation treatment. The chances of a good functional outcome in patients with malignant brain tumours could be increased with good early medical rehabilitation treatment. PMID:27247545

  11. Expression of cyclin D1 correlates with malignancy in human ovarian tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, F.; Cagnoli, M.; Ragni, N.; Pedullà, F.; Foglia, G.; Alama, A.

    1997-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle regulator of G1 progression that has been suggested to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of several human cancer types. In the current study, the expression of cyclin D1 has been investigated in a series of 33 patients, with benign (10 patients), borderline (five patients) and malignant (18 patients) ovarian disease. Cyclin D1 protein and mRNA content were analysed by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction respectively. The levels of cyclin D1 protein were undetectable in patients with benign disease, detectable in the majority of patients with borderline disease and elevated in those with ovarian carcinomas, being significantly related to the degree of malignancy (carcinoma vs benign, P = 0.0001; benign vs borderline, P = 0.0238). A significant relationship between cyclin D1 expression and tumour proliferative activity was also found (P = 0.000001). Moreover, eight benign lesions, two borderline tumours and 11 carcinomas proved to be suitable for the analysis of cyclin D1 transcript, and emerging data demonstrated significant agreement between protein abundance and mRNA expression. Results from the current study suggest that cyclin D1 expression is associated with the degree of transformation and most probably plays a role in the early development of ovarian malignancy. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9155044

  12. Influence of ovariectomy at the time of mastectomy on the prognosis for canine malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, T; Kobayashi, T; Takahashi, K; Sugiyama, M

    1996-10-01

    The two-year prognosis for malignant mammary tumours seen in 175 bitches in the Tokyo metropolitan area was assessed based on the extent of mastectomy and on whether an ovariectomy was carried out at the time of mastectomy. The prognosis for the bitches was not influenced by the excision size of the affected mammary glands. Ovariectomy had no effect on the two-year survival rate of the dogs that underwent the tumour excision. There was no significant difference in the two-year survival rate between the dogs ovariectomised prior to mastectomy and those ovariectomised at the time of mastectomy. These results suggest that ovariectomy at the time of mastectomy has no effect on the prognosis in dogs with established neoplasms of the mammary gland. PMID:8912239

  13. Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour (Carcinoid) of the Spleen in an African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Lowden, L R; Davies, J L

    2016-07-01

    A malignant neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid) of the spleen was diagnosed on post-mortem examination of a 3-year-old, male African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The animal presented with a history of inappetence, weight loss, lethargy, a wide-based gait and a palpable abdominal mass. The gross pathological, histopathological, histochemical and immunohistochemical findings are described. Primary splenic carcinoids are reported rarely in the human medical literature and this is believed to be the first report in a non-human animal. PMID:27212029

  14. Sciatica due to malignant nerve sheath tumour of sciatic nerve in the thigh.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R R; Pawar, S J; Mahapatra, A K; Doctor, M; Musa, M M

    2001-06-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the supportive non-neural component of the peripheral nerves. An unusual case of pain and weakness of the foot and calf muscles due to a giant MPNST of the sciatic nerve in the posterior compartment of the thigh is presented. The patient was already investigated as a case of sciatica due to a lumbar disc disease with a negative magnetic resonance imaging and then unsuccessfully operated elsewhere twice, with a misdiagnosis of tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neurosurgical referral prompted a diagnostic magnetic resonance study of the thigh, revealing the lesion, which was completely excised microsurgically with total relief in the pain and partial improvement in the weakness and sensations in the sole of the foot. PMID:11447444

  15. The role of experimental research in the study of the prevention of malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Shabad, L. M.

    1962-01-01

    The author discusses the role of experimental oncological research in the prevention of malignant neoplasms, with special reference to the conclusions drawn from such research in the USSR. He points out that experimental research can contribute to cancer prevention in two ways: (a) by supplying information on the occurrence of carcinogenic substances in the human environment—in the atmosphere, in industry and in foodstuffs—and thus providing a rational basis for the introduction of measures to prevent cancer from arising; and (b) by throwing light on the series of tissue changes that may precede the development of the malignant tumour and hence making it possible, through the timely treatment and cure of known precancerous conditions, to prevent cancer from developing. PMID:13911073

  16. Extensive and ulcerated malignant proliferating trichilemmal (pilar) tumour, arising from multiple, large, degenerated trichilemmal (pilar) cysts.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Bruno; Agostini, Patrick; Rivero, António; Silva, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 61-year-old homeless man with a 15-year history of multiple trichilemmal cysts that served as a forerunner for the emergence of a malignant proliferating pilar tumour. The patient presented multiple, large, purulent, ulcerated lesions ranging from 10 to 150 mm in diameter, covering most of the scalp, with large areas superimposed by extensive myiasis infestation. The patient presented with no other major clinical findings. A CT scan showed no detectable signs of local or distant metastatic invasion. Initial supportive treatment was implemented. Given the extent of the injury, further surgical excision was considered, which required transfer to a specialised surgical centre. This social case is of educational value, as it can raise clinician awareness about the ability of trichilemmal cysts to undergo malignant transformation. Additionally, it highlights the importance of adequate social assistance structures for patients in need. PMID:26857582

  17. An analysis of malignant tumour incidence in the male population of Poland in the period 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    In the period 2006–2010, the National Cancer Registry indicated a gradual increase in the incidence of malignant tumours among men, from 64,092 thousand in 2006 to 70,024 thousand in 2010. In the reference period, the number of deaths due to malignant tumours among men oscillated around 52 thousand. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of malignant tumours in the male population of Poland in the period 2006–2010. The study material comprised data obtained from the National Cancer Registry and from the Central Statistical Office, available on the websites of these institutions. The malignant-tumour incidence rate among the male population in 2006–2010 showed a slow but steady growth, while the death rate dropped slightly at the end of 2010. The hypothesis that the cancer-incidence risk grows with age has been proven, and a substantial increase in this risk is observed from the fourth decade of life. The most common malignant tumours in Poland in the analysed period included lung cancer, followed by prostate cancer and colorectal cancer. Future prophylactic and educational programmes should be addressed to men prior to reaching the age of increased cancer risk. PMID:26843846

  18. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. PMID:27147111

  19. Methodology for Anti-Gene Anti-IGF-I Therapy of Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jerzy; Pan, Yuexin X.; Wei, Ming X.; Ly, Adama; Shevelev, Alexander; Bierwagen, Maciej; Ardourel, Marie-Yvonne; Trojan, Ladislas A.; Alvarez, Alvaro; Andres, Christian; Noguera, Maria C.; Briceno, Ignacio; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Kasprzak, Heliodor; Duc, Huynh T.; Anthony, Donald D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the criteria for methodology of cellular “anti-IGF-I” therapy of malignant tumours and particularly for glioblastoma multiforme. The treatment of primary glioblastoma patients using surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy was followed by subcutaneous injection of autologous cancer cells transfected by IGF-I antisense/triple helix expression vectors. The prepared cell “vaccines” should it be in the case of glioblastomas or other tumours, have shown a change of phenotype, the absence of IGF-I protein, and expression of MHC-I and B7. The peripheral blood lymphocytes, PBL cells, removed after each of two successive vaccinations, have demonstrated for all the types of tumour tested an increasing level of CD8+ and CD8+28+ molecules and a switch from CD8+11b+ to CD8+11. All cancer patients were supervised for up to 19 months, the period corresponding to minimum survival of glioblastoma patients. The obtained results have permitted to specify the common criteria for “anti-IGF-I” strategy: characteristics sine qua non of injected “vaccines” (cloned cells IGF-I(−) and MHC-I(+)) and of PBL cells (CD8+ increased level). PMID:22400112

  20. Tumours of the anterior uvea. III. Oxytalan fibres in the differential diagnosis of leiomyoma and malignant melanoma of the iris.

    PubMed Central

    Noor Sunba, M. S.; Rahi, A. H.; Garner, A.; Alexander, R. A.; Morgan, G.

    1980-01-01

    The diagnostic potential of oxytalan fibre demonstration in differentiating between leiomyomas and spindle-cell malignant melanomas of the iris was investigated. It was found that oxytalan fibres were abundant in leiomyomata, both between and around the tumour cells, whereas they were found in small numbers only and usually near the iris muscle in malignant melanomata. Their presence and distribution, therefore, appear to offer a satisfactory method of differentiating between these tumours. Since the human choroid and ciliary body normally contain oxytalan fibres, the above findings are not relevant to malignant melanoma of these structures. Naevi and regressing aggregates of iris melanoma cells away from the main tumour mass may similarly be surrounded by misleading amounts of these fibres. Images PMID:7426559

  1. Primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumours: improved prognosis with platinum-based chemotherapy and surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, W. J.; Goldstraw, P.; Nicholls, J. E.; Dearnaley, D. P.; Horwich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed of 18 patients with primary malignant germ cell tumours of the mediastinum treated with platinum-based chemotherapy between 1977 and 1990. All seven patients with pure seminoma were treated initially with chemotherapy and four of these patients received additional mediastinal radiotherapy. Only one patient relapsed; his initial therapy had included radiotherapy and single-agent carboplatin and he was successfully salvaged with combination chemotherapy. With a follow-up of 11 to 117 months (median 41 months) all seven patients with seminoma remain alive and disease free giving an overall survival of 100%. Eleven patients had malignant non seminoma; following chemotherapy eight of these had elective surgical resection of residual mediastinal masses. Complete remission was achieved in nine (82%) patients, however, one of these patients died from bleomycin pneumonitis. With a follow-up of 12 to 113 months (median 55 months) eight of 11 (73%) patients with malignant mediastinal teratoma remain alive and disease free. PMID:8494705

  2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) of mandible: solving the perplexity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Pathak, Jigna; Dekate, Kamlesh; Mohanty, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    We present an extremely rare case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) in a 30-year-old woman without associated neurofibromatosis 1. The patient presented with an 8 cm×4 cm lesion extending from 46 to the retro molar region involving the ramus of the right mandible associated with regional paraesthesia. Incisional biopsy revealed spindle cells with vesicular nuclei arranged in fascicles leading to a diagnosis of spindle cell lesion. Posterior segmental mandibulectomy was performed under general anaesthesia. On excisional biopsy, a definitive diagnosis of low-grade MPNST was established on the basis of immunohistochemistry. The patient was then lost to follow-up. PMID:25762575

  3. Oestrogen receptors and small nuclear ring finger protein 4 (RNF4) in malignant ovarian germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Jonna; Butzow, Ralf; Palvimo, Jorma J; Heikinheimo, Markku; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2009-08-13

    The peak incidence of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours occurs soon after puberty. Thus, gonadal steroids may play a role in their development. Oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and their co-regulators, including small nuclear ring finger protein 4 (SNURF/RNF4) mediate oestrogen actions. While ERbeta and SNURF are down-regulated in testicular germ cell tumours, their role in the ovarian germ cell tumours remains unknown. We herein studied the different subtypes of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours, and found that they all express ERalpha, ERbeta, and SNURF. Stimulation with oestradiol (E2), ERalpha, ERbeta and SNURF significantly up-regulated mRNA expression in the human germinoma derived NCC-IT cells. Further, the effects of E2 were counteracted by an anti-oestrogen (ICI 182,780). Neither E2 nor ICI 182,780 had an effect on the proliferation of NCC-IT cells as assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Our results suggest that oestrogen signalling has a role in malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. PMID:19524139

  4. A meta-analysis of reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of malignant skin tumours.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y D; Ma, S; Li, X; Zhong, X; Duan, C; Chen, Q

    2016-08-01

    Early diagnosis is extremely important for treatment and prognosis of skin cancer. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a recently developed technique used to diagnose skin cancer. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the accuracy of RCM for the diagnosis of malignant skin tumours. We conducted a systematic literature search of EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science database for relevant articles in English published up to 24 December 2015. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using the software Meta-Disc version 1.4 and STATA version 12.0. A total of 21 studies involving 3108 patients with a total of 3602 lesions were included in the per-lesion analysis. The corresponding pooled results for sensitivity and specificity were 93.6% (95% CI: 0.92-0.95) and 82.7% (95% CI: 0.81-0.84) respectively. Positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 5.84 (95% CI: 4.27-7.98) and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07-0.10) respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that RCM had a sensitivity of 92.7% (95% CI: 0.90-0.95) and a specificity of 78.3% (95% CI: 0.76-0.81) for detecting melanoma. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of RCM for detecting basal cell carcinoma were 91.7% (95% CI: 0.87-0.95) and 91.3% (95% CI: 0.94-0.96) respectively. RCM is a valid method of identifying malignant skin tumours accurately. PMID:27230832

  5. Breast sarcomas and malignant phyllodes tumours: comparison of clinicopathological features, treatment strategies, prognostic factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sue Zann; Selvarajan, Sathiyamoorthy; Thike, Aye Aye; Nasir, Nur Diyana Binte Md; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to compare the clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of breast sarcomas (BS) and malignant phyllodes tumours (MPT), and determine their prognostic factors. Cases of BS and MPT diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from January 1991 to December 2014 were derived from department files. Clinicopathological features, treatment strategies and survivals of patients with BS and MPT were compared. Prognostic indicators for BS and MPT were identified. BS and MPT were comparable in all except one of their clinicopathological features. A significantly higher proportion of BS patients had a history of previous breast carcinoma and thus radiation to the chest as compared to the MPT group (17.6 vs 0 %, P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in survival outcomes between BS and MPT. The 5-year disease-free survivals (DFS) for BS and MPT were 59.1 and 57.4 % respectively (P = 0.816), while the 5-year overall survivals (OS) for BS and MPT were 86.5 and 78.5 % respectively (P = 0.792). Combining both groups of tumours, univariate analysis showed that DFS was significantly affected by multifocality (P = 0.019), histological subtype (P = 0.014), presence of malignant heterologous elements (P < 0.001) and margin status (P = 0.023). Margin status was the only parameter which had a significant impact on OS (P = 0.040). Multivariate analysis confirmed the above findings. BS and MPT are rare entities with remarkable heterogeneity. They share similar clinicopathological features and outcomes, provoking thoughts on their biological relationship and clinical significance of pathologic distinction. PMID:27541020

  6. Interfering with stem cell-specific gatekeeper functions controls tumour initiation and malignant progression of skin tumours

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Monika; Reuter, Karen; Brylka, Heike; Kraus, Andreas; Schettina, Peter; Niemann, Catherin

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cancer constitutes a major clinical challenge and molecular mechanisms underlying the process of tumour initiation are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that hair follicle bulge stem cells (SCs) give rise to well-differentiated sebaceous tumours and show that SCs are not only crucial in tumour initiation, but are also involved in tumour plasticity and heterogeneity. Our findings reveal that SC-specific expression of mutant Lef1, which mimics mutations found in human sebaceous tumours, drives sebaceous tumour formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that mutant Lef1 abolishes p53 activity in SCs. Intriguingly, mutant Lef1 induces DNA damage and interferes with SC-specific gatekeeper functions normally protecting against accumulations of DNA lesions and cell loss. Thus, normal control of SC proliferation is disrupted by mutant Lef1, thereby allowing uncontrolled propagation of tumour-initiating SCs. Collectively, these findings identify underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumour-initiating events in tissue SCs providing a potential target for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25608467

  7. [On the possibility to determine genetic identity of the tissues with malignant tumours imbedded in paraffin blocks].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dolzhansky, O V; Korostylev, S A; Pal'tseva, E M; Fedorov, D N

    2016-01-01

    The results of analysis of the literature data were used to develop the forensic medical criteria for the assessment of the suitability of paraffin blocks containing the imbedded malignant tumours for the genetic identification of the tissues. The forensic medical criteria and the algorithm for the preliminary characteristic of the material of interest were proposed to avoid the potential errors. It is not recommended to use gastrointestinal carcinomas, breast tumours, and poorly differentiated ovarian tumours. Also unsuitable is the material formerly exposed to radio- and chemotherapeutic agents or paraffin blocks stored during more than 5-7 years. In the doubtful cases, immunohistochemical studies must be carried out to confirm microsatellite instability. Moreover, the tumour genotype and DNA composition from the patients' blood should be confirmed. PMID:27239766

  8. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Ansari, Hena A.; Sherwani, Rana K.; Rahman, Khaliqur; Akhtar, Nishat

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified) are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified). A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup. PMID:21436872

  9. Malignant transformations in a patient with a mediastinal germ cell tumour: lack of efficacy of bone marrow transplantation after chemotherapy on tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Yusra; Penther, Dominique; Schneider, Pascale; Callat, Marie-Paul; Bastard, Christian; Vannier, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The report describes the case of a young male with a malignant teratoma which was followed by an acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia sharing similar chromosomal abnormalities. In leukemic cells, the authors have obtained cytogenetic evidence by fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique suggesting that this leukaemia arose directly from the germ cell tumour (GCT). The patient received allogenic bone marrow transplantation, which unfortunately, did not prevent the patient to relapse with an undifferentiated sarcoma containing rhabdomyosarcoma components, as well as reappearance of a residual teratoma with metastasis. The treatment strategy for malignant transformation of a GCT seems to be unpredictable and should be dictated by the malignant tissue counterpart. Except for acute leukaemia, unresectable or metastatic settings will generally require multi-modal therapy including chemotherapy, in addition to loco regional approaches. Additionally, long or even a life time follow-up is necessary in patients with poor prognostic characteristics. PMID:22707696

  10. Malignant transformations in a patient with a mediastinal germ cell tumour: lack of efficacy of bone marrow transplantation after chemotherapy on tumour recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Yusra; Penther, Dominique; Schneider, Pascale; Callat, Marie-Paul; Bastard, Christian; Vannier, Jean-pierre

    2012-01-01

    The report describes the case of a young male with a malignant teratoma which was followed by an acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia sharing similar chromosomal abnormalities. In leukemic cells, the authors have obtained cytogenetic evidence by fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique suggesting that this leukaemia arose directly from the germ cell tumour (GCT). The patient received allogenic bone marrow transplantation, which unfortunately, did not prevent the patient to relapse with an undifferentiated sarcoma containing rhabdomyosarcoma components, as well as reappearance of a residual teratoma with metastasis. The treatment strategy for malignant transformation of a GCT seems to be unpredictable and should be dictated by the malignant tissue counterpart. Except for acute leukaemia, unresectable or metastatic settings will generally require multi-modal therapy including chemotherapy, in addition to loco regional approaches. Additionally, long or even a life time follow-up is necessary in patients with poor prognostic characteristics. PMID:22707696

  11. Comparison between ultrasonographic findings of benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours using B-mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler and spectral Doppler.

    PubMed

    Soler, Marta; Dominguez, Elisabet; Lucas, Xiomara; Novellas, Rosa; Gomes-Coelho, Kassia Valeria; Espada, Yvonne; Agut, Amalia

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the comparison between the ultrasonographic features of canine mammary tumours, assessed by B-Mode, colour Doppler, power Doppler, spectral Doppler, and histopathologic features, would help to differentiate if a tumour is benign or malignant. Ultrasonographic examinations of 104 tumours were performed. Volume, margins, presence of a capsule, echotexture and presence and distribution of the vascular flow of the tumours were evaluated. All the tumours were surgically removed, submitted for histopathologic examination and classified in two groups: Group I (benign tumours) and Group II (malignant tumours). Echotexture was the only parameter evaluated by B-Mode ultrasonography where significant differences were found (p<0.01), with tumours in Group I being homogeneous and tumours in Group II presenting greater heterogeneity. Presence of vascular flow was observed in most of the tumours from both groups and no differences between them were found. Regarding flow distribution, significant differences were observed between groups (p<0.05). In benign tumours, the most common vascular pattern was the peripheral, showing significant differences (p<0.05) compared to mixed and central patterns. In malignant tumours the mixed pattern was the most frequent. Also significant differences among other patterns (peripheral and central) were found. Concerning vascular resistivity and pulsatility indexes, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The echotexture and type of vascular flow pattern of canine mammary gland tumours may help, in a first examination of the tumour, to differentiate between benign and malignant tumours; however to reach a definitive diagnosis histological study is required. PMID:27473987

  12. Proteomic analysis for nuclear proteins related to tumour malignant progression: a comparative proteomic study between malignant progressive cells and regressive cells.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Eiko; Okada, Futoshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Xiulian; Ueyama, Yoshiya; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2010-06-01

    Tumour development and progression consists a series of multiple changes in gene expression. Progressive tumour cells acquire more aggressive properties manifested by rapid growth, invasiveness and metastatic ability, as well as increased genetic instability leading to multiple genetic alterations. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the possible intracellular and extracellular molecular mechanisms that accelerate tumour progression, in particular to identify nuclear proteins which interact with DNA. Nuclear proteomics provides an opportunity to qualitatively and quantitatively examine protein effectors that contribute to cellular phenotype. This study performed a differential display analysis for the expression of nuclear proteome between regressive tumour cell clone QR-32 and malignant progressive tumour cell clone QRsP-11 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Eight nuclear proteins whose expressions were different between QR-32 and QRsP-11 cells were identified. Seven of those protein spots, zinc finger protein ZXDC, lamin-A/C, far upstream clement-binding protein 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B and guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1, were down-regulated in QRsP-11, while one protein, nucleolin, was up-regulated in QRsP-11. PMID:20651356

  13. Malignant neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad; Qureshi, Asim; Saparamadu, Anna; Kumar, Shiyam

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented to a tertiary care centre with signs and symptoms of acute cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and diagnoses of a high-grade neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder primarily with peritoneal and liver metastases. She had a liver abscess secondary to Salmonella and Enterococcus fecalis that was drained and treated with appropriate antibiotics. Interestingly, the serum chromogranin A levels were within normal limits, but carcinoembryonic antigen was elevated, which helped evaluate responses and pick progression. She was treated with 10 cycles of palliative chemotherapy when malignancy associated complications started to recur, that is, cholangitis, worsening pain, cachexia, intestinal obstruction, etc leading to chemotherapy delays. Her disease progressed during these times with rapid deterioration of performance status. She died of septic complications postlaparotomy for intestinal obstruction. Her progression-free survival remained for 8 months with subjective and objective improvements, and her overall survival remained at 13 months. We describe the course of her illness and give a brief review of the literature. PMID:23661652

  14. Renal function related to different treatment modalities for malignant germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Aass, N.; Fosså, S. D.; Aas, M.; Lindegaard, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    The renal function was evaluated with 131I-Hippuran clearance in 171 patients with malignant germ cell tumours. Assessments were performed before treatment and at three fixed times afterwards within 5 years. The patients were treated with surgery only (20 patients), infra-diaphragmatic radiotherapy only (median midplane dose 36 Gy) (48 patients), cisplatin-based chemotherapy (total cisplatin dose 500-850 mg) plus surgery (64 patients), cisplatin-based chemotherapy (total cisplatin dose greater than 850 mg) with or without surgery (23 patients) or cisplatin-based chemotherapy (total cisplatin dose 500-850 mg) plus infra-diaphragmatic radiotherapy (16 patients). No renal impairment was observed for patients treated with surgery only. In patients who received radiotherapy no change of the renal function occurred during the first year post-treatment. Three to five years after treatment discontinuation a statistically significant reduction within the normal range was observed in patients who were greater than 40 years at the time of irradiation. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy led to a statistically significant irreversible renal impairment for all the three groups. The greatest reduction was seen in patients who received the highest total cisplatin dose or who were treated with irradiation in addition to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the observed nephrotoxicity is still unknown. PMID:2173944

  15. Differential gene expression profiles of gastric cancer cells established from primary tumour and malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, C; Hagiwara, A; Nakanishi, M; Shimomura, K; Takagi, T; Yasuoka, R; Fujita, Y; Abe, T; Ichikawa, Y; Takahashi, S; Ishikawa, T; Nishizuka, I; Morita, T; Shimada, H; Okazaki, Y; Hayashizaki, Y; Yamagishi, H

    2002-01-01

    Advanced gastric cancer is often accompanied by metastasis to the peritoneum, resulting in a high mortality rate. Mechanisms involved in gastric cancer metastasis have not been fully clarified because metastasis involves multiple steps and requires a combination of altered expressions of many different genes. Thus, independent analysis of any single gene would be insufficient to understand all of the aspects of gastric cancer peritoneal dissemination. In this study, we performed a global analysis of the differential gene expression of a gastric cancer cell line established from a primary main tumour (SNU-1) and of other cell lines established from the metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (SNU-5, SNU-16, SNU-620, KATO-III and GT3TKB). The application of a high-density cDNA microarray method made it possible to analyse the expression of approximately 21 168 genes. Our examinations of SNU-5, SNU-16, SNU-620, KATO-III and GT3TKB showed that 24 genes were up-regulated and 17 genes down-regulated besides expression sequence tags. The analysis revealed the following altered expression such as: (a) up-regulation of CD44 (cell adhesion), keratins 7, 8, and 14 (epitherial marker), aldehyde dehydrogenase (drug metabolism), CD9 and IP3 receptor type3 (signal transduction); (b) down-regulation of IL2 receptor γ, IL4-Stat (immune response), p27 (cell cycle) and integrin β4 (adhesion) in gastric cancer cells from malignant ascites. We then analysed eight gastric cancer cell lines with Northern blot and observed preferential up-regulation and down-regulation of these selected genes in cells prone to peritoneal dissemination. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction confirmed that several genes selected by DNA microarray were also overexpressed in clinical samples of malignant ascites. It is therefore considered that these genes may be related to the peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancers. The results of this global gene expression analysis of gastric cancer cells

  16. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in human malignant gliomas contributes to immune escape and tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Mittelbronn, Michel; Platten, Michael; Zeiner, Pia; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Frank, Brigitte; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Harter, Patrick N; Weller, Michael; Wischhusen, Jörg

    2011-09-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibits apoptosis and promotes angiogenesis, is expressed in cancers suppressing immune surveillance. Its biological role in human glioblastoma is, however, only poorly understood. We examined in-vivo expression of MIF in 166 gliomas and 23 normal control brains by immunohistochemistry. MIF immunoreactivity was enhanced in neoplastic astrocytes in WHO grade II glioma and increased significantly in higher tumour grades (III-IV). MIF expression was further assessed in 12 glioma cell lines in vitro. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that MIF mRNA expression was elevated up to 800-fold in malignant glioma cells compared with normal brain. This translated into high protein levels as assessed by immunoblotting of total cell lysates and by ELISA-based measurement of secreted MIF. Wild-type p53-retaining glioma cell lines expressed higher levels of MIF, which may be connected with the previously described role of MIF as a negative regulator of wild-type p53 signalling in tumour cells. Stable knockdown of MIF by shRNA in glioma cells significantly increased tumour cell susceptibility towards NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, supernatant from mock-transfected cells, but not from MIF knockdown cells, induced downregulation of the activating immune receptor NKG2D on NK and CD8+ T cells. We thus propose that human glioma cell-derived MIF contributes to the immune escape of malignant gliomas by counteracting NK and cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumour immune surveillance. Considering its further cell-intrinsic and extrinsic tumour-promoting effects and the availability of small molecule inhibitors, MIF seems to be a promising candidate for future glioma therapy. PMID:21773885

  17. Tumour exosomes display differential mechanical and complement activation properties dependent on malignant state: implications in endothelial leakiness

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Bradley; Wu, LinPing; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Aslan, Husnu; Dong, Mingdong; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Howard, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Exosomes have been implicated in tumour progression and metastatic spread. Little is known of the effect of mechanical and innate immune interactions of malignant cell-derived exosomes on endothelial integrity, which may relate to increased extravasation of circulating tumour cells and, therefore, increased metastatic spread. Methods Exosomes isolated from non-malignant immortalized HCV-29 and isogenic malignant non-metastatic T24 and malignant metastatic FL3 bladder cells were characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis and quantitative nanomechanical mapping atomic force microscopy (QNM AFM) to determine size and nanomechanical properties. Effect of HCV-29, T24 and FL3 exosomes on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer integrity was determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements and transport was determined by flow cytometry. Complement activation studies in human serum of malignant and non-malignant cell-derived exosomes were performed. Results FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells produced exosomes at similar concentration per cell (6.64, 6.61 and 6.46×104 exosomes per cell for FL3, T24 and HCV-29 cells, respectively) and of similar size (120.2 nm for FL3, 127.6 nm for T24 and 117.9 nm for HCV-29, respectively). T24 and FL3 cell-derived exosomes exhibited a markedly reduced stiffness, 95 MPa and 280 MPa, respectively, compared with 1,527 MPa with non-malignant HCV-29 cell-derived exosomes determined by QNM AFM. FL3 and T24 exosomes induced endothelial disruption as measured by a decrease in TEER in HUVEC monolayers, whereas no effect was observed for HCV-29 derived exosomes. FL3 and T24 exosomes traffic more readily (11.6 and 21.4% of applied exosomes, respectively) across HUVEC monolayers than HCV-29 derived exosomes (7.2% of applied exosomes). Malignant cell-derived exosomes activated complement through calcium-sensitive pathways in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions Malignant (metastatic and non

  18. Incidental Finding of a Rare Urachal Pathology: Urachal Mucinous Cystic Tumour of Low Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luke L.; Liddell, Heath; Tanny, Sharman Tan; Norris, Briony; Appu, Sree; Pan, David

    2016-01-01

    Urachal mucinous cystic tumours are rare pathological findings with only 23 previously reported cases in the literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidentally found urachal mucinous cystic tumour laparoscopically excised. With its known potential to cause pseudomyxoma peritonei, complete surgical excision is important. Long-term cystoscopic and radiological surveillance is also required. PMID:26881171

  19. Biokinetics and dosimetry with 177Lu-DOTA-TATE in athymic mice with induced pancreatic malignant tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Ferro-Flores, Ge; Pedraza-López, M.; Murphy-Stack, E.

    Malignant pancreatic tumours induced in athymic mice are a good model for peptide receptor targeted radiotherapy. The objective of this research was to determine biokinetic parameters in mice, in order to estimate the induced pancreatic tumour absorbed doses and to evaluate an `in house' 177Lu-DOTA-TATE radiopharmaceutical as part of preclinical studies for targeted therapy in humans. AR42J murine pancreas cancer cells expressing somatostatin receptors, were implanted in athymic mice (nD22) to obtain biokinetic and dosimetric data of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. The mean tumour uptake 2 h post injection was 14.76±1.9% I.A./g; kidney and pancreas uptake, at the same time, were 7.27±1.1% I.A./g (1.71±0.90%/organ) and 4.20±0.98% I.A./g (0.42±0.03%/organ), respectively. The mean absorbed dose to tumour, kidney and pancreas was 0.58±0.02 Gy/MBq; 0.23±0.01 Gy/MBq and 0.14±0.01 Gy/MBq, respectively. These studies justify further dosimetric estimations to ensure that 177Lu-DOTA-TATE will act as expected in humans.

  20. A mitotic cause of Whipple's triad: non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia in incurable low-grade malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Angela S; Twigg, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with known metastatic haemangiopericytoma presented with neuroglycopaenic symptoms of confusion and light-headedness secondary to recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycaemia, which resolved with oral carbohydrate intake. Investigations for hypoglycaemia revealed it to be non-insulin mediated, and subsequently due to a rare paraneoplastic phenomenon termed as non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia caused by tumoural overproduction of high molecular weight insulin-like growth factor-II. Despite his underlying malignancy being incurable, directed multimodality treatment involving regular oral carbohydrate intake, glucocorticoid therapy and recombinant human growth hormone was effective in relieving symptoms of hypoglycaemia. We discuss the importance of a systematic diagnostic approach to hypoglycaemia fulfilling Whipple's triad, as specific therapies can be invaluable to improving quality of life. PMID:25948850

  1. Imaging of the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour with emphasis οn ultrasonography: correlation with MRI.

    PubMed

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Kaziani, Theodora; Theocharides, Costas; Papanikolaou, Athanasios; Rafailidis, Dimitrios

    2014-09-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours affect 0.001 % of the population. The epithelioid subtype accounts for only 5 % of them. We herein present a patient with a palpable mass on the left calf, which was investigated by ultrasonography, ultrasonographically guided fine-needle biopsy and MRI. Ultrasonography estimated the size of the tumour and evaluated its echotexture. Doppler technique detected characteristic corkscrew-type blood vessel entering in the upper pole of the mass. T1-weighted, fat-suppression and gadolinium-enhanced MRI sequences confirmed ultrasonographic findings. In conclusion, although final diagnosis was established by biopsy, ultrasonography and MRI proved complementary in the characterization of the lesion and planning of surgery. PMID:25177396

  2. Prolonged life-threatening hypoglycaemia following dose escalation of octreotide LAR in a patient with malignant polysecreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Jessie; Dowling, Anthony; Hofman, Michael S; MacIsaac, Richard J; Sachithanandan, Nirupa

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper details the case of a 77-year-old male with refractory hypoglycaemia due to inoperable metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (pNET) co-secreting insulin and gastrin. Multiple medical therapies were trialled with limited success, and we describe the complications experienced by our patient. Somatostatin analogues can ameliorate hypoglycaemia and may have tumour-stabilising effects; however, in our case resulted in paradoxical worsening of hypoglycaemia. This rendered our patient hospital dependent for glycaemic support including continuous dextrose infusion. Although this is a reported adverse effect with initiation of therapy, we describe successful initiation of short-acting octreotide as an inpatient followed by commencement of long-acting octreotide. Hypoglycaemic collapse occurred only after dose titration of long-acting octreotide. We outline the pitfalls of somatostatin analogue therapy and the mechanisms that may contribute to worsening hypoglycaemia. This rare side effect cannot be reliably predicted, necessitating close supervision and glucose monitoring during therapy. Our patient achieved disease stabilisation and gradual resolution of hypoglycaemia with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), an emerging therapeutic option for metastatic neuroendocrine tumours with high efficacy and low toxicity. We present a brief but comprehensive discussion of currently available and novel therapies for insulin secreting pNETs. Learning points Hypoglycaemia due to malignant insulin secreting pNET is frequently severe and may be life-threatening despite supportive therapies.Octreotide can ameliorate hypoglycaemia, and may have anti-proliferative and tumour-stabilising effects in malignant pNETs that are surgically unresectable.Paradoxical worsening of hypoglycaemia may occur with octreotide initiation and dose titration, necessitating close supervision and glucose monitoring.PRRT is emerging as a therapeutic option with high efficacy and

  3. A review of high intensity focused ultrasound in relation to the treatment of renal tumours and other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cranston, David

    2015-11-01

    For 60 years, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been the subject of interest for medical research. HIFU causes tissue necrosis in a very well defined area, at a variable distance from the transducer, through heating or cavitation. Over the past two decades, the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound has been investigated in many clinical settings. This review summarises recent advances made in the field of renal cancer in particular, and gives an overview on the use of the extracorporeal machines in the treatment of other malignant tumours. PMID:26070919

  4. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Timothy P C; Yartsev, Slav; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene; He, Wenqing; Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L; Macdonald, David; Bauman, Glenn

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods: Ten patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. Results: Pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. Conclusion: PS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Adjuvant therapy for highly malignant canine mammary tumours: Cox-2 inhibitor versus chemotherapy: a case-control prospective study.

    PubMed

    Arenas, C; Peña, L; Granados-Soler, J L; Pérez-Alenza, M D

    2016-07-30

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) enzyme participates in different steps of the carcinogenetic process and in canine mammary tumours (CMTs), a high expression of Cox-2 is associated with malignancy and tumour angiogenesis. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of a Cox-2 inhibitor as adjuvant therapy in dogs with highly malignant (HM)-CMTs and compare it with that of dogs treated with chemotherapy and with control dogs. Twenty-eight dogs were prospectively included. After surgery, dogs were alternatively allocated into two treatment groups (chemotherapy with mitoxantrone n=8; Cox-2 inhibitor, firocoxib n=7). Control group (n=13) included dogs whose owners rejected adjuvant therapy. All dogs were followed up for two years or until death. The DFS was significantly higher in dogs that received adjuvant treatment (mitoxantrone or firocoxib) (P=0.030) than in control dogs. Dogs on firocoxib treatment had significantly higher DFS (P=0.015) and OS (P=0.048) than control dogs. The DFS and OS of dogs on mitoxantrone treatment were not statistically different from controls. In conclusion, this study supports the use of firocoxib for the treatment of HM-CMTs. Further studies are needed to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs versus Cox-2 inhibitors as adjuvant treatment in these cases. PMID:27377395

  6. Platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin in normal subjects, and in patients with benign and malignant tumours of the breast.

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, C.; Zonca, M.; Tavella, A. M.; Petitti, E.; Massobrio, M.; Nigam, S.; Slater, T. F.

    1985-01-01

    Platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin (PG12) was determined in normal male and female subjects, and in patients with benign and malignant tumours of the breast. The IC50 overall mean values for PG12 on ADP-induced platelet aggregation were similar for normal men and women, being 0.97 +/- 0.05 ng ml-1 and 0.83 +/- 0.07 ng ml-1 respectively. However, there were significant differences in the IC50 values for women in the 1st (0.81 +/- 0.06 ng ml-1) vs. 2nd (1.37 +/- 0.13 ng ml-1) phase of the menstrual cycle; post-menopausal women gave similar values to normal males and to pre-menopausal women in the 1st phase of the cycle. No significant differences were found between normal subjects and patients with benign or malignant tumours of the breast when account was taken of the status of the patient in relation to the phase of the menstrual cycle and the menopause. The importance of the hormonal status in evaluating changes in platelet sensitivity in patients with breast cancer is strongly emphasised. PMID:3881119

  7. Clinical Practice: Giant Cell Tumour of the Jaw Mimicking Bone Malignancy on Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography (3D CT) Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Alessandro; Laino, Luigi; Rossiello, Luigi; Perillo, Letizia; Ermo, Antonio Dell; Cirillo, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of diseases may present with radiographic features of osteolysis. Periapical inflammation, cysts and benign tumours, bone malignancies, all of these conditions may show bone resorption on radiograph. Features of the surrounding bone, margins of the lesion, and biological behaviour including tendency to infiltration and root resorption, may represent important criteria for distinguishing benign tumours from their malign counterpart, although the radiographic aspect of the lesion is not always predictive. Therefore a critical differential diagnosis has to be reached to choose the best management. Here, we report a case of giant cell tumour (GCT) whose radiological features by computed tomography (CT) suggested the presence of bone malignancy, whereas the evaluation of a routine OPT scan comforted us about the benign nature of the lesion. A brief review of the literature on such a benign but locally aggressive neoplasm is also provided. PMID:19088886

  8. Differential diagnosis of malignant tumours in the abdominal cavity of rats after intraperitoneal injection of crocidolite or benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Friemann, J; Varnai, M; Sutter, C; Hohr, B; Behrens, A; Althoff, G H; Schilpkoter, H W

    1996-01-01

    In our investigation (i.p. test), crocidolite and benzo[a]pyrene, both caused a progression from initially reactive, then autonomously transformed proliferation of myofibroblasts and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to malignant, multidirectionally differentiated (desmin and ED-1 positive) fibro-histiocytic tumours. Immunohistochemically these tumours showed no morphological characteristics (for example co-expression of vimentin and keratin in spindle-shaped tumour cells) of human asbestos-associated malignant mesotheliomas. On the other hand many tumour cells induced by crocidolite and benzo[a]pyrene had an ultrastructural appearance resembling fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. These have been demonstrated in only a few desmoplastic and sarcomatous mesotheliomas in human beings. None of the tumours revealed the typical ultrastructural features of epitheloid or transitional mesotheliomas. Apparently, both carcinogenic substances induce the transformation of undifferentiated pluripotent mesenchymal cells in rat peritoneum, regardless of their localization in the submesothelial compartment or perivascular connective tissue (preferentially after crocidolite application) or in the connective tissue pseudocapsule of major benzo[a]pyrene containing beeswax/tricaprylin depots in the mesometrium and mesenterial fatty tissue. In this way asbestos fibres in this animal experiment do not seem to induce an arrest in differentiation of intermediate or immature mesothelial cells as supposed formerly, but rather affect undifferentiated mesenchyme cells and myofibroblasts. This is an explanation for the immunohistochemical expression of markers of muscular differentiation in these tumour cells, which is known to occur in human malignant fibro-histiocytic tumours. If supplementary immunohistochemical investigations with different keratin antibodies also fail to confirm the mesothelial differentiation of the tumours induced in our i.p. test, the decision to call them "mesotheliomas

  9. Relationship of computed tomography perfusion and positron emission tomography to tumour progression in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Timothy P C; Yartsev, Slav; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene; He, Wenqing; Fisher, Barbara; VanderSpek, Lauren L; Macdonald, David; Bauman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThis study aimed to explore the potential for computed tomography (CT) perfusion and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting sites of future progressive tumour on a voxel-by-voxel basis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. MethodsTen patients underwent pre-radiotherapy magnetic resonance (MR), FDG-PET and CT perfusion near the end of radiotherapy and repeated post-radiotherapy follow-up MR scans. The relationships between these images and tumour progression were assessed using logistic regression. Cross-validation with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the value of these images in predicting sites of tumour progression. ResultsPre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour; near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion; CT perfusion blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability-surface area (PS) product; FDG-PET standard uptake value (SUV); and SUV:BF showed significant associations with tumour progression on follow-up MR imaging (P < 0.0001). The mean sensitivity (±standard deviation), specificity and area under the ROC curve (AUC) of PS were 0.64 ± 0.15, 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.12 respectively. This mean AUC was higher than that of the pre-radiotherapy MR-defined gross tumour and near-end-of-radiotherapy CT-defined enhancing lesion (both AUCs = 0.6 ± 0.1, P ≤ 0.03). The multivariate model using BF, BV, PS and SUV had a mean AUC of 0.8 ± 0.1, but this was not significantly higher than the PS only model. ConclusionPS is the single best predictor of tumour progression when compared to other parameters, but voxel-based prediction based on logistic regression had modest sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26229630

  10. Analysis of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Relative to Other Key Factors in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumours.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Sur, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays important physiological roles, but is also of significance in carcinogenesis in man and animals. This study aimed to identify HIF-1α expression in malignant canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and to find correlations with other key factors by using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The histological classification, grading and evaluation of lymphatic invasion were achieved by examining sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin. Determination of molecular subtype, expression of HIF-1α, oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, Ki67, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin was evaluated by IHC in 87 samples of malignant CMTs. HIF-1α expression correlated significantly with histological type, grade of cancer, negativity for OR and expression of Ki67 and VEGF. Lymphatic invasion, molecular subtype, PR, HER-2 and E-cadherin levels did not significantly correlate with HIF-1α expression. The results of this study imply that HIF-1α may potentially play a role in increased malignancy of CMTs, as it does in human breast cancer. PMID:26145724

  11. Affibody-mediated PET imaging of HER3 expression in malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rosestedt, Maria; Andersson, Ken G.; Mitran, Bogdan; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Löfblom, John; Orlova, Anna; Ståhl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is involved in the progression of various cancers and in resistance to therapies targeting the HER family. In vivo imaging of HER3 expression would enable patient stratification for anti-HER3 immunotherapy. Key challenges with HER3-targeting are the relatively low expression in HER3-positive tumours and HER3 expression in normal tissues. The use of positron-emission tomography (PET) provides advantages of high resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy compared to SPECT. Affibody molecules, imaging probes based on a non-immunoglobulin scaffold, provide high imaging contrast shortly after injection. The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility of PET imaging of HER3 expression using 68Ga-labeled affibody molecules. The anti-HER3 affibody molecule HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was successfully labelled with 68Ga with high yield, purity and stability. The agent bound specifically to HER3-expressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. At 3 h pi, uptake of 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA was significantly higher in xenografts with high HER3 expression (BT474, BxPC-3) than in xenografts with low HER3 expression (A431). In xenografts with high expression, tumour-to-blood ratios were >20, tumour-to-muscle >15, and tumour-to-bone >7. HER3-positive xenografts were visualised using microPET 3 h pi. In conclusion, PET imaging of HER3 expression is feasible using 68Ga-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA shortly after administration. PMID:26477646

  12. Towards the introduction of the ‘Immunoscore’ in the classification of malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Galon, Jérôme; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Angell, Helen K; Berger, Anne; Lagorce, Christine; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti; Hartmann, Arndt; Bifulco, Carlo; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Palmqvist, Richard; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Botti, Gerardo; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Delrio, Paolo; Maio, Michele; Laghi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Asslaber, Martin; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Zavadova, Eva; Chouchane, Lotfi; Ohashi, Pamela S; Hafezi-Bakhtiari, Sara; Wouters, Bradly G; Roehrl, Michael; Nguyen, Linh; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hazama, Shoichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Ogino, Shuji; Gibbs, Peter; Waring, Paul; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kyogo; Patel, Prabhu S; Shukla, Shilin N; Wang, Yili; Kopetz, Scott; Sinicrope, Frank A; Scripcariu, Viorel; Ascierto, Paolo A; Marincola, Francesco M; Fox, Bernard A; Pagès, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system provides the most reliable guidelines for the routine prognostication and treatment of colorectal carcinoma. This traditional tumour staging summarizes data on tumour burden (T), the presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for distant metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that the clinical outcome can vary significantly among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information and does not predict response to therapy. Multiple ways to classify cancer and to distinguish different subtypes of colorectal cancer have been proposed, including morphology, cell origin, molecular pathways, mutation status and gene expression-based stratification. These parameters rely on tumour-cell characteristics. Extensive literature has investigated the host immune response against cancer and demonstrated the prognostic impact of the in situ immune cell infiltrate in tumours. A methodology named ‘Immunoscore’ has been defined to quantify the in situ immune infiltrate. In colorectal cancer, the Immunoscore may add to the significance of the current AJCC/UICC TNM classification, since it has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor superior to the AJCC/UICC TNM classification. An international consortium has been initiated to validate and promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings. The results of this international consortium may result in the implementation of the Immunoscore as a new component for the classification of cancer, designated TNM-I (TNM-Immune). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:24122236

  13. Evaluation of seven tumour markers in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusions

    PubMed Central

    Miédougé, M; Rouzaud, P; Salama, G; Pujazon, M-C; Vincent, C; Mauduyt, M-A; Reyre, J; Carles, P; Serre, G

    1999-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens 15–3, 19–9 and 72–4 (CA 15–3, CA 19–9 and CA 72–4), cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21–1), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) were evaluated in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of malignant effusions. With a specificity of 99%, determined in a series of 121 benign effusions, the best individual diagnostic sensitivities in the whole series of 215 malignant effusions or in the subgroup of adenocarcinomas were observed with CEA, CA 15–3 and CA 72–4. As expected, a high sensitivity was obtained with SCC in squamous cell carcinomas and with NSE in small-cell lung carcinomas. CYFRA and/or CA 15–3 were frequently increased in mesotheliomas. Discriminant analysis showed that the optimal combination for diagnosis of non-lymphomatous malignant effusions was CEA + CA 15–3 + CYFRA + NSE: sensitivity of 94.4% with an overall specificity of 95%. In malignant effusions with a negative cytology, 83.9% were diagnosed using this association. The association CYFRA + NSE + SCC was able to discriminate adenocarcinomas from small-cell lung cancers. Regarding their sensitivity and their complementarity, CEA, CA 15–3, CYFRA 21–1, NSE and SCC appear to be very useful to improve the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576665

  14. VEGFR-2 expression in malignant tumours of the canine mammary gland: a prospective survival study.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Lopes, C; Gärtner, F; Matos, A J F

    2016-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is the main receptor activated by vascular endothelial growth factor -A (VEGF-A) to promote tumour angiogenesis. Its clinical prognostic value has not been studied in canine mammary tumours (CMTs). Dogs with mammary cancer were enrolled in a survival study and the immunohistochemical expressions of VEGFR-2 and VEGF-A were analysed and associated with clinicopathological features. VEGFR-2 expression was associated with VEGF immunoreactivity in cancer cells, supporting the presence of an autocrine loop that may be involved in CMTs growth and survival. VEGFR-2 was also expressed by endothelial cells from tumour vasculature and positively associated with stromal matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), suggesting the existence of a link between endothelial cells activation and up-regulation of matrix degrading proteins. Carcinosarcomas exhibited high VEGFR-2 expression suggesting that it may be one of the activated molecular pathways in this aggressive histological type and that VEGFR-2 inhibitors may constitute a potential treatment to improve the prognosis of these patients. Both VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivities were independent of patients' overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). PMID:24976305

  15. Paediatric head CT scan and subsequent risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour: a nation-wide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W-Y; Muo, C-H; Lin, C-Y; Jen, Y-M; Yang, M-H; Lin, J-C; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the possible association between paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examination and increased subsequent risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour. Methods: In the exposed cohort, 24 418 participants under 18 years of age, who underwent head CT examination between 1998 and 2006, were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Patients were followed up until a diagnosis of malignant disease or benign brain tumour, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system, or at the end of 2008. Results: The overall risk was not significantly different in the two cohorts (incidence rate=36.72 per 100 000 person-years in the exposed cohort, 28.48 per 100 000 person-years in the unexposed cohort, hazard ratio (HR)=1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.90–1.85). The risk of benign brain tumour was significantly higher in the exposed cohort than in the unexposed cohort (HR=2.97, 95% CI=1.49–5.93). The frequency of CT examination showed strong correlation with the subsequent overall risk of malignancy and benign brain tumour. Conclusions: We found that paediatric head CT examination was associated with an increased incidence of benign brain tumour. A large-scale study with longer follow-up is necessary to confirm this result. PMID:24569470

  16. Malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract in an area with an asbestos-cement plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Curin, K

    1996-06-01

    Data on persons who died of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos-cement plant were analysed for the period 1970-1990. By poll method applied to the families of deceased subjects, additional data on occupation, lifestyle, educational level, length of resistance and cancer mortality among relatives were collected. The investigation showed that in the study area, but also in certain narrower locations within it (subarea settlements), some of the tumours studied occurred at higher rates than expected. Although not conclusive, these findings may indicate a role of environmental exposure to asbestos, particularly in the occurrence of peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:8635157

  17. Chromatin H3K27me3/H3K4me3 histone marks define gene sets in high-grade serous ovarian cancer that distinguish malignant, tumour-sustaining and chemo-resistant ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Chapman-Rothe, N; Curry, E; Zeller, C; Liber, D; Stronach, E; Gabra, H; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Brown, R

    2013-09-19

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, bivalent chromatin domains containing H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks silence developmental genes, while keeping them poised for activation following differentiation. We have identified gene sets associated with H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 marks at transcription start sites in a high-grade ovarian serous tumour and examined their association with epigenetic silencing and malignant progression. This revealed novel silenced bivalent marked genes, not described previously for ES cells, which are significantly enriched for the PI3K (P<10(-7)) and TGF-β signalling pathways (P<10(-5)). We matched histone marked gene sets to gene expression sets of eight normal fallopian tubes and 499 high-grade serous malignant ovarian samples. This revealed a significant decrease in gene expression for the H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets in malignant tissue. We then correlated H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets to gene expression data of ovarian tumour 'stem cell-like' sustaining cells versus non-sustaining cells. This showed a significantly lower expression for the H3K27me3 and bivalent gene sets in the tumour-sustaining cells. Similarly, comparison of matched chemo-sensitive and chemo-resistant ovarian cell lines showed a significantly lower expression of H3K27me3/bivalent marked genes in the chemo-resistant compared with the chemo-sensitive cell line. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that bivalent marks are associated with epigenetic silencing in ovarian cancer. However it also suggests that additional tumour specific bivalent marks, to those known in ES cells, are present in tumours and may potentially influence the subsequent development of drug resistance and tumour progression. PMID:23128397

  18. Analysis of Obesity-Related Factors and their Association with Aromatase Expression in Canine Malignant Mammary Tumours.

    PubMed

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Ju, J-H; Sur, J-H

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of obesity in canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs), by assessing aromatase expression and the regulatory roles of immune mediators such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and adipokines (i.e. leptin) in lean, optimal body weight, overweight and obese animals. Clinicopathological data, including the breed, body weight, body condition score and age and neutering status, were collected, together with histopathological characteristics (i.e. histological types, grading and lymphatic invasion). To determine the expression of each factor, immunohistochemistry was conducted with 60 samples of malignant CMMTs. CMMTs from overweight and obese animals had significantly elevated levels of PGE2, and aromatase expression correlated significantly with PGE2, NF-κB and leptin expression. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of histopathological characteristics. The results suggest that PGE2, a known obesity-related immune mediator, could be upregulated in CMMTs from overweight and obese animals. In addition, PGE2, NF-κB and leptin influenced the expression of aromatase, as observed in women. PMID:27290646

  19. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus surgical radiofrequency ablation for malignant liver tumours: the long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John; Lee, Kit-Fai; Yu, Simon Chun-Ho; Lee, Paul Sing-Fun; Cheung, Yue-Sun; Chong, Ching-Ning; Ip, Philip Ching-Tak; Lai, Paul Bo-San

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastases for more than 10 years with promising early outcomes. Preliminary results comparing percutaneous and surgical approaches have shown no difference in short-term outcomes. In this study, the longer-term outcomes were presented. Methods Patients with liver malignancies treated by RFA were prospectively studied from 2003 to 2011. Post-ablation assessment by computed tomography (CT) scan and serum biochemistry was performed at regular intervals. Recurrence rates and long-term survival were analysed. Results A total of 233 patients with liver malignancies (75.5% HCC and 24.5% liver metastases) were analysed. Three RFA approaches were used (percutaneous 58.4%, laparoscopic 9.4% and open 32.2%). The median follow-up time was 29 months. Complete ablation was achieved in 83.7%, with no difference between the two approaches. More wound and chest complications were observed in the surgical group. Intra-hepatic recurrences were observed in 69.5%; extra-hepatic recurrences were detected in 22.3%, with no difference between the two groups. There was no statistical difference between the two approaches in overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival. Conclusion An extended period of follow-up in patients with liver malignancies showed that RFA is an effective treatment. No difference was demonstrated between the percutaneous and surgical approach, in terms of recurrence and survival. PMID:23458320

  20. PKA inhibits WNT signalling in adrenal cortex zonation and prevents malignant tumour development.

    PubMed

    Drelon, Coralie; Berthon, Annabel; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Mathieu, Mickaël; Dumontet, Typhanie; Rodriguez, Stéphanie; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Tabbal, Houda; Tauveron, Igor; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Vainio, Seppo; Shan, Jingdong; Sacco, Sonia; Schedl, Andreas; Stratakis, Constantine A; Martinez, Antoine; Val, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortex physiology relies on functional zonation, essential for production of aldosterone by outer zona glomerulosa (ZG) and glucocorticoids by inner zona fasciculata (ZF). The cortex undergoes constant cell renewal, involving recruitment of subcapsular progenitors to ZG fate and subsequent lineage conversion to ZF identity. Here we show that WNT4 is an important driver of WNT pathway activation and subsequent ZG differentiation and demonstrate that PKA activation prevents ZG differentiation through WNT4 repression and WNT pathway inhibition. This suggests that PKA activation in ZF is a key driver of WNT inhibition and lineage conversion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that constitutive PKA activation inhibits, whereas partial inactivation of PKA catalytic activity stimulates β-catenin-induced tumorigenesis. Together, both lower PKA activity and higher WNT pathway activity lead to poorer prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) patients. These observations suggest that PKA acts as a tumour suppressor in the adrenal cortex, through repression of WNT signalling. PMID:27624192

  1. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. PMID:22939910

  2. A Role for the Malignant Brain Tumour (MBT) Domain Protein LIN-61 in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas M.; Lemmens, Bennie B. L. G.; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Malignant brain tumour (MBT) domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR) for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT–deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair. PMID:23505385

  3. Mutational analysis of PI3K/AKT and RAS/RAF pathway activation in malignant salivary gland tumours with a new mutation of PIK3CA.

    PubMed

    Shalmon, B; Drendel, M; Wolf, M; Hirshberg, A; Cohen, Y

    2016-06-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3)/v-akt murine thymoma (AKT) oncogene pathway and the RAS/RAF pathway are involved in regulating the signalling of multiple biological processes, including apoptosis, metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell growth. Mutations in the genes within these pathways are frequently found in several tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS genes in cases of malignant salivary gland tumours. Mutational analysis of the PIK3CA, KRAS, and BRAF genes was performed by direct sequencing of material from 21 patients with malignant salivary gland tumours who underwent surgery between 1992 and 2001. No mutations were found in the KRAS exon 2, BRAF exon 15, or PIK3CA exon 9 genes. However, an unpublished mutation of the PIK3CA gene in exon 20 (W1051 stop mutation) was found in one case of adenocarcinoma NOS. The impact of this mutation on the biological behaviour of the tumour has yet to be explored, however the patient with adenocarcinoma NOS harbouring this mutation has survived for over 20 years following surgery despite a high stage at presentation. Further studies with more homogeneous patient cohorts are needed to address whether this mutation reflects a different clinical presentation and may benefit from targeted treatment strategies. PMID:26811072

  4. Imaging of rare medullary adrenal tumours in adults.

    PubMed

    Maciel, C A; Tang, Y Z; Coniglio, G; Sahdev, A

    2016-05-01

    Although adrenal medullary tumours are rare, they have important clinical implications. They form a heterogeneous group of tumours, ranging from benign, non-secretory, incidental masses to hormonally active tumours presenting acutely, or malignant tumours with disseminated disease and a poor prognosis. Increasingly, benign masses are incidentally detected due to the widespread use of imaging and routine medical check-ups. This review aims to illustrate the multimodality imaging appearances of rare adrenal medullary tumours, excluding the more common phaeochromocytomas, with clues to the diagnosis and to summarise relevant epidemiological and clinical data. Careful correlation of clinical presentation, hormone profile, and various imaging techniques narrow the differential diagnosis. Image-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, allowing for conservative management in selected cases. A close collaboration between the radiologist, endocrinologist, and surgeon is of the utmost importance in the management of these tumours. PMID:26944698

  5. Radiochemotherapy-induced changes of tumour vascularity and blood supply estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and fractal analysis in malignant head and neck tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hietschold, V; Appold, S; von Kummer, R; Abolmaali, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiochemotherapy (RChT)-induced changes of transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and relative tumour blood volume (rTBV) estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and fractal analysis in head and neck tumours (HNTs). Methods: DCE-CT was performed in 15 patients with inoperable HNTs before RChT, and after 2 and 5 weeks. The dynamics of Ktrans and rTBV as well as lacunarity, slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size), and fractal dimension were compared with tumour behaviour during RChT and in the 24-month follow-up. Results: In 11 patients, an increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV after 20 Gy followed by a decrease of both parameters after 50 Gy was noted. Except for one local recurrence, no tumour residue was found during the follow-up. In three patients with partial tumour reduction during RChT, a decrease of Ktrans accompanied by an increase in rTBV between 20 and 50 Gy was detected. In one patient with continuous elevation of both parameters, tumour progressed after RChT. Pre-treatment difference in intratumoral heterogeneity with its decline under RChT for the responders vs non-responders was observed. Conclusion: Initial growth of Ktrans and/or rTBV followed by further reduction of both parameters along with the decline of the slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size) was associated with positive radiochemotherapeutic response. Increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV under RChT indicated a poor outcome. Advances in knowledge: The modification of Ktrans and rTBV as measured by DCE-CT may be applied for the assessment of tumour sensitivity to chose RChT regimen and, consequently, to reveal clinical impact allowing individualization of RChT strategy in patients with HNT. PMID:25412001

  6. A benign or malignant eyelid lump – can you tell? An unusual collision tumour highlighting the difficulty differentiating a hidrocystoma from a basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakasam, Anuradha; Rene, Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    Hidrocystoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid lesions. The former is benign while the latter is malignant and can cause significant destruction of the adnexal structures, orbital invasion and visual loss. The authors describe a case of a 76-year-old female with a slow growing right upper lid lesion which was diagnosed as a hidrocystoma but excision biopsy revealed a collision tumour comprised of a BCC abutting a hidrocystoma in the same lesion. Cystic BCC can masquerade as hidrocystoma but there are no previous case reports of BCC coexisting with hidrocystoma in the same lesion. This case highlights the fact that apparently benign lesions, such as hidrocystomas, may actually be malignant or coexist with malignant pathology. Clinicians should have a low threshold for appropriate excision biopsy and histological examination of such lesions, especially if there are sinister features, such as lash loss, induration, pigmentation or a pearly appearance. PMID:22744259

  7. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  8. Metabolic Tumour Burden Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT Predicts Malignant Transformation in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type-1

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Zehou, Ouidad; Djelbani-Ahmed, Soraya; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; Ortonne, Nicolas; Brugières, Pierre; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Luciani, Alain; Rahmouni, Alain; Sbidian, Emilie; Itti, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic performances of 18F-FDG PET/CT measures of metabolic tumour burden in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), suspect of malignant transformation. Methods This retrospective study included 49 patients (15–60 years old, 30 women) with a diagnosis of NF1, followed in our Reference Centre for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases, who presented clinical signs of tumour progression (pain, neurological deficit, tumour growth). Quantitative metabolic parameters were measured on 149 tumoral targets, using semi-automatic software and the best cut off values to predict transformation was assessed by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. Prognostic value of PET/CT metabolic parameters was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival. Results Lesions were histologically documented in 40 patients: a sarcomatous transformation was found in 16, a dysplastic neurofibroma (NF) in 7, and a benign NF in 17; in the remaining 9 patients, a minimal follow-up of 12 mo (median 59 mo) confirmed the absence of transformation. The optimal cut off values for detection of malignant transformation were, in decreasing order of area under the ROC curves, a tumour-to-liver (T/L) ratio >2.5, SUVmax > 4.5, total lesion glycolysis (TLG) > 377, total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) > 88 cm3, and heterogeneity index (HIsuv) > 1.69. The best prognostic marker was the TLG: the 4-y estimates of survival were 97% [95% CI, 90% - 100%] in patients with TLG ≤ 377 vs. 27% [95% CI, 5% - 49%] in patients with TLG > 377 (P < 0.0001; χ2 27.85; hazard ratio 13.27 [95% CI, 3.72–47.35]). T/L ratio, SUVmax and TMTV demonstrated slightly lower performance to predict survival, with χ2 ranging 14.41–19.12. The HIsuv index was not predictive of survival. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that TLG and TMTV, as PET/CT measures of metabolic tumour burden, may be used clinically to identify sarcomatous transformation in patients with NF1 and

  9. A pH-activatable nanoparticle with signal-amplification capabilities for non-invasive imaging of tumour malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Wu, Hailiang; Terada, Yasuko; Saga, Tsuneo; Aoki, Ichio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that respond to pathophysiological parameters, such as pH or redox potential, have been developed as contrast agents for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumours. However, beyond anatomic assessment, contrast agents that can sense these pathological parameters and rapidly amplify their magnetic resonance signals are desirable because they could potentially be used to monitor the biological processes of tumours and improve cancer diagnosis. Here, we report an MRI contrast agent that rapidly amplifies magnetic resonance signals in response to pH. We confined Mn2+ within pH-sensitive calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles comprising a poly(ethylene glycol) shell. At a low pH, such as in solid tumours, the CaP disintegrates and releases Mn2+ ions. Binding to proteins increases the relaxivity of Mn2+ and enhances the contrast. We show that these nanoparticles could rapidly and selectively brighten solid tumours, identify hypoxic regions within the tumour mass and detect invisible millimetre-sized metastatic tumours in the liver.

  10. A pH-activatable nanoparticle with signal-amplification capabilities for non-invasive imaging of tumour malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mi, Peng; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Cabral, Horacio; Wu, Hailiang; Terada, Yasuko; Saga, Tsuneo; Aoki, Ichio; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-08-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that respond to pathophysiological parameters, such as pH or redox potential, have been developed as contrast agents for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumours. However, beyond anatomic assessment, contrast agents that can sense these pathological parameters and rapidly amplify their magnetic resonance signals are desirable because they could potentially be used to monitor the biological processes of tumours and improve cancer diagnosis. Here, we report an MRI contrast agent that rapidly amplifies magnetic resonance signals in response to pH. We confined Mn(2+) within pH-sensitive calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles comprising a poly(ethylene glycol) shell. At a low pH, such as in solid tumours, the CaP disintegrates and releases Mn(2+) ions. Binding to proteins increases the relaxivity of Mn(2+) and enhances the contrast. We show that these nanoparticles could rapidly and selectively brighten solid tumours, identify hypoxic regions within the tumour mass and detect invisible millimetre-sized metastatic tumours in the liver. PMID:27183055

  11. In vitro activity of bortezomib in cultures of patient tumour cells--potential utility in haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Kristina; Carlson, Kristina; Aleskog, Anna; Larsson, Rolf; Nygren, Peter; Lindhagen, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib represents a new class of anti-cancer drugs, the proteasome inhibitors. We evaluated the in vitro activity of bortezomib with regard to tumour-type specificity and possible mechanisms of drug resistance in 115 samples of tumour cells from patients and in a cell-line panel, using the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Bortezomib generally showed dose-response curves with a steep slope. In patient cells, bortezomib was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples. Myeloma and chronic myeloid leukaemia were the most sensitive tumour types although with great variability in drug response between the individual samples. Colorectal and kidney cancer samples were the least sensitive. In the cell-line panel, only small differences in response were seen between the different cell lines, and the proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin and MG 262, showed an activity pattern similar to that of bortezomib. The cell-line data suggest that resistance to bortezomib was not mediated by MRP-, PgP, GSH-; tubulin and topo II-associated MDR. Combination experiments indicated synergy between bortezomib and arsenic trioxide or irinotecan. The data support the current use of bortezomib but also points to its potential utility in other tumour types and in combination with cytotoxic drugs. PMID:19016012

  12. Endothelial CD276 (B7-H3) expression is increased in human malignancies and distinguishes between normal and tumour-derived circulating endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kraan, J; van den Broek, P; Verhoef, C; Grunhagen, D J; Taal, W; Gratama, J W; Sleijfer, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mature circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are surrogate markers of endothelial damage. CEC measured in patients with advanced cancer are thought not only to derive from damaged normal vasculature (n-CEC), but also from damaged (t-CEC). Therefore, assays that allow the discrimination between these two putative types of CEC are thought to improve the specificity of the enumeration of CEC in cancer. Methods: Identification of tumour-associated endothelial markers (TEM) by comparing antigen expression on normal vs t-CEC and assess the presence of t-CEC in peripheral blood of cancer patients by incorporating TEM in our novel flow cytometry-based CEC detection assay. Results: No difference in antigen expression between normal and malignant endothelial cells (ECs) was found for CD54, CD109, CD137, CD141, CD144 and CXCR7. In contrast, overexpression for CD105, CD146, CD276 and CD309 was observed in tumour ECs compared with normal ECs. CD276 was most differentially expressed and chosen as a marker for further investigation. CD276-expressing CEC were significantly higher in 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (median 9 (range 1–293 cell per 4 ml); P<0.005), in 83 patients with a glioblastoma multiforme (median 10 (range 0–804); P<0.0001) and in 14 patients with advanced breast cancer (median 14 (range 0–390) P<0.05) as compared with 24 healthy individuals (median 3 (range 0–11)). Of all patients with malignancies, 58% had CD276+ CEC counts above the ULN (8 cell per 4 ml). Conclusions: The present study shows that CD276 can be used to discriminate ECs from malignant tissue from ECs from normal tissue. In addition, CD276+ CEC do occur in higher frequencies in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:24892449

  13. Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use

    PubMed Central

    HARDELL, LENNART; CARLBERG, MICHAEL; SÖDERQVIST, FREDRIK; MILD, KJELL HANSSON

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the hand-held phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a ‘possible’ human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18–75 years and diagnosed during 2007–2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04–3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6–6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996–2.7, increasing with latency >15–20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1–2.9, and, for latency of 15–20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2–3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20–25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1–5 years, then a

  14. Renal sparing treatment of upper tract malignant urothelial tumours using photodynamic therapy (PDT)-three case reports.

    PubMed

    Coombs, L M; Dixon, Kate

    2004-05-01

    Urothelial cancers of the upper urinary tract are usually treated by excision of the kidney, ureter and cuff of the bladder on the affected side. These three cases demonstrate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy as a renal sparing procedure for urothelial tumours. PMID:25048071

  15. A model to predict survival following pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy based on tumour site, stage and lymph node ratio☆

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Bobby V.M.; Roberts, Keith J.; Hodson, James; Stevens, Lewis; Smith, Andrew M.; Hubscher, Stefan G.; Isaac, John; Muiesan, Paolo; Sutcliffe, Robert P.; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Mirza, Darius F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Site of tumour origin, lymph node metastases and lymph node ratio (LNR) are identified as important factors determining prognosis in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). This study hypothesised that a prognostic index to predict survival could be developed through statistical modelling based on these pathological variables. Methods Patients who underwent PD between 2004 and 2013 were included. Univariable and multivariable (Cox regression) analyses were performed to identify predictors of survival, and a prognostic index was derived. The prognostic index was then validated using an external patient cohort. Results A total of 567 patients who underwent PD were used as a derivation cohort. Tumour site (p < 0.001), tumour size (p = 0.002), T-stage (p < 0.001), vascular involvement (p = 0.002), number of positive nodes (p < 0.001) and LNR (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with survival in univariable analysis. LNR (p < 0.001), tumour site (p < 0.001), T-stage (p = 0.007) remained significant predictors of survival in multivariable analysis, and were combined to derive a prognostic index. The accuracy of the prognostic index was assessed both on the original cohort, and a validation set of 194 patients from another institutional prospective database. The AUROC scores for predicting the overall survival at 3 years were 0.77 in the derivation cohort and 0.74 in the validation cohort. Conclusion The Pancreaticoduodenectomy Prognostic Index is a validated clinico-pathological model based on tumour site, T-stage and LNR to predict long-term survival following PD. PMID:27037202

  16. The two most common histological subtypes of malignant germ cell tumour are distinguished by global microRNA profiles, associated with differential transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We hypothesised that differences in microRNA expression profiles contribute to the contrasting natural history and clinical outcome of the two most common types of malignant germ cell tumour (GCT), yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas. Results By direct comparison, using microarray data for paediatric GCT samples and published qRT-PCR data for adult samples, we identified microRNAs significantly up-regulated in YSTs (n = 29 paediatric, 26 adult, 11 overlapping) or germinomas (n = 37 paediatric). By Taqman qRT-PCR we confirmed differential expression of 15 of 16 selected microRNAs and further validated six of these (miR-302b, miR-375, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-122, miR-205) in an independent sample set. Interestingly, the miR-302 cluster, which is over-expressed in all malignant GCTs, showed further over-expression in YSTs versus germinomas, representing six of the top eight microRNAs over-expressed in paediatric YSTs and seven of the top 11 in adult YSTs. To explain this observation, we used mRNA expression profiles of paediatric and adult malignant GCTs to identify 10 transcription factors (TFs) consistently over-expressed in YSTs versus germinomas, followed by linear regression to confirm associations between TF and miR-302 cluster expression levels. Using the sequence motif analysis environment iMotifs, we identified predicted binding sites for four of the 10 TFs (GATA6, GATA3, TCF7L2 and MAF) in the miR-302 cluster promoter region. Finally, we showed that miR-302 family over-expression in YST is likely to be functionally significant, as mRNAs down-regulated in YSTs were enriched for 3' untranslated region sequences complementary to the common seed of miR-302a~miR-302d. Such mRNAs included mediators of key cancer-associated processes, including tumour suppressor genes, apoptosis regulators and TFs. Conclusions Differential microRNA expression is likely to contribute to the relatively aggressive behaviour of YSTs and may enable future improvements in

  17. COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor immunohistochemical expression in canine and feline malignant mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Millanta, F; Asproni, P; Canale, A; Citi, S; Poli, A

    2016-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) signalling is involved in human and animal cancer development. PG E2 (PGE2 ) tumour-promoting activity has been confirmed and its production is controlled by Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Evidence suggests that mPGES-1 and COX-2 contribute to carcinogenesis through the EP2 receptor. The aim of our study was to detect by immunohistochemistry COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor expression in canine (n = 46) and feline (n = 50) mammary tumours and in mammary non-neoplastic tissues. COX-2 positivity was observed in 83% canine and 81% feline mammary carcinomas, mPGES-1 in 75% canine and 66% feline mammary carcinomas and the EP2 receptor expression was observed in 89% canine and 54% feline carcinomas. The frequency of COX-2, EP2 receptor and mPGES-1 expression was significantly higher in carcinomas than in non-neoplastic tissues and adenomas. COX-2, mPGES-1 and EP2 receptor expression was strongly associated. These findings support a role of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in the pathogenesis of these tumours. PMID:24824420

  18. Functional and Biological Role of Endothelial Precursor Cells in Tumour Progression: A New Potential Therapeutic Target in Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Saltarella, Ilaria; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    It was believed that vasculogenesis occurred only during embryo life and that postnatal formation of vessels arose from angiogenesis. Recent findings demonstrate the existence of Endothelial Precursor Cells (EPCs), which take partin postnatal vasculogenesis. EPCs are recruited from the bone marrow under the stimulation of growth factors and cytokines and reach the sites of neovascularization in both physiological and pathological conditions such as malignancies where they contribute to the "angiogenic switch" and tumor progression. An implementation of circulating EPCs in the bloodstream of patients with haematological malignancies has been demonstrated. This increase is strictly related to the bone marrow microvessel density and correlated with a poor prognosis. The EPCs characterization is a very complex process and still under investigation. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the functional and biological role of EPCs in haematological malignancies and to investigate their potential as a new cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26788072

  19. Loss of ATRX and DAXX expression identifies poor prognosis for smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential and early stage uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Slatter, Tania L; Hsia, Howard; Samaranayaka, Ari; Sykes, Peter; Clow, William Bill; Devenish, Celia J; Sutton, Tim; Royds, Janice A; Pc, Philip; Cheung, Annie N; Hung, Noelyn Anne

    2015-04-01

    Uterine smooth muscle tumours of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) are diagnostically and clinically challenging. The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) telomere maintenance mechanism is associated with poor survival in soft tissue leiomyosarcoma. Time to first recurrence and survival were known for 18 STUMP and 43 leiomyosarcomata (LMS). These were screened for ALT telomere maintenance by the presence of ALT-associated PML bodies (APBs) and for changes associated with the ALT phenotype, namely aberrant p53 expression, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation (R132H substitution) expression, mutant ATRX (αthalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) expression and mutant DAXX (death-domain-associated protein) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Overexpression of p16(INK4A) was examined immunohistologically in a subset of cases. Many of the tumours associated with death or recurrence demonstrated APBs commensurate with ALT telomere maintenance. However, all uterine STUMP (4/4), and vaginal STUMP (2/2) patients, and almost all LMS patients (88.4%, 23/26, including 90% (9/10) of stage 1 LMS cases), who had died of disease or who had recurrent disease, displayed loss of ATRX or DAXX expression. Loss of ATRX or DAXX expression identified poor prognosis (95% CI 2.1 to 40.8, p < 0.003), in the LMS group. Thus, loss of ATRX or DAXX expression in uterine smooth muscle tumours identifies a clinically aggressive molecular subtype of early stage LMS and when histopathological features are problematic such as in STUMP. As ATRX and DAXX IHC is readily performed in diagnostic laboratories these are potentially useful for routine histopathological classification and management. PMID:27499896

  20. Recommendations for the evaluation of risk and prophylaxis of tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) in adults and children with malignant diseases: an expert TLS panel consensus.

    PubMed

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Coiffier, Bertrand; Reiter, Alfred; Younes, Anas

    2010-05-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency characterized by metabolic abnormalities including hyperuricaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia. These metabolic complications predispose the cancer patient to clinical toxicities including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, neurological complications and potentially sudden death. With the increased availability of newer therapeutic targeted agents, such as rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase), there are no published guidelines on the risk classification of TLS for individual patients at risk of developing this syndrome. We convened an international TLS expert consensus panel to develop guidelines for a medical decision tree to assign low, intermediate and high risk to patients with cancer at risk for TLS. Risk factors included biological evidence of laboratory TLS (LTLS), proliferation, bulk and stage of malignant tumour and renal impairment and/or involvement at the time of TLS diagnosis. An international TLS consensus expert panel of paediatric and adult oncologists, experts in TLS pathophysiology and experts in TLS prophylaxis and management, developed a final model of low, intermediate and high risk TLS classification and associated TLS prophylaxis recommendations. PMID:20331465

  1. Wavelet-packet-based texture analysis for differentiation between benign and malignant liver tumours in ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Casalino, David D.; Keserci, Bilgin; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Ozturk, Omer; Savranlar, Ahmet

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a novel method of multiscale echo texture analysis for distinguishing benign (hemangiomas) from malignant (hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and metastases) focal liver lesions in B-mode ultrasound images. In this method, regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from within the lesions were decomposed into subimages by wavelet packets. Multiscale texture features that quantify homogeneity of the echogenicity were calculated from these subimages and were combined by an artificial neural network (ANN). A subset of the multiscale features was selected that yielded the highest performance in the classification of lesions measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). In an analysis of 193 ROIs consisting of 50 hemangiomas, 87 hepatocellular carcinomas and 56 metastases, the multiscale features yielded a high Az value of 0.92 in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, 0.93 in distinguishing hemangiomas from HCCs and 0.94 in distinguishing hemangiomas from metastases. Our new multiscale texture analysis method can effectively differentiate malignant from benign lesions, and thus has the potential to increase the accuracy of diagnosis of focal liver lesions in ultrasound images.

  2. Genetic mutations in accordance with a low malignant potential tumour are not demonstrated in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Castiglione, Francesca; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) cases were evaluated for mutations on the following genes: KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, ERBB2, DDR2, MAP2K1, RET and EGFR. Four male and three female patients of age 42-74 years were evaluated. All cases were incidentally detected by ultrasound and ranged 1.8-3.5 cm. Microscopic examination showed variably tubulopapillary, tubular acinar, cystic architecture and the characteristic linear arrangement of nuclei. The cells were reactive with CK7 (strong), CA IX (cup-shape) and 34 β E12. CD10, AMACR/RACEMASE and GATA3 were negative. There were no mutations on any of the investigated genes. This preliminary observation supports the concept that CCPRCC might be indeed an indolent tumour worth it to be named as clear cell papillary neoplasm of low potential. PMID:26941183

  3. Tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour's survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  4. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Daniel C.; Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S., Jr.

    2005-05-01

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain—this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ~10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema). All three authors have contributed equally to this work.

  5. Canine Mammary Mixed Tumours: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dantas Cassali, Geovanni; Cavalheiro Bertagnolli, Angélica; Ferreira, Enio; Araújo Damasceno, Karine; de Oliveira Gamba, Conrado; Bonolo de Campos, Cecília

    2012-01-01

    Mammary mixed tumours are the most frequent neoplasias in female dogs. In humans, mixed tumours are frequently found in the salivary glands and are known as pleomorphic adenomas. In addition to their histomorphologic similarities, mixed tumours and pleomorphic adenomas have the potential to become malignant and give rise to carcinomas in mixed tumours and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma, respectively. The factors associated with malignant transformation are still poorly known in the case of canine mixed tumours. However, this form of neoplasia tends to be associated with a better prognosis than other malignant histological types. This paper discusses the main features associated with female canine mammary mixed tumours. PMID:23193497

  6. Quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Casanova, J F; Nistal, M; Regadera, J

    1997-01-01

    The immunocompetent cells present in the different histological patterns of 43 testicular germ cell tumours were evaluated. CD3 + and CD45RO + (UCHL1 +) T lymphocytes, CD68 + and MAC 387 + macrophages, CD20 + (L26 +) B lymphocytes, and kappa and lambda + plasma cells were counted. The number of immunocompetent cells per mm2 of tumour tissue, excluding the necrotic areas, was evaluated. Microscopic fields were randomly selected by two observers. In order to guarantee randomization each surface was divided into parts, numbered through a lattice, and some fields were chosen via a random numbers table. This procedure yielded significantly different counts from those obtained on subjective selection. The number of T-lymphocytes and macrophages was higher in seminomas than in the non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (P < 0.05) Embryonal carcinomas had more T-lymphocytes than immature teratomas. No significant differences were found among testicular germ cell tumours with regards to the B-lymphocytes, with the exception of the high number of B-lymphocytes in mature teratomas. Kappa + and lambda + plasma cells were few in the testicular germ cell tumours. Randomization in the quantification of immunocompetent cells in testicular germ cell tumours is a good means for evaluation of immune response in all the tumour mass, not only in the areas with the most intense inflammatory cell infiltrate, and permits comparison of testicular germ cell tumours with other malignant tumours. Study of immunocompetent cells in every histological type of testicular germ cell tumour is useful in comparing them with other extra-testicular germ cell tumours. PMID:9023554

  7. In vitro inhibition of human malignant brain tumour cell line proliferation by anti-urokinase-type plasminogen activator monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, M. S.; Shaban, F. A.; Narayan, R. K.; Atassi, M. Z.

    1998-01-01

    A brain tumour-associated marker, urokinase (UK), was investigated using rabbit anti-UK polyclonal and murine anti-UK monoclonal antibodies, which were prepared by immunization with low molecular weight UK (LMW-UK) and high molecular weight urokinase (HMW-UK) synthetic peptide respectively. The polyclonal antibody cross-reacted with both LMW-UK and HMW-UK, whereas the murine MAbs were specific for HMW-UK. These immunological probes were used to study urokinase in glioma extracts, tissues, sera and cell lines that had been prepared from primary cultures of freshly dissected gliomas. Radioimmunoassays showed that glioma extracts had much higher level (5- to 44-fold) of UK than normal human brain extracts. This result was confirmed by immunoblotting of electrophoresis gels of glioma and human brain extracts. Immunohistochemical study using anti-UK MAb demonstrated much higher levels of UK in glioma tissue than normal brain tissue. Immunohistochemical study using anti-UK MAbs localized UK on the cell surface of glioma cells. Anti-UK MAbs inhibited the proliferation of AA cell lines and GB cell lines (50% to > 90%) and exerted minor effects (< or = 20%) on normal human liver, intestine and lymphocyte cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that anti-UK MAbs may have therapeutic potential for human gliomas and cancer metastasis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9862567

  8. Expression of the c-Met/HGF receptor in human melanocytic neoplasms: demonstration of the relationship to malignant melanoma tumour progression.

    PubMed Central

    Natali, P. G.; Nicotra, M. R.; Di Renzo, M. F.; Prat, M.; Bigotti, A.; Cavaliere, R.; Comoglio, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    The c-MET proto-oncogene encodes the receptor for the Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor, which is known to mediate mitogenic, motogenic and invasive responses of several cell types. We have analysed by immunohistochemistry and biochemically the expression of c-MET in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The Met/HGF receptor which in the melanocytic lineage displays the structural features of the authentic receptor was undetectable in tissue melanocytes and in nevocytic nevi. Only four out of 23 primary melanomas scored positive. Expression was increased to a significant level in 17 out of the 44 metastatic lesions examined. The c-MET expression was homogeneous in multiple metastases from the same patients. Comparative analyses showed both lack of correlation with the expression of the tumour progression associated ICAM-1 adhesion molecule and, in 23% of cases, co-expression with the c-KIT encoded receptor. These findings show that the c-MET gene is expressed at late stages of melanoma progression and suggest that the presence of Met/HGF receptor may contribute to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8104462

  9. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  10. Prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins or superior vena cava combined with resection of malignant tumours: graft patency and risk factors for graft occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geun Dong; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Seung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess graft patency in patients undergoing prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins (BCVs) or the superior vena cava (SVC) combined with resection of malignant tumours. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 16 patients who underwent prosthetic graft interposition of the BCVs or the SVC between 1998 and 2012. Results Among a total of 20 grafts in 16 patients (unilateral graft interposition in 12, bilateral graft interposition in 4), 8 grafts were occluded in 8 patients. Overall graft patency rate was 64.6%, 42.4% at the 2- and 5-year follow-up. Graft patency rate of the left BCV was significantly lower than that of the right BCV or the SVC (2-year patency, 38.1% vs. 81.8%, P=0.024). In univariate analysis, the superior anastomosis site [left BCV vs. right BCV; hazard ratio (HR) =2.312; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.015–5.265; P=0.046], the inferior anastomosis site (right atrial appendage vs. SVC; HR =2.409; 95% CI, 1.124–5.161; P=0.024), and interruption of warfarin (HR =5.015; 95% CI, 1.106–22.734; P=0.037) were significant risk factors for graft occlusion. Graft occlusive symptoms were identified in 4 patients who underwent unilateral graft interposition. Conclusions Prosthetic graft interposition between the left BCV and the right atrial appendage resulted in a significant rate of graft occlusion. Prosthetic graft interposition of the bilateral BCVs and long-term warfarin therapy may be necessary to prevent graft occlusive symptoms. PMID:26904213

  11. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Head, K W

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. PMID:1086147

  12. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    PubMed

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth. PMID:26838208

  13. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  14. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Heikki; Hohenberger, Peter; Corless, Christopher L

    2013-09-14

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms that arise in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. They can occur at any age, the median age being 60-65 years, and typically cause bleeding, anaemia, and pain. GISTs have variable malignant potential, ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. Most tumours stain positively for the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor KIT and anoctamin 1 and harbour a kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA. Tumours without such mutations could have alterations in genes of the succinate dehydrogenase complex or in BRAF, or rarely RAS family genes. About 60% of patients are cured by surgery. Adjuvant treatment with imatinib is recommended for patients with a substantial risk of recurrence, if the tumour has an imatinib-sensitive mutation. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors substantially improve survival in advanced disease, but secondary drug resistance is common. PMID:23623056

  15. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  16. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan.

    PubMed

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  17. Tumours of the thymus

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, T. Holmes; Thackray, A. C.; Thomson, A. D.

    1967-01-01

    Eighty-eight cases of thymoma are discussed with the object of trying to co-ordinate the histological and clinical features. The pathological specimens were in all cases obtained at operation. The pathology classification introduced by Thomson and Thackray in 1957 has been found to correspond adequately with the clinical pattern. The most common groups of tumours are basically epithelial and can be separated into five or six subdivisions, each of which has a separate pattern of behaviour. Lymphoid and teratomatous tumours also occur, but there were only two examples in this series. Clinically, separation of patients who suffered from myasthenia (38) and those who did not (50) affords the first main grouping. The majority of patients who had myasthenia gravis had tumours classified as epidermoid (19) and lymphoepithelial (14), the former with a more malignant appearance and behaviour than the latter. Removal of the tumour with or without radiation gave considerable and sometimes complete relief from myasthenic symptoms. Non-myasthenic thymoma (50) was usually discovered as a result of pressure signs or in the course of routine radiography. Spindle or oval celled tumours followed a benign pattern whereas undifferentiated thymoma was in every sense malignant, as also were teratomatous growths. Granulomatous or Hodgkin-like thymomas were of special interest and had an unpredictable course, some patients surviving many years after what was regarded as inadequate treatment. The place of radiotherapy as a pre- or post-operative agent complementary to surgery is discussed. Images PMID:6033387

  18. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  19. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10-15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  20. Analysis of the efficiency of using 1265-nm cw laser radiation for initiating oxidative stress in the tissue of a solid malignant tumour

    SciTech Connect

    Gening, T P; Voronova, O S; Dolgova, D R; Abakumova, T V; Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Sholokhov, E M; Kurkov, Andrei S; Gening, S O

    2012-09-30

    The possibility of laser initiation of oxidative stress was studied by the example of the tumour tissue of cervix. The laser facility with the operating wavelength 1265 nm that falls within the region of resonance absorption of molecular oxygen was used for initiation. The source of radiation in the experiments was a fibre SRS laser with the repeated cascade conversion of radiation of a 1125-nm ytterbium laser. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  1. [Tumours and liver transplants].

    PubMed

    Mejzlík, Vladimír; Husová, Libuše; Kuman, Milan; Štěpánková, Soňa; Ondrášek, Jiří; Němec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation as a curative treatment method can be used for selected primary liver tumours, in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma and rather rare semi-malignant tumours such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, further for infiltration of liver by metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (provided that metastases are only located in the liver and the primary tumour was removed) and for benign tumours (hemangiomas and adenomas) with oppression symptoms and size progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is not indicated for liver transplantation at the CKTCH Brno. In recent years liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma have increased and hepatocellular carcinoma has also been more frequently found ex post, in the explanted livers. Liver transplantation is indicated in selected patients with a good chance of long-term survival after liver transplantation (a generally accepted limit is 5 year survival of 50 % after transplantation). By 20 March 2015 there were liver transplants carried out on 38 patients - in 25 of them was hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed before transplantation and in 13 it was found in the liver explants. 5 year survival following transplantation is reached by 53 % of this cohort. 32 % patients suffered from chronic hepatitis C. The longest surviving (32 years) patient at CKTCH Brno had liver transplanted for a big fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, which points to the prognostic significance of tumour histology: the criterion only considered in some indication schemes for practical reasons. Benign liver tumours (adenomatosis, cystadenoma, hemangioma with oppression symptoms) are rather rare indications and the transplantation results are favourable. 4 patients underwent transplantation for infiltration of liver by carcinoid, tumour recurrence occurred in one. PMID:26375706

  2. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours.

    PubMed

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-02-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25-30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  3. Radiotherapy for ocular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Stannard, C; Sauerwein, W; Maree, G; Lecuona, K

    2013-01-01

    Ocular tumours present a therapeutic challenge because of the sensitive tissues involved and the necessity to destroy the tumour while minimising visual loss. Radiotherapy (RT) is one of several modalites used apart from surgery, laser, cryotherapy, and chemotherapy. Both external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy are used. Tumours of the bulbar conjunctiva, squamous carcinoma and malignant melanoma, can be treated with a radioactive plaque: strontium-90, ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), or iodine-125 (I-125), after excision. If the tumour involves the fornix or tarsal conjunctiva, proton therapy can treat the conjunctiva and spare most of the eye. Alternatively, an I-125 interstitial implant can be used with shielding of the cornea and lens. Conjunctival mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can be treated with an anterior electron field with lens shielding and 25–30 Gray (Gy) in 2 Gy fractions. Discrete retinoblastoma (RB), too large for cryotherapy or thermolaser, or recurrent after these modalities, can be treated with plaque therapy, I-125, or Ru-106. For large RB, multiple tumours, or vitreous seeds the whole eye can be treated with an I-125 applicator, sparing the bony orbit, or with EBRT, under anaesthetic, using X-rays or proton therapy with vacuum contact lenses to fix the eyes in the required position. Post-enucleated orbits at risk for recurrent RB can be treated with an I-125 implant with shielding to reduce the dose to the bony orbit. Uveal malignant melanomas can be treated with plaque or proton therapy with excellent local control. Preservation of vision will depend on the initial size and location of the tumour. PMID:23174750

  4. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  5. CYP3A isoforms in Ewing's sarcoma tumours: an immunohistochemical study with clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Zia, Hamid; Murray, Graeme I; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Anwar, Ahmed E; Bui, Marilyn M; Ahmed, Atif A

    2015-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours. Tissue microarrays slides were processed for immunohistochemical labelling for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 using liver sections as positive control. The intensity of staining was scored as negative, low or high expression and was analysed statistically for any association with patients' clinical information. Four cases were later excluded due to inadequate viable tissue. CYP3A4 staining was present in 26 (81%) cases with high expression noted in 13 (40%) of 32 cases. High expression was significantly associated with distant metastases (P < 0.05). CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 were expressed in 5 and 13 cases respectively (15.6%, 40.6%). There was no association between the expression of CYP3A isoforms and age, sex, tumour size, or location (pelvic or extra-pelvic). None of the biomarkers showed any correlation with overall or disease-free survival. In conclusion, expression of CYP3A isoforms is noted in Ewing's sarcoma tumours and high CYP3A4 expression may be associated with metastasis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of CYP3A4 in the prognosis of these tumours. PMID:25670065

  6. Tumours of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Misdorp, W.; McEntee, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are common in animals, the majority occurring in bitches and cows. The two most important germ cell tumours were dysgerminoma and teratoma; these morphologically resemble their counterparts in women, with the exception that teratomas in animals tend less to malignancy. The granulosa cell tumour is the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumour in all six species and it may contain luteinized areas or show differentiation towards a Sertoli cell pattern. The canine papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which are as common as granulosa tumours, have several features in common with their counterparts in women: they are of similar histological appearance, are frequently bilateral, and the adenocarcinomas have a great propensity for peritoneal implantation metastasis. Ovarian cysts are frequent in the bitch, sow, and cow and may originate from five different anatomical structures in the ovary. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 and 3Fig. 20-22Fig. 8-10Fig. 15 and 16Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 17-19Fig. 4 and 5Fig. 6 and 7Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 and 14 PMID:1086151

  7. Tumours of bones and joints

    PubMed Central

    Misdorp, W.; Van Der Heul, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of bones and joints are not infrequent in dogs but are rare in other domestic animals. In the dog, most bone tumours are malignant; osteosarcomas are by far the most frequently encountered tumours, especially in giant breeds and boxers. The following main categories of bone tumour are described: bone-forming, cartilage-forming, giant cell, marrow, vascular, miscellaneous, metastatic, unclassified, and tumour-like lesions. The tumours of joints and related structures are classified as synovial sarcomas, fibroxanthomas, and malignant giant cell tumour of soft tissues. ImagesFig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086157

  8. ‘Primary extrarenal Wilms’ tumour’: rare presentation of a common paediatric tumour

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Vandana; Verma, Amit Kumar; Batra, Vineeta; Puri, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Wilms’ tumour (nephroblastoma), the most common abdominal malignancy of childhood, occurs primarily as a malignant renal tumour. Extrarenal Wilms’ tumour is rare with occasional reports from the Indian subcontinent. The various locations of extrarenal Wilms’ tumour include retroperitoneum, uterus, skin and thorax. In this report we will discuss the imaging features highlighting the imaging differential diagnosis in a case of retroperitoneal (extrarenal) primary Wilms’ tumour. PMID:24907205

  9. Irradiation characteristics of BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons: application to intra-operative BNCT for malignant brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Tooru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Masayori; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2002-08-21

    A calculation method for the dosage of neutrons by near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be and gamma rays by 7Li(p, p'gamma)7Li was validated through experiments with variable distance between the Li target and the phantom, focusing on large angular dependence. The production of neutrons and gamma rays in the Li target was calculated by Lee's method and their transport in the phantom was calculated using the MCNP-4B code. The dosage in intra-operative boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons was evaluated using the validated calculation method. The effectiveness of the usage of the direct neutrons was confirmed from the existence of the region satisfying the requirements of the protocol utilized in intra-operative BNCT for brain tumours in Japan. The boron-dose enhancer (BDE) introduced in this paper to increase the contribution of the 10B(n, alpha)7Li dose in the living body was effective. The void utilized to increase the dose in deep regions was also effective with BDE. For the investigation of 1.900 MeV proton beams, for example, it was found that intraoperative BNCT using near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be direct neutrons is feasible. PMID:12222863

  10. Animal models of tumour-associated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kirschstein, Timo; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2016-02-15

    Brain tumours cause a sizeable proportion of epilepsies in adulthood, and actually can be etiologically responsible also for childhood epilepsies. Conversely, seizures are often first clinical signs of a brain tumour. Nevertheless, several issues of brain-tumour associated seizures and epilepsies are far from understood, or clarified regarding clinical consensus. These include both the specific mechanisms of epileptogenesis related to different tumour types, the possible relationship between malignancy and seizure emergence, the interaction between tumour mass and surrounding neuronal networks, and - not least - the best treatment options depending on different tumour types. To investigate these issues, experimental models of tumour-induced epilepsies are necessary. This review concentrates on the description of currently used models, focusing on methodological aspects. It highlights advantages and shortcomings of these models, and identifies future experimental challenges. PMID:26092434

  11. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene.

    PubMed

    Papamichos, Spyros I; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. PMID:26568894

  12. Adaptive Evolution Coupled with Retrotransposon Exaptation Allowed for the Generation of a Human-Protein-Specific Coding Gene That Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in Both Haematological Malignancies and Solid Tumours: The Extraordinary Case of MYEOV Gene

    PubMed Central

    Papamichos, Spyros I.; Margaritis, Dimitrios; Kotsianidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer in human is high as compared to chimpanzee. However previous analysis has documented that numerous human cancer-related genes are highly conserved in chimpanzee. Till date whether human genome includes species-specific cancer-related genes that could potentially contribute to a higher cancer susceptibility remains obscure. This study focuses on MYEOV, an oncogene encoding for two protein isoforms, reported as causally involved in promoting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in both haematological malignancies and solid tumours. First we document, via stringent in silico analysis, that MYEOV arose de novo in Catarrhini. We show that MYEOV short-isoform start codon was evolutionarily acquired after Catarrhini/Platyrrhini divergence. Throughout the course of Catarrhini evolution MYEOV acquired a gradually elongated translatable open reading frame (ORF), a gradually shortened translation-regulatory upstream ORF, and alternatively spliced mRNA variants. A point mutation introduced in human allowed for the acquisition of MYEOV long-isoform start codon. Second, we demonstrate the precious impact of exonized transposable elements on the creation of MYEOV gene structure. Third, we highlight that the initial part of MYEOV long-isoform coding DNA sequence was under positive selection pressure during Catarrhini evolution. MYEOV represents a Primate Orphan Gene that acquired, via ORF expansion, a human-protein-specific coding potential. PMID:26568894

  13. Quantifying tumour heterogeneity with CT

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity is a key feature of malignancy associated with adverse tumour biology. Quantifying heterogeneity could provide a useful non-invasive imaging biomarker. Heterogeneity on computed tomography (CT) can be quantified using texture analysis which extracts spatial information from CT images (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced and derived images such as CT perfusion) that may not be perceptible to the naked eye. The main components of texture analysis can be categorized into image transformation and quantification. Image transformation filters the conventional image into its basic components (spatial, frequency, etc.) to produce derived subimages. Texture quantification techniques include structural-, model- (fractal dimensions), statistical- and frequency-based methods. The underlying tumour biology that CT texture analysis may reflect includes (but is not limited to) tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis. Emerging studies show that CT texture analysis has the potential to be a useful adjunct in clinical oncologic imaging, providing important information about tumour characterization, prognosis and treatment prediction and response. PMID:23545171

  14. [Clinical types of thoracic cancer. Mediastinal tumours].

    PubMed

    Lemarié, E

    2006-11-01

    Mediastinal germ cell tumours (teratomas, seminomas, and non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumours) are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms. The standard treatment of mediastinal non-seminomatous malignant germ cell tumours is four cycles of chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of the residual mass. Small localized mediastinal seminomas may be treated with primary resection followed by radiotherapy. In patients with locally advanced disease, the preferred treatment is systemic chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of any residual disease. Thymomas can be locally invasive and associated with parathymic syndromes. Complete surgical excision is attempted in most cases of thymoma. Radiation therapy is usually recommended for invasive or incompletely excised tumours. Invasive thymoma is chemosensitive. PMID:17268355

  15. Tumours of the upper alimentary tract

    PubMed Central

    Head, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Tumours of the oropharynx of domestic animals are common in most parts of the world, but squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alimentary tract shows differences in prevalence in different geographical areas and occurs at different sites in the various species. Oral tumours of the melanogenic system are more common in dogs than in man. The following main histological categories, which broadly correspond to those used in the classification of tumours of man, are described: papilloma; squamous cell carcinoma; salivary gland tumours; malignant melanoma; tumours of soft (mesenchymal) tissues; tumours of the facial bones; tumours of haematopoietic and related tissues; and odontogenic tumours and jaw cysts. Papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibroma, and fibrosarcoma account for about 80% of the tumours that occur in the upper alimentary tract of domestic animals. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 37Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:1086147

  16. A rare urinary bladder tumour

    PubMed Central

    Haddad-Lacle, Judella Edwina Maria; Haddad, Charles Joseph; Villas, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 54-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician with low back pain. During his workup, an incidental finding of a bladder mass was diagnosed. He underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour and the resulting pathology was consistent with extra nodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Presentation of MALT lymphoma in the urinary bladder is rare. This malignancy is more commonly found in the stomach. The prognosis for this rare tumour is excellent. Our patient showed no sign of recurrence with transurethral excision and radiation alone. PMID:24835803

  17. Distribution of Photofrin between tumour cells and tumour associated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Korbelik, M.; Krosl, G.; Olive, P. L.; Chaplin, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Photofrin levels in cells derived from SCCVII tumours, excised from mice that previously received the drug, were measured using a fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS). Concomitantly, in the same cells the FACS was used to measure fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorescence that originated from FITC-conjugated antimouse IgG added to the cell suspension before sorting. This later measurement enabled discrimination between IgG negative tumour malignant cells and IgG positive host cells (primarily macrophages). In addition, cellular Photofrin content in 'tumour' and 'host' cells sorted by FACS was determined by chemical extraction. The measurements were performed for the time intervals 1-96 h post Photofrin administration. The data showed consistently higher Photofrin levels in the 'host cells', i.e., tumour associated macrophages (TAM), than in 'tumour' cells. On a per cell basis, at any time point studied there was a minimum of 1.7 times more Photofrin in 'host' than in 'tumour cells', while at 4-12 h postadministration, ratios of up to 3.0 times were observed. This corresponds to ratio values greater than 9, when based on Photofrin content per micrograms cell protein. PMID:1832927

  18. Soft Tissue Tumours of the Retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Van Roggen, J. Frans Graadt

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. This review summarizes the more prevalent soft tissue tumours arising in the retroperitoneum and highlights some recent fundamental and diagnostic developments relevant to mesenchymal tumours. Discussion. The retroperitoneum is an underestimated site for benign and malignant neoplastic disease, and represents the second most common site of origin of primary malignant soft tissue tumours (sarcomas) after the deep tissues of the lower extremity. In contrast to the predominance of benign soft tissue lesions over malignant sarcomas elsewhere, retroperitoneal mesenchymal lesions are far more likely to be malignant. The differential diagnosis is primarily with the more common lymphoproliferative and parenchymatous epithelial lesions arising in this area, and with metastatic disease from known or unknown primary sites elsewhere.The most prevalent mesenchymal tumours at this site are of a lipomatous, myogenic or neural nature.Their generally late clinical presentation and poorly accessible location provides numerous clinical challenges; optimal radiological imaging and a properly performed biopsy are essential cogs in the management route. Histopathological diagnosis may be complicated, but has been aided by developments in the fields of immunohistochemistry and tumour (cyto)genetics. Despite significant advances in oncological management protocols, the prognosis remains generally less favourable than for similar tumours at more accessible sites. PMID:18521430

  19. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Sano, T.; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to obtain the relative telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was also assessed visually from the autoradiograms as being positive or negative. One hundred and sixteen tumours with negative telomerase activity had null relative telomerase activity, whereas 28 tumours with positive telomerase activity had relative telomerase activities of 12-84.3% (mean 0% vs 36.1 +/- 19.3%, P < 0.0001). Thus, quantification of telomerase activity confirmed the results of the visual evaluation of telomerase activity on autoradiograms. Based on the assessment, malignant brain tumours had a higher positive rate of telomerase activity than benign tumours (57.8% vs 2.0%, P < 0.001). These data indicate that positive telomerase activity is strongly associated with malignant brain tumours and is rather rare in benign tumours, such as neurinomas or meningiomas. Images Figure 2 PMID:9635839

  20. Mucosal malignant melanoma of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Norhafizah, M; Mustafa, W M B W; Sabariah, A R; Shiran, M S; Pathmanathan, R

    2010-09-01

    Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) is an aggressive tumour occurring in the upper respiratory tract. It is rare compared to malignant melanoma of the skin. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with left paranasal swelling. A biopsy showed high-grade spindle cell tumour. Subsequently a subtotal maxillectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a hypercellular tumour composed of mixed spindle and epitheloid cells with very occasional intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. The malignant cells were immunopositive for vimentin, S-100 protein and HMB-45. It was diagnosed as mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM). This article illustrates a rare case of MMM where the diagnosis may be missed or delayed without proper histopathological examination that include meticulous search for melanin pigment and appropriate immunohistochemical stains to confirm the diagnosis. Malignant melanoma can mimic many other types of high-grade malignancy and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in many of these instances. PMID:21939172

  1. Tumours and cancers in Graeco-Roman times.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2001-04-01

    In Graeco-Roman times all tumours (Greek: onkoi, abnormal swellings) were considered to be of inflammatory origin, the result of unfavourable humoural fluxes, and caused by an extravascular outpouring of fluid into tissue spaces. The neoplastic nature of tumours is a more recent concept, barely two centuries old. In Hippocratic literature tumours were mainly classified as karkinômata, phumata, and oidêmata. Phumata included a large variety of tumours, inflammatory and neoplastic in origin, and mostly benign (in modern terms), while oidêmata were soft, painless tumours and even included generalised oedema (dropsy). Although all categories possibly included occasional cancers, the vast majority of what appears to have been malignant tumours were called karkinoi karkinômata (Latin: cancrum/carcinoma). There was, however, no recognition of benign and malignant, primary and secondary tumours, in the modern sense. PMID:11402909

  2. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  3. Canine mammary tumours: protective effect of late ovariectomy and stimulating effect of progestins.

    PubMed

    Misdorp, W

    1988-01-01

    Ovariectomy, even when performed at an advanced age, was found to be to some extent protective against mammary tumour development in dogs. Bitches treated with progestins had a slightly higher risk for mammary tumours (all types, benign and malignant) than controls. Progestin treatment did not increase the risk of mammary cancer. Benign tumours in (treated and untreated) dogs appeared earlier than malignant ones. Progestin treatment resulted in earlier appearance of both benign and malignant tumours than in controls. The ratio solitary/multiple mammary tumours was not significantly different between treated and untreated dogs. PMID:3376408

  4. Pseudoaneurysms Masquerading as Malignant Bone Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Byregowda, Suman; Puri, Ajay; Prabhu, Aruna; Janu, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Swelling around the knees can be due to both neoplastic as well as non neoplastic aetiology. One of the rare cause for the same is pseudoaneurysm. Pseudoaneurysms can mimic a bone tumor or a soft tissue sarcoma. Pseudoanuerysms result because of the gradual growth occurring due to constant arterial pressure and development of a reactive fibrous capsule. Inappropriate diagnosis and management of these lesions may result in major morbidity and rarely mortality. We present two cases of pseudoaneurysms around the knees which were misdiagnosed as osteogenic sarcomas. These cases also stress on the importance of multidisciplinary care, in preventing avoidable morbidity, mortality and providing safe and optimal care to the patients. PMID:27437336

  5. Tumour angiogenesis-Origin of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Krishna Priya, S; Nagare, R P; Sneha, V S; Sidhanth, C; Bindhya, S; Manasa, P; Ganesan, T S

    2016-08-15

    The conventional view of tumour vascularization is that tumours acquire their blood supply from neighbouring normal stroma. Additional methods of tumour vascularization such as intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, vessel co-option and vasculogenesis have been demonstrated to occur. However, the origin of the endothelial cells and pericytes in the tumour vasculature is not fully understood. Their origin from malignant cells has been shown indirectly in lymphoma and neuroblastoma by immuno-FISH experiments. It is now evident that tumours arise from a small population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour initiating cells. Recent data suggest that a proportion of tumour endothelial cells arise from cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells showed identical genetic changes to those identified in tumour cells. However, another report contradicted these results from the earlier studies in glioblastoma and had shown that CSCs give rise to pericytes and not endothelial cells. The main thrust of this review is the critical analysis of the conflicting data from different studies and the remaining questions in this field of research. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is also discussed in detail. The transdifferentiation of CSCs to endothelial cells/pericytes has many implications in the progression and metastasis of the tumours and hence it would be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26934471

  6. Intraoperative intravital microscopy permits the study of human tumour vessels

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Daniel T.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Kim, Minhyung; Doyen, Kurt C.; Bogner, Paul N.; Evans, Sharon S.; Skitzki, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour vessels have been studied extensively as they are critical sites for drug delivery, anti-angiogenic therapies and immunotherapy. As a preclinical tool, intravital microscopy (IVM) allows for in vivo real-time direct observation of vessels at the cellular level. However, to date there are no reports of intravital high-resolution imaging of human tumours in the clinical setting. Here we report the feasibility of IVM examinations of human malignant disease with an emphasis on tumour vasculature as the major site of tumour-host interactions. Consistent with preclinical observations, we show that patient tumour vessels are disorganized, tortuous and ∼50% do not support blood flow. Human tumour vessel diameters are larger than predicted from immunohistochemistry or preclinical IVM, and thereby have lower wall shear stress, which influences delivery of drugs and cellular immunotherapies. Thus, real-time clinical imaging of living human tumours is feasible and allows for detection of characteristics within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26883450

  7. Intraoperative intravital microscopy permits the study of human tumour vessels.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel T; Muhitch, Jason B; Kim, Minhyung; Doyen, Kurt C; Bogner, Paul N; Evans, Sharon S; Skitzki, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Tumour vessels have been studied extensively as they are critical sites for drug delivery, anti-angiogenic therapies and immunotherapy. As a preclinical tool, intravital microscopy (IVM) allows for in vivo real-time direct observation of vessels at the cellular level. However, to date there are no reports of intravital high-resolution imaging of human tumours in the clinical setting. Here we report the feasibility of IVM examinations of human malignant disease with an emphasis on tumour vasculature as the major site of tumour-host interactions. Consistent with preclinical observations, we show that patient tumour vessels are disorganized, tortuous and ∼50% do not support blood flow. Human tumour vessel diameters are larger than predicted from immunohistochemistry or preclinical IVM, and thereby have lower wall shear stress, which influences delivery of drugs and cellular immunotherapies. Thus, real-time clinical imaging of living human tumours is feasible and allows for detection of characteristics within the tumour microenvironment. PMID:26883450

  8. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Valarmathi, K.; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  9. Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    Castano, Ana P.; Mroz, Pawel; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis and/or necrosis, shut down the tumour microvasculature and stimulate the host immune system. In contrast to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy that are mostly immunosuppressive, PDT causes acute inflammation, expression of heat-shock proteins, invasion and infiltration of the tumour by leukocytes, and might increase the presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells. PMID:16794636

  10. Primary Axillary Porocarcinoma: A Rare Cutaneous Tumour.

    PubMed

    Devi, Nalli R Sumitra; Valarmathi, K; Lilly, Mary; Satish, Selvi; Mishra, Nidhi

    2016-02-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma, a rare cutaneous malignant tumour accounts for a fraction of sweat gland tumours. This tumour is found to originate from the intraepithelial parts of the sweat glands. It commonly involves the lower extremities in elderly patients and carries an aggressive behaviour. Cutaneous and visceral metastasis can occur and hence prompt treatment is mandatory. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment modality. We hereby present a case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a 50-year-old male in the right axillary region presenting as a verrucous lesion. PMID:27042472

  11. Metabonomic analysis of ovarian tumour cyst fluid by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kyriakides, Michael; Rama, Nona; Sidhu, Jasmin; Gabra, Hani; Keun, Hector C; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-02-01

    The majority of ovarian tumours are of the epithelial type, which can be sub classified as benign, borderline or malignant. Epithelial tumours usually have cystic spaces filled with cyst fluid, the metabolic profile of which reflects the metabolic activity of the tumour cells, due to their close proximity. The approach of metabonomics using 1H-NMR spectroscopy was employed to characterize the metabolic profiles of ovarian cyst fluid samples (n = 23) from benign, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours in order to shed more light into ovarian tumour and cancer development. The analysis revealed that citrate was elevated in benign versus malignant tumours, while the amino acid lysine was elevated in malignant versus non-malignant tumours, both at a 5% significance level. Choline and lactate also had progressively increasing levels from benign to borderline to malignant samples. Finally, hypoxanthine was detected exclusively in a sub-cohort of the malignant tumours. This metabonomic study demonstrates that ovarian cyst fluid samples have potential to be used to distinguish between the different types of ovarian epithelial tumours. Furthermore, the respective metabolic profiles contain mechanistic information which could help identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ovarian tumours. PMID:26769844

  12. Metabonomic analysis of ovarian tumour cyst fluid by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakides, Michael; Rama, Nona; Sidhu, Jasmin; Gabra, Hani; Keun, Hector C.; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The majority of ovarian tumours are of the epithelial type, which can be sub classified as benign, borderline or malignant. Epithelial tumours usually have cystic spaces filled with cyst fluid, the metabolic profile of which reflects the metabolic activity of the tumour cells, due to their close proximity. The approach of metabonomics using 1H-NMR spectroscopy was employed to characterize the metabolic profiles of ovarian cyst fluid samples (n = 23) from benign, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours in order to shed more light into ovarian tumour and cancer development. The analysis revealed that citrate was elevated in benign versus malignant tumours, while the amino acid lysine was elevated in malignant versus non-malignant tumours, both at a 5% significance level. Choline and lactate also had progressively increasing levels from benign to borderline to malignant samples. Finally, hypoxanthine was detected exclusively in a sub-cohort of the malignant tumours. This metabonomic study demonstrates that ovarian cyst fluid samples have potential to be used to distinguish between the different types of ovarian epithelial tumours. Furthermore, the respective metabolic profiles contain mechanistic information which could help identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ovarian tumours. PMID:26769844

  13. Oncoprotein stability after tumour resection.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, G.; Gullick, W.; Sikora, K.

    1990-01-01

    The means by which oncogenes and their products activate malignant transformation are currently under intense investigation. However, published papers on experiments using human tumour material do not always report in detail their methods of collection or storage of the specimens. In order to assess the stability of oncogene encoded proteins following collection or storage of human tumour biopsies, we have examined the rate of decay of the c-myc, neu and EGF-receptor proteins. Solid tumours, containing amplified copies of each oncogene, were established in nude mice and the stability of the oncogene protein in portions of each tumour, left in phosphate buffered saline at room temperature for varying time intervals, was examined by immunoblotting. Intact EGF-receptor and neu oncoproteins were present even after 24 h under these conditions while the c-myc protein was apparently rapidly degraded after 20 min. These data demonstrate that oncogene products decay at different rates after tumour resection and that collection of human biopsies should take this into account in order to provide the basis for consistent measurements of protein expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2139576

  14. Phylloides tumours of the breast. A clinicopathologic study of 19 cases.

    PubMed

    Popescu, I; Serbănescu, M; Ivăşchescu, C

    1991-01-01

    During a period of 29 years (1960-1989), 19 patients with benign (15 cases) or malignant (4 cases) phylloides tumours were seen at the Surgical Clinic of Fundeni Hospital. Fourteen patients were followed up for a period of 2 to 21 years (mean 9.3 years). Two patients with benign tumours developed malignant recurrences. The malignant potential could not be predicted by histologic criteria. Although 4 patients had malignant tumours and other 2 developed malignant recurrences later, no distant metastases and no death in the 14 patients available for follow up were observed. We believe that in large or malignant tumours simple mastectomy is the surgical treatment of choice, in most benign phylloides tumours a conservative approach (quadrantectomy or lumpectomy) may be considered of the patients can be adaquately followed up. PMID:1647600

  15. Tumour-like inflammatory abdominal conditions in children.

    PubMed

    Latawiec-Mazurkiewicz, I; Juszkiewicz, P; Pacanowski, J; Kwas, A; Rybkiewicz, M; Rudnicki, J; Walecka, A; Musiał, S

    2005-02-01

    The presence of a tumour, poor general condition, features of anaemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates and imaging suggesting malignancy were the common features in 4 different tumour-like abdominal conditions that are extremely rare in childhood. These conditions included: extensive retroperitoneal tumour with rib involvement that turned out to be an inflammatory lesion caused by Actinomyces in a 12-year-old girl; multi-loculated tumour of the mesentery/ovary caused by mesenteric lymphadenopathy in the course of a Salmonella enteritidis infection in a 2.5-year-old girl; tumour of the VII - VIII hepatic segments that turned out to be the focus of granuloma in the course of lambliasis in a 5.5-year-old boy with a history of purulent neck lymphadenopathy and a final suspicion of immunocompromise; and a multi-loculated tumour of the small pelvis and inguinal area that turned out to be an abscess of the iliopsoas muscle in a 16-year-old boy. Apart from the imaging, the lesions required cytological examination of the material harvested by fine-needle biopsies (liver tumour) or histopathological investigations (retroperitoneal tumour, mesenteric/ovarian tumour, liver tumour and--on second surgery--the pelvic tumour) and/or bacteriological examination (all cases), serological examination (liver tumour and mesenteric/ovarian tumour), protozoal investigation (liver tumour), and measurement of AFP levels (mesenteric/ovarian tumour). Surgical treatment (retroperitoneal tumour, mesenteric/ovarian tumour and tumour of the small pelvis) and guided antibiotic therapy (all cases including 15 weeks of antibiotics in the first case) allowed complete recovery in 3 patients (actinomycosis, mesenteric lymphadenopathy, abscess of the iliopsoas muscle). Antibiotic and antiprotozoal therapy cured the granulomatous hepatitis; however this patient tended to develop severe right-sided pleural/pulmonary changes (the child was referred for further diagnosis with suspicion of

  16. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335 PMID:23406299

  17. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  18. Systemic therapy for selected skull base sarcomas: Chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Colia, Vittoria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Hindi, Nadia; Casali, Paolo G; Stacchiotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the data currently available on the activity of systemic therapy in chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour of the bone (GCTB) and solitary fibrous tumour, i.e., four rare sarcomas amongst mesenchymal malignancy arising from the skull base. PMID:27330421

  19. fdg-pet in two cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 and atypical malignancies

    PubMed Central

    de Blank, P.; Cole, K.; Kersun, L.; Green, A.; Wilkes, J.J.; Belasco, J.; Bagatell, R.; Bailey, L.C.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (nf1) are at increased risk for both benign and malignant tumours, and distinguishing the malignant potential of an individual tumour is a common clinical problem in these patients. Here, we review two cases of uncommon malignancies (Hodgkin lymphoma and mediastinal germ-cell tumour) in patients with nf1. Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (fdg-pet) has been used to differentiate benign neurofibromas from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, fdg-pet characteristics for more rare tumours have been poorly described in children with nf1. Here, we report the role of pet imaging in clinical decision-making in each case. In nf1, fdg-pet might be useful in the clinical management of unusual tumour presentations and might help to provide information about the malignant potential of uncommon tumours. PMID:24764718

  20. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  1. Electrochemotherapy on liver tumours in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, L. H.; Orlowski, S.; An, D.; Bindoula, G.; Dzodic, R.; Ardouin, P.; Bognel, C.; Belehradek, J.; Munck, J. N.; Mir, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic approach combining the effects of a low-permeant cytotoxic drug, bleomycin (BLM), administered i.v. and cell-permeabilizing electric pulses (EPs) locally delivered to tumours. The transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by the EPs allows free access of BLM to its intracellular targets, largely enhancing BLM's cytotoxic effects. ECT efficacy has been proved so far on transplanted subcutaneous murine tumours and on subcutaneous metastases in humans. Here, we present the first study of the effects of ECT on tumours transplanted to livers in rabbits. We used a recently developed EP applicator consisting of an array of parallel and equidistant needles to be inserted in tissues. Effects of EPs alone or of ECT were assessed by histological analysis, tumour growth rates and survival of the treated animals. A transient blood hypoperfusion was seen in the electropulsed areas, with or without BLM, related to EP-dependent vasoconstriction but this had no major effects on cell survival. Long-term effects depended on the presence of BLM at the time of EP delivery. Almost complete tumour necrosis was observed after ECT, resulting from both BLM direct cytotoxic effects on electropermeabilized tumour cells and indirect effects on the tumour vessels. A large reduction in tumour growth rate and significantly longer survival times were scored in comparison with control rabbits. Moreover, ECT of liver tumours was well tolerated and devoid of systemic side-effects. When ECT was associated with a local interleukin 2-based immunotherapy, increased local anti-tumour effectiveness as well as a large decrease in the number of metastases were observed. Thus, ECT could become a novel treatment modality for liver tumours and other solid internal malignancies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9649121

  2. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a transplanted brain tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Koeze, T. H.; Lantos, P. L.; Iles, R. A.; Gordon, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance 31P spectroscopy was used to demonstrate different patterns of high energy phosphate metabolism in a group of malignant tumours of glial origin. In some of the more malignant tumours a decrease in adenylate energy charge was found. This was associated with a decline in phosphocreatine and an increase in sugar phosphate and inorganic phosphorus. PMID:6704312

  3. Enhancement of T cell recruitment and infiltration into tumours

    PubMed Central

    Oelkrug, C; Ramage, J M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have documented that cancer patients with tumours which are highly infiltrated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes show enhanced survival rates. The ultimate goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit high-avidity tumour-specific T cells to migrate and kill malignant tumours. Novel antibody therapies such as ipilumimab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blocking antibody) show enhanced T cell infiltration into the tumour tissue and increased survival. More conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy and recent therapies with oncolytic viruses have been shown to alter the tumour microenvironment and thereby lead to enhanced T cell infiltration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the migration of high-avidity tumour-specific T cells into tumours will support and provide solutions for the optimization of therapeutic options in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24828133

  4. Viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S C; Lawless, B M; Shepherd, D E T; Espino, D M; Bicknell, G R; Bryan, R T

    2016-08-01

    The urinary bladder is an organ which facilitates the storage and release of urine. The bladder can develop tumours and bladder cancer is a common malignancy throughout the world. There is a consensus that there are differences in the mechanical properties of normal and malignant tissues. However, the viscoelastic properties of human bladder tumours at the macro-scale have not been previously studied. This study investigated the viscoelastic properties of ten bladder tumours, which were tested using dynamic mechanical analysis at frequencies up to 30Hz. The storage modulus ranged between 0.052MPa and 0.085MPa while the loss modulus ranged between 0.019MPa and 0.043MPa. Both storage and loss moduli showed frequency dependent behaviour and the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus for every frequency tested. Viscoelastic properties may be useful for the development of surgical trainers, surgical devices, computational models and diagnostic equipment. PMID:27082128

  5. Diagnostic value of H3F3A mutations in giant cell tumour of bone compared to osteoclast‐rich mimics

    PubMed Central

    Presneau, Nadège; Baumhoer, Daniel; Behjati, Sam; Pillay, Nischalan; Tarpey, Patrick; Campbell, Peter J; Jundt, Gernot; Hamoudi, Rifat; Wedge, David C; Loo, Peter Van; Hassan, A Bassim; Khatri, Bhavisha; Ye, Hongtao; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Driver mutations in the two histone 3.3 (H3.3) genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, were recently identified by whole genome sequencing in 95% of chondroblastoma (CB) and by targeted gene sequencing in 92% of giant cell tumour of bone (GCT). Given the high prevalence of these driver mutations, it may be possible to utilise these alterations as diagnostic adjuncts in clinical practice. Here, we explored the spectrum of H3.3 mutations in a wide range and large number of bone tumours (n = 412) to determine if these alterations could be used to distinguish GCT from other osteoclast‐rich tumours such as aneurysmal bone cyst, nonossifying fibroma, giant cell granuloma, and osteoclast‐rich malignant bone tumours and others. In addition, we explored the driver landscape of GCT through whole genome, exome and targeted sequencing (14 gene panel). We found that H3.3 mutations, namely mutations of glycine 34 in H3F3A, occur in 96% of GCT. We did not find additional driver mutations in GCT, including mutations in IDH1, IDH2, USP6, TP53. The genomes of GCT exhibited few somatic mutations, akin to the picture seen in CB. Overall our observations suggest that the presence of H3F3A p.Gly34 mutations does not entirely exclude malignancy in osteoclast‐rich tumours. However, H3F3A p.Gly34 mutations appear to be an almost essential feature of GCT that will aid pathological evaluation of bone tumours, especially when confronted with small needle core biopsies. In the absence of H3F3A p.Gly34 mutations, a diagnosis of GCT should be made with caution.

  6. Brain tumour mortality in immigrants.

    PubMed

    Neutel, C I; Quinn, A; Brancker, A

    1989-03-01

    All Canadian deaths due to malignant brain tumour for the years 1970-73 were identified and analysed for country of birth. The years 1970-73 were chosen since in later years country of birth was no longer available for each death. The brain tumour population consisted of 1551 male and 1058 female deaths and matched controls were chosen from deaths due to other causes. Americans who died of brain tumour in Canada had a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0 compared to their fellow Americans in the USA. Italian, German, Dutch and British immigrants had SMR between 1.5 and 2.6 compared to rates in their home countries and between 1.24 and 2.09 when compared to Canadian rates. A series of graphs shows the increased risk for male immigrants quite dramatically, and indicates that for females the increases were less pronounced. Further analysis showed that the excess risk is confined to those who were born in Western Europe while their Canadian-born children experienced the same rates as all Canadians. Based on the limited information available, occupation could not be shown to play a role in establishing risk. An attempt was made to pinpoint the years of immigration which showed the greatest risk. It is concluded that the determination of risk of brain tumour has a strong environmental component. The possibilities for identification of this component are discussed. PMID:2722385

  7. The epidemiology of neonatal tumours. Report of an international working group.

    PubMed

    Moore, S W; Satgé, D; Sasco, A J; Zimmermann, A; Plaschkes, J

    2003-09-01

    Neonatal tumours occur every 12,500-27,500 live births and comprise 2% of childhood malignancies, but there is little clarity as to their real prevalence, sites of origin and pathological nature as reported series vary. As an entity, neonatal tumours provide a unique window of opportunity to study tumours in which minimal environmental interference has occurred. The majority of tumours present with a mass at birth (e.g., teratomas, neuroblastomas, mesoblastic nephroma, fibromatosis), which are not infrequently identified on antenatal ultrasound. Histologically, teratoma and neuroblastoma remain the two main tumour types encountered with soft tissue sarcoma, renal tumours, CNS tumours and leukaemia being the next most common tumour types identified. Malignant tumours are uncommon in the neonatal period per se and benign tumours may have malignant potential. A particular problem exists in clinical classification, as histological features of malignancy do not always correlate with clinical behaviour. Benign tumours may also be life threatening because of their size and location. Other tumours may demonstrate local invasiveness, but no metastatic potential, and tumours that are clearly malignant may demonstrate unpredictable or uncertain behaviour. Screening programmes have brought more tumours to light, but do not appear to affect the overall prognosis. They may provide clues to the stage at which tumours develop in foetu. The aetiology of cancer in children is multifactorial and includes both genetic and environmental factors. The association between congenital abnormalities and tumours is well established (15% of neonatal tumours). Genetic defects are highly likely in neonatal tumours and include those with a high risk of malignancy (e.g., retinoblastoma), but also genetically determined syndromes with an increased risk of malignancy and complex genetic rearrangements. Tumours are mostly genetically related at a cellular level and factors influencing cellular

  8. High frequency of tumours in Mulibrey nanism.

    PubMed

    Karlberg, Niklas; Karlberg, Susann; Karikoski, Riitta; Mikkola, Sakari; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Jalanko, Hannu

    2009-06-01

    Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a monogenic disorder with prenatal-onset growth failure, typical clinical characteristics, cardiopathy and tendency for a metabolic syndrome. It is caused by recessive mutations in the TRIM37 gene encoding for the peroxisomal TRIM37 protein with ubiquitin-ligase activity. In this work, the frequency and pathology of malignant and benign tumours were analysed in a national cohort of 89 Finnish MUL patients aged 0.7-76 years. The subjects had a clinical and radiological evaluation, and histological and immunohistocemical analyses on specimens obtained from biopsy, surgery or autopsy, were performed. The results show that the MUL patients have disturbed architecture with ectopic tissues and a high frequency of both benign and malignant tumours detectable in several internal organs. A total of 210 tumorous lesions were detected in 66/89 patients (74%). Fifteen malignancies occurred in 13 patients (15%), seven of them in the kidney (five Wilms' tumours), three in the thyroid gland, two gynaecological cancers, one gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour, one neuropituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and one case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Tumours detected by radiology in the liver and other organs mainly comprised strongly dilated blood vessels (peliosis), vascularized cysts and nodular lesions. The lesions showed strong expression of the endothelial cell markers CD34 and CD31 as well as the myocyte marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). Our findings show that MUL is associated with frequent malignant tumours and benign adenomatous and vascular lesions, as well as disturbed organ development. PMID:19334051

  9. Chemotherapy sensitivity testing in human tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, H G; Billington, R W

    1981-01-01

    We have attempted to establish in vitro growth in a consecutive series of 245 malignant tumours submitted for routine histopathology. Initially, three disaggregation procedures were used: mechanical separation, digestion by trypsin, and digestion by collagenase. The resulting cell fractions had varying success rates in establishing growth. Abundant epithelial cell growth was achieved in monolayer culture in 63 tumours, and the sensitivity of the cells to cytotoxic agents was tested. There was no indiscriminate cytotoxic effect, and each tumour type varied in its sensitivity from one patient's lesion to another. While testing of all solid tumours is not possible with present-day techniques, we believe that the employment of in vitro sensitivity testing as a routine procedure may be possible in the future if a suitable system giving correlation between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity can be developed. Images PMID:7240421

  10. Resected tumours of the sublingual gland: 15 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Sublingual gland tumours are rare, and we have evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of patients treated at a tertiary medical centre in eastern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients with sublingual gland tumours that were resected from December 1993 to November 2008, four of whom were men and five women. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 52 (39-63) years. Seven had malignant tumours, of which adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common. All patients with malignant tumours had neck dissections, and four had cervical lymph node metastases. The incidence of lymph node metastases was much higher in patients with advanced primary tumours (T1/2 compared with T3/4: one out of three compared with three out of four). All patients with malignant tumours were given adjuvant radiotherapy. There were no local failures. One patient had regional recurrence in the neck and had a successful further resection. Three patients developed distant metastases, and two died during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that radical resection with postoperative radiotherapy offers adequate local and regional control for malignant sublingual gland tumours. Neck dissection is beneficial, especially for T3/4 disease. PMID:27062437

  11. Oxidative stress parameters in bitches with mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M; Kankofer, M; Łopuszyński, W; Dabrowski, R; Lipko, J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe some of the oxidative stress parameters in bitches suffering from spontaneously occurring mammary gland tumours. The experiment involved 28 bitches which had mammary gland tumours removed surgically (15 bitches with malignant tumour and 13 with benign tumour) as well as 10 clinically healthy bitches. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in haemolysates of erythrocytes derived from the animals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as well as -SH groups, were determined in blood plasma. GSH-Px activity was significantly higher in the malignant tumour group than in healthy animals. SOD activity was significantly higher in animals with tumours compared with the control group. Activities of both enzymes were higher in animals with malignant tumours than in benign groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. The concentrations of TBARS and -SH groups were similar in all examined groups. The increase of antioxidative enzyme activities in these animals may suggest the activation of antioxidative defence mechanisms in mammary gland carcinogenesis. Moreover, it might indicate the participation of oxidative stress in malignancies. Further experiments involving more animals, with more frequent sample collection and the use of other oxidative stress markers are necessary. PMID:15533114

  12. Patella dislocation following distal femoral replacement after bone tumour resection

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Toru; Kanda, Shotaro; Maeda, Akinori; Endo, Minoru; Saita, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old girl with patella dislocation following distal femur replacement for a malignant tumour. We performed a medial plication and lateral release procedure to treat her persistent patellar dislocation after distal femur replacement following malignant tumour resection. This treatment improved the patient's gait ability dramatically. A distal femur reconstruction with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) system for tumour resection is a frequently performed procedure. The reported incidence of patella dislocation following distal femur reconstruction with a TKA is 2.3%. However, treatment procedures for patella dislocation following a distal femur replacement after malignant tumour resection have not been studied extensively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first English case report about patella dislocation following distal femoral replacement focusing on surgical treatment. Our experience suggests that treatment for patella dislocation following distal femur reconstruction with a TKA should be considered positively. PMID:25073529

  13. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Astreidis, Ioannis T.; Kontos, Konstantinos I.; Lazaridou, Maria N.; Bourlidou, Eleni T.; Gerasimidou, Domniki K.; Vladika, Natalia P.; Mangoudi, Doxa L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26904182

  14. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  15. Don't exclude students.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Colin

    2016-07-01

    I have just started applying for my first job. I use the website NHS Jobs, but students are oft en excluded by the 'pre-application questions'. These ask if I am registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council, which I'm not yet. PMID:27380689

  16. Intestine-associated antigens in ovarian tumours: an immunohistological study.

    PubMed

    De Boer, W G; Ma, J; Nayman, J

    1981-07-01

    The presence of 3 intestine-associated antigens, small intestine mucin antigen (SIMA), large intestine mucin antigen (LIMA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was studied in the female genital tract and ovarian tumours by immunofluorescence. These antigens could not be detected in normal ovary, benign cysts of ovary, fallopian tube or endometrium, but both LIMA and CEA were present in endocervical glandular tissue. The antigenic cross-reactivity of endocervical and large bowel mucin may indicate a close embryological relationship between these organs during the cloacogenic stage. The 3 antigens could be demonstrated in mucinous tumours of the ovary but were absent in serous or mesonephroid tumours. In one of the 2 endometroid tumours CEA was the only detectable antigen. These observations confirm the presence of intestinal type of epithelium in cystic mucinous tumours of the ovary and explain the cross-reactivity of mucin of benign tumours of the ovary and mucin from colonic cancer, normal colonic mucosa and gastric mucosa as reported by earlier workers. In the process of malignant transformation the columnar epithelium of ovarian cystadenoma seems to behave in the same way as superficial gastric and gall bladder epithelium by forming inappropriate intestine-associated mucin substances. Our technique may provide a specific means for studies on the histogenesis of female genital tract tumours, particularly ovarian tumours. It can also be used in differentiating between benign and malignant variants of these tumours. PMID:7029434

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Schmalzle, Sarah A; Buchwald, Ulrike K; Gilliam, Bruce L; Riedel, David J

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic invasive fungal infection that is well described and easily recognised when it occurs as meningitis in HIV-infected persons. Malignancy and its treatment may also confer a higher risk of infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, but this association has not been as well described. A case of cryptococcosis in a cancer patient is presented, and all cases of coincident C. neoformans infection and malignancy in adults published in the literature in English between 1970 and 2014 are reviewed. Data from these cases were aggregated in order to describe the demographics, type of malignancy, site of infection, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of cryptococcosis in patients with cancer. Haematologic malignancies accounted for 82% of cases, with lymphomas over-represented compared to US population data (66% vs. 53% respectively). Cryptococcosis was reported rarely in patients with solid tumours. Haematologic malignancy patients were more likely to have central nervous system (P < 0.001) or disseminated disease (P < 0.001), receive Amphotericin B as part of initial therapy (P = 0.023), and had higher reported mortality rates than those with solid tumours (P = 0.222). Providers should have heightened awareness of the possibility of cryptococcosis in patients with haematologic malignancy presenting with infection. PMID:26932366

  18. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  19. Appendiceal tumour--retrospective clinicopathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O'Neil; Chopra, Pradeep; Pande, Girish

    2004-01-01

    Appendiceal tumours are rare and often discovered unexpectedly in an acute situation in which decision-making is difficult. We report the spectrum of appendiuar tumours seen in our institution over a period of more than 10 years, and discuss the clinicopathological behaviour, investigations, surgical procedures and outcomes in these patients. We have also reviewed the literature with regard to appendiceal tumours. Appendicular tumours were identified from the database of 1646 appendictomies (18% in children) performed in single centre and case notes were reviewed. Clinical presentation, investigations, histopathology, surgical procedures and outcome were analysed. Twelve patients with appendiceal tumours were identified (0.72%): 8 carcinoid, 2 mucinous (mucocele) and 2 adenocarcinoma. All the patients with a carcinoid tumour presented with features suggestive of acute appendicitis and were diagnosed postoperatively following appendicectomy and formal histology. No further surgical intervention was required as these lesions were less than 1cm away from the base of the appendix. One of the patient with mucinous cystadenoma presented acutely and underwent an appendicectomy; in the other patient with chronic pain, apreoperative MRI suggested the diagnosis leading to a planned hemicolectomy as the lesion was close to the base of the appendix. While one of the patient with an adenocarcinoma localized to the appendix did well following a right hemicolectomy, the other patient with disseminated disease succumbed within a year. Carcinoid tumours are the commonest appendiceal tumours, which present often as acute appendicitis. While appendicectomy would be adequate in most of these patients, in patients with a cystadenoma close to the base of the appendix or in case of a carcinoma, a right hemicolectomy is the appropriate option. While the prognosis is good in patients with carcinoid tumour and cystadenoma, it remains dismal in patients with disseminated malignant disease

  20. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Thomas; He, Jie; Yelensky, Roman; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Botton, Thomas; Yeh, Iwei; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Brennan, Kristina; Murali, Rajmohan; Garrido, Maria; Miller, Vincent A.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Berger, Michael F.; Sparatta, Alyssa; Palmedo, Gabriele; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Busam, Klaus J.; Kutzner, Heinz; Cronin, Maureen T.; Stephens, Philip J.; Bastian, Boris C.

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid neoplasms are a group of melanocytic tumours with distinctive histopathological features. They include benign tumours (Spitz naevi), malignant tumours (spitzoid melanomas) and tumours with borderline histopathological features and uncertain clinical outcome (atypical Spitz tumours). Their genetic underpinnings are poorly understood, and alterations in common melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent. Here we show that spitzoid neoplasms harbour kinase fusions of ROS1 (17%), NTRK1 (16%), ALK (10%), BRAF (5%) and RET (3%) in a mutually exclusive pattern. The chimeric proteins are constitutively active, stimulate oncogenic signalling pathways, are tumourigenic and are found in the entire biologic spectrum of spitzoid neoplasms, including 55% of Spitz naevi, 56% of atypical Spitz tumours and 39% of spitzoid melanomas. Kinase inhibitors suppress the oncogenic signalling of the fusion proteins in vitro. In summary, kinase fusions account for the majority of oncogenic aberrations in spitzoid neoplasms and may serve as therapeutic targets for metastatic spitzoid melanomas.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of retroperitoneal tumours.

    PubMed

    Testini, M; Catalano, G; Macarini, L; Paccione, F

    1996-01-01

    The authors examine the various techniques for diagnosing Retroperitoneal Tumours (RPT) and analyse the results of the surgical treatment performed. Between March 1987 and February 1991, 20 patients with RPT (6 benign and 14 malignant forms) were observed in our Institution. CT and NMR revealed more diagnostic accuracy than other techniques (100%), while NMR had greater accuracy than CT in predictly resectability preoperatively (100% vs. 80.0%, respectively). A total of 26 laparotomies were performed: 20 for primary neoplasms and 6 for recurrent tumours. Exeresis of the mass was performed in 18/20 (90%) patients. Mean follow-up was 57.6 months (84-36). The benign forms had no recurrence. In malignant cases the disease recurred in 58.3% of the cases after an interval varying from 10 to 59 months. Overall mean survival of the 12 patients with malignant tumours subjected to resection was 58.3%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 91.7% and 58.3% respectively. Prognosis in malignant RPT is still very poor. PMID:8803715

  2. Sertoli cell tumour in an Amur tiger.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, C L; Meredith, A L

    2001-01-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour in a 17-year-old Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) are described. Histological examination of the primary lesion in the right testis and metastatic lesions throughout the internal organs showed a variable cellular pattern with an admixture of tubular structures divided by fine stroma filled with fusiform to stellate cells, and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated strong positive staining for neuron-specific enolase and variable positive staining for vimentin in neoplastic cells, supporting a diagnosis of a tumour of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:11428192

  3. The Role of CA19-9 in Predicting Tumour Resectability in Carcinoma Head of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Subramanian; Antomy, Thomas Babu; Thirumuruganand, Sathyamoorthy; Kumaresan, Dhandapani Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumour associated antigen. Blood levels may be elevated in benign as well as malignant conditions. Its sensitivity (70-90%) and specificity (68-91%) are inadequate for accurate diagnosis. It can be used to predict the extent of disease and outcome after resection. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the role of CA 19-9 in predicting the resectability of the tumour in the head of pancreas. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study which included 30 patients and study period was from May 2012 to October 2014. Data collected from all patients with carcinoma of the head of pancreas on the basis of contrast enhanced computed tomography/Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography. CA 19-9 levels were measured and recorded. Patients who were medically unfit for surgery or those who didn’t warrant palliative surgery were excluded from the study. During surgery the operative findings on operability were documented and tabulated against corresponding CA 19-9 levels. Results Of the 30 patients who were operated, 13(43.3%) patients had operable tumours and underwent Whipple’s procedure and 17(56.7%) underwent palliative bypass procedure. Of the 30, CA 19-9 levels were elevated in 9(30.0%) and were normal in 21(70.0%). Among 13(43.3%) who had operable tumours, CA 19-9 was elevated in 4(13.3) and was normal in 9(30.0%). Of the 17(56.7%) who had inoperable tumours CA 19-9 was elevated in 5(16.7%) and was normal in 12(40.0%). Among the 17 who had inoperable tumours, 8(47.1%) were diagnosed preoperatively and of them CA 19-9 levels were raised in 2(11.8%) and normal in 6(35.3%). In the group of 9(52.9%) who had inoperable tumours diagnosed intraoperatively, CA 19-9 was raised in 3(17.6%) of them and was normal in the remaining 6(35.3%) of them. Conclusion Based on the study findings, it can be stated that there is no significant correlation with resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and CA 19-9 and

  4. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J. F.; Misdorp, W.

    1974-01-01

    As mammary tumours occur frequently in the dog and cat but rarely in other domestic animals, only the tumours of these two species are classified. The epithelial tumours are termed “complex” when they consist of cells resembling both secretory and myoepithelial cells: these tumours are biologically less malignant than tumours of the “simple” type in which only one of these kinds of cell is present. The carcinomas are subdivided into adenocarcinoma, solid carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma. The term “carcinosarcoma or malignant mixed tumour” was used only when there were cells morphologically resembling not only one or both of the epithelial components but also connective tissue cells with their products of differentiation. The benign tumours are classed as adenoma, papilloma, fibroadenoma, or benign soft tissue tumour. The dysplasias are described under the following headings: cyst, adenosis, regular typical epithelial proliferation in ducts and lobules (epitheliosis), duct ectasia, fibrosclerosis, and lobular hyperplasia. ImagesFig. 41Fig. 42Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 45Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 40Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 33Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36 PMID:4371737

  5. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: retrospective analysis of a University Hospital's experience.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y F; Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Teoh, K H; Tan, P H

    2016-04-01

    Taking cognizance of the purported variation of phyllodes tumours in Asians compared with Western populations, this study looked at phyllodes tumours of the breast diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre over an 8-year period with regards to patient profiles, tumour parameters, treatment offered and outcome. Sixty-four new cases of phyllodes tumour were diagnosed during the period, however only 30 (21 benign, 4 borderline and 5 malignant) finally qualified for entry into the study. These were followed-up for 4-102 months (average = 41.7 months). Thirteen cases (8 benign, 3 borderline, 2 malignant) were Chinese, 9 (all benign) Malay, 7 (4 benign, 1 borderline, 2 malignant) Indian and 1 (malignant) Indonesian. Prevalence of benign versus combined borderline and malignant phyllodes showed a marginally significant difference (p=0.049) between the Malays and Chinese. Patients' ages ranged from 21-70 years with a mean of 44.9 years with no significant difference in age between benign, borderline or malignant phyllodes tumours. Except for benign phyllodes tumours (mean size = 5.8 cm) being significantly smaller at presentation compared with borderline (mean size = 12.5 cm) and malignant (mean size = 15.8 cm) (p<0.05) tumours, history of previous pregnancy, breast feeding, hormonal contraception and tumour laterality did not differ between the three categories. Family history of breast cancer was noted in 2 cases of benign phyllodes. Local excision was performed in 17 benign, 2 borderline and 3 malignant tumours and mastectomy in 4 benign, 2 borderline and 2 malignant tumours. Surgical clearance was not properly recorded in 10 benign phyllodes tumours. Six benign and all 4 borderline and 5 malignant tumours had clearances of <10 mm. Two benign tumours recurred locally at 15 and 49 months after local excision, however information regarding surgical clearance was not available in both cases. One patient with a malignant tumour developed

  6. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Bergh, Anders; Halin Bergström, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients. PMID:26804196

  7. Primary intrahepatic malignant epithelioid mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Perysinakis, Iraklis; Nixon, Alexander M.; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Kakiopoulos, George; Zorzos, Charalampos; Margaris, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary malignant hepatic mesotheliomas are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma who was treated in our department. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 66-year old male patient was admitted to our department for the evaluation of anemia. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a large space occupying lesion in the right liver lobe. DISCUSSION The tumor was subsequently resected and a diagnosis of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma was made after pathologic examination. The patient did not receive adjuvant therapy and is currently alive and free of disease, 36 months after the resection. CONCLUSION To our knowledge this is the eighth adult case of primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma reported in the literature. These tumors are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. Absence of previous asbestos exposure does not exclude malignant mesothelioma from the differential diagnosis. Proper surgical treatment may offer prolonged survival to the patient, without adjuvant therapy. PMID:25460485

  8. Tumour Transfer to Bone Graft Donor Site: A Case Report and Review of the Literature of the Mechanism of Seeding

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Richard G.; Carter, Simon R.; Grimer, Robert J.; Tillman, Roger M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. Transmission of malignant tumour cells to a bone graft donor site is a rare complication of bone grafting.We report a case of seeding of malignant fibrous histiocytoma from the femur to a pelvic bone graft donor site. Discussion. We review the literature, discuss the possible mechanism of tumour transfer and offer advice aimed at avoiding this complication. PMID:18521435

  9. [Demonstration of cells of myothelial origin in canine mammary tumours by special staining methods (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schlotke, B

    1975-01-01

    Three recent staining methods, the TPA-, TPL-, and TPT-method, were used to demonstrate cells of myothelial origin in mammary gland tumours in bitches and were compared with older techniques. The newer methods proved more suitable for demonstration of myofibrils in myothelial cells. With these techniques it is possible to reveal myofibril containing cells in adenomatous, papillary, myomatour, and myxoid tumour regions but not in chondroid parts of mixed tumours. Two of the tumours examined were classified as malignant myotheliomas because of their staining qualities, structure, ultrastructural appearance and signs of malignancy. PMID:49985

  10. A histological surprise: a rare case of myoepithelial tumour of the scrotum and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Obidike, Stephen; Nwaeze, Obinna; Aftab, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    A lump in the scrotum is a common presentation in most surgical clinics. However, myoepithelial tumours may not be up on the list of differentials. Although they may look benign, myoepithelial tumours are rare and have malignant potential. Treatment of these tumours involved total excision and adequate follow-up in cases of malignancy. These groups of tumours have not been reported in the scrotum in the past, but their occurrence in the vagina may not come as a surprise bearing in mind the embryonic origin of both organs. PMID:25084790

  11. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  12. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  13. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  14. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  15. 46 CFR 69.61 - Excluded spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded spaces. 69.61 Section 69.61 Shipping COAST... OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.61 Excluded spaces. (a) Excluded space means an enclosed space which is excluded from volume (V) in calculating gross tonnage. Except as under paragraph...

  16. NUT protein immunoreactivity in ovarian germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Iacobelli, J F; Charles, A K; Crook, M; Stewart, C J R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate NUT (nuclear protein in the testis) expression in ovarian germ cell tumours (GCTs). Immunostaining for NUT protein was performed in 10 mature cystic teratomas and in 49 malignant ovarian GCTs including 15 pure dysgerminomas, six dysgerminomas associated with gonadoblastoma, nine yolk sac tumours, 12 immature teratomas, and seven mixed malignant tumours. Only nuclear staining was considered a positive finding although cytoplasmic staining was noted when present. Thirty-seven (76%) malignant GCTs were NUT positive but staining was usually of weak to moderate intensity and observed in a relatively small proportion of neoplastic cells. Staining in immature teratomas and yolk sac tumours was restricted to foci of hepatoid and intestinal/glandular differentiation, where both nuclear and cytoplasmic reactivity were observed. In dysgerminoma associated with gonadoblastoma only the in situ and invasive germ cell elements were NUT positive. Nuclear staining was not seen in benign teratomas. Most malignant ovarian GCTs express NUT protein, albeit focally, and this should be considered when evaluating immunostaining in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated malignancies, particularly NUT midline carcinoma. Since NUT protein appears to play a role in normal germ cell maturation it may influence intestinal or hepatoid differentiation within malignant GCTs. PMID:25551299

  17. 75Se-selenomethionine scanning in the diagnosis of tumours of the pancreas and adjacent viscera: The use of the test and its impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Denis M.; Brown, Pamela; Melmed, R. N.; Agnew, J. E.; Bouchier, I. A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results of pancreatic scanning with 75Se-selenomethionine in 393 carefully documented patients over a two-year period are presented. On follow up 50 patients had operatively proven malignant tumours in the gland and a further 22 had similar tumours in adjacent organs, clinically mimicking carcinoma of the pancreas and in many cases causing scan abnormalities. Five patients had pancreatic adenomata. Remote tumours rarely affected the scan. Examination of the role of scanning in patients with neoplastic disease revealed that the test was effective in screening and in detection; false negative diagnoses were rare. By contrast, survival following diagnosis was extremely poor with only 8% of pancreatic tumours resectable and 50% metastasized at the time of surgery. Causes of pancreatic dysfunction, other than pancreatitis or carcinoma, which were associated with abnormalities on the scan are described and general aspects of reporting on the scan are discussed. The patterns seen in abnormal scans, while non-specific with regard to aetiology, were anatomically meaningful and useful adjuncts to the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. A normal scan excluded pancreatic cancer with a probability greater than 95%. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5045709

  18. [Malignant eccrine poromas (poro-epitheliomas, porocarcinomas)].

    PubMed

    Grosshans, E; Vetter, J M; Capesius, M C

    1975-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poromas set first of all the problem of the diagnosis of intra-epidermic cutaneous tumours. The epidermic symbiosis of the neoplastic cells and their natural disposition to keratinization and to differentiation of excretosudoral structures are their main pathological characteristics; they account for their acrosyringeal origin. The multitude of epidermotropic metastatic resurgences by the lymphatic route and their transcutaneous expulsion characterizes the evolution of these tumours. According to the study of the 8 cases published since 1956 and of this personal case the precession of a benign porosyringeal tumour seems probable but has never been proved. PMID:1229958

  19. LKB1, the multitasking tumour suppressor kinase

    PubMed Central

    Marignani, P A

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the lkb1 gene are found in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), with loss of heterozygosity or somatic mutations at the lkb1 locus, suggesting the gene product, the serine/threonine kinase LKB1, may function as a tumour suppressor. Patients with PJS are at a greater risk of developing cancers of epithelial tissue origin. It is widely accepted that the presence of hamartomatous polyps in PJS does not in itself lead to the development of malignancy. The signalling mechanisms that lead to these PJS related malignancies are not well understood. However, it is evident from the recent literature that LKB1 is a multitasking kinase, with unlimited potential in orchestrating cell activity. Thus far, LKB1 has been found to play a role in chromatin remodelling, cell cycle arrest, Wnt signalling, cell polarity, and energy metabolism, all of which may require the tumour suppressor function of this kinase and/or its catalytic activity. PMID:15623475

  20. Review of photon and proton radiotherapy for skull base tumours.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Piero; Vavassori, Andrea; Deantonio, Letizia; Ferrara, Eleonora; Krengli, Marco; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    An extremely large variety of benign and malignant tumours occur at skull base; these tumour lesions are in the proximity to structures deputed to relevant physiologic functions, limiting extensive surgical approaches to this body district. Most recent progresses of surgery and radiotherapy have allowed to improve local control with acceptable rates of side effects. Various photon radiotherapy techniques are employed, including 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) and brachytherapy that is manly limited to the treatment of primary or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Proton beam radiotherapy is also extensively used thanks to its physical characteristics. Our review, focusing in particular on meningioma, chordoma, and chondrosarcoma, suggests that proton therapy plays a major role in the treatment of malignant tumours whereas photon therapy still plays a relevant role in the treatment of benign tumour lesions. PMID:27330419

  1. Tumour seeding after fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy of the head and neck--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keval S V; Ethunandan, Madan

    2016-04-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy are essential diagnostic investigations of lumps in the head and neck, seeding along the needle track has long been a concern, and various factors have been implicated. We therefore searched the Medline database for relevant English language papers published between 1970 and 2014, excluding those on the thyroid and parathyroid, and systematically reviewed them to assess the risk. In the 610 articles reviewed we found only 7 reports of seeding (5 after FNAC and 2 after core needle biopsy). Tumours were found between 3 months and 3 years after the procedure in 4 cases, and in 3, tumour cells were found along the needle track between 0 and 33 days after the procedure. The needles varied in size from 18 - 22 gauge (G) and there were 3 to 4 passes. Four cases occurred after investigation of a mass in the salivary glands, and 3 after assessment of a cervical lymph node. Disease was benign in one and malignant in 6. Seeding along the needle track after FNAC or core needle biopsy of a lump in the head and neck is rarely reported, and an accurate estimate of its incidence is difficult to ascertain. Crude estimates suggest 0.00012% and 0.0011% after FNA and core needle biopsy, respectively. A distinction should be made between seeding that is seen shortly after the procedure and the development of tumour along the needle track. PMID:26837638

  2. Post-treatment imaging of liver tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Kurtaran, Amir; Schindl, Martin; Gruenberger, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the past few years, great improvements have been made to achieve local tumour control of primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. For hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and tumour ablation techniques, including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RF), and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) have been developed. For colorectal liver metastases, surgery is still the standard technique in localised disease, although percutaneous RF ablation has gained considerable acceptance. In patients with widespread disease, chemotherapy with new drugs offers improved survival. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice to evaluate treatment response. The present review demonstrates imaging findings of complete and incomplete tumour control after intervention as well as the imaging spectrum of complications. Imaging guidelines according to the World Health Organization and Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) for assessment of chemotherapy response are presented. PMID:17921098

  3. Brain and spinal tumour.

    PubMed

    Goh, C H; Lu, Y Y; Lau, B L; Oy, J; Lee, H K; Liew, D; Wong, A

    2014-12-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning. PMID:25934956

  4. Bile duct malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  5. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  6. Ovarian tumours of Wolffian or allied nature: their place in ovarian oncology.

    PubMed Central

    Hughesdon, P E

    1982-01-01

    Two unusual ovarian tumours thought to be of Wolffian identity, one of them malignant, are described. They showed packed combinations of adenopapillary, tubular, trabecular and diffuse patterns, a sharp and generalised periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive basement membrane and areas of elastic network. A review of published Wolffian tumours at various sites suggests that the prototypes of the two tumours occur chiefly in the cervix and broad ligament. The significance of Wolffian tumours and their differentiation from arrhenoblastoma and serous tumours is discussed. Images PMID:6282940

  7. Tumour scanning with indium-111 dihaematoporphyrin ether.

    PubMed Central

    Quastel, M. R.; Richter, A. M.; Levy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Photofrin II (dihaematoporphyrin ether/ester, DHE) was labelled with indium-111 and its biodistribution in tumour bearing mice compared with that of 111In chloride. The uptake and clearance of 111In labelled DHE differed markedly from that of indium-111 chloride in that the former was not taken up by the tissues as much as the latter. Scintillation scanning with a gamma-camera showed marked uptake of both 111In agents at the site of the tumour, but a much lower tissue background (excluding the abdominal organs) for the mice given 111In DHE. Tumour:muscle ratios of dissected tissues were 2-3 times higher in 111In DHE treated animals as compared to the uptake of 111In chloride. There was a distinct difference in the pattern of distribution of the two 111In preparations in the tissues. The major accumulation of 111In chloride was in the kidneys, whereas the highest uptake of 111In DHE was in the liver, the organ in which unlabelled porphyrins accumulate. Extraction and testing of materials from tumours of 111In DHE treated animals indicated that most of the tumour extractable 111In had remained associated with the porphyrin in vivo up to 4 days after injection. Images Figure 1 PMID:2147858

  8. New approaches to targeted drug delivery to tumour cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severin, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Basic approaches to the design of targeted drugs for the treatment of human malignant tumours have been considered. The stages of the development of these approaches have been described in detail and theoretically substantiated, and basic experimental results have been reported. Considerable attention is paid to the general characteristic of nanopharmacological drugs and to the description of mechanisms of cellular interactions with nanodrugs. The potentialities and limitations of application of nanodrugs for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases have been considered. The use of nanodrugs conjugated with vector molecules seems to be the most promising trend of targeted therapy of malignant tumours. The bibliography includes 122 references.

  9. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  10. Synchronous Appearance of Adenocarcinoma and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Ramesh Babu; Pushparaj, Magesh; Masih, Dipti; Pulimood, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological type of gastric tumour, accounting for approximately 95% of all gastric carcinomas. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract. Synchronous adenocarcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) occurring in the stomach is rare and very few cases have been reported in literature. Synchronous tumours in the stomach are rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A 63-year-old gentleman was diagnosed with a gastric adenocarcinoma on endoscopic biopsy and underwent surgery. Postoperative histopathologic examination revealed 2 synchronous tumours with both adenocarcinoma and GIST. The adenocarcinoma was determined to be the aggressive tumour based on histologic features. GIST was categorized as a very low risk of malignancy, based on its size and mitosis. The patient underwent chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. He is under follow up and is currently disease free. Careful histopathologic evaluation is required to detect co-existing rare synchronous tumours. Presence of the second tumour may require additional procedures or protocols. PMID:27042477

  11. PERIVASCULAR EPITHELIOID TUMOURS (PEComas) OF THE GYNAECOLOGICAL TRACT

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Niamh; Soslow, Robert A.; Murali, Rajmohan

    2016-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid tumour (PEComas) of the gynaecological tract are rare tumours which were first recognised and diagnosed within the last twenty years. They represent a unique diagnostic challenge with regard to their accurate and reproducible distinction from more common entities such as smooth muscle tumours of the uterine corpus. In this review article we trace the development of the concept of the PEComa tumour family, highlight what is known about extra-gynaecological tract PEComa at an immunohistochemical, molecular and therapeutic level and then present a summary of all reported cases of gynaecological tract PEComa to date. In the summary, we highlight rare subtypes of gynaecological tract PEComa, and compare the performances of extant prognostic classification systems for malignancy in these tumours. PMID:25750268

  12. Studying the emergence of invasiveness in tumours using game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basanta, D.; Hatzikirou, H.; Deutsch, A.

    2008-06-01

    Tumour cells have to acquire a number of capabilities if a neoplasm is to become a cancer. One of these key capabilities is increased motility which is needed for invasion of other tissues and metastasis. This paper presents a qualitative mathematical model based on game theory and computer simulations using cellular automata. With this model we study the circumstances under which mutations that confer increased motility to cells can spread through a tumour made of rapidly proliferating cells. The analysis suggests therapies that could help prevent the progression towards malignancy and invasiveness of benign tumours.

  13. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. PMID:26849037

  14. Tumours of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Stünzi, H.; Head, K. W.; Nielsen, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lung tumours are not common in domestic animals; there has not been the increase in epidermoid carcinomas and anaplastic small-cell carcinomas that has occurred in man this century. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in animals. The biological behaviour of each type of tumour in animals seems to be much the same as in man. The tumours are described histologically, the main categories being: epidermoid carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma, carcinoid tumours, bronchial gland tumours, benign tumours, and sarcomas. ImagesFig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:4371738

  15. A practical approach to immunohistochemical diagnosis of ovarian germ cell tumours and sex cord-stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Rabban, Joseph T; Zaloudek, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry can be useful in the diagnosis of ovarian germ cell tumours and sex cord-stromal tumours. A wide variety of markers are available, including many that are novel. The aim of this review is to provide a practical approach to the selection and interpretation of these markers, emphasizing an understanding of their sensitivity and specificity in the particular differential diagnosis in question. The main markers discussed include those for malignant germ cell differentiation (SALL4 and placental alkaline phosphatase), dysgerminoma (OCT4, CD117, and D2-40), yolk sac tumour (α-fetoprotein and glypican-3), embryonal carcinoma (OCT4, CD30, and SOX2), sex cord-stromal differentiation (calretinin, inhibin, SF-1, FOXL2) and steroid cell tumours (melan-A). In addition, the limited role of immunohistochemistry in determining the primary site of origin of an ovarian carcinoid tumour is discussed. PMID:23240671

  16. Excluding interlopers from asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, B.; Radovic, V.

    2014-07-01

    from AstDys database. Next, all family members that do not meet adopted criteria (based on physical and spectral characteristics) are excluded from the initial catalogue. Finally, the HCM analysis is performed again using the improved catalogue. Results: We apply this approach to the Themis family. In the first step the HCM links 3061 asteroids to the family. Among them we identify 113 potential interlopers. After removing interlopers, in the second run of the HCM, the total number of members has decreased to 2847. Thus, 101 extra objects have been excluded from the membership list (see Figure).

  17. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  18. Multiple secondary malignancies following radiation therapy for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Sam; Kroczak, Tadeusz; Drachenberg, Darrel

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are a rare malignancy that affect primarily young men. We present an interesting case of non-seminoma testicular cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT), which subsequently resulted in two separate secondary malignancies decades after initial treatment. PMID:26834905

  19. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  2. 15 CFR 923.33 - Excluded lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded lands. 923.33 Section 923.33... ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Boundaries § 923.33 Excluded lands. (a) The boundary of a State's coastal zone must exclude lands owned, leased, held in trust or whose use is otherwise by law...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.7 - Excluded structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.7 Excluded structures. Certain structures may be excluded from these Standards as modular homes under 24 CFR 3282.12. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded structures. 3280.7...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.22 - Excluded substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded substances. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Nonnarcotic Substances § 1308.22 Excluded substances. The following nonnarcotic substances which may, under the Federal Food, Drug,...

  6. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of The Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, J. F. W.; Ng, A.; England, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    A case of fibrous histiocytoma of low grade malignancy arising from the uncinate lobe of the pancreas is reported. This is an unusual site for these extremely rare tumours. Survival up to 4 years has been achieved in our patient following surgical resection. PMID:2562132

  7. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells release a range of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors to attract macrophages, and these in turn release numerous factors (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9 and EGF) that are implicated in invasion-promoting processes such as tumour cell growth, flicking of the angiogenic switch and immunosuppression. TAM density has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, there are currently no agents that specifically target TAM's available for clinical use. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid, are anti-resorptive agents approved for treatment of skeletal complication associated with metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents act on osteoclasts, key cells in the bone microenvironment, to inhibit bone resorption. Over the past 30 years this has led to a great reduction in skeletal-related events (SRE's) in patients with advanced cancer and improved the morbidity associated with cancer-induced bone disease. However, there is now a growing body of evidence, both from in vitro and in vivo models, showing that zoledronic acid can also target tumour cells to increase apoptotic cell death and decrease proliferation, migration and invasion, and that this effect is significantly enhanced in combination with chemotherapy agents. Whether macrophages in the peripheral tumour microenvironment are exposed to sufficient levels of bisphosphonate to be affected is currently unknown. Macrophages belong to the same cell lineage as osteoclasts, the major target of BPs, and are highly phagocytic cells shown to be sensitive to

  8. Tumour ablation: technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Gerd; Bale, Reto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Image-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, relatively low-risk procedure for tumour treatment. Local recurrence and survival rates depend on the rate of complete ablation of the entire tumour including a sufficient margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Currently a variety of different RFA devices are available. The interventionalist must be able to predict the configuration and extent of the resulting ablation necrosis. Accurate planning and execution of RFA according to the size and geometry of the tumour is essential. In order to minimize complications, individualized treatment strategies may be necessary for tumours close to vital structures. This review examines the state-of-the art of different device technologies, approaches, and treatment strategies for percutaneous RFA of liver tumours. PMID:19965296

  9. Ovarian-type epithelial tumours of the testis: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two serous borderline tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Bürger, Tobias; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Inniger, Reinhard; Hansen, Joachim; Mayer, Peter; Schweyer, Stefan; Radzun, Heinz Joachim; Ströbel, Philipp; Bremmer, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of ovarian-epithelial type of the testis, including serous borderline tumours, represent very rare entities. They are identical to the surface epithelial tumours of the ovary and have been reported in patients from 14 to 68 years of age. We describe two cases of a 46- and a 39-year old man with incidental findings of intratesticular masses of the left respectively right testis. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour the patients were subjected to inguinal orchiectomy. Histologically, the tumours were identical to their ovarian counterparts: They showed a cystic configuration with a fibrous wall and irregular papillary structures lined by partially multistratified columnar cells and areas of hobnail cells. Furthermore, there was mild cytological atypia with a proliferative activity of below 5% as proved by Ki67 staining; mitoses could not be detected. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells displayed expression of pan-cytokeratin AE3, progesterone receptor, Wilms' tumour protein (WT1), and PAX8 (Paired box gene 8). Estrogen receptor was expressed in one case. Octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (OCT4), calretinin, thrombomodulin, and D2-40 were not expressed. Mutation testing of BRAF revealed a BRAF V600E mutation in one case, while testing for KRAS mutations proved to be negative in both. The BRAF mutated tumour showed strong cytosolic and membranous positivity for B-Raf also on immunohistochemical analysis. Comparative genomic hybridization of one case could not reveal any chromosomal aberrations. PMID:26197800

  10. Spontaneous tumours in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris): a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2001-01-01

    Forty tumours were diagnosed in 35 (53%) of 66 captive African hedgehogs documented at Northwest ZooPath (NZP) between 1994 and 1999. Three hedgehogs had more than one type of tumour and the remaining 32 had a single type. Of the 35 hedgehogs with tumours, 14 were female, 11 were male, and 10 were of unknown gender; 21 were from zoological parks and 14 were privately owned. Twenty of the hedgehogs with tumours were adult (>1 year old) with a median age of 3.5 years (range 2-5.5 years); 15, of unreported age, were classified as adult. Thirty-four (85%) of the 40 tumours were classified as malignant and six (15%) as benign. The integumentary, haemolymphatic, digestive and endocrine systems were common sites for tumours. The most common tumours were mammary gland adenocarcinoma, lympho-sarcoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:11222009

  11. In vivo EIS characterization of tumour tissue properties is dominated by excess extracellular fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourou, Christina; Rohr, Andreas; Hoopes, P. Jack; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a non-ionizing, non-invasive technique which can be used to detect the presence of malignant tumours based on their electrical properties. Although it has been suggested that the edema which accompanies tumours strongly influences EIS tumour characterization, such information has not, until now, been documented in the literature. Growing intramuscular rodent tumours were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and EIS at several time points post-tumour implantation. The amount of edema associated with the tumours was calculated from the MRI images. Electrical parameters (resistivity, permittivity, fluid index ratio and peak frequency) were extracted from the EIS spectra. Taken together, the resulting electrical parameters strongly indicate that edema is the dominating pathological feature in EIS characterization and can at times conceal the presence of the tumour. Receiver operating characteristic analysis supports these findings.

  12. Mutational signatures of ionizing radiation in second malignancies.

    PubMed

    Behjati, Sam; Gundem, Gunes; Wedge, David C; Roberts, Nicola D; Tarpey, Patrick S; Cooke, Susanna L; Van Loo, Peter; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Davies, Helen; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Raine, Keiran M; Stebbings, Lucy; Menzies, Andy; Jones, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Jorgensen, Mette; Khatri, Bhavisha; Pillay, Nischalan; Shlien, Adam; Futreal, P Andrew; Badie, Christophe; McDermott, Ultan; Bova, G Steven; Richardson, Andrea L; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Stratton, Michael R; Campbell, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a potent carcinogen, inducing cancer through DNA damage. The signatures of mutations arising in human tissues following in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation have not been documented. Here, we searched for signatures of ionizing radiation in 12 radiation-associated second malignancies of different tumour types. Two signatures of somatic mutation characterize ionizing radiation exposure irrespective of tumour type. Compared with 319 radiation-naive tumours, radiation-associated tumours carry a median extra 201 deletions genome-wide, sized 1-100 base pairs often with microhomology at the junction. Unlike deletions of radiation-naive tumours, these show no variation in density across the genome or correlation with sequence context, replication timing or chromatin structure. Furthermore, we observe a significant increase in balanced inversions in radiation-associated tumours. Both small deletions and inversions generate driver mutations. Thus, ionizing radiation generates distinctive mutational signatures that explain its carcinogenic potential. PMID:27615322

  13. Clinicopathological characteristics of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands in 170 Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Aline Corrêa; Santos Netto, Juliana de Noronha; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Santos, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu dos; Cabral, Márcia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    Tumours of the minor salivary glands are relatively uncommon, and publications from around the world normally include tumours of both the minor and major salivary glands, making it difficult to assess their prevalence and distribution. Our aim was to evaluate retrospectively the clinicopathological features of a series of tumours of the intraoral minor salivary glands from two universities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to compare the data with those from other epidemiological studies. A total of 170 such tumours were diagnosed from 1942 to 2012, and were selected from two university departments of oral pathology. Eighty-nine of the tumours were benign (52%). Pleomorphic adenoma (n=75) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=23) were the most common benign (44%) and malignant tumours (14%), respectively. There were 104 female patients (61%) and both benign and malignant tumours affected more women than men. Significantly more tumours were in the palate (n=95, 56%; p=0.001). We conclude that these tumours had features similar to those from other studies from North and Latin America, but differ from the results presented from Asia. Further studies should be designed to highlight possible geographical and population-specific characteristics of these tumours. PMID:26644326

  14. Exome Sequencing in Classic Hairy Cell Leukaemia Reveals Widespread Variation in Acquired Somatic Mutations between Individual Tumours Apart from the Signature BRAF V(600)E Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Weston-Bell, Nicola J.; Tapper, Will; Gibson, Jane; Bryant, Dean; Moreno, Yurany; John, Melford; Ennis, Sarah; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Collins, Andrew R.; Sahota, Surinder S.

    2016-01-01

    In classic Hairy cell leukaemia (HCLc), a single case has thus far been interrogated by whole exome sequencing (WES) in a treatment naive patient, in which BRAF V(600)E was identified as an acquired somatic mutation and confirmed as occurring near-universally in this form of disease by conventional PCR-based cohort screens. It left open however the question whether other genome-wide mutations may also commonly occur at high frequency in presentation HCLc disease. To address this, we have carried out WES of 5 such typical HCLc cases, using highly purified splenic tumour cells paired with autologous T cells for germline. Apart from BRAF V(600)E, no other recurrent somatic mutation was identified in these HCLc exomes, thereby excluding additional acquired mutations as also prevalent at a near-universal frequency in this form of the disease. These data then place mutant BRAF at the centre of the neoplastic drive in HCLc. A comparison of our exome data with emerging genetic findings in HCL indicates that additional somatic mutations may however occur recurrently in smaller subsets of disease. As mutant BRAF alone is insufficient to drive malignant transformation in other histological cancers, it suggests that individual tumours utilise largely differing patterns of genetic somatic mutations to coalesce with BRAF V(600)E to drive pathogenesis of malignant HCLc disease. PMID:26871591

  15. Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Tavares, Anthony J.; Dai, Qin; Ohta, Seiichi; Audet, Julie; Dvorak, Harold F.; Chan, Warren C. W.

    2016-05-01

    Targeting nanoparticles to malignant tissues for improved diagnosis and therapy is a popular concept. However, after surveying the literature from the past 10 years, only 0.7% (median) of the administered nanoparticle dose is found to be delivered to a solid tumour. This has negative consequences on the translation of nanotechnology for human use with respect to manufacturing, cost, toxicity, and imaging and therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we conduct a multivariate analysis on the compiled data to reveal the contributions of nanoparticle physicochemical parameters, tumour models and cancer types on the low delivery efficiency. We explore the potential causes of the poor delivery efficiency from the perspectives of tumour biology (intercellular versus transcellular transport, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and physicochemical-dependent nanoparticle transport through the tumour stroma) as well as competing organs (mononuclear phagocytic and renal systems) and present a 30-year research strategy to overcome this fundamental limitation. Solving the nanoparticle delivery problem will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.

  16. Molecular mechanisms for tumour resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Li, Zhi-Ling; He, Zhi-Xu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the prevailing methods used to treat malignant tumours, but the outcome and prognosis of tumour patients are not optimistic. Cancer cells gradually generate resistance to almost all chemotherapeutic drugs via a variety of distinct mechanisms and pathways. Chemotherapeutic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is caused and sustained by reduced drug accumulation and increased drug export, alterations in drug targets and signalling transduction molecules, increased repair of drug-induced DNA damage, and evasion of apoptosis. In order to better understand the mechanisms of chemoresistance, this review highlights our current knowledge of the role of altered drug metabolism and transport and deregulation of apoptosis and autophagy in the development of tumour chemoresistance. Reduced intracellular activation of prodrugs (e.g. thiotepa and tegafur) or enhanced drug inactivation by Phase I and II enzymes contributes to the development of chemoresistance. Both primary and acquired resistance can be caused by alterations in the transport of anticancer drugs which is mediated by a variety of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein. Presently there is a line of evidence indicating that deregulation of programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagy is also an important mechanism for tumour resistance to anticancer drugs. Reversal of chemoresistance is likely via pharmacological and biological approaches. Further studies are warranted to grasp the full picture of how each type of cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer drugs and to identify novel strategies to overcome it. PMID:27097837

  17. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  18. Muscle metastases: comparison of features in different primary tumours

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle metastases (MM) from solid tumours are rare. The aim of this study was to describe radiological features of MM, and to compare their patterns in different malignancies. Methods A retrospective search in the statistical database of our institution revealed 61 cases of MM. Additionally, a retrospective search in Pubmed database was performed. Together with our cases the present analysis comprises 461 patients (682 MM). Results MM derived from the following malignancies: lung cancer (25.1%), gastrointestinal tumours (21.0%), and urological tumours (13.2%). Other neoplasias with MM were rare. MM were localised most frequently in the thigh muscles, the extraocular musculature, and the gluteal and paravertebral muscles. The localisation of MM was different in several primary malignancies. On computed tomography (CT), five different patterns of MM occurred: masses with homogeneous contrast enhancement (type I, 46.5%), abscess-like lesions (type II, 27.7%), diffuse infiltration with muscle swelling (type III, 18.1%), intramuscular calcifications (type IV, 6.5%), or MM presented as intramuscular bleeding (type V, 1.2%). MM from several primary tumours manifested with different CT patterns. On MRI, most MM were hyperintense in comparison to unaffected musculature in T2 weighted images and hypo- to isointense on T1 weighted images with a heterogeneous enhancement. There were no differences in MRI features of MM in different primary tumours. On ultrasound, most MM were hypoechoic. On positron emission tomography, MM presented as focally abnormal intramuscular uptake. Conclusion MM present with a broad spectrum of radiological features. Different CT imaging findings of MM were observed in different primary tumours. The localisation of MM also varies with different primary malignancies. PMID:25608474

  19. Tumour biology: Herceptin acts as an anti-angiogenic cocktail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Yotaro; Xu, Lei; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2002-03-01

    Malignant tumours secrete factors that enable them to commandeer their own blood supply (angiogenesis), and blocking the action of these factors can inhibit tumour growth. But because tumours may become resistant to treatments that target individual angiogenic factors by switching over to other angiogenic molecules, a cocktail of multiple anti-angiogenic agents should be more effective. Here we show that herceptin, a monoclonal antibody against the cell-surface receptor HER2 (for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2; ref. 4), induces normalization and regression of the vasculature in an experimental human breast tumour that overexpresses HER2 in mice, and that it works by modulating the effects of different pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. As a single agent that acts against multiple targets, herceptin, or drugs like it, may offer a simple alternative to combination anti-angiogenic treatments.

  20. Transport processes in tumours.

    PubMed

    Quastel, J H

    1965-12-01

    The characteristic features of transport systems controlling influx into tumour cells of nutrients and other chemicals are briefly described. Two notable features of transport of amino acids into tumour cells have been observed: extensive accumulation against a concentration gradient and equal accumulations, whether conditions are aerobic or anaerobic, provided glucose is present. This combination of features has not been observed in the majority of normal mammalian tissues so far examined. Important for considerations of chemotherapy is the ability of tumour transport carriers to transfer substances related in structure to amino acids and other nutrients. Amino acid analogues, for example, can either block transport of natural amino acids or can be transported into the cell where they may interfere with various aspects of amino acid metabolism. The study of transport carriers is essential for an understanding of tumour-host relationships and for considerations of chemotherapy. PMID:5842595

  1. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  2. Primary Spindle Cell Malignant Melanoma of Esophagus: An Unusual Finding

    PubMed Central

    Rawandale, Nirmalkumar A.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of esophagus is usually a metastatic tumour rather than a primary tumour. Primary malignant melanoma accounts for less than 0.2% of all esophageal neoplasm. We report a case of primary spindle cell malignant melanoma of esophagus in a 69-year-old male who presented with history of dysphagia since 1 month. Radiological examinations revealed polypoidal growth at lateral aspect of esophagus. Biopsy was reported as grade III squamous cell carcinoma. Video assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy was performed. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry gave confirmed diagnosis of primary spindle cell malignant melanoma of esophagus. Though a rare entity, due to its aggressive nature and poor prognosis primary malignant melanoma should be one of the differential diagnoses in a patient with polypoidal esophageal mass lesion. Despite radical surgical treatment prognosis is extremely poor. PMID:27042502

  3. Expression of endothelin-1 and endothelin-1 receptor A in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Restucci, B; Martano, M; Maiolino, P

    2015-06-01

    Endothelins and their receptors have been implicated in numerous diseases and have recently emerged as relevant players in a variety of malignancies. Tumours overexpress the Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the Endothelin-A receptors (ETAR) and their interaction enhances tumour growth and metastasis by promoting tumour cell survival, proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study we have evaluated the expression of ET-1 and ETAR in 50 canine mammary tumours, compared to normal controls. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in ET-1 and ETAR expression from benign tumour to grade 1 and to grade 2 malignant mammary tumours with a decrease of expression in grade 3 carcinomas. Co-localization of ET-1 and ETAR was observed in benign mammary tumours and in G1 and G2 carcinomas, while absent in G3 carcinomas. Concluding, ET-1/ETAR can be considered reliable markers for evaluating malignancy of canine mammary tumours and could have importance for the development of specific anticancer therapies. PMID:25816929

  4. Breast tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephen B; Generali, Daniele G; Harris, Adrian L

    2007-01-01

    The central importance of tumour neovascularization has been emphasized by clinical trials using antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer. This review gives a background to breast tumour neovascularization in in situ and invasive breast cancer, outlines the mechanisms by which this is achieved and discusses the influence of the microenvironment, focusing on hypoxia. The regulation of angiogenesis and the antivascular agents that are used in an antiangiogenic dosing schedule, both novel and conventional, are also summarized. PMID:18190723

  5. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  6. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  7. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  8. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  9. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  10. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded transactions. 1310.08 Section 1310.08 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  11. How Many Pupils Are Being Excluded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Margaret

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the problem of British children permanently excluded from school, especially those excluded "unofficially" usually for behavioral difficulties. The article presents evidence of the incidence of unofficial exclusions, schools' options for dealing with exclusions, possible consequences of exclusions, and possible future…

  12. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  13. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  14. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 403.768 Section 403.768 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... of Participation, and Payment § 403.768 Excluded services. In addition to items and services...

  15. 40 CFR 1037.5 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluded vehicles. 1037.5 Section 1037.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Overview and Applicability § 1037.5 Excluded vehicles. Except for the definitions specified in...

  16. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per...

  17. Testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; McGlynn, Katherine A; Okamoto, Keisei; Jewett, Michael A S; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-23

    Testicular germ cell tumours are at the crossroads of developmental and neoplastic processes. Their cause has not been fully elucidated but differences in incidences suggest that a combination of genetic and environment factors are involved, with environmental factors predominating early in life. Substantial progress has been made in understanding genetic susceptibility in the past 5 years on the basis of the results of large genome-wide association studies. Testicular germ cell tumours are highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and hence have among the best outcomes of all tumours. Because the tumours occur mainly in young men, preservation of reproductive function, quality of life after treatment, and late effects are crucial concerns. In this Seminar, we provide an overview of advances in the understanding of the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of testicular germ cell tumours. We also summarise the consensus on how to treat testicular germ cell tumours and focus on a few controversies and improvements in the understanding of late effects of treatment and quality of life for survivors. PMID:26651223

  18. Malignancy markers in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Koskiniemi, M

    1988-10-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of malignancy marker determinations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often insufficient. Even at the subclinical stage of the disease the marker should be present. The effect of therapy should be monitored and relapses noted. Thus high standards of methodology are required. There are many substances that may indicate a malignant process in the central nervous system. However, there are many pitfalls in their determination. Malignant cells may occur in CSF via processes involving leptomeningeal structures such as metastases and leukaemia, but primary brain tumours seldom show cells in CSF. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and alpha-fetoprotein determinations assist in the early detection of cerebral germ cell tumours and of relapses, even in the subclinical stage. Desmosterol may aid in the diagnosis of medulloblastomas and malignant gliomas and in monitoring therapy. Putrescine levels are elevated in CSF of patients with medulloblastoma and correlate with the clinical state, and serial analyses may reveal relapses. Fibronectin, when determined in CSF at the time of diagnosis, appears to be of great significance for the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Ferritin and beta-2-microglobulin may help in some well-defined conditions. Brain-specific proteins and antibodies to them are non-specific markers whereas tumour-specific antigens and growth factors may be more significant. PMID:3058481

  19. Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a consensus review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benjamin Y; Acs, Geza; Apple, Sophia K; Badve, Sunil; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Brogi, Edi; Calvo, José P; Dabbs, David J; Ellis, Ian O; Eusebi, Vincenzo; Farshid, Gelareh; Fox, Stephen B; Ichihara, Shu; Lakhani, Sunil R; Rakha, Emad A; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Richardson, Andrea L; Sahin, Aysegul; Schmitt, Fernando C; Schnitt, Stuart J; Siziopikou, Kalliopi P; Soares, Fernando A; Tse, Gary M; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumours constitute an uncommon but complex group of mammary fibroepithelial lesions. Accurate and reproducible grading of these tumours has long been challenging, owing to the need to assess multiple stratified histological parameters, which may be weighted differently by individual pathologists. Distinction of benign phyllodes tumours from cellular fibroadenomas is fraught with difficulty, due to overlapping microscopic features. Similarly, separation of the malignant phyllodes tumour from spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma and primary breast sarcoma can be problematic. Phyllodes tumours are treated by surgical excision. However, there is no consensus on the definition of an appropriate surgical margin to ensure completeness of excision and reduction of recurrence risk. Interpretive subjectivity, overlapping histological diagnostic criteria, suboptimal correlation between histological classification and clinical behaviour and the lack of robust molecular predictors of outcome make further investigation of the pathogenesis of these fascinating tumours a matter of active research. This review consolidates the current understanding of their pathobiology and clinical behaviour, and includes proposals for a rational approach to the classification and management of phyllodes tumours. PMID:26768026

  20. Breast spindle cell tumours: about eight cases

    PubMed Central

    Abd El All, Howayda S

    2006-01-01

    Background Breast spindle cell tumours (BSCTs), although rare, represent a heterogeneous group with different treatment modalities. This work was undertaken to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in differentiating BSCTs. Methods FNAC of eight breast masses diagnosed cytologically as BSCTs was followed by wide excision biopsy. IHC using a panel of antibodies against vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, s100, desmin, smooth muscle actin, CD34, and CD10 was evaluated to define their nature. Results FNAC defined the tumors as benign (n = 4), suspicious (n = 2) and malignant (n = 3), based on the cytopathological criteria of malignancy. Following wide excision biopsy, the tumors were reclassified into benign (n = 5) and malignant (n = 3). In the benign group, the diagnosis was raised histologically and confirmed by IHC for 3 cases (one spindle cell lipoma, one myofibroblastoma and one leiomyoma). For the remaining two cases, the diagnosis was set up after IHC (one fibromatosis and one spindle cell variant of adenomyoepithelioma). In the malignant group, a leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed histologically, while IHC was crucial to set up the diagnosis of one case of spindle cell carcinoma and one malignant myoepithelioma. Conclusion FNAC in BSCTs is an insufficient tool and should be followed by wide excision biopsy. The latter technique differentiate benign from malignant BSCTs and is able in 50% of the cases to set up the definite diagnosis. IHC is of value to define the nature of different benign lesions and is mandatory in the malignant ones for optimal treatment. Awareness of the different types of BSCTs prevents unnecessary extensive therapeutic regimes. PMID:16859566

  1. Differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumours: which magnetic resonance findings should be taken in account?

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, T; Botto, A; Sciandra, M; Gaudino, S; Danieli, L; Parrilla, C; Paludetti, G; Colosimo, C

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to define typical magnetic resonance (MRI) findings in malignant and benign parotid tumours. This study is based on retrospective evaluation of pre-surgical MRI of 94 patients with parotid gland tumours. Histology results were available for all tumours. There were 69 cases of benign (73%) and 25 cases of malignant (27%) tumours, including 44 pleomorphic adenomas, 18 Warthin's tumours, 7 various benign tumours, 6 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma and 13 various malignant tumours. The following MRI parameters were evaluated: shape, site, size, margins, signal intensity (SI) on T1w and T2w images, contrast enhancement, signal of cystic content, presence or absence of a capsule, perineural spread, extraglandular growth pattern and cervical adenopathy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the MRI findings most suggestive of malignancy, and to define the most typical MRI pattern of the most common histologies. Ill-defined margins (p < 0.001), adenopathies (p < 0.001) and infiltrative grown pattern (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive of malignancy. Typical findings of pleomorphic adenoma included hyperintensity on T2w images (p = 0.02), strong contrast enhancement (p < 0.001) and lobulated shape (p = 0.04). Typical findings of Warthin's tumour included hyperintense components on T1w images (p < 0.001), location in the parotid inferior process (p < 0.001) and mild or incomplete contrast enhancement (p = 0.01). SI on T1w and T2w images and contrast enhancement enables differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour. PMID:26824912

  2. A case of pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    McAnearney, Shane; Drain, Maire

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) is a rapidly progressive pulmonary disease that is a fatal complication of malignancy. It manifests clinically as subacute respiratory failure with pulmonary hypertension, progressive right sided heart failure, and sudden death. We describe here a case of PTTM associated with occult metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach. Although rare, PTTM needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea of unknown origin, particularly in patients with respiratory failure and also pulmonary hypertension, and in patients were there is no improvement in respiratory symptoms with steroid therapy. PMID:26744641

  3. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; Bain, C.; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose-response relationship (P less than 0.05): the estimated relative risk associated with 2-5 sunburns in life was 1.5, and with 6 or more was 2.4. This observation extends the hitherto circumstantial evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and melanoma, and suggests that precautionary measures could prevent the development of this disease in a proportion of cases in fair-skinned populations. PMID:3970815

  4. Surgical implications of tumour immunology.

    PubMed Central

    Somers, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of immune infiltration of tumour deposits and the existence of effective in vitro anti-tumour immune responses would suggest the possibility of therapeutic manipulation against tumour cells. However, clinical immunotherapy has shown little promise as a cancer treatment. Numerous explanations for this inefficacy have been proposed, one of which involves the elaboration of immunosuppressive moieties from tumour cells. The results of studies presented below show that serum from patients with gastrointestinal and other tumours have immunosuppressive influences on normal lymphocytes. The degree of this in vitro inhibition is related to tumour 'bulk' and may reflect a systemic immunosuppressive influence of the tumour. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes from gastrointestinal tumour deposits demonstrated that these immune cells are functionally inert, suggesting the existence of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment. The isolation and partial purification of an immunosuppressive moiety from conditioned culture medium of a variety of human tumour cell lines further supports the hypothesis of tumour-mediated immunosuppression. A number of protein tumour cell products have been described with potent immunosuppressive properties. These include transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-10, and the retroviral envelope protein p15E. The surgical implications of the proposed tumour-host immune relationship includes the hypothesis that clinically apparent disease may not be amenable to immune attack owing to tumour-mediated immune suppression. The use of immunostimulatory strategies as adjuvant perioperative therapy would seem a more effective environment for the activation of antitumour immune responses in the surgical patient. PMID:8678441

  5. Malignant gliomas: old and new systemic treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mesti, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant (high-grade) gliomas are rapidly progressive brain tumours with very high morbidity and mortality. Until recently, treatment options for patients with malignant gliomas were limited and mainly the same for all subtypes of malignant gliomas. The treatment included surgery and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy used as an adjuvant treatment or at recurrence had a marginal role. Conclusions Nowadays, the treatment of malignant gliomas requires a multidisciplinary approach. The treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The chosen approach is more complex and individually adjusted. By that, the effect on the survival and quality of life is notable higher. PMID:27247544

  6. Dynamic infrared imaging for the detection of malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Terry M.; Li, Haifang; Fisher, Paul; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Dulaimy, Khaldoon; Li, Song; O'Hea, Brian; Salvitti, Mathew; Geronimo, Veronica; Geronimo, Christine; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Carvelli, Paola; Weiss, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The potential for malignancy detection using dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) has been investigated in an animal model of human malignancy. Malignancy was apparent in images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of tumour bearing mice. The observation of malignancy was removed by the administration of an agent that blocks vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO). Image patterns similar to those that characterize malignancy could be mimicked in normal mice using an NO producing agent. Apparently DIRI allows for cancer detection in this model through vasodilation caused by malignancy generated NO. Dynamic infrared detection of vasomotor and cardiogenic surface perfusion was validated in human subjects by a comparison with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Dynamic infrared imaging technology was then applied to breast cancer detection. It is shown that dynamic infrared images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of the normal and malignant breast have image pattern differences, which may allow for breast cancer detection.

  7. Warthin’s Tumour: A Case Report and Review on Pathogenesis and its Histological Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    A R, Raghu; Bishen, Kundendu Arya; Sagari, Shitalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Warthin’s tumour/ Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (PCL) constitutes a minority of salivary gland neoplasms and it is a monomorphic adenoma which primarily involves the parotid gland. Warthin’s tumour shows multiple cysts that have numerous papillations covered by bilayered columnar and basaloid oncocytic epithelium. The connective tissue portion shows proliferation of follicle- containing lymphoid tissue which necessitates careful distinction for diagnosis. Although, Warthin’s tumour presents as a clinically benign, slow-growing, usually asymptomatic lesion with low rates of recurrences and malignant transformation, but still this tumour is considered unique because of its histological appearance and unknown origin and pathogenesis. Here, we report a case of Warthin’s tumour of five years duration in a 50-year-old male patient in the right parotid gland and also review and discuss various concepts concerning the development of this tumour along with a comprehensive literature on its clinic-pathologic features. PMID:25386545

  8. Mesenchymal tumours of the breast and their mimics: a review with approach to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Alison L; Billings, Steven D; Rowe, J Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal tumours of the breast comprise a broad spectrum of entities that frequently pose diagnostic challenges to surgical pathologists. Metaplastic carcinoma and phyllodes tumour are site-specific mimics that account for the majority of tumours in the breast with a sarcomatoid appearance. Although uncommon, mammary tumours with fibroblastic, adipocytic or vascular differentiation may be encountered, spanning the spectrum from benign to malignant. Tumours with histiocytoid morphology are potential traps due to bland cytomorphology and resemblance to reactive processes. This comprehensive review provides a diagnostic approach to specific challenging mesenchymal tumours of the breast and their mimics, with a discussion on the salient morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features that allow accurate diagnosis and will help the pathologist avoid potential pitfalls. PMID:27318503

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor is a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in human gliomas in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, Karl H.; Breier, Georg; Weich, Herbert A.; Risau, Werner

    1992-10-01

    CLINICAL and experimental studies suggest that angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumour growth1,2. Several growth factors with mitogenic or chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro have been described, but it is not known whether these mediate tumour vascularization in vivo3,4. Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant brain tumour in humans, is distinguished from astrocytoma by the presence of necroses and vascular prolifer-ations5'6. Here we show that expression of an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is induced in astrocytoma cells but is dramatically upregulated in two apparently different subsets of glioblastoma cells. The high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, flt, although not expressed in normal brain endothelium, is upregulated in tumour endothelial cells in vivo. These observations strongly support the concept that tumour angiogenesis is regulated by paracrine mechanisms and identify VEGF as a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo.

  10. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    PubMed

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  11. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  12. Malignant thymoma: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lara, P N

    2000-04-01

    Malignant thymomas are rare indolent tumours of the anterior superior mediastinum. Despite a benign histologic appearance, some thymomas invade nearby structures or metastasize. Patients are commonly asymptomatic, but some may present with unusual paraneoplastic syndromes such as myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, or hypogammaglobulinemia. Since tumour biopsy may potentially disrupt the thymic capsule, it is often not performed. Patients are therefore diagnosed and staged at the time of definitive surgery. Thymomas can generally be categorized into two stages: non-invasive and invasive. Prognosis closely parallels the disease stage. Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage disease. Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, is an option for both incompletely or completely resected disease. Chemotherapy is offered to patients with locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic thymoma, with excellent responses and prolonged survival. Multicentre co-operative group clinical trials are required to assess novel thymoma therapies to maximize patient resources in this uncommon tumour. PMID:10772969

  13. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    el Din, Amina A. Gamal; Badawi, Manal A.; Aal, Shereen E. Abdel; Ibrahim, Nihad A.; Morsy, Fatma A.; Shaffie, Nermeen M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKDROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is a leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy. Ovarian surface epithelial serous and mucinous tumours are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant. The identification of borderline tumours most likely to act aggressively remains an important clinical issue. AIM: This work aimed to study DNA ploidy and nuclear area in ovarian serous and mucinous; benign, borderline and malignant tumours. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included forty ovarian (23 serous and 17 mucinous) tumours. Paraffin blocks were sectioned; stained with haematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and morphometric studies and with blue feulgen for DNA analysis. RESULTS: All four serous and six out of nine mucinous benign tumours were diploid. All eight serous and five mucinous malignant tumours were aneuploid. Nine of eleven (81.8%) serous and all three mucinous borderline tumours were aneuploid. There were highly significant differences in mean aneuploid cells percentage between serous benign (1.5%), borderline (45.6%) and malignant (74.5%) (p = 0.0001) and between mucinous benign (13.2%) and both borderline (63.7%) and malignant (68.4%) groups (p = 0.0001). There were significant differences in nuclear area between serous benign (26.191%), borderline (45.619%) and malignant (67.634 %) and a significant positive correlation between mean percentage aneuploid value and mean nuclear area in all serous and mucinous groups. CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours. PMID:27275284

  14. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  15. Familial syndromes associated with neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Hanna; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours may be associated with familial syndromes. At least eight inherited syndromes predisposing to endocrine neoplasia have been identified. Two of these are considered to be major factors predisposing to benign and malignant endocrine tumours, designated multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and type 2 (MEN1 and MEN2). Five other autosomal dominant diseases show more heterogeneous clinical patterns, such as the Carney complex, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and tuberous sclerosis. The molecular and cellular interactions underlying the development of most endocrine cells and related organs represent one of the more complex pathways not yet to be deciphered. Almost all endocrine cells are derived from the endoderm and neuroectoderm. It is suggested that within the first few weeks of human development there are complex interactions between, firstly, the major genes involved in the initiation of progenitor-cell differentiation, secondly, factors secreted by the surrounding mesenchyme, and thirdly, a series of genes controlling cell differentiation, proliferation and migration. Together these represent a formula for the harmonious development of endocrine glands and tissue. PMID:26557756

  16. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    PubMed

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault

    2011-08-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs. PMID:21708513

  17. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-01-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. Images PMID:6198739

  18. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    PubMed

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series. PMID:6198739

  19. Hetergeneous tumour response to photodynamic therapy assessed by in vivo localised 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ceckler, T. L.; Gibson, S. L.; Kennedy, S. D.; Hill, R.; Bryant, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is efficacious in the treatment of small malignant lesions when all cells in the tumour receive sufficient drug, oxygen and light to induce a photodynamic effect capable of complete cytotoxicity. In large tumours, only partial effectiveness is observed presumably because of insufficient light penetration into the tissue. The heterogeneity of the metabolic response in mammary tumours following PDT has been followed in vivo using localised phosphorus NMR spectroscopy. Alterations in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH within localised regions of the tumour were monitored over 24-48 h following PDT irradiation of the tumour. Reduction of NTP and increases in Pi were observed at 4-6 h after PDT irradiation in all regions of treated tumours. The uppermost regions of the tumours (those nearest the skin surface and exposed to the greatest light fluence) displayed the greatest and most prolonged reduction of NTP and concomitant increase in Pi resulting in necrosis. The metabolite concentrations in tumour regions located towards the base of the tumour returned a near pre-treatment levels by 24-48 h after irradiation. The ability to follow heterogeneous metabolic responses in situ provides one means to assess the degree of metabolic inhibition which subsequently leads to tumour necrosis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1829953

  20. Alternatively spliced variants of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 and tumour progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gotley, D. C.; Fawcett, J.; Walsh, M. D.; Reeder, J. A.; Simmons, D. L.; Antalis, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    Increased expression of alternatively spliced variants of the CD44 family of cell adhesion molecules has been associated with tumour metastasis. In the present study, expression of alternatively spliced variants of CD44 and their cellular distribution have been investigated in human colonic tumours and in the corresponding normal mucosa, in addition to benign adenomatous polyps. The expression of CD44 alternatively spliced variants has been correlated with tumour progression according to Dukes' histological stage. CD44 variant expression was determined by immunohistochemisty using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific CD44 variant domains together with RT-PCR analysis of CD44 variant mRNA expression in the same tissue specimens. We demonstrate that as well as being expressed in colonic tumour cells, the full range of CD44 variants, CD44v2-v10, are widely expressed in normal colonic crypt epithelium, predominantly in the crypt base. CD44v6, the epitope which is most commonly associated with tumour progression and metastasis, was not only expressed by many benign colonic tumours, but was expressed as frequently in normal basal crypt epithelium as in malignant colonic tumour cells, and surprisingly, was even absent from some metastatic colorectal tumours. Expression of none of the CD44 variant epitopes was found to be positively correlated with tumour progression or with colorectal tumour metastasis to the liver, results which are inconsistent with a role for CD44 variants as indicators of colonic cancer progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8695347

  1. Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Reappraisal of Cutaneous Adnexal Tumours: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Uroos; Malaviya, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosing adnexal tumours of the skin is a challenge due to their wide variety, infrequent occurrence in practice, and confusing morphological picture. Aims and Objectives. The present study aims to observe the spectrum of adnexal tumours at our institute and to evaluate them based on histomorphological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical methods either alone or in combination for proper identification and classification. Materials and Methods. A partly retrospective and partly prospective study was conducted on adnexal skin tumours over a period of 6 years. Relevant clinical profile was recorded. Histopathological examination was carried out and special stains were applied as and when required. Immunohistochemistry was performed where diagnosis with routine stains was not possible. Results. A total of 150 skin tumour biopsies were received. There were 87 keratotic tumours, 39 adnexal tumours, and 24 melanocytic tumours. Amongst the adnexal tumours, 51.3% eccrine, 30.8% follicular, and 17.9% sebaceous tumours were seen. In five cases, histological diagnosis was troublesome where immunohistochemistry helped in making final diagnosis. Limitations. The sample size is small. Conclusion. Histomorphology is confirmatory in majority of the adnexal tumours but few rare lesions that mimic internal malignancy require a panel of immunomarkers to rule out other possible differentials. PMID:27034895

  2. Steroid receptors in canine and human female genital tract tumours with smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Millán, Y; Gordon, A; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Reymundo, C; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2007-01-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) was examined in 32 canine genital tract tumours diagnosed as smooth muscle tumours (benign or malignant, pure or mixed). The immunohistochemical expression of calponin was used to assess the smooth muscle differentiation of the tumours. Nineteen human uterine leiomyomas were also examined. Calponin expression was detected in 89.3% of canine and 100% of human genital tract tumours diagnosed as leiomyomas, as well as in the majority of other tumours examined (canine or human, genital or extragenital, benign or malignant) with the exception of canine negative control tumours (cutaneous fibroma and hepatoid gland adenoma). ERalpha was found in 56.3% of canine and 52.6% of human leiomyomas, while PR was found in 84.4% of canine and 94.7% of human tumours. These results indicate that calponin is a good marker for differentiating neoplasia of the canine genital system of uncertain origin, as in human patients. They also show that canine tumours with smooth muscle differentiation of the genital tract of the bitch express steroid hormone receptors, a finding that opens up the possibility of hormone therapy. PMID:17362977

  3. MRI of paediatric liver tumours: How we review and report.

    PubMed

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Roebuck, Derek J; Towbin, Alexander J; McHugh, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Liver tumours are fortunately rare in children. Benign tumours such as haemangiomas and cystic mesenchymal hamartomas are typically seen in infancy, often before 6 months of age. After that age, malignant hepatic tumours increase in frequency. The differentiation of a malignant from benign lesion on imaging can often negate the need for biopsy. Ultrasound is currently the main screening tool for suspected liver pathology, and is ideally suited for evaluation of hepatic lesions in children due to their generally small size. With increasing research, public awareness and parental anxiety regarding radiation dosage from CT imaging, MRI is now unquestionably the modality of choice for further characterisation of hepatic mass lesions.Nevertheless the cost, length of imaging time and perceived complexity of a paediatric liver MR study can be intimidating to the general radiologist and referring clinician. This article outlines standard MR sequences utilised, reasons for their utilisation, types of mixed hepatocyte specific/extracellular contrast agents employed and imaging features that aid the interpretation of paediatric liver lesions. The two commonest paediatric liver malignancies, namely hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma are described. Differentiation of primary hepatic malignancies with metastatic disease and mimickers of malignancy such as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatic adenomas are also featured in this review..Imaging should aim to clarify the presence of a lesion, the likelihood of malignancy and potential for complete surgical resection. Reviewing and reporting the studies should address these issues in a systematic fashion whilst also commenting upon background liver parenchymal appearances. Clinical information and adequate patient preparation prior to MR imaging studies help enhance the diagnostic yield. PMID:27526937

  4. Excluding Light Asymmetric Bosonic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Tinyakov, Peter

    2011-08-01

    We argue that current neutron star observations exclude asymmetric bosonic noninteracting dark matter in the range from 2 keV to 16 GeV, including the 5-15 GeV range favored by DAMA and CoGeNT. If bosonic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are composite of fermions, the same limits apply provided the compositeness scale is higher than ˜1012GeV (for WIMP mass ˜1GeV). In the case of repulsive self-interactions, we exclude the large range of WIMP masses and interaction cross sections which complements the constraints imposed by observations of the Bullet Cluster.

  5. Engineered affinity proteins for tumour-targeting applications.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mikaela; Ståhl, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Targeting of tumour-associated antigens is an expanding treatment modality in clinical oncology as an alternative to, or in combination with, conventional treatments, such as chemotherapy, external-radiation therapy and surgery. Targeting of antigens that are unique or more highly expressed in tumours than in normal tissues can be used to increase the specificity and reduce the cytotoxic effect on normal tissues. Several targeting agents have been studied for clinical use, where monoclonal antibodies have been the ones most widely used. More than 20 monoclonal antibodies are approved for therapy today and the largest field is oncology. Advances in genetic engineering and in vitro selection technology has enabled the feasible high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies, antibody derivatives [e.g. scFvs, Fab molecules, dAbs (single-domain antibodies), diabodies and minibodies] and more recently also non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins. Several of these affinity proteins have been investigated for both in vivo diagnostics and therapy. Affinity proteins in tumour-targeted therapy can affect tumour progression by altering signal transduction or by delivering a payload of toxin, drug or radionuclide. The ErbB receptor family has been extensively studied as biomarkers in tumour targeting, primarily for therapy using monoclonal antibodies. Two receptors in the ErbB family, EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and HER2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2), are overexpressed in various malignancies and associated with poor patient prognosis and are therefore interesting targets for solid tumours. In the present review, strategies are described for tumour targeting of solid tumours using affinity proteins to deliver radionuclides, either for molecular imaging or radiotherapy. Antibodies, antibody derivatives and non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins are discussed with a certain focus on the affibody (Affibody) molecule. PMID:19341363

  6. Malignant thymoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, L S; Huang, M H; Lin, T S; Huang, B S; Chien, K Y

    1992-07-15

    Sixty-one patients underwent operations for malignant thymomas between 1961 and 1989. Twenty-three patients had associated myasthenia gravis (MG), an incidence of 37.7%. Upon being admitted to the hospital, the patients' most common symptoms included chest pain, MG, cough, and dyspnea. Only 7 of 61 (11.5%) patients had no symptom. Tumor staging of 58 patients with invasive thymomas was performed according to Masaoka classification. The patients were classified as follows: Stage II disease, 5; Stage III, 41; Stage IVa, 8; and Stage IVb, 4. In addition, thymic carcinoma was present in three patients. The series had a resection rate of 55.7%. The incidence of operative complications was 16.3%. Only one patient died of myocardial infarction; the incidence of operative mortality was 1.6%. The patients with MG had a higher rate of resection (69.6%) and a higher incidence of complete thymectomy (14 of 23 patients; 60.9%). Mixed lymphoepithelial tumors and epithelial cell predominant tumors were the most frequent histologic patterns (45.9% and 34.4%, respectively). Fifty-two patients had postoperative radiation therapy, and 10 patients had chemotherapy. The overall cumulative survival rates in the series were 59% and 34% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The results demonstrated that the factors affecting the prognosis may include resectability, postoperative irradiation or chemotherapy, MG, and tumor staging. The influence of histologic variation on survival rates could not be clearly defined in the series. Surgical resection, particularly complete thymectomy, followed by irradiation is the primary option of therapeutic management for malignant thymoma. PMID:1617594

  7. Fatty tumours of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Pounder, D J

    1982-01-01

    Uterine fatty tumours (UFT) are uncommon and have received little attention in the English literature. They have aroused interest as a consequence of occasional diagnostic confusion with sarcomas and the continuing unresolved dispute as to their histogenesis. Three cases of UFT are described and the pathological features of note discussed. The viewpoint that these tumours are hamartomas/choristomas is rejected. UFT most probably represent tumour metaplasia within a leiomyoma. There is no uniform accepted nomenclature for such tumours and it is suggested that they be designated "uterine fatty tumours" and subdivided into "lipoma" and "mixed lipoma/leiomyoma" (synonym lipoleiomyoma). Images PMID:7174848

  8. Glomus tumour of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Troller, Rebekka; Soll, Christopher; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumours are benign tumours typically arising from the glomus bodies and primarily found under the fingernails or toenails. These rare neoplasms account for <2% of all soft tissue tumours and are generally not found in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 40-year-old man presenting with recurrent epigastric pain and pyrosis. Endoscopy revealed a solitary tumour in the antrum of the stomach. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for a gastrointestinal stroma tumour. After CT indicated the resectability of the tumour, showing neither lymphatic nor distant metastases, a laparoscopic-assisted gastric wedge resection was performed. Surprisingly, histology revealed a glomus tumour of the stomach. PMID:27343282

  9. Molecular biology of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Casado Sáenz, Enrique; Cejas Guerrero, Paloma; Perona, Rosario; González Barón, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumours. In keeping with the degree of aggressiveness, gliomas are divided into four grades, with different biological behaviour. Furthermore, as different gliomas share a predominant histological appearance, the final classification includes both, histological features and degree of malignancy. For example, gliomas of astrocytic origin (astrocytomas) are classified into pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) (grade IV). Tumors derived from oligodendrocytes include grade II (oliogodendrogliomas) and grade III neoplasms (oligoastrocytoma). Each subtype has a specific prognosis that dictates the clinical management. In this regard, a patient diagnosed with an oligodendroglioma totally removed has 10-15 years of potential survival. On the opposite site, patients carrying a glioblastoma multiforme usually die within the first year after the diagnosis is made. Therefore, different approaches are needed in each case. Obviously, prognosis and biological behaviour of malignant gliomas are closely related and supported by the different molecular background that possesses each type of glioma. Furthermore, the ability that allows several low-grade gliomas to progress into more aggressive tumors has allowed cancer researchers to elucidate several pathways implicated in molecular biology of these devastating tumors. In this review, we describe classical pathways involved in human malignant gliomas with special focus with recent advances, such as glioma stem-like cells and expression patterns from microarray studies. PMID:17005465

  10. Leiomyosarcoma of the mesentry, a rare mesentric tumour

    PubMed Central

    Sidhic, Abbas K; Ranjith, Mannalakkal; Ali, Karat Parambil Abid; Tej, Pappala Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Absract Leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare with a reported incidence of 1:350,000. So accurate preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric soft tissue tumor is generally difficult. Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour arising from smoothcell lineage. Mesenteric leiomyosarcoma occurs most commonly in middle-aged individuals. We describe a case of leiomyosarcoma arising from the ileal mesentery in a 33 year old male patient. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic evaluation using immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25576960

  11. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  12. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  13. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  14. 42 CFR 460.96 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excluded services. 460.96 Section 460.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY...

  15. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  16. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  17. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  18. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  19. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., whether to receive covered care or for other purposes, is excluded from home health coverage. Costs of... supplies relating to ostomy care are not considered prosthetic devices if furnished under a home health plan of care and are not subject to this exclusion from coverage. (g) Medical social services...

  20. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  1. The Paradox of the Excluded Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A paradox seems to exist where a child, of compulsory schooling age, is excluded from a school. The practice of exclusion has evolved over the almost two centuries of compulsory schooling. Abolition of corporal punishment in Western Australia and elsewhere has tended to focus attention on exclusion and the grounds justifying such action by school…

  2. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  3. 42 CFR 410.102 - Excluded services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excluded services. 410.102 Section 410.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facility (CORF)...

  4. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  5. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  6. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  7. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  8. 10 CFR 490.3 - Excluded vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excluded vehicles. 490.3 Section 490.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.3... has a fleet or to calculate alternative fueled vehicle acquisition requirements, the...

  9. Does the Exclusionary Rule Exclude Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, D. Lowell

    1983-01-01

    The exclusionary rule, which prevents the use of evidence gathered illegally, was developed to deter police misconduct. Its use has expanded so far that it seriously hinders justice. Examples are given of cases where evidence gathered in good faith was excluded. Changes suggested by the Reagan administration should be adopted. (IS)

  10. Parents of Excluded Pupils: Customers, Partners, Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Gale; Pirrie, Anne; McCluskey, Gillean; Cullen, MairiAnn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data drawn from interviews with a range of service providers and with the parents of pupils permanently excluded from alternative provision in England. The findings are considered in the context of recent policy developments in the area of children and families. These include the neo-liberal framing of parents as customers…

  11. Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour in a Young Woman with Widespread Metastasis and Peritoneal Caking

    PubMed Central

    Monappa, Vidya; Bhat, Sudha S.; Valiathan, Manna

    2013-01-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive, mesenchymal tumour that arises from the peritoneal cavity. It is commonly seen in adolescent and young adult males and its occurrence in females is uncommon. We are reporting here a rare case of DSRCT in a young woman, which clinically masqueraded as an ovarian malignancy, with metastasis to liver, lung, spleen and peritoneum. The cytologic findings, Histomorphological and immunohistochemical features have been discussed, with a brief review of literature. PMID:24551689

  12. Large Osteoarthritic Cyst Presenting as Soft Tissue Tumour – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, DD; Park, DH; Cannon, SR; Briggs, TW; Pollock, RC; Skinner, JA

    2007-01-01

    Large osteoarthritic cysts can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from primary osseous and soft tissue tumours. We present such a case involving a cyst arising from the hip joint and eroding the acetabulum which presented as a soft tissue malignancy referred to a tertiary bone and soft tissue tumour centre. We discuss the diagnostic problems it may pose, and present a literature review of the subject. PMID:17535605

  13. Management of penile tumours during the Byzantine period.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Marios; de Bree, Eelco; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Manios, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    While conventional treatment of penile cancer consists of total penile amputation and bilateral lymphadenectomy, recently a more conservative strategy comprising penile-preserving surgery and selective lymphadenectomy has been applied in order to preserve the penis and to minimize unnecessary inguinal lymphadenectomy. A thorough literature survey was performed to see what was already known of the surgical treatment of penile tumours in ancient times. In the Byzantine period, surgery appeared to have been highly developed, as one may conclude from the surgical material included mainly in the works of Oribasius of Pergamus and Paul of Aegina. Being aware of cancer, they described in their medical encyclopaedias malignant and benign tumours of the prepuce and glans penis, as well as their surgical and non-surgical management. After local excision of malignant tumours, they strongly recommended burning to prevent relapse, whereas they discouraged simultaneous removal of external and internal preputial lesions, because of the risk of perforation of the prepuce. These surprisingly detailed descriptions prove that Byzantine surgery had reached a higher level than commonly supposed. Penile-preserving treatment, which has recently become the therapeutic strategy of choice, was already accomplished in ancient times by using adjuvant thermal or chemical burning after local tumour excision. PMID:26011363

  14. Reproductive Tract Tumours: The Scourge of Woman Reproduction Ails Indian Rhinoceroses

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7–9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5–10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  15. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  16. The involuntary excluder effect: those included by an excluder are seen as exclusive themselves.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Zayas, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    People are highly vigilant for and alarmed by social exclusion. Previous research has focused largely on the emotional and motivational consequences of being unambiguously excluded by others. The present research instead examines how people make sense of a more ambiguous dynamic, 1-person exclusion--situations in which one person (the excluder) excludes someone (the rejected) while including someone else (the included). Using different methodological paradigms, converging outcome measures, and complementary comparison standards, 5 studies present evidence of an involuntary excluder effect: Social perceivers are quick to see included persons as though they are excluders themselves. Included individuals are seen as belonging to an exclusive alliance with the excluder, as liking the excluder more than the rejected, and as likely to perpetuate future exclusion against the rejected. Behavioral evidence reinforced these findings: The included was approached with caution and suspicion. Notably, such perceptions of the included as an excluder were drawn by the rejected themselves and outside observers alike, did not reflect the attitudes and intentions of included persons or those who simulated 1-person exclusion from the vantage point of the included, applied specifically to the included (but not someone who simply witnessed the rejected's rejection), and arose as a consequence of intentional acts of exclusion (and thus, not just because 2 individuals shared an exclusive experience). Consistencies with and contributions to literatures on balance theory, minimal groups, group entitativity, and the ostracism detection system literatures are discussed. PMID:25133726

  17. TP53 allele loss, mutations and expression in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Flørenes, V. A.; Oyjord, T.; Holm, R.; Skrede, M.; Børresen, A. L.; Nesland, J. M.; Fodstad, O.

    1994-01-01

    p53 alterations at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels were studied in tumour metastases sampled from 30 patients with malignant melanoma. Paraffin-embedded sections from these and an additional 12 patients were examined for the presence of p53 protein. TP53 gene aberrations were found in 7 of 30 (23%) of the patients, six of which showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Point mutations were detected in only two cases, one of which had LOH whereas the other was non-informative. Increased levels of p53 mRNA were present in only one tumour with, but in six cases without, detectable DNA abnormalities. Four of the latter and six tumours with normal transcript levels had immunohistochemically detectable levels of p53 protein. In 25 cases in which corresponding primary and metastatic lesions could be compared, closely similar immunoreactivity patterns were observed. Increased expression of the MDM2 gene was found in only one tumour in parallel with overexpression of p53. Altogether, the data indicate that inactivation of the p53 regulatory pathway is not of major significance in the tumorigenesis of malignant melanoma. However, a significant association was found between p53 immunoreactivity and the relapse-free period in patients with superficial spreading melanoma. That increased protein expression was predominantly found in tumours without DNA alterations might suggest a role for the wild-type p53 protein in restricting malignant cell proliferation in these cases. Images Figure 2 PMID:7905277

  18. Borderline ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Tropé, Claes Göran; Kaern, Janne; Davidson, Ben

    2012-06-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours account for 10-20% of all epithelial ovarian cancer. Historically, standard primary surgery has included borderline ovarian tumours, omentectomy, peritoneal washing and multiple biopsies. As one-third of borderline ovarian tumours are diagnosed in women under the age of 40 years, fertility-sparing treatment has been more frequently used in the past 10 years. Fertility drugs are well tolerated in women with infertility after fertility-sparing surgery. Careful selection of candidates is necessary. Laparoscopic techniques can be used, but should be reserved for oncologic surgeons. This conservative treatment increases the rate of recurrence, albeit with no effect on survival. The pregnancy rate is nearly 50%, and most are achieved spontaneously. These women should be closely followed up. The question is whether this is acceptable from a gynaecologic oncologic point of view. For this reason, we will discuss recently published studies and gynaecologic oncologic concerns about the mode of fertility-sparing surgery and its consequences. PMID:22321906

  19. Tumours of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Svend W.; Mackey, L. J.; Misdorp, W.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequent renal tumours of animals are renal cell carcinoma and nephroblastoma. Renal cell carcinomas are seen mainly in dogs and cattle and nephroblastoma is encountered in pigs, puppies, and calves. Renal cell carcinomas are usually papillary in the dog. They show a marked propensity for vascular invasion, penetration of the posterior vena cava, and subsequent pulmonary metastasis. Nephroblastoma, which is morphologically identical to Wilms' tumour of children, is almost always a benign tumour in animals. It is one of the most frequent neoplasms of pigs, possibly owing to the fact that most pigs are slaughtered (and examined) when a few months old. Lymphosarcoma involving the kidney is particularly frequent in the cat, but is also seen in other species as part of a generalized disease. ImagesFig. 5,6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 1,2Fig. 3,4Fig. 16,17,18,19Fig. 9,10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14,15 PMID:1086154

  20. Familial predisposition to Wilms' tumour does not map to the short arm of chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P; Koufos, A; Morgan, K; Li, F P; Meadows, A T; Cavenee, W K

    1988-11-24

    Wilms' tumour of the kidney usually occurs sporadically, but can also segregate as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. Patients with the WAGR syndrome of aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and high risk of Wilms' tumour have overlapping deletions of chromosome 11p13 which has suggested a possible location for a Wilms' tumour locus. Moreover, many sporadic tumours have lost a portion of chromosome 11p. A second locus at 11p15 is implicated by association of the tumour with the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome and by tumour-specific losses of chromosome 11 confined to 11p15. Here we report a multipoint linkage analysis of a family segregating for Wilms' tumour, using polymorphic DNA markers mapped to chromosome 11p. The results exclude the predisposing mutation from both locations. In a second family, the 11p15 alleles lost in the tumour were derived from the affected parent, thus precluding this region as the location of the inherited mutation. These findings imply an aetiological heterogeneity for Wilms' tumour and raise questions concerning the general applicability of the carcinogenesis model that has been useful in the understanding of retinoblastoma. PMID:2848199

  1. Malignant hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Hyam; Barlow, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The history, clinical presentation, and management of malignant hyperpyrexia are presented. The aetiology seems to be associated with some inherited abnormality which affects the movement and binding of calcium ions in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm, and mitochondria. Whether this is a primary muscular defect or secondary to some trophic neural influence is yet to be established. The subjects carrying the abnormal trait show evidence of a myopathy which is subclinical in most instances and revealed only by estimation of serum CPK or biopsy. In some families where the myopathy is clinically obvious there may be, in addition, a variety of musculoskeletal abnormalities. A plea is made for routine monitoring of temperature during anaesthesia and for procainamide or procaine to be readily available in all operating theatres. A history of anaesthetic deaths in a family calls for special care, and, if the serum CPK is elevated, suxamethonium and halothane are to be avoided. Families with orthopaedic and muscular abnormalities are at increased risk and should have estimation of serum CPK before surgery. As a bonus of this study it is suggested that serum CPK estimations be used to screen pigs for selective breeding and so eliminate the disease, which causes soft exudative pork. Images PMID:4708457

  2. Clinical features of gastroenteropancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Czarnywojtek, Agata; Bączyk, Maciej; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna; Fischbach, Jakub; Wrotkowska, Elżbieta; Ruchała, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine tumours (carcinoids and pancreatic islet cell tumours) are composed of multipotent neuroendocrine cells that exhibit a unique ability to produce, store, and secrete biologically active substances and cause distinct clinical syndromes. The classification of GEP tumours as functioning or non-functioning is based on the presence of symptoms that accompany these syndromes secondary to the secretion of hormones, neuropeptides and/or neurotransmitters (functioning tumours). Non-functioning tumours are considered to be neoplasms of neuroendocrine differentiation that are not associated with obvious symptoms attributed to the hypersecretion of metabolically active substances. However, a number of these tumours are either capable of producing low levels of such substances, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry but are insufficient to cause symptoms related to a clinical syndrome, or alternatively, they may secrete substances that are either metabolically inactive or inappropriately processed. In some cases, GEP tumours are not associated with the production of any hormone or neurotransmitter. Both functioning and non-functioning tumours can also produce symptoms due to mass effects compressing vital surrounding structures. Gastroenteropancreatic tumours are usually classified further according to the anatomic site of origin: foregut (including respiratory tract, thymus, stomach, duodenum, and pancreas), midgut (including small intestine, appendix, and right colon), and hindgut (including transverse colon, sigmoid, and rectum). Within these subgroups the biological and clinical characteristics of the tumours vary considerably, but this classification is still in use because a significant number of previous studies, mainly observational, have used it extensively. PMID:26516377

  3. Biophysical models of tumour growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracqui, P.

    2009-05-01

    Tumour growth is a multifactorial process, which has stimulated in recent decades the development of numerous models trying to figure out the mechanisms controlling solid tumours morphogenesis. While the earliest models were focusing on cell proliferation kinetics, modulated by the availability of supplied nutrients, new modelling approaches emphasize the crucial role of several biophysical processes, including local matrix remodelling, active cell migration and traction, and reshaping of host tissue vasculature. After a brief presentation of this experimental background, this review will outline a number of representative models describing, at different scales, the growth of avascular and vascularized tumours. Special attention will be paid to the formulation of tumour-host tissue interactions that selectively drive changes in tumour size and morphology, and which are notably mediated by the mechanical status and elasticity of the tumour microenvironment. Emergence of invasive behaviour through growth instabilities at the tumour-host interface will be presented considering both reaction-diffusion and mechano-cellular models. In the latter part of the review, patient-oriented implications of tumour growth modelling are outlined in the context of brain tumours. Some conceptual views of the adaptive strategies and selective barriers that govern tumour evolution are presented in conclusion as potential guidelines for the development of future models.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  5. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  6. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  7. Guidelines for histopathological specimen examination and diagnostic reporting of primary bone tumours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review is intended to provide histopathologists with guidelines for clinical assessment, specimen handling and diagnostic reporting of benign and malignant primary bone tumours. Information from radiology, surgical, oncology and other clinical colleagues involved in the diagnosis and treatment of primary bone tumours should be properly assessed before undertaking a structured approach to specimen handling and histological reporting. This ensures that the information needed for planning appropriate treatment of these complex tumours is provided. Consistency in diagnostic evaluation with respect to both terminology and report content facilitates liaison at multidisciplinary bone tumour meetings and collaboration between cancer units and networks, as well as providing a common database for audit of the clinical, radiological and pathological aspects of bone tumours. PMID:22613930

  8. Translational aspects in targeting the stromal tumour microenvironment: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Bhome, R; Al Saihati, HA; Goh, RW; Bullock, MD; Primrose, JN; Thomas, GJ; Sayan, AE; Mirnezami, AH

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumours comprise, not only malignant cells but also a variety of stromal cells and extracellular matrix proteins. These components interact via an array of signalling pathways to create an adaptable network that may act to promote or suppress cancer progression. To date, the majority of anti-tumour chemotherapeutic agents have principally sought to target the cancer cell. Consequently, resistance develops because of clonal evolution, as a result of selection pressure during tumour expansion. The concept of activating or inhibiting other cell types within the tumour microenvironment is relatively novel and has the advantage of targeting cells which are genetically stable and less likely to develop resistance. This review outlines key players in the stromal tumour microenvironment and discusses potential targeting strategies that may offer therapeutic benefit. PMID:27275004

  9. Tumour-initiating cells vs. cancer 'stem' cells and CD133: What's in the name?

    SciTech Connect

    Neuzil, Jiri; E-mail: j.neuzil@griffith.edu.au; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Chladova, Jaromira; Wang, Xiufang; Prochazka, Lubomir; Dong, Lanfeng; Andera, Ladislav; Ralph, Stephen J.

    2007-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that a subset of cells within a tumour have 'stem-like' characteristics. These tumour-initiating cells, distinct from non-malignant stem cells, show low proliferative rates, high self-renewing capacity, propensity to differentiate into actively proliferating tumour cells, resistance to chemotherapy or radiation, and they are often characterised by elevated expression of the stem cell surface marker CD133. Understanding the molecular biology of the CD133{sup +} cancer cells is now essential for developing more effective cancer treatments. These may include drugs targeting organelles, such as mitochondria or lysosomes, using highly efficient and selective inducers of apoptosis. Alternatively, agents or treatment regimens that enhance sensitivity of these therapy-resistant 'tumour stem cells' to the current or emerging anti-tumour drugs would be of interest as well.

  10. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  11. JC polyomavirus in the aetiology and pathophysiology of glial tumours.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Tihomir; Enchev, Yavor; Tsekov, Iliya; Simeonov, Plamen; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Encheva, Elitsa

    2016-01-01

    Glial brain tumours with their poor prognosis, limited treatment modalities and unclear detailed pathophysiology represent a significant health concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and describe the possible role of the human polyomavirus JC as an underlying cancerogenic or co-cancerogenic factor in the complex processes of glial tumour induction and development. Samples from 101 patients with glial tumours were obtained during neurosurgical tumour resection. Small tissue pieces were taken from several areas of the histologically verified solid tumour core. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and subsequent amplification reactions of sequences from the JC viral genome. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for detection and quantification of its non-coding control region (NCCR) and gene encoding the regulatory protein Large T antigen (LT). An average of 37.6% of all patients was found to be LT positive, whereas only 6.9% tested positive for NCCR. The analysis of the results demonstrated significant variance between the determined LT prevalence and the rate for NCCR, with a low starting copy number in all positive samples and threshold cycles in the range of 36 to 42 representing viral load in the range from 10 to 1000 copies/μl. The results most probably indicate incomplete JC viral replication. Under such conditions, mutations in the host cell genome may be accumulated due to interference of the virus with the host cell machinery, and eventually malignant transformation may occur. PMID:26560882

  12. Metastatic liver tumour segmentation from discriminant Grassmannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadoury, Samuel; Vorontsov, Eugene; Tang, An

    2015-08-01

    The early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of liver cancer progression can be achieved with the precise delineation of metastatic tumours. However, accurate automated segmentation remains challenging due to the presence of noise, inhomogeneity and the high appearance variability of malignant tissue. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised metastatic liver tumour segmentation framework using a machine learning approach based on discriminant Grassmannian manifolds which learns the appearance of tumours with respect to normal tissue. First, the framework learns within-class and between-class similarity distributions from a training set of images to discover the optimal manifold discrimination between normal and pathological tissue in the liver. Second, a conditional optimisation scheme computes non-local pairwise as well as pattern-based clique potentials from the manifold subspace to recognise regions with similar labelings and to incorporate global consistency in the segmentation process. The proposed framework was validated on a clinical database of 43 CT images from patients with metastatic liver cancer. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method achieves a better performance on two separate datasets of metastatic liver tumours from different clinical sites, yielding an overall mean Dice similarity coefficient of 90.7+/- 2.4 in over 50 tumours with an average volume of 27.3 mm3.

  13. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  14. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura. Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Crnjac, Anton; Veingerl, Bojan; Vidovic, Damjan; Kavalar, Rajko; Hojski, Aljaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura (SFTP) are rare tumours. They are mostly benign. Only around 12% of them are malign ant. In the initial stage they are mostly asymptomatic and by growing they cause chest pain, irritating cough and dyspnoea on account of the pressure created on the surrounding structures. Rare giant tumours have compression symptoms on the mediastinal structures. The condition requires tiered diagnostic radiology. Preoperative biopsy is not successful in most cases. The therapy of choice is radical surgical tumour removal. Malignant or non-radically removed benign solitary fibrous tumours of the pleura additionally require neoadjuvant therapy. Case report A 68-year old patient was hospitalized for giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura in the right pleural cavity. With its expansive growth the tumour caused the shift of the mediastinum by compressing the lower vena cava, right cardiac auricle as well as the intermediate and lower lobe bronchus. Due to cardiac inflow obstruction and right lung collapse, the patient’s life was endangered with signs of cardio-respiratory failure. After preoperative diagnostic radiology, the tumour was surgically removed. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition improved. No disease recurrence was diagnosed after a year. Conclusions Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura may cause serious and life-threatening conditions by causing compression of the pleural cavity with its expansive growth. Early diagnosis of the condition enables less aggressive as well as video-assisted thoracic surgery in patients with significantly better state of health. Large tumour surgeries in cardio-respiratory affected patients are highly risk-associated procedures. PMID:26834527

  15. Tumour cell–derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Hiroaki; Yan, Irene K.; Takahashi, Kenji; Wood, Joseph; Zubair, Abba; Patel, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tumour growth and stroma formation are poorly understood. Tumour cells can transfer genetic information and modulate cell signalling in other cells through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). We examined the contribution of EV-mediated inter-cellular signalling between bone marrow MSCs and tumour cells in human cholangiocarcinoma, highly desmoplastic cancers that are characterized by tumour cells closely intertwined within a dense fibrous stroma. Exposure of MSCs to tumour cell–derived EVs enhanced MSC migratory capability and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, in addition to mRNA expression and release of CXCL-1, CCL2 and IL-6. Conditioned media from MSCs exposed to tumour cell–derived EVs increased STAT-3 phosphorylation and proliferation in tumour cells. These effects were completely blocked by anti-IL-6R antibody. In conclusion, tumour cell–derived EVs can contribute to the generation of tumour stroma through fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs, and can also selectively modulate the cellular release of soluble factors such as IL-6 by MSCs that can, in turn, alter tumour cell proliferation. Thus, malignant cells can “educate” MSCs to induce local microenvironmental changes that enhance tumour cell growth. PMID:25557794

  16. Surgery for Malignant Sublingual and Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Malignant sublingual gland neoplasms are rare, early-stage neoplasms presenting as painless non-ulcerated masses in the antero-lateral floor of the mouth. The majority of patients present with advanced disease, with symptoms of pain or anaesthesia of the tongue. Malignant minor salivary gland neoplasms are more common, the majority (>80%) of which present in the oral cavity, most frequently in the palatal area, as painless masses or as obstructive symptoms in the head and neck region. The most frequent pathologies are adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (>85%), with the majority presenting at an advanced stage (III/IV). Wide tumour-free surgical margin excision is the treatment of choice, followed by radiotherapy, after discussion of the multidisciplinary head and neck cancer tumour board. Improvements in survival and quality of life have been achieved since the introduction of endoscopic and robotic surgeries for many minor salivary gland malignancies. PMID:27092950

  17. The Er/Ki-67 Proportion in Breast Tumours - An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, M K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast tumours are classified as benign, proliferative and invasive tumours. Estrogen hormone influences the proliferative activity and progression of the tumour. Estrogen Receptor (ER) status and proliferative index (Ki 67) are important histopathological factors in the development and prognosis of these tumours. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the variations in ER and Ki-67 expression in three broad categories of breast lesions namely benign breast disease, proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease. Materials and Methods ER% and Ki-67% was evaluated on the histopathological tissues of 15 patients each of benign, proliferative and invasive breast tumours. The ER+/ Ki-67± ratio was calculated and the variation of expression between the three categories was analyzed using student’s t-test. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to correlate ER and Ki-67 positivity within each category. Results The mean ER+/Ki-67+ in benign, proliferative and invasive tumours was 0.81, 0.87 and 1.42 respectively. A statistically significant difference in ER+/Ki-67+ proportions was observed between proliferative breast disease category and malignant breast disease category and also between benign breast disease category and malignant breast disease category (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in benign breast disease category and proliferative breast disease category (p>0.05). A significant correlation was observed in proliferative breast disease and malignant breast disease categories. However, no significant correlation was observed in benign breast disease category Conclusion ER+/Ki-67+ ratio is an important determinant of the invasive breast cancer and can be used to differentiate invasive cancers from benign and proliferative breast tumours. PMID:27190810

  18. Solitary fibrous tumour of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Grammatica, A; Bolzoni Villaret, A; Ravanelli, M; Nicolai, P

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare, benign, mesenchymal neoplasm that usually arises in the pleura, but rarely involves other sites outside the serosal space (mediastinum, lung, liver, thyroid gland); larynx involvement is very rare with only sporadic cases reported in the literature. We report a case of SFT in a 41-year-old woman with supraglottic laryngeal invovlement; symptoms included dysphonia and mild odynophagia lasting 2 years, and fibre-optic laryngeal evaluation showed a sub-mucosal mass involving the left supraglottis and medial wall of the pyriform sinus. MRI represents the gold standard tool for differential diagnosis (with schwannoma, paraganglioma and haemangioma) and correct staging, while immunohistochemical and cytomorphologic analysis (bcl-2 and CD34 positivity in 90% of cases) is needed for definitive diagnosis. Surgery is the main treatment (endoscopic and open conservative technique), and its goal is a balance between safe oncological resection and good preservation of laryngeal functions; in this particular case an open laryngeal approach was scheduled due to the size of the tumour. Prognosis is good and in only a few cases (especially in pleural SFT) does the biological behaviour take a malignant course. PMID:27070539

  19. [Preservation of fertility in tumour patients].

    PubMed

    De Geyter, C; De Geyter, M; Wight, E

    2009-01-01

    The success rates of present-day chemotherapy have provoked a rising awareness with regard to the preservation of quality of life among successfully treated patients. Among other factors, quality of life also implies the capacity to procreate. Unfortunately, both in men and women chemotherapy often irreversibly destroys the production of gametes, thereby causing permanent infertility. By its long-standing experience with the cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes and embryos, reproductive medicine may offer assistance to those patients. Whereas the storage of cryopreserved semen has now become standard in most institutions, the options for the preservation of fertility in women suffering of malignant disease are still limited. Although cryopreservation of non-fertilized oocytes or of pronuclear cells has been established, both the number of oocytes that can be collected within the short time interval between the first detection of the tumour and the initiation of chemotherapy and the modest developmental capacity per frozen/thawed oocyte markedly limit the option of ovarian hyperstimulation and assisted reproduction. Several successful deliveries of healthy infants have now proven the feasibility of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and later orthotopic transplantation after successful tumour therapy. Further refinement of the techniques involved, but also the formation of multidisciplinary networks are expected to offer a solution for young women struck by cancer but striving to survive and to lead a fulfilled life. PMID:19346752

  20. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jakhetiya, Ashish; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rambha; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majority of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117 (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs. PMID:27231512

  1. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Jakhetiya, Ashish; Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Prakash, Gaurav; Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rambha; Pandey, Durgatosh

    2016-05-27

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majority of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117 (KIT) and discovered on GIST-1 (DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs. PMID:27231512

  2. The testicular germ cell tumour transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Alagaratnam, S; Lind, G E; Kraggerud, S M; Lothe, R A; Skotheim, R I

    2011-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are characterized by young age of onset and a complex pattern of histological subtypes. Transcriptomic studies have tried to uncover the gene expression patterns underlying this. Here, we present a systematic review of transcriptome studies of TGCTs of adolescents and young adults and identify genes common across the various studies, both for TGCTs in general as well as the histological subtypes, hence elucidating both transcriptional changes associated with malignant transformation and differentiation patterns. A meta-analysis of this type adds power and significance to the genes thus found, where most studies have included only a limited number of samples. Both known (KRAS, MYCN and TPD52) and novel (CCT6A, IGFBP3 and SALL2) cancer genes are implicated in TGC tumorigenesis. Gene expression patterns characteristic to embryonic stem cells are also found deregulated in TGC tumorigenesis. This is reflected in how pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells commonly differentiate into a variety of embryonic and extra-embryonic histological types, each with unique transcriptomes. The embryonal carcinomas in particular are found to overexpress pluripotency genes, while gene signatures for seminomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours were also identified. This underlines the distinctive transcriptomic programme across histological subtypes, especially striking given that the TGCT genome is largely similar across the same subtypes. PMID:21651573

  3. Simultaneous removal of a tumour of the right atrium and inferior vena cava and coronary bypass-grafting in a patient with recurrent clear renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzyk, Edward; Głuszek, Stanisław; Michta, Kamil; Kot, Marta; Wożakowska-Kapłon, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cardiac tumours are the most common malignant cardiac tumours. In the early stages they are usually asymptomatic, but their consequences can be very serious, and the prognosis is poor. We present a patient with recurrent renal cell carcinoma as a tumour of the right atrium and the vena cava inferior in whom cancerous masses were removed with simultaneously coronary artery bypass-grafting. PMID:26855653

  4. 34 CFR 85.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b) The act of excluding a person. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235...) Definitions § 85.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity...

  5. The role of radiology in head and neck tumours in children

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Head and neck malignancy is rare in children. However, distinguishing malignant tumours from the more common and numerous benign causes of neck masses in childhood is crucial as many malignant conditions have an excellent prognosis with appropriate oncological management. Ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging all have crucial roles in the diagnosis of head and neck malignancy in children and there is an emerging role for positron emission tomography, particularly in the management and follow-up of lymphoma. We describe the imaging appearances of the common malignant tumours arising in the extracranial head and neck in children, focusing on lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The clinical presentation and radiological appearances of benign tumours in the head and neck in children may overlap with those seen in malignant disease. We describe the imaging appearances of juvenile angiofibroma, vascular abnormalities involving the extracranial head and neck and cervical teratomas. Advances in both imaging techniques and cancer staging systems, many of the latter aimed at avoiding over-treatment and treatment-related complications, will lead to an increasingly central role for imaging in childhood head and neck cancer. PMID:20199940

  6. Primary Carcinoid Tumour of the Kidney: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Omiyale, Ayodeji O.; Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2013-01-01

    Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29–75) with both right kidney (48.3%) and left kidney (44.8%) being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy). Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management. PMID:23997766

  7. Nitric Oxide Up-Regulates RUNX2 in LNCaP Prostate Tumours: Implications for Tumour Growth In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Heather; Browne, Gillian; O'Donovan, Katie M; Byrne, Niall M; Worthington, Jenny; McKeown, Stephanie R; McKenna, Declan J

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant expression of the transcription factor RUNX2 in prostate cancer has a number of important consequences including increased resistance to apoptosis, invasion and metastasis to bone. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia up-regulated RUNX2 in tumour cells, which in turn up-regulated the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Here, we investigate the impact of nitric oxide (NO) on RUNX2 and Bcl-2 expression in prostate cancer and further, how RUNX2 over-expression can impact tumour growth, angiogenesis and oxygenation in vivo. The effect of NO levels on RUNX2 and thus Bcl-2 expression was examined in prostate cancer cells in vitro using methods including gene and protein expression analyses, nitrite quantitation, protein-DNA interaction assays (ChIP) and viability assays (XTT). The effect of RUNX2 over-expression on tumour physiology (growth, oxygenation and angiogenesis) was also assessed in vivo using LNCaP xenografts. A low (but not high) concentration of NO (10 μM) induced expression of RUNX2 and Bcl-2, conferring resistance to docetaxel. These effects were induced via the ERK and PI3K pathways and were dependent on intact AP-1 binding sites in the RUNX2 promoter. RUNX2 over-expression in LNCaP tumours in vivo decreased the time to tumour presentation and increased tumour growth. Moreover, these tumours exhibited improved tumour angiogenesis and oxygenation. Low levels of NO increase expression of RUNX2 and Bcl-2 in LNCaP prostate tumour cells, and in vivo up-regulation of RUNX2 created tumours with a more malignant phenotype. Collectively, our data reveals the importance of NO-regulation of key factors in prostate cancer disease progression. PMID:26189652

  8. Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumour. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of a case.

    PubMed

    Kanavaros, P; Hoang, C; Le Bodic, M F; Polivka, M; Hautefeuille, P

    1990-07-01

    Serotonin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumours are rare neoplasms which in most cases exhibit malignant biological behaviour. These tumours, in the majority of the well-documented cases, are composed of argyrophil- and argentaffin-positive cells which contain large pleomorphic neurosecretory granules. In contrast, argyrophilic non-argentaffin pancreatic endocrine tumours with tumour cells containing round neurosecretory granules are exceptional. In this study we describe such a tumour not associated with clinical evidence of carcinoid syndrome in a 60-year-old woman. Histological examination revealed tumour extension in pancreatic lymphatic vessels and veins but no evidence of locoregional or distant metastases. Ten months after surgery the patient showed no recurrence of the disease. Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic serotonin production in the tumour cells which were negative for anti-gastrin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and ACTH. This study emphasizes the usefulness of combined ultrastructural and immunohistochemical investigations in order to identify and characterize the rare pancreatic endocrine tumours with serotonin production. PMID:1966880

  9. Interactions of ion transporters and channels with cancer cell metabolism and the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anne Poder; Moreira, José M. A.; Pedersen, Stine Falsig

    2014-01-01

    Major changes in intra- and extracellular pH homoeostasis are shared features of most solid tumours. These changes stem in large part from the metabolic shift of most cancer cells towards glycolytic metabolism and other processes associated with net acid production. In combination with oncogenic signalling and impact from factors in the tumour microenvironment, this upregulates acid-extruding plasma membrane transport proteins which maintain intracellular pH normal or even more alkaline compared with that of normal cells, while in turn acidifying the external microenvironment. Mounting evidence strongly indicates that this contributes significantly to cancer development by favouring e.g. cancer cell migration, invasion and chemotherapy resistance. Finally, while still under-explored, it seems likely that non-cancer cells in the tumour microenvironment also exhibit altered pH regulation and that this may contribute to their malignant properties. Thus, the physical tumour microenvironment and the cancer and stromal cells within it undergo important reciprocal interactions which modulate the tumour pH profile, in turn severely impacting on the course of cancer progression. Here, we summarize recent knowledge of tumour metabolism and the tumour microenvironment, placing it in the context of tumour pH regulation, and discuss how interfering with these properties may be exploited clinically. PMID:24493746

  10. Efficient and reproducible generation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes for renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, V; Griffiths, R; Hawkins, R E; Gilham, D E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is showing great promise in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. However, the translation of TIL therapy to non-melanoma tumours such as renal cell carcinoma has been less successful with a major constraint being the inability to reproducibly generate TILs from primary and metastatic tumour tissue. Methods: Primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma biopsies were subjected to differential tumour disaggregation methods and procedures that stimulate the specific expansion of TILs tested to determine which reliably generated TIL maintained antitumour specificity. Results: Enzymatic or combined enzymatic/mechanical disaggregation resulted in equivalent numbers of TILs being liberated from renal cell carcinoma biopsies. Following mitogenic activation of the isolated TILs with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated paramagnetic beads, successful TIL expansion was achieved in 90% of initiated cultures. The frequency of T-cell recognition of autologous tumours was enhanced when tumours were disaggregated using the GentleMACS enzymatic/mechanical system. Conclusion: TILs can be consistently produced from renal cell carcinoma biopsies maintaining autologous tumour recognition after expansion in vitro. While the method of disaggregation has little impact on the success of TIL growth, methods that preserve the cell surface architecture facilitate TIL recognition of an autologous tumour, which is important in terms of characterising the functionality of the expanded TIL population. PMID:25867267

  11. One very rare and one new tracheal tumour found by electron microscopy: glomus tumour and acinic cell tumour resembling carcinoid tumours by light microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Heard, B E; Dewar, A; Firmin, R K; Lennox, S C

    1982-01-01

    Tracheal tumours were removed surgically from two patients and diagnosed as carcinoid tumours by routine light microscopy. At a later date, electron microscopy was performed on stored tumour tissue and no neurosecretory granules were found in either case. One showed features of a glomus tumour and the other of an acinic cell tumour. Only two glomus tumours appear to have been reported previously in the trachea, and no acinic cell tumours. Electron microscopy is thus sometimes of great assistance in diagnosing accurately unusual tumours of the lower respiratory tract. Images PMID:6281934

  12. Metabolic reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yazhi; Zhao, Shimin; Zhou, Binhua P; Mi, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Tumour cells, stromal cells and the stroma comprise the tumour microenvironment. The metabolism of both tumour cells and several types of tumour stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, is reprogrammed. Current studies have found that stromal cells promote tumour progression and metastasis, through not only the paracrine secretion of cytokines or chemokines, but also intermediate metabolites. Here, we summarize the latest insights into the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumour-associated macrophages, and their potential roles in tumour progression and metastasis. PMID:26255648

  13. Apoptosis and mitosis in tumours of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the dog.

    PubMed

    Martin De Las Mulas, J; Millan, Y; Ruiz-Villamor, E; Bautista, M J; Rollon, E; Espinosa De Los Monteros, A

    1999-04-01

    The presence of apoptotic cell death was evaluated in routinely processed tissue samples of 39 neoplasms of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the dog using the method of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (T d T) mediated deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate (d UTP)-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). The degree of apoptosis was related to the frequency of mitosis, an index of cell proliferation. The correlation between the apoptotic index (AI), the percentage of positive cells after randomly enumerating 1000 cells and the mitotic count (MC), the number of mitotic figures in 10 fields at a magnification of 400 times was assessed by the Spearman non-parametric correlation test. TUNEL signals were observed in all types of tumours as brown products detected in non-pyknotic nuclei, in non-identifiable rounded structures (so-called apoptotic bodies) and occasionally in the cytoplasm, either singly or in combination. An inverse relationship between AI and MC was observed in benign tumours, while no correlation was found between AI and MC in either malignant or locally invasive tumours. Among benign tumours, intracutaneous cornifying epithelioma, fibroma, haemangioma and Schwannoma had high AI and low MC, while histiocytomas had low AI and high MC and pilomatrixomas low AI and MC. All malignant tumours had low AI and high MC, except for fibrosarcomas, which had high AI and MC. Finally, higher heterogeneity was observed among locally invasive tumours, as they had high AI and low MC (squamous cell carcinomas), and low AI with either low MC (haemangiopericytomas) or high MC (basal cell tumours). The classification of the tumours according to their AI (>15.8% high and <15.8% low) and MC (>9 high, <9 low) did not reflect the clinical behaviour of some tumour types. PMID:10208892

  14. Evaluation of vacuum-assisted closure in patients with wound complications following tumour surgery.

    PubMed

    Mermerkaya, Ugur; Bekmez, Senol; Alkan, Erkan; Ayvaz, Mehmet; Tokgozoglu, Mazhar

    2016-06-01

    Covering the reconstructed area with a healthy soft-tissue envelope is a major challenge after limb-sparing surgery in patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumours. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) of open wounds hastens healing and minimises the requirement for complex reconstructive soft-tissue surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of NPWT in bone and soft-tissue malignant tumour patients with postoperative wound complications. Between January 2006 and November 2009, at a single institution, 13 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumours who had undergone wide resection were retrospectively analysed. NPWT was performed in all patients to temporarily close the soft-tissue defects. After obtaining the culture negativity and normal infection markers, definitive soft-tissue reconstruction was performed to close the wound with primary suturisation in two patients, split thickness grafts in four patients, full thickness grafts in two patients, rotational flaps in three patients and free flaps in two patients. Mean duration of hospitalisation was 20 (range 8-48) days and mean follow-up period was 57·3 (range 50-74) months. There was no tumour recurrence or skip metastasis in the follow-up period. In addition, there was no periprosthetic infection or complication associated with NPWT. In conclusion, NPWT therapy seems to be a safe and effective option in the management of local wound problems and secondary surgical site infections after musculoskeletal tumour surgery. PMID:24976480

  15. The role of JAK/STAT signalling in the pathogenesis, prognosis and treatment of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S J; Snowden, J A; Zeidler, M P; Danson, S J

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of intracellular signalling pathways confers malignant properties on cancer cells. Targeting intracellular signalling pathways has been a productive strategy for drug development, with several drugs acting on signalling pathways already in use and more continually being developed. The JAK/STAT signalling pathway provides an example of this paradigm in haematological malignancies, with the identification of JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms leading to the development of specific clinically effective JAK2 inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib. It is now clear that many solid tumours also show activation of JAK/STAT signalling. In this review, we focus on the role of JAK/STAT signalling in solid tumours, examining the molecular mechanisms that cause inappropriate pathway activation and their cellular consequences. We also discuss the degree to which activated JAK/STAT signalling contributes to oncogenesis. Studies showing the effect of activation of JAK/STAT signalling upon prognosis in several tumour types are summarised. Finally, we discuss the prospects for treating solid tumours using strategies targeting JAK/STAT signalling, including what can be learned from haematological malignancies and the extent to which results in solid tumours might be expected to differ. PMID:26151455

  16. Tumour spectrum in the FAMMM syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, H. T.; Fusaro, R. M.; Pester, J.; Oosterhuis, J. A.; Went, L. N.; Rumke, P.; Neering, H.; Lynch, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    The Familial Atypical Multiple Mole-Melanoma Syndrome (FAMMM) is characterized by an autosomal dominantly inherited susceptibility to multiple atypical naevi. Patients with this hereditary phenotype show a strong susceptibility to cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Our investigation of an extended Dutch kindred showing the FAMMM phenotype revealed a proband with bilateral intraocular malignant melanoma (IOM) and multiple CMM. The family revealed an array of tumours which included carcinoma of the lung, skin, larynx, and breast in addition to CMM and IOM, which were transmitted vertically through 3 generations. There was male-to-male transmission, and the number of affected males and females was about the same, which was consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Thus the FAMMM syndrome not only indicates a potential for CMM, but a susceptibility to other systemic cancers as well. These observations, though limited to a single kindred, merit a painstaking evaluation of cancer of all anatomical sites in other kindreds showing the FAMMM syndrome. Such studies could yield clues to cancer aetiology, pathogenesis, and control. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7295511

  17. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  18. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  19. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  20. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  1. Minor Salivary Gland Tumours of Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Wyszyńska-Pawelec, Grażyna; Gontarz, Michał; Zapała, Jan; Szuta, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study of 56 patients with minor salivary gland tumours (MSGTs) of the upper aerodigestive tract is to present demographic features, distribution of tumours as well as methods and results of treatment performed in our institution over a 10-year period. Of 221 patients with salivary gland tumours, 56 patients with MSGT were selected. There were 36 female and 20 male patients aged from 8 to 81 years. Male-to-female ratio was 1 : 2 in the group of benign MSGT and 1 : 1.7 in the group of malignant tumours. The palate was the most frequent site of MSGT (45.6%), followed by buccal mucosa (19.3%). Of all MSGTs 63.2% were malignant, and 36.8% were benign. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (31.6%), followed by pleomorphic adenoma (29.8%). Surgery was the method of choice in the treatment of patients with MSGT. Postoperative defects were reconstructed by prosthetic obturators, local flaps, and free radial forearm flap. Relative survival for patients with malignant MSGT was 88% at three years and 71.5% at five years. MSGTs are more frequent in females and predominantly affect the palate. Malignant MSGTs are more common than benign. PMID:22675346

  2. Development of bladder tumour containing HPV type 11 DNA after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Querci della Rovere, G; Oliver, R T; McCance, D J; Castro, J E

    1988-07-01

    We report a case of bladder cancer developing in a patient after renal transplantation in whom it was possible to demonstrate DNA evidence for infection of the tumour with HPV Type 11. The significance of the observation is discussed in relation to the hypothesis that immunosurveillance can control the development of malignancy. PMID:2841992

  3. Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumours: Their somatic mutational spectrum and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Somatic gene mutations constitute key events in the malignant transformation of human cells. Somatic mutation can either actively speed up the growth of tumour cells or relax the growth constraints normally imposed upon them, thereby conferring a selective (proliferative) advantage at the cellular level. Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) affects 1/3,000-4,000 individuals worldwide and is caused by the inactivation of the NF1 tumour suppressor gene, which encodes the protein neurofibromin. Consistent with Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, NF1 patients harbouring a heterozygous germline NF1 mutation develop neurofibromas upon somatic mutation of the second, wild-type, NF1 allele. While the identification of somatic mutations in NF1 patients has always been problematic on account of the extensive cellular heterogeneity manifested by neurofibromas, the classification of NF1 somatic mutations is a prerequisite for understanding the complex molecular mechanisms underlying NF1 tumorigenesis. Here, the known somatic mutational spectrum for the NF1 gene in a range of NF1-associated neoplasms --including peripheral nerve sheath tumours (neurofibromas), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, gastric carcinoid, juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia, glomus tumours, astrocytomas and phaeochromocytomas -- have been collated and analysed. PMID:22155606

  4. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  5. [Drug therapy for neuroendocrine tumours].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Miklós

    2013-09-29

    The author aims to review the established medical treatment options of neuroendocrine tumours, which have expanded greatly in recent years and present the most important aspects to be considered in planning patients' management. Medical treatment is usually considered in advanced stages of these tumours, as well as in cases of hormone overproduction. Somatostatin analogues have been known to be effective in alleviating hormone excess syndromes, especially carcinoid syndrome for the past 25 years. There is a convincing evidence that the somatostatin analogue octreotide is useful as an antitumor agent, at least in well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours and probably also in those of pancreatic origin. Interferons may be also used and the indications for their use may be almost the same. Optimal patient selection is mandatory for the use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Streptozotocin- and, recently, temozolomide-based chemotherapies should be considered in progressive phases of well differentiated (G1/G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. A cisplatin-etoposide combination is the first choice for the treatment of G3 neuroendocrine carcinomas of any origin. Recently, the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and the combined tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib were registered for the treatment of G1/G2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. The most recent drug treatment recommendations and therapeutic algorithms to improve systemic therapy in patients with neuroendocrine tumours are summarized and novel drug candidates with particular potential for future management of these tumours are outlined. PMID:24058101

  6. Tumour regression after extracorporeal affinity chromatography of blood plasma across agarose beads containing staphylococcal protein A.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, L; Jonsson, S; Söderberg, M; Eneström, S; Liedén, G; Lindgren, S

    1984-11-01

    The therapeutic effect of absorbing plasma from tumour patients with immobilized staphylococcal protein A was tested. Plasma prepared by centrifugation was passed over protein A-Sepharose and then reinfused into the patient. Five patients were thus treated. One with malignant melanoma and one with renal adenocarcinoma showed measurable regression of metastatic lesions. In another with malignant melanoma a subcutaneous metastasis showed histopathological changes compatible with a therapeutic effect. In two patients, one with malignant melanoma and one with renal adenocarcinoma, no signs of regression were found. No severe adverse effects of the treatment were observed. PMID:6542007

  7. Malignant teratoma (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A malignant teratoma is a type of cancer consisting of cysts that contain one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Because malignant teratomas have usually spread by the time of diagnosis, ...

  8. Role of Staging in Patients with Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumours.

    PubMed

    Clift, Ashley Kieran; Faiz, Omar; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Bockisch, Andreas; Liedke, Marc Olaf; Schloericke, Erik; Wasan, Harpreet; Martin, John; Ziprin, Paul; Moorthy, Krishna; Frilling, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours are the commonest malignancy arising in the small intestine and have substantially increased in incidence in recent decades. Patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumours commonly develop lymph node and/or distant metastases. Here, we examine the role of staging in 84 surgically treated patients with small bowel neuroendocrine tumours, comparing diagnostic information yielded from morphological, functional and endoscopic modalities. Furthermore, we correlate pre-operative staging with intra-operative findings in a sub-cohort of 20 patients. The vast majority of patients had been histologically confirmed to have low-grade (Ki-67 <2%) disease; however, lymph node and distant metastases were observed in 74 (88.1%) and 51 (60.7%) of patients at presentation, respectively. Liver metastases were evident in 48 (57.1%) patients, with solely peritoneal and bone metastases observed in 2 (2.4%) and 1 (1.2%) patients, respectively. Forty patients (47.6%) received multimodal treatment. In our sub-cohort analysis, pre-operative imaging understaged disease in 14/20 (70%) when compared with intra-operative findings. In patients with multifocal primary tumours and miliary liver metastases, no imaging modality was able to detect entire disease spread. Overall, presently available imaging modalities heavily underestimate disease stage, with meticulous intra-operative abdominal examination being superior to any imaging technology. Multimodal treatment has an important role in prolonging survival. PMID:26394880

  9. CD44 expression in normal adrenal tissue and adrenal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Goldberg, I; Nass, D; Olchovsky, D; Kopolovic, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein found on many normal cells, mainly lymphoid and epithelial. Normal cells usually express standard CD44 (CD44-S), whereas malignant tumours may express CD44 variant isoforms (CD44-V). CD44 expression has been described for neural crest derivatives. Characterisation of differences in CD44 expression may help in the diagnosis and differentiation of distinct adrenal tumours. AIMS: To examine CD44 expression in different layers of cortical cortex, in adrenal medulla, and in adrenal tumours. METHODS: CD44-S and CD44-V6 expression were studied in 12 cases of adrenal cortical adenoma, 3 of adrenal cortical carcinoma, 10 of pheochromocytoma, and 4 normal adrenal glands. RESULTS: CD44-V6 staining showed cytoplasmic expression in normal adrenal cortex and in cortical adenomas and carcinomas. Pheochromocytomas also showed CD44-V6 expression but in 5 of the 10 cases it was sparse, focal, and sometimes perinuclear. Strong membranous staining for CD44-S was observed in normal adrenal medulla. Analysis of CD44-S expression revealed differences between cortical adrenal tumours and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 cortical adenomas and 2 of 3 cortical carcinoma cells showed weak to moderate cytoplasmic staining, but all cases of pheochromocytoma had strong membranous staining. CONCLUSIONS: Membranous CD44-S staining may help to distinguish pheochromocytoma from adrenal cortical adenoma. Images PMID:9577373

  10. Tumours of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours of the urinary bladder are uncommon in all domestic animals except cattle in certain regions. Where cattle eat bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) there is a high incidence of these tumours. Epithelial tumours are the most frequently encountered neoplasms in cattle and in dogs—the two species most studied. They are described under the following names: papilloma, adenoma, transitional cell carcinoma (with variants), squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16 PMID:4371741

  11. Clinicopathological Profile of Benign Soft Tissue Tumours: A Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Chandak, Shruti; Ranjan, Amar; Patel, Mehul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of soft tissue tumours, especially the frequency of benign tumours relative to malignant ones, is nearly impossible to determine accurately. Benign soft tissue tumours outnumber malignant tumours by a wide margin. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to look into the clinicopathological profile of benign soft tissue tumour in terms of hospital incidence of age, sex, site distribution and comparison of histological types of benign soft tissue tumours with other similar studies. Materials and Methods: The operated specimens or biopsy material of benign soft tissue tumours received from January, 2010 to July, 2010 in the Department of Histopathology of our hospital, were studied in detail. Age and sex incidence, site of lesion, clinical features, gross and microscopic appearance were carefully studied. Results: In our study, most common benign soft tissue tumour was lipoma (50.8%) followed by hemangioma (17.5%) which in turn was followed by neurofibroma, angiofibroma & schwannoma. Most common age group for benign soft tissue tumour were 31-40y (27.5%) followed by 21-30y (22.5%). Overall a male predominance was seen with 60.83% in males. The most common site of occurrence of benign soft tissue tumour overall was found to be trunk (25%), followed by upper extremities (21.7%), lower extremities (17.5%) and nose and nasopharynx (10.8%) in that order. Conclusion: With our study, we were able to reassess the clinical profile of soft tissue tumours and their different types with respect to age, sex, site distribution. PMID:25478344

  12. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. PMID:26614703

  13. Differential Expression of Prognostic Proteomic Markers in Primary Tumour, Venous Tumour Thrombus and Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Tissue and Correlation with Patient Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Alexander; O’Mahony, Fiach C.; Nanda, Jyoti; Riddick, Antony C. P.; O’Donnell, Marie; Harrison, David J.; Stewart, Grant D.

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most deadly of urological malignancies. Metastatic disease affects one third of patients at diagnosis with a further third developing metastatic disease after extirpative surgery. Heterogeneity in the clinical course ensures predicting metastasis is notoriously difficult, despite the routine use of prognostic clinico-pathological parameters in risk stratification. With greater understanding of pathways involved in disease pathogenesis, a number of biomarkers have been shown to have prognostic significance, including Ki67, p53, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and ligand D (VEGFD), SNAIL and SLUG. Previous pathway analysis has been from study of the primary tumour, with little attention to the metastatic tumours which are the focus of targeted molecular therapies. As such, in this study a tissue microarray from 177 patients with primary renal tumour, renal vein tumour thrombus and/or RCC metastasis has been created and used with Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA) of immunofluorescence to study the prognostic significance of these markers in locally advanced and metastatic disease. Furthermore, this has allowed assessment of differential protein expression between the primary tumours, renal vein tumour thrombi and metastases. The results demonstrate that clinico-pathological parameters remain the most significant predictors of cancer specific survival; however, high VEGFR1 or VEGFD can predict poor cancer specific survival on univariate analysis for locally advanced and metastatic disease. There was significantly greater expression of Ki67, p53, VEGFR1, SLUG and SNAIL in the metastases compared with the primary tumours and renal vein tumour thrombi. With the exception of p53, these differences in protein expression have not been shown previously in RCC. This confirms the importance of proliferation, angiogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis and metastasis of RCC. Importantly

  14. Collision tumour involving a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumour with invasion of the prostate and a prostatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common primary mesenchymal neoplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, although they represent only a small fraction of total gastrointestinal malignancies in adults (<2%). GISTs can be located at any level of the gastrointestinal tract; the stomach is the most common location (60-70%), in contrast to the rectum, which is most rare (4%). When a GIST invades into the adjacent prostate tissue, it can simulate prostate cancer. In this study, we report on a case comprising the unexpected collision between a rectal GIST tumour and a prostatic adenocarcinoma. Findings We describe the complexity of the clinical, endoscopic and radiological diagnosis, of the differential diagnosis based on tumour biopsy, and of the role of neoadjuvant therapy using imatinib prior to surgical treatment. Conclusions Although isolated cases of coexisting GISTs and prostatic adenocarcinomas have previously been described, this is the first reported case in the medical literature of a collision tumour involving a rectal GIST and prostatic adenocarcinoma components. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1238437468776331. PMID:23111239

  15. Malignant astrocytoma of the cervico-medullary junction masquerading as Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beards, S C; Robertson, L J; Jackson, A; Lipman, J

    1994-07-01

    Brainstem gliomas are rare primary brain tumours which most commonly occur in the midbrain and pons. Malignant gliomas and tumours at the cervico-medullary junction are particularly unusual. The diagnosis of tumours at this site is particularly difficult using computed tomographic (CT) scanning owing to artifacts around the base of the skull. Intrinsic tumours of the cervico-medullary junction may lead to a dissociated motor deficit and the onset of symptoms can be rapid. We describe a patient in whom an isolated ascending motor deficit in association with a raised cerebrospinal fluid protein and a normal CT scan led to an erroneous diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The patient was treated on the intensive care unit for an 8-week period before further investigation demonstrated a malignant glioma of the cervico-medullary junction. We recommend confirmation of the diagnosis of polyradiculopathy by nerve conduction studies wherever possible. PMID:7937428

  16. Intra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumour (DT) with Pelvic Extension-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sathish Selva; Ramachandran, Padmini; G, Veena; Madhusudhan, Napa; Kumbhar, Uday

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid Tumour (DT) is a rare benign, myofibroblastic tumour originating from muscle fascia with tendency to recur but, it rarely metastasizes. We are reporting here a case of DT that presented as an intra-abdominal mass with pelvic extension in a patient who underwent hysterectomy for fibroid uterus seventeen years ago. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian malignancy was made. Ovarian tumour markers for surface epithelial and germ cell tumours were negative. Imaging studies suggested DT and the same was excised surgically. A histopathological diagnosis of DT was made and confirmed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers. DT should always be considered especially in female patients with previous history of surgery. A complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with recurrent cases requiring radiotherapy. A differential diagnosis like sarcoma and further toxic chemotherapy can be avoided with careful histopathological evaluation and IHC confirmation of DTs. PMID:24596759

  17. Cerebral ganglioglio-neuroblastoma: an unusual brain tumour of the neuron series.

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D K

    1982-01-01

    The pathology of an unusual intracranial neuroectodermal tumour of the neuron series in described and its possible histogenesis discussed. The tumour, in a child aged 5 years with an enlarged head since infancy, presented as a large solid intra-cerebral mass. Histological examination showed four types of cells; (i) the stroma, forming the bulk of the tumour, was astrocytomatous; (ii) lobules of ill defined cells bearing small circular nuclei, representing immature neuroblasts: (iii) the same of other lobules containing neurons in various stages of development; and (iv) dense clusters of cells with hyperchromatic nuclei attempting rosettes, representing an overtly malignant neuroblastoma. This tumour was designated "ganglioglio-neuroblastoma" and probably originated from a slow growing ganglioglioma. Images PMID:7069425

  18. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation of tumour ingrowth into an uncovered metal stent used for inoperable cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lui, K L; Li, K K

    2013-12-01

    A 91-year-old woman diagnosed to have an inoperable cholangiocarcinoma had an uncovered metal stent inserted for palliative drainage. About 1.5 years later, tumour ingrowth into the metal stent caused cholangitis. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation was applied to create local coagulative tumour necrosis and the necrotic tissue was removed via a balloon catheter. A plastic stent was inserted to empirically treat any ensuing potential bile duct injury. The patient was discharged without complication with good palliative drainage. Intraductal radiofrequency ablation is a new technique for the treatment of metal stent occlusion due to tumour ingrowths. This is the first case report of this relatively safe and feasible new technique for the treatment of tumour ingrowth into a metal stent used as palliation for malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:24310661

  19. Can manipulation of a pelvic tumour influence the serum level of cancer antigen 125 and cancer-associated serum antigen?

    PubMed Central

    Kiekegaard, O.; Mogensen, O.; Mogensen, B.; Ahrons, S.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) and cancer-associated serum antigen (CASA) were measured in 24 women with pelvic masses before and after a gynaecological examination and ultrasonography. CA 125 decreased median 16% after manipulation (P < 0.0001) and CASA decreased median 8% (P = 0.0077). The decline was found in patients with benign tumours as well as in patients with malignant tumours. PMID:9667684

  20. Rewiring macrophages for anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunqin; Biswas, Subhra K

    2016-06-28

    Tumour-associated macrophages facilitate cancer progression, but whether they can be reprogrammed to elicit an anti-tumour response remains unclear. Deletion of the microRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is now shown to rewire macrophages to an anti-tumour mode, leading to an enhanced response to immunotherapy and inhibition of tumour progression. PMID:27350442

  1. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    PubMed

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  2. A rare benign ovarian tumour.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, Marta Morna; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Loureiro, Ana Luisa; Esteves, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumour (SST) of the ovary is an extremely rare and benign ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 6% of the sex cord stromal ovarian tumours subtype. Usually, it is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients commonly present with pelvic pain, a palpable pelvic mass or menstrual irregularity. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman reporting of mild pelvic pain, with normal laboratory data. On imaging examinations, a large right adnexal tumour was found, with features suggesting an ovarian sex cord tumour. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy, diagnosing a SST of the ovary. This paper also reviews the literature, and emphasises the typical pathological and imaging characteristics of these rare benign ovarian lesions, and their impact, in a conservative surgery. PMID:26933186

  3. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  4. Spatial niche formation but not malignant progression is a driving force for intratumoural heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hoefflin, Rouven; Lahrmann, Bernd; Warsow, Gregor; Hübschmann, Daniel; Spath, Cathleen; Walter, Britta; Chen, Xin; Hofer, Luisa; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Tolstov, Yanis; Korzeniewski, Nina; Duensing, Anette; Grüllich, Carsten; Jäger, Dirk; Perner, Sven; Schönberg, Gita; Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne; Isaac, Sanjay; Hatiboglu, Gencay; Teber, Dogu; Hadaschik, Boris; Pahernik, Sascha; Roth, Wilfried; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Sültmann, Holger; Hohenfellner, Markus; Grabe, Niels; Duensing, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) is a major cause of cancer-associated lethality. Extensive genomic ITH has previously been reported in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we address the question whether ITH increases with malignant progression and can hence be exploited as a prognostic marker. Unexpectedly, precision quantitative image analysis reveals that the degree of functional ITH is virtually identical between primary ccRCCs of the lowest stage and advanced, metastatic tumours. Functional ITH was found to show a stage-independent topological pattern with peak proliferative and signalling activities almost exclusively in the tumour periphery. Exome sequencing of matching peripheral and central primary tumour specimens reveals various region-specific mutations. However, these mutations cannot directly explain the zonal pattern suggesting a role of microenvironmental factors in shaping functional ITH. In conclusion, our results indicate that ITH is an early and general characteristic of malignant growth rather than a consequence of malignant progression. PMID:27291893

  5. Malignant Melanoma of the Urethra: A Rare Histologic Subdivision of Vulvar Cancer with a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Veronika; Alkatout, I.; Lez, C.; Altarac, S.; Fures, R.; Cupic, H.; Persec, Z.; Hrgovic, Z.; Mundhenke, C.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the urethra is a rare tumour that is difficult to diagnose and treat, resulting in a poor prognosis. In this paper, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman who was referred to a gynaecologist because of a urethral mass that mimicked a caruncle. The tumour was removed by local excision, and a pathological analysis revealed a malignant melanoma. Distal urethrectomy was performed after three months with no evidence of residual tumour. There was no evidence of disease at a six-year followup. In this paper, we compare the epidemiology, treatment, staging, and prognosis of vulvar cancer in general to malignant melanoma of the vulva in particular. PMID:23320214

  6. Spatial niche formation but not malignant progression is a driving force for intratumoural heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hoefflin, Rouven; Lahrmann, Bernd; Warsow, Gregor; Hübschmann, Daniel; Spath, Cathleen; Walter, Britta; Chen, Xin; Hofer, Luisa; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Tolstov, Yanis; Korzeniewski, Nina; Duensing, Anette; Grüllich, Carsten; Jäger, Dirk; Perner, Sven; Schönberg, Gita; Nyarangi-Dix, Joanne; Isaac, Sanjay; Hatiboglu, Gencay; Teber, Dogu; Hadaschik, Boris; Pahernik, Sascha; Roth, Wilfried; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Sültmann, Holger; Hohenfellner, Markus; Grabe, Niels; Duensing, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) is a major cause of cancer-associated lethality. Extensive genomic ITH has previously been reported in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we address the question whether ITH increases with malignant progression and can hence be exploited as a prognostic marker. Unexpectedly, precision quantitative image analysis reveals that the degree of functional ITH is virtually identical between primary ccRCCs of the lowest stage and advanced, metastatic tumours. Functional ITH was found to show a stage-independent topological pattern with peak proliferative and signalling activities almost exclusively in the tumour periphery. Exome sequencing of matching peripheral and central primary tumour specimens reveals various region-specific mutations. However, these mutations cannot directly explain the zonal pattern suggesting a role of microenvironmental factors in shaping functional ITH. In conclusion, our results indicate that ITH is an early and general characteristic of malignant growth rather than a consequence of malignant progression. PMID:27291893

  7. [Malignant metastasizing cystosarcoma phylloides of the breast. Ulm collection of rare tumors: VI].

    PubMed

    Baczako, K; Fischer, H

    1984-12-01

    Malignant cystosarcoma phylloides represents the malignant form of mammary fibroadenoma. In spite of atypical epithelial components, the biological behaviour of the tumour depends on malignant transformation of the dominant mesenchymal stromal tissue in the tumour. The histological appearance, often extremely variable, usually corresponds to a fibrosarcoma. Lipoblastic, chondroid and myxoid structures or areas of ossification may be present, although a completely dedifferentiated cystosarcoma is rare. The epithelial structures which are typically canalicular may reveal hyperplastic and dysplastic changes as well as an apocrine change and occasionally squamous metaplasia. Besides aggressive local infiltration, hematogenous metastasis of the skeletal system and lungs is common. Therapy is dependent on the extent of local tumour growth as well as on the degree of metastasis and usually takes the form of radical mastectomy with lymphadenectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. Local recurrence is found in over 50% of the cases and the 5-year survival rate is in the order of 70%. PMID:6098887

  8. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    PubMed

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  9. Imaging of skull base tumours.

    PubMed

    Thust, Stefanie Catherine; Yousry, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    The skull base is a highly complex and difficult to access anatomical region, which constitutes a relatively common site for neoplasms. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the differential diagnosis, to determine the anatomic tumour spread and for operative planning. All skull base imaging should be performed using thin-section multiplanar imaging, whereby CT and MRI can be considered complimentary. An interdisciplinary team approach is central to improve the outcome of these challenging tumours. PMID:27330416

  10. Phylloides tumours of the breast: best practice for follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Toro, Clare; Frank, Lucinda; Vestey, Sarah; Thrush, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Phylloides tumours are rare fibroepithelial breast tumours accounting for 1% of breast cancers. No UK guidance exists on the assessment, treatment and follow-up of these patients. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical core biopsy compared to the gold standard excision biopsy and determine the current follow-up practice and recurrence rate of phylloides tumours across two UK hospital trusts. Multicentre retrospective analysis of all cases of phylloides tumours over 6 years at Worcestershire Acute NHS Trust (WANHST) and Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Trust (GHNHST). 94 Patients included. Mean age 48 years. Mean clinical and radiological size of lesions 31.7 and 35.4 mm, respectively, preoperative core biopsy sensitivity was 87% for WANHST and 74% for GHNHST with a positive predictive value of 90 and 100%, respectively. 29 Different follow-up regimes were observed from the practice of the 10 surgeons observed following diagnosis and resection of tumours. The follow-up length ranged from discharge following one post-operative clinic attendance to 5-year clinical and/or radiological follow-up. 4 Benign and 2 malignant recurrent phylloides tumours were seen. All benign recurrences were local and found independently of follow-up. The earliest benign phylloides recurrence was at 6 years and the latest at 10 years. There is no standard follow-up of benign or malignant phylloides tumours. This study suggests that in the benign group, the risk of recurrence is small. We advocate no routine follow-up of benign phylloides tumours. PMID:25575495

  11. [Treatment of adenomyosis (excluding pregnancy project)].

    PubMed

    Pelage, L; Fenomanana, S; Brun, J-L; Levaillant, J-M; Fernandez, H

    2015-05-01

    In this review we aimed to update the possibilities of adenomyosis treatment in women excluding those with a desire for pregnancy. Adenomyosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium and frequently underestimated. Over the last decades, its pathophysiology has been better known. The diagnosis is essentially based on clinical symptoms like menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the main tools of the radiologic diagnosis. However, the definitive diagnosis is histological. The most effective treatment remains hysterectomy; however it is expensive, radical and at risk of morbidity compared with medical or surgical conservative management. The literature has reported several series of patients undergoing various treatments, thus allowing different therapeutic options. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device showed its efficacy alone or in combination with hysteroscopic treatment. Oral progestins, GnRH agonists are useful at short term or in preoperative condition. Some conservative treatments like focused ultrasound therapies or uterus-sparing operative treatment stay under evaluation and seems to be effective. Embolization has been the subject of several studies and must be outlined. Furthermore, several molecules, such as modulators of progesterone receptors and the aromatase inhibitors have been recently studied and are perhaps future treatments. PMID:25899118

  12. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock”...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1012 - Work excluded from employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work excluded from employment. 404.1012... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1012 Work excluded from employment. Certain kinds of work performed by...

  16. 46 CFR 35.01-60 - Person excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Person excluded. 35.01-60 Section 35.01-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Special Operating Requirements § 35.01-60 Person excluded. Masters and pilots shall exclude from the pilothouse and navigation...

  17. Segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Julie D; Cohen, Philip R

    2010-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is an uncommon variant of neurofibromatosis type I characterized by neurofibromas and/or café-au-lait macules localized to one sector of the body. Although patients with neurofibromatosis type I have an associated increased risk of certain malignancies, malignancy has only occasionally been reported in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis. The published reports of patients with segmental neurofibromatosis who developed malignancy were reviewed and the characteristics of these patients and their cancers were summarized. Ten individuals (6 women and 4 men) with segmental neurofibromatosis and malignancy have been reported. The malignancies include malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (3), malignant melanoma (2), breast cancer (1), colon cancer (1), gastric cancer (1), lung cancer (1), and Hodgkin lymphoma (1). The most common malignancies in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis are derived from neural crest cells: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and malignant melanoma. The incidence of malignancy in patients with segmental neurofibromatosis may approach that of patients with neurofibromatosis type I. PMID:21137621

  18. Value of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) in detection and characterisation of breast tumours

    PubMed Central

    Jung, E. M.; Jungius, K.-P.; Ertan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which tissue harmonic imaging (THI), speckle reduction imaging (SRI), spatial compounding (SC) and contrast can improve detection and differentiation of breast tumours. We examined 38 patients (14 benign, 24 malignant tumours) with different combinations of THI, SRI and SC. The effect on delineation, margin, tissue differentiation and posttumoral phenomena was evaluated with a three-point score. Additionally, 1oo not palpable tumours (diameters: 4–15 mm) were examined by contrast harmonic imaging (CHI) with power Doppler. After bolus injection (0.5 ml Optison), vascularisation and enhancement were observed for 20 min. The best combination for detection of margin, infiltration, echo pattern and posterior lesion boundary was the combination of SRI level 2 with SC low. THI was helpful for lesions OF more than 1 cm depth. In native Power Doppler, vessels were found in 54 of 100 lesions. Within 5 min after contrast medium (CM) injection, marginal and penetrating vessels increased in benign and malignant tumours and central vessels mostly in carcinomas (p<0.05). A diffuse CM accumulation was observed up to 20 min after injection in malignant tumours only (p<0.05). THI, SRI and SC improved delineation and tissue differentiation. Second-generation contrast agent allowed detection of tumour vascularisation with prolonged enhancement. PMID:16823568

  19. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hakan, T; Aker, F V

    2016-01-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle is one of the newly described primary tumours of the central nervous system. These tumours have two components of both neurocytic and glial areas but usually the glial component of the tumour predominates. They have biphasic cytoarchitecture with two elements; neurocytic rosettes resembling Homer-Wright rosettes, and astrocytic component resembling a pilocytic astrocytoma. They are low-grade tumours with lack of histopathological signs of malignancy. Here, clinical, magnetic resonance, computed tomography (CT) and pathological features of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of posterior fossa are presented. A 29-year-man was admitted with an acute neurological deterioration. A three ventricular hydrocephalus and a hypo-density around vermis in the posterior fossa were seen in his CT scans. He did well after an emergency external ventricular drainage. He had an elective operation and a mass that was reported to be a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle was excised. PMID:27179225

  20. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Kaur, Navneet; Sandhu, Gunjeet; Nagori, Rupesh

    2016-02-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours with multiple components occur more frequently than the pure varieties of germ cell tumours. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma together form the most common components of the mixed germ cell tumour but the yolk sac tumour is usually seen as a minor component in patients presenting with mixed germ cell tumour. We report a rare case of 27-year-old Hepatitis C positive male presenting with pain in left lower abdomen with associated history of same sided undescended testis and infertility. Right sided testis lying in scrotal sac appeared normal on ultrasonography but patient was azoospermic. He had raised levels of serum markers, alpha feto protein and beta HCG. Examination showed a large mass in left lower abdomen involving the sigmoid colon with the absence of left testis in left scrotum which was confirmed on CT scan. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology examination revealed it as a malignant mixed germ cell tumour composed predominantly of a yolk sac tumour, with minor component as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma in an undescended testis. Following this, the level of serum markers came down. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well. PMID:27042527

  1. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navneet; Sandhu, Gunjeet; Nagori, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours with multiple components occur more frequently than the pure varieties of germ cell tumours. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma together form the most common components of the mixed germ cell tumour but the yolk sac tumour is usually seen as a minor component in patients presenting with mixed germ cell tumour. We report a rare case of 27-year-old Hepatitis C positive male presenting with pain in left lower abdomen with associated history of same sided undescended testis and infertility. Right sided testis lying in scrotal sac appeared normal on ultrasonography but patient was azoospermic. He had raised levels of serum markers, alpha feto protein and beta HCG. Examination showed a large mass in left lower abdomen involving the sigmoid colon with the absence of left testis in left scrotum which was confirmed on CT scan. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology examination revealed it as a malignant mixed germ cell tumour composed predominantly of a yolk sac tumour, with minor component as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma in an undescended testis. Following this, the level of serum markers came down. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well. PMID:27042527

  2. Positive TTF-1 Expression in Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Georg; Heidersdorf, Holger; Hirschfeld, Dieter; Krebbel, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 70 Final Diagnosis: Malignant mesothelioma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Radiation/Chemotherapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: The histopathological diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is based mainly on the immunohistological profile of the neoplasia, using different immunohistochemical markers to distinguish between a malignant mesothelioma and a carcinoma. Case Report: A female patient presented with a right paravertebral rapidly growing tumor and severe pain. Based on the immunohistochemical findings, we present the first case of a malignant mesothelioma with immunohistochemical expression of thyroid transcription factor-1. Conclusions: The detection of a positive reaction for thyroid transcription factor-1 in the tumor cells may not exclude a malignant mesothelioma. PMID:26939861

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Clavicle: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Dileep Krishnamoorty; Ballal, Arjun; Pai, Mukta; Subbiah, Kushalappa; Rai, H Ravindranath

    2016-06-01

    A Solitary Fibrous Tumour (SFT) is the preferred term by most of the pathologists than "haemangiopericytoma". SFT is a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms along a morphologic continuum. Here we report a case of SFT of the clavicle in a 26-year-old male patient, who presented to us with complaints of pain and swelling over the dominant shoulder. No signs of metastasis were noted clinically and radiologically. He underwent surgical resection of swelling. At 6 months after resection and after 22 cycles of radiotherapy, he was noted to have excellent prognosis with satisfactory shoulder function. PMID:27504363

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Clavicle: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Dileep Krishnamoorty; Pai, Mukta; Subbiah, Kushalappa; Rai, H. Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    A Solitary Fibrous Tumour (SFT) is the preferred term by most of the pathologists than “haemangiopericytoma”. SFT is a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant neoplasms along a morphologic continuum. Here we report a case of SFT of the clavicle in a 26-year-old male patient, who presented to us with complaints of pain and swelling over the dominant shoulder. No signs of metastasis were noted clinically and radiologically. He underwent surgical resection of swelling. At 6 months after resection and after 22 cycles of radiotherapy, he was noted to have excellent prognosis with satisfactory shoulder function. PMID:27504363

  5. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: surgical and chemotherapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C; Pears, J; Kearns, G J

    2016-08-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented neoplasm of neural crest origin. It usually presents in the first year of life in the maxilla as a fast growing lesion. We describe the case of a 3-month-old boy who presented with an enlarging swelling of left maxillary alveolus. He was treated with combined surgical and chemotherapy modalities. MNTI is complicated by high recurrence rate, local invasion and malignancy has been reported. This report describes the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of recurrent MNTI. PMID:26123944

  6. Genetic determinants of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine.

    PubMed

    Blangero, J; Tissot, R G; Beattie, C W; Amoss, M S

    1996-03-01

    The role of genetic factors involved in the determination of risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in humans remains unclear owing to genetic heterogeneity and reliance on simplistic models of inheritance. Here, we report a statistical genetic analysis of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine (SSCM), a unique animal model for human CMM. Using complex segregation analysis a two-locus model involving an unknown major locus and a second locus that lies within or close to the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex jointly determine risk of SSCM in pedigreed animals. These loci also influence severity of affection, accounting for approximately 20% of the phenotypic variation in quantitative tumour burden. PMID:8605105

  7. Clinicopathological analysis of eyelid malignancies - A review of 85 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Satish M.; Patil, Surendra B.; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh; Jain, Arvind; Jaiswal, Sumeet

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resection of eyelid malignancies leads to complex reconstructive problems due to the functional and aesthetic importance of an eyelid. Hence, a large number of such cases are referred to plastic surgery facilities. Eyelid malignancies are of varied histological types and the western and Asian data have considerable variations in case distribution and presentation. This study is an attempt to characterise these tumours in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective analysis of 85 consecutive cases of eyelid malignancies that reported to a tertiary health care facility in central India over a 15-year period starting from January 1996 up to December 2009. The cases were analysed for their age of presentation, sex distribution, tumour location, delay in seeking treatment, recurrence rate and variations with respect to the pathological subtype. Observations: Mean age of presentation for all the malignancies was 59 years. The median age of presentation was 65 years for basal call carcinoma (BCC), 58 years for sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC), 55 years for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 45 years for malignant melanoma. There was slight female preponderance as 56.28% of the patients were females. The most common location of the tumour was lower lid (58.2%) for all the malignancies. BCC was the most common malignancy (48.2%) followed by SGC (31.2%) and SCC (13.7%). Mean duration of symptoms was 9 months (range 3-21 months). The most common presenting complaint was mass with ulceration across all histological subtypes. Other associated complaints included itching, discharge from eye, pain and ptosis. The mean size of tumour at diagnosis was 2.34 ± 0.4 cm for BCC, 2.19 ± 0.6 cm for SGC and 1.99 ± 0.7 cm for SCC. The mean rate of growth of BCC was 1.39 cm/year. The corresponding values for SGC and SCC were 3.63 and 4.89 cm/year, respectively. The rate of follow-up was 89% at 3 months, 71% at 6 months, 62% at 1 year and 31

  8. Possible association between hepatitis C virus and malignancies different from hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fiorino, Sirio; Bacchi-Reggiani, Letizia; de Biase, Dario; Fornelli, Adele; Masetti, Michele; Tura, Andrea; Grizzi, Fabio; Zanello, Matteo; Mastrangelo, Laura; Lombardi, Raffaele; Acquaviva, Giorgia; di Tommaso, Luca; Bondi, Arrigo; Visani, Michela; Sabbatani, Sergio; Pontoriero, Laura; Fabbri, Carlo; Cuppini, Andrea; Pession, Annalisa; Jovine, Elio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the current knowledge about the potential relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of several extra-liver cancers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Statement. We extracted the pertinent articles, published in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, using the following search terms: neoplasm/cancer/malignancy/tumor/carcinoma/adeno-carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, kidney/renal-, cholangio-, pancreatic-, thyroid-, breast-,oral-, skin-, prostate-, lung-, colon-, stomach-, haematologic. Case series, case-series with control-group, case-control, cohort-studies as well as meta-analyses, written in English were collected. Some of the main characteristics of retrieved trials, which were designed to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection in each type of the above-mentioned human malignancies were summarised. A main table was defined and included a short description in the text for each of these tumours, whether at least five studies about a specific neoplasm, meeting inclusion criteria, were available in literature. According to these criteria, we created the following sections and the corresponding tables and we indicated the number of included or excluded articles, as well as of meta-analyses and reviews: (1) HCV and haematopoietic malignancies; (2) HCV and cholangiocarcinoma; (3) HCV and pancreatic cancer; (4) HCV and breast cancer; (5) HCV and kidney cancer; (6) HCV and skin or oral cancer; and (7) HCV and thyroid cancer. RESULTS: According to available data, a clear correlation between regions of HCV prevalence and risk of extra-liver cancers has emerged only for a very small group of types and histological subtypes of malignancies. In particular, HCV infection has been associated with: (1) a higher incidence of some B-cell Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma types, in countries, where an elevated prevalence of this

  9. Palliation of malignant tracheal strictures using silicone T tubes.

    PubMed Central

    Insall, R L; Morritt, G N

    1991-01-01

    The use of silicone T tubes for intubation of malignant tracheobronchial strictures may provide some degree of palliation of this distressing condition. It was used in seven patients with malignant lesions and two with benign strictures (resulting from tracheal trauma and lung transplantation). Four patients (two with cancer) are still alive and well with the tube in position. All patients noted improvement in dyspnoea and stridor. The main problems were tube migration (one patient), tracheo-oesophageal fistula (one patient), and blockage of the tube by tumour (two patients) or encrusted secretions (three patients). Airway patency was restored when the tube was blocked by cleaning or by laser resection of the tumour. With careful supervision and education of the patient intubation can give useful palliation to patients with distressing upper airways obstruction. Images PMID:1709308

  10. Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Zou, Yilong; Ji, Andrew L.; Vanharanta, Sakari; Shu, Weiping; Shi, Hubing; Kong, Xiangju; Bosenberg, Marcus C.; Wiesner, Thomas; Rosen, Neal; Lo, Roger S.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance invariably limits the clinical efficacy of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors against cancer1,2. Here we show that targeted therapy with BRAF, ALK, or EGFR kinase inhibitors induces a complex network of secreted signals in drug-stressed melanoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells. This therapy-induced secretome (TIS) stimulates the outgrowth, dissemination, and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones and supports the survival of drug-sensitive cancer cells, contributing to incomplete tumour regression. The vemurafenib reactive secretome in melanoma is driven by down-regulation of the transcription factor FRA1. In situ transcriptome analysis of drug-resistant melanoma cells responding to the regressing tumour microenvironment revealed hyperactivation of multiple signalling pathways, most prominently the AKT pathway. Dual inhibition of RAF and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways blunted the outgrowth of the drug-resistant cell population in BRAF mutant melanoma tumours, suggesting this combination therapy as a strategy against tumour relapse. Thus, therapeutic inhibition of oncogenic drivers induces vast secretome changes in drug-sensitive cancer cells, paradoxically establishing a tumour microenvironment that supports the expansion of drug-resistant clones, but is susceptible to combination therapy. PMID:25807485

  11. Brain PDD and PDT unlocking the mystery of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Eljamel, M Sam

    2004-12-01

    Malignant brain tumours (MBTs) have one of the worst outcomes of human cancers today and their incidence is on the increase. Current treatment failure is usually due to local recurrence of the tumour rather than distant metastasis. In the last three decades we have seen many novel and potentially effective treatment strategies rise rapidly to the rescue. Sadly, however, the majority of these approaches were not good enough to withstand the harsh reality of the sceptical gaze of the scientific eye or the stringent health economics of this millennium. PDD and PDT, however, is one of the few therapies fighting back and still standing today. The results of its randomised controlled trials are eagerly awaited. To date the literature suggests that both PDD and PDT significantly prolong the time to tumour progression, reduce local recurrence, increase radical resection and prolong overall survival of MBTs. PDD and PDT are well tolerated by patients and worthwhile pursuing. PMID:25048434

  12. Solid blue dot tumour: minor salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Makarla, Soumya; Nadaf, Afreen; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2014-01-01

    Acinic cell adenocarcinoma (ACC) is a low-grade malignant salivary neoplasm that constitutes approximately 17% of all primary salivary gland malignancies. In the head and neck region, the parotid gland is the predominant site of origin and ACC is usually more frequent in women than men. Previous radiation exposure and familial predisposition are some of the risk factors for ACC. ACCs rarely involve minor salivary glands constituting only 13–17% of all minor salivary gland tumours. Generally, a slowly enlarging mass lesion in the tail of the parotid gland is the most frequent presentation. ACC has a significant tendency to recur, metastasise and may have an aggressive evolution. Therefore, a long-term follow-up is mandatory after treatment. Here we report the case of a woman in her 60s with an ACC in association with the labial minor salivary gland, presenting in the post-treatment period of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:24928927

  13. Smad4 (DPC4)--a potent tumour suppressor?

    PubMed Central

    Duff, E. K.; Clarke, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The recently described family of Smad molecules are essential mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling. To date, seven members of this family have been identified, each of which plays a specific and separate role in mediating TGF-beta superfamily gene transcription. At least two different Smads, Smad2 and Smad4 (DPC4), have been implicated in human cancer and appear to have tumour-suppressor functions. Loss of function of Smad4 is most strongly associated with human pancreatic and colorectal malignancy. Furthermore, work from several different groups has suggested associations between Smad4 loss and malignancy in a number of other tissues. Here, we present a review of the current state of the literature implicating the central Smad mediator, Smad4, in the development of cancer. PMID:9862572

  14. Clinical and prognostic implications of serum and tissue prolactin levels in canine mammary tumours.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, F L; Pérez-Alenza, M D; González Gil, A; Silvan, G; Peña, L; Illera, J C

    2014-10-25

    The biological implications of serum and tissue prolactin levels in canine mammary tumours (CMT) have been previously described although the influence of this hormone on inflammatory mammary carcinomas as well as its value as prognostic indicator remains to be properly clarified. Prolactin determinations were carried out by enzyme immunoassay in tumour tissue and serum of 39 female dogs with spontaneous CMT and in normal mammary gland and serum of 10 controls. Prolactin levels were higher in the case of CMT compared to controls (P<0.05). In malignant CMT, higher levels of tissue prolactin were associated with the occurrence of tumour relapse and/or distant metastasis (P<0.05). Inflammatory mammary carcinomas presented the highest values for tissue prolactin concentrations with concentrations significantly higher than other malignant non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma tumours (P<0.05). The high levels of prolactin found in cases with poor clinical prognoses, including inflammatory mammary carcinoma, open the possibility of being able to better stratify clinical cases in malignant CMT with a view to tailoring treatment appropriately. PMID:25096592

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging in gynecological malignancies - present and future

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Dinesh; Das, Chandan J; Aggarwal, Ankita; Gupta, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    The management of gynaecological malignancies has undergone a significant change in recent years with our improved understanding of cancer biogenetics, development of new treatment regimens and enhanced screening. Due to the rapid blooming of newer methods and techniques in gynaecology, surgery and oncology the scope and the role of imaging has also widened. Functional imaging in the form of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been recently found to be very useful in assessing various tumours. Its ability to identify changes in the molecular level has dramatically changed the diagnostic approach of radiologists which was solely based on morphological criteria. It can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, lend a hand in assessing tumour response to treatment regimens and detect tumour recurrence with better spatial resolution, negative radiation and diagnostic accuracy compared to positron emission tomography scan. The ability to quantify the diffusion has also lead to potential prediction of tumour aggressiveness and grade which directly correlate with the patient prognosis and management. Hence, it has become imperative for a radiologist to understand the concepts of DWI and its present and evolving role. In this article we present a brief description of the basics of DWI followed by its role in evaluation of female gynaecological malignancies. PMID:27027614

  16. Diffusion weighted imaging in gynecological malignancies - present and future.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Dinesh; Das, Chandan J; Aggarwal, Ankita; Gupta, Arun K

    2016-03-28

    The management of gynaecological malignancies has undergone a significant change in recent years with our improved understanding of cancer biogenetics, development of new treatment regimens and enhanced screening. Due to the rapid blooming of newer methods and techniques in gynaecology, surgery and oncology the scope and the role of imaging has also widened. Functional imaging in the form of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been recently found to be very useful in assessing various tumours. Its ability to identify changes in the molecular level has dramatically changed the diagnostic approach of radiologists which was solely based on morphological criteria. It can improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, lend a hand in assessing tumour response to treatment regimens and detect tumour recurrence with better spatial resolution, negative radiation and diagnostic accuracy compared to positron emission tomography scan. The ability to quantify the diffusion has also lead to potential prediction of tumour aggressiveness and grade which directly correlate with the patient prognosis and management. Hence, it has become imperative for a radiologist to understand the concepts of DWI and its present and evolving role. In this article we present a brief description of the basics of DWI followed by its role in evaluation of female gynaecological malignancies. PMID:27027614

  17. Serum and Tissue Steroid Hormone Levels in Canine Mammary Tumours: Clinical and Prognostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, F L; Pérez-Alenza, D; González-Gil, A; Silván, G; Peña, L; Illera, J C

    2015-10-01

    Hormonal dependency of canine mammary tumours (CMT) has been studied over the last few decades. However, studies assessing the prognostic and predictive potential of serum and/or tissue steroid hormone levels are still scarce in CMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report relating serum and tissue levels of steroid hormones and prognosis in dogs. Serum and tumour tissue from 45 female dogs with spontaneous CMT were included in the study. Moreover, serum and normal mammary tissue from 13 healthy female dogs were also included as controls. Steroid hormones were determined by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Overall, levels of steroid hormones in serum and tissue homogenates were significantly different between malignant and benign mammary tumours (p < 0.01), except for progesterone (P4) serum levels that revealed no statistical differences between groups. In malignant tumours, oestrone sulphate (SO4E1), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T) and P4 elevated tissue concentrations were significantly associated with tumour relapse and/or distant metastasis during follow-up. A significant association was found between elevated tissue SO4E1 (p = 0.003), 17β-oestradiol (E2) (p = 0.036), DHEA (p = 0.022), A4 (p = 0.001) and P4 (p = 0.013) concentrations and shorter disease-free survival and overall survival in female dogs with malignant mammary tumours. The high levels of tissue steroids found in cases of poor prognosis open the possibility of additional new therapeutic approaches. Future clinical trials will be needed to clarify the usefulness of targeting steroid hormones in the treatment of this neoplastic disease. PMID:26332137

  18. Investigating associations of cyclooxygenase-2 expression with angiogenesis, proliferation, macrophage and T-lymphocyte infiltration in canine melanocytic tumours.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Hugo; Raposo, Teresa P; Queiroga, Felisbina L; Prada, Justina; Pires, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is known to be involved in tumour progression and has been suggested as a therapeutic target in many human and animal malignancies. A number of different pathways subjacent to cancer hallmarks are considered to be involved in COX-2-mediated tumour progression, although these are still largely undefined. Our aim is to investigate associations between COX-2 expression and angiogenesis, proliferation and the inflammatory microenvironment in canine melanocytic tumours. Understanding the involvement of COX-2 with cancer hallmarks might enable us to adapt therapeutic strategies for canine melanomas, an aggressive and often lethal malignancy with value in comparative oncology. Immunohistochemical staining of COX-2, Ki-67 (proliferation index), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), factor VIII (microvessel density), CD3 (lymphocytes) and MAC387 (macrophages) was performed in 51 melanocytic tumours (31 malignant melanomas, 20 melanocytomas). Statistical associations between COX-2 and the other parameters detected were analysed. In melanocytic tumours (n=51), both COX-2 labelling extension and intensity showed a statistically significant association with angiogenesis by factor VIII, VEGF, Ki-67, CD3+ T lymphocytes and MAC387. Within malignant melanomas, COX-2 expression has shown significant associations with microvessel density (factor VIII), lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration and, considering all melanocytic tumours, COX-2 was also associated with VEGF intensity and Ki-67 cell proliferation. Our results point to a role for COX-2 in angiogenesis and in the establishment of an inflammatory microenvironment, favourable to melanoma tumour progression. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to dissect molecular pathways in which COX-2 is involved. Present evidence suggests that COX-2 inhibitors might be useful as an adjuvant treatment to hinder canine melanoma progression. PMID:27105172

  19. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature. PMID:25712400

  20. Tumour-associated eosinophilia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D; Jorizzo, J; Hutt, M S

    1981-01-01

    In a recent study of cervical carcinoma, 13 cases with a marked eosinophil infiltrate around the tumour were found. The histological appearance of the tumours was distinctive and suggested a specific response, similar to the lymphocyte infiltration in medullary carcinoma of the breast and seminoma. A review of published reports shows that tumour-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) and tumour-associated blood eosinophilia (TABE) may be seen in tumours of different histological types from different anatomical sites, and may occur together or separately. Tumours with TATE alone appear to have a better prognosis that those without, while TABE is associated with tumor spread and a poor prognosis. Images PMID:7035499

  1. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  2. The peritoneal tumour microenvironment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Leinster, D Andrew; Kulbe, Hagen; Everitt, Gemma; Thompson, Richard; Perretti, Mauro; Gavins, Felicity N E; Cooper, Dianne; Gould, David; Ennis, Darren P; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Balkwill, Frances R

    2012-06-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) disseminates early and extensively throughout the peritoneal space, causing multiple lesions that are a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular composition of peritoneal tumour deposits in patient biopsies and their evolution in mouse models using immunohistochemistry, intravital microscopy, confocal microscopy, and 3D modelling. Tumour deposits from the omentum of HGSC patients contained a prominent leukocyte infiltrate of CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, with occasional neutrophils. Alpha-smooth muscle actin(+) (α-SMA(+) ) pericytes and/or fibroblasts surrounded these well-vascularized tumour deposits. Using the murine bowel mesentery as an accessible mouse peritoneal tissue that could be easily imaged, and two different transplantable models, we found multiple microscopic tumour deposits after i.p. injection of malignant cells. Attachment to the peritoneal surface was rapid (6-48 h) with an extensive CD45(+) leukocyte infiltrate visible by 48 h. This infiltrate persisted until end point and in the syngeneic murine ID8 model, it primarily consisted of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and CD68(+) macrophages with α-SMA(+) cells also involved from the earliest stages. A majority of tumour deposits developed above existing mesenteric blood vessels, but in avascular spaces new blood vessels tracked towards the tumour deposits by 2-3 weeks in the IGROV-1 xenografts and 6 weeks in the ID8 syngeneic model; a vigorous convoluted blood supply was established by end point. Inhibition of tumour cell cytokine production by stable expression of shRNA to CXCR4 in IGROV-1 cells did not influence the attachment of cells to the mesentery but delayed neovascularization and reduced tumour deposit size. We conclude that the multiple peritoneal tumour deposits found in HGSC patients can be modelled in the mouse. The techniques described here may be useful for assessing treatments that target the disseminated

  3. Tumour-induced osteomalacia: a literature review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Dadoniene, Jolanta; Miglinas, Marius; Miltiniene, Dalia; Vajauskas, Donatas; Seinin, Dmitrij; Butenas, Petras; Kacergius, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterised by severe hypophosphataemia and osteomalacia, with renal phosphate wasting that occurs in association with tumour. The epidemiology likewise aetiology is not known. The clinical presentation of TIO includes bone fractures, bone and muscular pains, and sometimes height and weight loss. TIO may be associated with mesenchymal tumours which may be benign or malignant in rare cases. Mesenchymal tumour itself may be related to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is responsible for hypophosphataemia and phosphaturia occurring in this paraneoplastic syndrome. Hypophosphataemia, phosphaturia and elevated alkaline phosphatase are the main laboratory readings that may lead to more precise investigations and better diagnosis. Finding the tumour can be a major diagnostic challenge and may involve total body magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogue. The treatment of choice for TIO is resection of a tumour with a wide margin to insure complete tumour removal, as recurrences of these tumours have been reported. We provide here an overview on the current available TIO case reports and review the best practices that may lead to earlier recognition of TIO and the subsequent treatment thereof, even though biochemical background and the long-term prognosis of the disease are not well understood. This review also includes a 4-year-long history of a patient that featured muscular pains, weakness and multiple stress fractures localised in the hips and vertebra with subsequent recovery after tumour resection. Because the occurrence of such a condition is rare, it may take years to correctly diagnose the disease, as is reported in this case report. PMID:26744291

  4. Numerical modelling of biopotential field for detection of breast tumour.

    PubMed

    Ng, E Y K; Ng, W K; Sim, L S J; Rajendra Acharya, U

    2007-08-01

    Breast cancer is a disease characterised by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. These cancer cells can travel through the body by way of blood or lymph nodes. Previous studies have indicated that, changes in the electrical properties of abnormal breast are more significant compared to the breast normal tissues. In the present study, a simple 2D models of breast (close to realistic), with and without artificially inserted malignant cancer were simulated, based upon electrical activity within the breast. We developed an inhomogeneous female breast model, closer to the actual, by considering a breast as a hemisphere with various layers of unequal thickness in supine condition. In order to determine the potential distribution developed due to a dipole source, isotropic homogeneous conductivity was assigned to each of these compartments and the volume conductor problem was solved using finite element method. Significant changes in the potential distribution were recoded in the malignant and normal breast regions. The surface potential decreases about 0.5%, for the small malignant region of surface area 13 mm(2) (spherical diameter=2mm). And it (surface potential) decreases about 16.4% for large malignant surface area of 615 mm(2) (spherical diameter=14 mm). Hence, the results show that, the sizes of tumours result in the reduction of surface potential and follows a fourth order polynomial equation. Thus, biofield analysis yields promising results in the detection of the breast cancer of various sizes. PMID:17145053

  5. Giant cell tumour of peroneus brevis tendon sheath – a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Goni, Vijay; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Radotra, B D; Viswanathan, Vibhu Krishnan; Logithasan, Rajesh Kumar; S, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue lesion most commonly found in the flexor aspect of hand and wrist. Being rare in foot and ankle, the unusual presentation of this lesion may sometimes mimic other lesions like lipoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial cyst and ganglion. Hence it is important to include this lesion in differential diagnoses especially if the lesion is found to be anchored to any of the surrounding tendons. This article describes the unusual occurrence of giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath of peroneus brevis which is rarely described in literature. PMID:22802558

  6. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    PubMed

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  7. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis discriminates normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tissue: classifying subtypes of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-21

    Surgical management of ovarian tumours largely depends on their histo-pathological diagnosis. Currently, screening for ovarian malignancy with tumour markers in conjunction with radiological investigations has a low specificity for discriminating benign from malignant tumours. Also, pre-operative biopsy of ovarian masses increases the risk of intra-peritoneal dissemination of malignancy. Intra-operative frozen section, although sufficiently accurate in differentiating tumours according to their histological type, increases operation times. This results in increased surgery-related risks to the patient and additional burden to resource allocation. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis can be applied to discriminate between normal, borderline and malignant ovarian tumours and classify ovarian carcinoma subtypes according to the unique spectral signatures of their molecular composition. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue blocks were de-waxed, mounted on Low-E slides and desiccated before being analysed using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Chemometric analysis in the form of principal component analysis (PCA), successive projection algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm (GA), followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of the obtained spectra revealed clear segregation between benign versus borderline versus malignant tumours as well as segregation between different histological tumour subtypes, when these approaches are used in combination. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis has the potential to provide a novel diagnostic approach in the accurate diagnosis of ovarian tumours assisting surgical decision making to avoid under-treatment or over-treatment, with minimal impact to the patient. PMID:26090781

  8. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  9. Brown tumour of the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti P; Gharote, Harshkant P; Thomas, Shaji; R, Guruprasad; Singh, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Brown tumours are classic bony lesions that arise as a result of the effect of parathyroid hormone on bone tissue in some patients with hyperparathyroidism. They are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteolysis and peritrabecular fibrosis, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. Facial skeleton is involved in about 2% of all cases of which the mandible is frequently affected. A 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with osteomalacia and brown tumour in posterior mandible as the sign of secondary hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency is presented. PMID:22669885

  10. miR-125b induces cellular senescence in malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Micro RNAs (miRs) have emerged as key regulators during oncogenesis. They have been found to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mir-125b has been identified as an oncomir in various forms of tumours, but we have previously proposed that miR-125b is a suppressor of lymph node metastasis in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Our goal was therefore to further examine this theory. Methods We used in-situ-hybridization to visualise miR-125b expression in primary tumours and in lymph node metastasis. Then using a miRVector plasmid containing a miR-125b-1 insert we transfected melanoma cell line Mel-Juso and then investigated the effect of the presence of a stable overexpression of miR-125b on growth by western blotting, flow cytometry and β-galactosidase staining. The tumourogenicity of the transfected cells was tested using a murine model and the tumours were further examined with in-situ-hybridization. Results In primary human tumours and in lymph node metastases increased expression of miR-125b was found in single, large tumour cells with abundant cytoplasm. A stable overexpression of miR-125b in human melanoma cell line Mel-Juso resulted in a G0/G1 cell cycle block and emergence of large cells expressing senescence markers: senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, p21, p27 and p53. Mel-Juso cells overexpressing miR-125b were tumourigenic in mice, but the tumours exhibited higher level of cell senescence and decreased expression of proliferation markers, cyclin D1 and Ki67 than the control tumours. Conclusions Our results confirm the theory that miR-125b functions as a tumour supressor in cutaneous malignant melanoma by regulating cellular senescence, which is one of the central mechanisms protecting against the development and progression of malignant melanoma. PMID:24762088

  11. Big endothelin-1 as a tumour marker for canine haemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Miyasho, Taku; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Saida, Kaname; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Haemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an important malignant neoplasm of dogs that originates from vascular endothelial cells. This study explored the suitability of using serum big endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a tumour marker for canine spontaneous HSA. Serum big ET-1 was measured in dogs with splenic HSA (n = 14), splenic malignant tumours other than HSA (n = 10), benign splenic lesions (n = 11) and normal healthy dogs (n = 17) by ELISA. Serum big ET-1 levels in dogs with HSA were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in other dogs. High sensitivity (100%, 95% confidence interval 86-100%) and specificity (95%, 95% confidence interval 86-95%) for HSA diagnosis were obtained using a cut-off of 17 pg/mL according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (area under ROC curve 0.93). PPET1, ETA, VEGF and Hif1-α mRNA expression, measured by real-time PCR, were elevated in HSA compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that elevated serum big ET-1 could be used as a diagnostic marker for canine HSA. PMID:25920760

  12. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  13. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Maeda, Tadashi; Onoda, Tetsuya; Makihata, Kiyoshi; Takao, Kazushi; Fujii, Makoto; Murakami, Kazuo; Moriyama, Michihiko; Eda, Ryosuke; Takeyama, Hiroyasu

    2003-01-01

    Primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the lung is very rare. To date, only 32 reports of 63 cases of primary MFH of the lung have appeared in English, excluding tumors arising from the pulmonary arteries and pleura. We describe a patient with primary MFH of the lung who developed brain metastasis and involvement of pulmonary great vessels. In addition, we reviewed previously reported cases to establish the clinical characteristics and most appropriate management of primary pulmonary MFH. When disease is sufficiently limited, complete resection remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:12926092

  14. Preoperative glucose abnormalities in patients with pancreatic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Durlik, Marek; Kałuża, Bernadetta; Milczarczyk, Alicja; Franek, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer is a neoplasm characterised by poor prognosis. The only effective, possible treatment is radical surgery, but most patients do not qualify for surgery because of delayed diagnosis. Aim To determine if assessment of endocrine pancreatic function could serve as a means of screening for pancreatic cancer. Material and methods This prospective study was conducted on a group of 50 patients diagnosed with pancreatic tumour, who were qualified for surgery. Results From 1.07.2010 to 4.07.2011 a further 50 patients were added to the study group. They had been admitted to the hospital with pancreatic tumours. During the preoperative period, nine of these people had been treated for diabetes, 14 were newly diagnosed with diabetes and 15 had been diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, but only 12 had a normal glucose profile. Afterwards, patients underwent the surgical treatment. Histopathological examination revealed that out of the 50 operated patients, 36 suffered from malignant disease, and of these only four had no impaired glucose tolerance before treatment. Conclusions In most cases, patients with pancreatic tumours have impaired glucose tolerance. Screening patients over 50 years of age could speed up diagnosis and surgical treatment. PMID:25061491

  15. Indocyanine green delivery systems for tumour detection and treatments.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Elena P; Salis, Andrea; Gavini, Elisabetta; Rassu, Giovanna; Maestri, Marcello; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a cyanine compound that displays fluorescent properties in the near infrared region. This dye is employed for numerous indications but nowadays its major application field regards tumour diagnosis and treatments. Optical imaging by near infrared fluorescence provides news opportunities for oncologic surgery. The imaging of ICG can be useful for intraoperative identification of several solid tumours and metastases, and sentinel lymph node detection. In addition, ICG can be used as an agent for the destruction of malignant tissue, by virtue of the production of reactive oxygen species and/or induction of a hyperthermia effect under irradiation. Nevertheless, ICG shows several drawbacks, which limit its clinical application. Several formulative strategies have been studied to overcome these problems. The rationale of the development of ICG containing drug delivery systems is to enhance the in vivo stability and biodistribution profile of this dye, allowing tumour accumulation and resulting in better efficacy. In this review, ICG containing nano-sized carriers are classified based on their chemical composition and structure. In addition to nanosystems, different formulations including hydrogel, microsystems and others loaded with ICG will be illustrated. In particular, this report describes the preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo application of ICG platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The promising results of all systems confirm their clinical utility but further studies are required prior to evaluating the formulations in human trials. PMID:27090752

  16. Malignancy after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Martin; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Wiesel, Manfred; Lehnert, Thomas; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-01-01

    Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the long-term follow-up. The overall incidence of malignancy at this time is 3 to 5 times higher than in the general population. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse are additional risk factors. Malignancy may even be transplanted by the graft. Previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and postmalignancy screening. Finally, every dialysis patient on the waiting list should undergo a regular screening program before and after renal transplantation to detect a potentially malignant tumor in an early stage. In addition to specific oncological treatment, managing a malignancy after renal transplantation should include modification of immunosuppression. PMID:11774131

  17. A Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour of the Head of Pancreas: A Rare Case Report Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Archana Hemant; Chhadi, Shyam Atmaram; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T; Raut, Waman K

    2016-01-01

    Solid Pseudopapillary Tumour (SPPT) is a distinctive tumour of low malignant potential with a striking and unexplained predilection for adolescent girls and young women. Hence it is important to distinguish this rare tumour from other pancreatic tumours with similar cytomorphologic features because an accurate preoperative diagnosis is highly desirable since these patients can have long survival with adequate surgery. We report a case of the rare SPPT of the pancreas in a young girl who presented with nonspecific pain in the abdomen. Radiological investigations revealed a solid cystic mass in relation to the uncinate process of pancreas and third part of duodenum. The mass was diagnosed to be a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas on ultrasound guided FNAC. Surgical removal of the pancreatic tumour and detailed histologic study confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. We present this case because, to date, there are few case reports on the cytological diagnosis of this tumour, about 60 cases, diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are reported in the literature. With widespread availability of high-quality imaging systems and a better understanding of its pathology, the number of cases reported in the literature has been steadily increasing in recent years. In our case, the cytological diagnosis was done even before the detailed imaging findings were available, the cytological features of this tumour are highly characteristic and it is possible to differentiate it from other pancreatic tumours with relative ease. PMID:27504299

  18. Canine Mammary Tumours Are Affected by Frequent Copy Number Aberrations, including Amplification of MYC and Loss of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Kaja S.; Nord, Silje; Van Loo, Peter; Lingjærde, Ole C.; Gunnes, Gjermund; Alnæs, Grethe I. G.; Solvang, Hiroko K.; Lüders, Torben; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingaas, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Background Copy number aberrations frequently occur during the development of many cancers. Such events affect dosage of involved genes and may cause further genomic instability and progression of cancer. In this survey, canine SNP microarrays were used to study 117 canine mammary tumours from 69 dogs. Results We found a high occurrence of copy number aberrations in canine mammary tumours, losses being more frequent than gains. Increased frequency of aberrations and loss of heterozygosity were positively correlated with increased malignancy in terms of histopathological diagnosis. One of the most highly recurrently amplified regions harbored the MYC gene. PTEN was located to a frequently lost region and also homozygously deleted in five tumours. Thus, deregulation of these genes due to copy number aberrations appears to be an important event in canine mammary tumour development. Other potential contributors to canine mammary tumour pathogenesis are COL9A3, INPP5A, CYP2E1 and RB1. The present study also shows that a more detailed analysis of chromosomal aberrations associated with histopathological parameters may aid in identifying specific genes associated with canine mammary tumour progression. Conclusions The high frequency of copy number aberrations is a prominent feature of canine mammary tumours as seen in other canine and human cancers. Our findings share several features with corresponding studies in human breast tumours and strengthen the dog as a suitable model organism for this disease. PMID:25955013

  19. Putting tumours in context

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process progresses

  20. Primary malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Mısır, A. Ferhat; Durmuşlar, Mustafa C.; Zerener, Tamer; Gün, Banu D.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanomas (MM) of the oral cavity are extremely rare, accounting for 0.2% to 8.0% of all malignant melanomas. Malignant melanomas is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for reducing morbidity. Malignant melanoma cells stain positively with antibodies to human melanoma black 45, S-100 protein, and vimentin; therefore, immunohistochemistry can play an important role in evaluating the depth of invasion and the location of metastases. A 76-year-old man developed an oral malignant melanoma, which was originally diagnosed as a bluish reactive denture hyperplasia caused by an ill-fitting lower denture. The tumor was removed surgically, and histopathological examination revealed a nodular-type MM. There was no evidence of recurrence over a 4-year follow-up period. PMID:27052289

  1. Oestrogen (ER) and progestin receptors (PR) in mammary tissue of the female dog: different receptor profile in non-malignant and malignant states.

    PubMed Central

    Rutteman, G. R.; Misdorp, W.; Blankenstein, M. A.; van den Brom, W. E.

    1988-01-01

    Oestrogen (ER) and progestin receptors (PR) were measured in cytosols from histologically normal mammary tissues (n = 30), and in benign (n = 59) and malignant mammary lesions (n = 49) from female dogs. Receptor levels greater than or equal to 5 fmol mg-1 protein were considered positive. The presence of histologically normal mammary epithelium within specimens of primary tumours was noticed as a factor that may cause false-positive receptor results. Receptor levels in non-malignant tissues, and the receptor status of primary cancers did not vary significantly with regard to the phase of oestrous cycle (anoestrus/metoestrus) or the influence of exogenous progestins. ER- or PR-positivity was more frequent and levels of both receptors were higher in 'normal' tissues and in benign lesions than in primary cancers (P less than 0.001). ER and PR levels were higher in benign lesions of dogs also developing malignant mammary tumours than in benign lesions of dogs that did not (P less than 0.02 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Regional and distant cancer metastases were frequently receptor-negative. In some dogs heterogeneity of receptor status was found between different sites of the same cancer. These findings indicate that in non-malignant mammary tissues of adult female dogs expression of the genes encoding ER and PR is common. In malignant tumours this property may become lost, in particular in advanced states of disease. PMID:3219269

  2. Modulation of Acid Sphingomyelinase in Melanoma Reprogrammes the Tumour Immune Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Assi, Emma; Cervia, Davide; Bizzozero, Laura; Capobianco, Annalisa; Pambianco, Sarah; Morisi, Federica; De Palma, Clara; Moscheni, Claudia; Pellegrino, Paolo; Clementi, Emilio; Perrotta, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory microenvironment induces tumours to acquire an aggressive and immunosuppressive behaviour. Since acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downregulation in melanoma was shown to determine a malignant phenotype, we aimed here to elucidate the role of A-SMase in the regulation of tumour immunogenic microenvironment using in vivo melanoma models in which A-SMase was either downregulated or maintained at constitutively high levels. We found high levels of inflammatory factors in low A-SMase expressing tumours, which also displayed an immunosuppressive/protumoural microenvironment: high levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs), as well as low levels of dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, the restoration of A-SMase in melanoma cells not only reduced tumour growth and immunosuppression, but also induced a high recruitment at tumour site of effector immune cells with an antitumoural function. Indeed, we observed a poor homing of MDSCs and Tregs and the increased recruitment of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes as well as the infiltration of DCs and CD8(+)/CD44(high) T lymphocytes. This study demonstrates that change of A-SMase expression in cancer cells is sufficient per se to tune in vivo melanoma growth and that A-SMase levels modulate immune cells at tumour site. This may be taken into consideration in the setting of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26101462

  3. Feline cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (Merkel cell tumour): clinical and pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Giorgio; Properzi, Roberto; Porto, Roberto; Nardini, Vincenzo; Poli, Alessandro; Abramo, Francesca

    2003-04-01

    A case of a feline Merkel cell tumour is described. An 8-year-old, female cat developed a round, alopecic, reddish mass on the nose. Wide excisional surgery was performed with cartilage resection. Histologically the mass was composed of solid islands of mostly basophilic densely packed cells with a scant cytoplasm, which was suggestive of a neuroendocrine origin. Results of immunohistochemical studies using antibodies against neurone-specific enolase, chromogranin, synaptophysin and pan-cytokeratin allowed classification of the lesion as a Merkel cell tumour. Ultrastructurally, dense core granules were identified in the cytoplasm. In a 2-year follow-up no relapses or metastases were observed. The clinical course recorded is in contrast with the malignant nature of a Merkel cell tumour recently described in a cat and of the human Merkel cell tumour, but is similar to the course of the canine Merkel cell tumour which is often benign. Early diagnosis along with the use of wide surgical excision might be considered an important factor in preventing relapse of this tumour. PMID:12662269

  4. Resistance of R-Ras knockout mice to skin tumour induction

    PubMed Central

    May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart; Vähätupa, Maria; Laitinen, Anni M.; Nieminen, Katriina; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The R-ras gene encodes a small GTPase that is a member of the Ras family. Despite close sequence similarities, R-Ras is functionally distinct from the prototypic Ras proteins; no transformative activity and no activating mutations of R-Ras in human malignancies have been reported for it. R-Ras activity appears inhibitory towards tumour proliferation and invasion, and to promote cellular quiescence. Contrary to this, using mice with a deletion of the R-ras gene, we found that R-Ras facilitates DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumour induction. The tumours appeared in wild-type (WT) mice on average 6 weeks earlier than in R-Ras knockout (R-Ras KO) mice. WT mice developed almost 6 times more tumours than R-Ras KO mice. Despite strong R-Ras protein expression in the dermal blood vessels, no R-Ras could be detected in the epidermis from where the tumours arose. The DMBA/TPA skin tumourigenesis-model is highly dependent upon inflammation, and we found a greatly attenuated skin inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA-treatment in the R-Ras KO mice in the context of leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data suggest that despite its characterised role in promoting cellular quiescence, R-Ras is pro-tumourigenic in the DMBA/TPA tumour model and important for the inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA treatment. PMID:26133397

  5. Primary osseous tumours of the elbow: 60 years of registry experience

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Mansur; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, David; Rymaszewski, Lech; Mahendra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background We present the largest series of surgically treated primary bone tumours of the elbow in the English literature (75 cases). We sought to identify characteristics specific to these lesions and recommend an investigatory protocol. Methods The national registry and case notes were reviewed between 1954-2014. Tumours were classified according to Enneking's spectrum. Results There were no benign latent cases in this series as these were managed locally. All patients presented with persistent rest pain, with or without swelling. The distal humerus, in contrast to the proximal radius and ulna, was responsible for the majority and the more aggressive cases. Misdiagnosis was evident in 13% of cases; most of which were attributed to simple bone cysts. All patients that were referred required surgical intervention to either establish the diagnosis or for treatment. Benign tumours had a 19% recurrence rate, with giant cell tumour the most aggressive. Malignant tumours carried 39% local recurrence rate and a 5-year mortality of 61%. Conclusions The suspicion of a tumour should be raised in the patient with unremitting, unexplained, non-mechanical bony elbow pain. These echo the NICE recommendations and we recommend prompt specialist referral. With high rates of local recurrence, we recommend close postoperative monitoring.

  6. Therapeutic resistance and cancer recurrence mechanisms: Unfolding the story of tumour coming back.

    PubMed

    Esmatabadi, Mohammad Javad Dehghan; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Motlagh, Fatemeh Movahedi; Babashah, Sadegh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Cancer recurrence is believed to be one of the major reasons for the failure of cancer treatment strategies. This biological phenomenon could arise from the incomplete eradication of tumour cells after chemo- and radiotherapy. Recent developments in the design of models reflecting cancer recurrence and in vivo imaging techniques have led researchers to gain a deeper and more detailed insight into the mechanisms underlying tumour relapse. Here, we provide an overview of three important drivers of recurrence including cancer stem cells (CSCs), neosis, and phoenix rising. The survival of cancer stem cells is well recognized as one of the primary causes of therapeutic resistance in malignant cells. CSCs have a relatively latent metabolism and show resistance to therapeutic agents through a variety of routes. Neosis has proven to be as an important mechanism behind tumour self-proliferation after treatment which gives rise to the expansion of tumour cells in the injured site via production of Raju cells. Phoenix rising is a prorecurrence pathway through which apoptotic cancer cells send strong signals to the neighbouring diseased cells leading to their multiplication. The mechanisms involved in therapeutic resistance and tumour recurrence have not yet been fully understood and mostly remain unexplained. Without doubt, an improved understanding of the cellular machinery contributing to recurrence will pave the way for the development of novel, sophisticated and effective antitumour therapeutic strategies which can eradicate tumour without the threat of relapse. PMID:27581940

  7. Immunohistochemistry of soft tissue tumours - review with emphasis on 10 markers.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is an integral component in the proper analysis of soft tissue tumours, and a simple panel of six markers is useful in practical triage: CD34, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), keratin cocktail AE1/AE3, S100 protein and alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA). These markers frequently assist in the differential diagnosis of fibroblastic, myoid, nerve sheath and perineurial cell tumours, synovial and epithelioid sarcoma and others. However, they all are multispecific, so that one has to be cognizant of their distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues. Four additional useful markers for specific tumour types are discussed here: CD31 and ERG for vascular endothelial tumours, and KIT and DOG1/Ano-1 for gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). However, hardly any marker is totally monospecific for any one type of tumour. Furthermore, variably lineage-specific markers do not usually distinguish between benign and malignant proliferations, so that this distinction has to be made on histological grounds. Immunohistochemical evaluation is most useful, efficient and cost-effective when used in the context of careful histological evaluation by an experienced pathologist, aware of all diagnostic entities and their histological spectra. Additional diagnostic steps that must be considered in difficult cases include clinicoradiological correlation and additional sampling of remaining wet tissue, if possible. PMID:24111893

  8. Oncogenic mTOR signalling recruits myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumour initiation.

    PubMed

    Welte, Thomas; Kim, Ik Sun; Tian, Lin; Gao, Xia; Wang, Hai; Li, June; Holdman, Xue B; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Pond, Adam; Xie, Guorui; Kurley, Sarah; Nguyen, Tuan; Liao, Lan; Dobrolecki, Lacey E; Pang, Lan; Mo, Qianxing; Edwards, Dean P; Huang, Shixia; Xin, Li; Xu, Jianming; Li, Yi; Lewis, Michael T; Wang, Tian; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Xiang H-F

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play critical roles in primary and metastatic cancer progression. MDSC regulation is widely variable even among patients harbouring the same type of malignancy, and the mechanisms governing such heterogeneity are largely unknown. Here, integrating human tumour genomics and syngeneic mammary tumour models, we demonstrate that mTOR signalling in cancer cells dictates a mammary tumour's ability to stimulate MDSC accumulation through regulating G-CSF. Inhibiting this pathway or its activators (for example, FGFR) impairs tumour progression, which is partially rescued by restoring MDSCs or G-CSF. Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) exhibit elevated G-CSF. MDSCs reciprocally increase TIC frequency through activating Notch in tumour cells, forming a feedforward loop. Analyses of primary breast cancers and patient-derived xenografts corroborate these mechanisms in patients. These findings establish a non-canonical oncogenic role of mTOR signalling in recruiting pro-tumorigenic MDSCs and show how defined cancer subsets may evolve to promote and depend on a distinct immune microenvironment. PMID:27183469

  9. Malignant Peritoneum Mesothelioma with Hepatic Involvement: A Single Institution Experience in 5 Patients and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shan-shan; Zheng, Guo-qi; Liu, Ya-gang; Chen, Yue-feng; Song, Zhao-wei; Yu, Shu-jing; Sun, Ning-ning; Yang, Yu-xin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with invasion of the liver is an invariably fatal disease. We aimed to clarify the characteristics of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cases with liver involvement. The clinical presentation, computed tomography images, and immunohistochemical and histopathological features of 5 patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and liver involvement were evaluated. The diagnosis was established by imaging and immune profiles of the tumours. A review of 8 cases with primary or invading malignant mesothelioma in liver is presented. All 5 mesothelioma cases were asbestos-related. CT images of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with the liver involvement typically showed that the lesion grew inside the liver along the capsule and was possibly accompanied by capsule breakthrough and extrahepatic infiltration. The tumours exhibited a common epithelioid appearance in all 5 patients and most cases revealed positive Cal, CK, and MC with negative CEA and HeP. Different from our findings, the review of literature revealed that most malignant mesothelioma of liver was due to primary intrahepatic malignant mesothelioma. Finally, we concluded that the diagnosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cases with liver invasion is reliably achieved by the history of asbestos exposure, the characteristic CT imaging, and immune profiles of the tumours. PMID:27069474

  10. Tumours of the soft (mesenchymal) tissues.

    PubMed

    Weiss, E

    1974-01-01

    This is a classification of tumours of fibrous tissue, fat, muscle, blood and lymph vessels, and mast cells, irrespective of the region of the body in which they arise. Tumours of fibrous tissue are divided into fibroma, fibrosarcoma (including "canine haemangiopericytoma"), other sarcomas, equine sarcoid, and various tumour-like lesions. The histological appearance of the tumours is described and illustrated with photographs. PMID:4371740

  11. Association of tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors with thymidine phosphorylase expression in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Leek, R. D.; Landers, R.; Fox, S. B.; Ng, F.; Harris, A. L.; Lewis, C. E.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential requirement for tumour growth and metastasis and is regulated by a complex network of factors produced by both stromal cells and neoplastic cells within solid tumours. The cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) are two factors known to promote tumour angiogenesis. We have demonstrated recently that high numbers of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are significantly associated with increased tumour angiogenesis and poor prognosis in invasive carcinoma of the breast. We have also shown that TAMs are a major source of TNF-alpha in invasive breast carcinomas, and that macrophage-like stromal cells as well as tumour cells synthesize TP in such tumours. However, little is known of the factors that regulate the production or activity of these factors in the tumour microenvironment. As TNF-alpha has been shown to up-regulate TP expression in tumour cells in vitro we performed an immunohistochemical study to investigate the possibility that TNF-alpha may be involved in the regulation of TP expression by malignant breast epithelial cells in vivo. To do this, we used a cocktail of non-neutralizing monoclonal anti-TNF-alpha antibodies to visualize both TNF-alpha-expressing macrophages and TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and endothelial cells in a series of 93 invasive carcinomas of the breast. A semiquantitative grading system was then used to compare these staining patterns with that for TP in the same biopsies. TNF-alpha immunoreactivity was also compared with various important tumour variables known to relate to outcome in this disease (microvessel density, node status, grade, stage, receptor status and macrophage infiltration), as well as relapse-free and overall survival data for these patients. Our data show significant positive correlations between TNF-alpha bound to its receptors on tumour cells and: (1) TP protein production by tumour cells, and (2) axillary lymph

  12. A malignant retroperitoneal mass--a rare presentation of recurrent thymoma.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Sietsma, Johanna; Roelofs, Pieter M M; Hiltermann, Thijo J N

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with a suspected retroperitoneal mass, after primarily resected thymoma (type B1/B2, Masaoke stage 1). A germ cell tumour was excluded and a diagnostic biopsy was performed. The mass appeared to be a local recurrence of the primary thymoma, for example, a droplet metastasis, progressed to type B3. PMID:22674945

  13. A malignant retroperitoneal mass – A rare presentation of recurrent thymoma

    PubMed Central

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Sietsma, Johanna; Roelofs, Pieter MM; Hiltermann, Thijo JN

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with a suspected retroperitoneal mass, after primarily resected thymoma (type B1/B2, Masaoke stage 1). A germ cell tumour was excluded and a diagnostic biopsy was performed. The mass appeared to be a local recurrence of the primary thymoma, for example, a droplet metastasis, progressed to type B3. PMID:22674945

  14. Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kjell; Eriksson, Barbro

    2005-06-01

    -targeted treatment for malignant carcinoid tumour is still investigational, but has become of significant interest with the use of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. Since a majority of carcinoid tumours present somatostatin receptors and can therefore be visualized in vivo by using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, it seems logical to try to target these tumours with radioactive substances, not only for visualization but also for treatment. (111)Indium-DTPA-octreotide has been used as the first tumour-targeted treatment, with rather low response rates (in the order of 10-20%) and no significant tumour shrinkage. The second radioactive analogue which has been applied in the clinic is (90)yttrium-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide, which has given partial and complete remissions in 20-30% of patients. The most significant side-effects have been kidney dysfunction, thrombocytopenia and liver toxicity. The most recent compound is (177)lutetium-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate, which has been applied by the Rotterdam group and has been reported to give partial remission in about 40% of the patients. In the near future, combined treatment with both (90)yttrium and (177)lutetium coupled to a somatostatin analogue might come into clinical trials. (177)Lutetium may be more effective for smaller tumours whereas (90)yttrium may be more effective for larger tumours. PMID:15763700

  15. Multiple cilia suppress tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Primary cilia are cellular structures that have important functions in development and disease. The suppression of multiciliate differentiation of choroid plexus precursors, and maintenance of a single primary cilium by Notch1, is now shown to be involved in choroid plexus tumour formation. PMID:27027488

  16. Tumour vasculature--a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, C. T.; Winslet, M. C.; Bradley, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour vasculature is vital for the establishment, growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Its physiological properties limit the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer strategies. Therapeutic approaches directed at the tumour vasculature are reviewed, suggesting the potential of anti-angiogenesis and the targeting of vascular proliferation antigens as cancer treatments. PMID:7543770

  17. The Swiss Canine Cancer Registry: a retrospective study on the occurrence of tumours in dogs in Switzerland from 1955 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Grüntzig, K; Graf, R; Hässig, M; Welle, M; Meier, D; Lott, G; Erni, D; Schenker, N S; Guscetti, F; Boo, G; Axhausen, K; Fabrikant, S; Folkers, G; Pospischil, A

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic records are a key feature of any cancer epidemiology, prevention or control strategy for man and animals. Therefore, the information stored in human and animal cancer registries is essential for undertaking comparative epidemiological, pathogenic and therapeutic research. This study presents the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, containing case data compiled between 1955 and 2008. The data consist of pathology diagnostic records issued by three veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Switzerland. The tumours were classified according to the guidelines of the International Classification of Oncology for Humans on the basis of tumour type, malignancy and body location. The dogs were classified according to breed, age, sex, neuter status and place of residence. The diagnostic data were correlated with data on the Swiss general dog population and the incidence of cancer in dogs was thus investigated. A total of 67,943 tumours were diagnosed in 121,963 dogs and 47.07% of these were malignant. The most common tumour location was the skin (37.05%), followed by mammary glands (23.55%) and soft tissue (13.66%). The most common tumour diagnoses were epithelial (38.45%), mesenchymal (35.10%) and lymphoid tumours (13.23%). The results are compared with data in other canine registries and similarities in tumour distribution and incidence are noted. It is hoped that this study will mark the beginning of continuous registration of dog tumours in Switzerland, which, in turn, will serve as a reference for research in the fields of animal and human oncology. PMID:25824119

  18. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma This page lists cancer ... in malignant mesothelioma that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma Alimta (Pemetrexed Disodium) Pemetrexed ...

  19. 48 CFR 9.404 - Excluded Parties List System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded Parties List System. 9.404 Section 9.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.404 Excluded Parties List System. (a) The General...

  20. 45 CFR 2400.63 - Excluded graduate study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded graduate study. 2400.63 Section 2400.63... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.63 Excluded graduate study. James Madison Fellowships do not provide support for study toward doctoral degrees, for the degree of master...

  1. 29 CFR 548.304 - Excluding value of lunches furnished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

  3. 5 CFR 894.302 - What is an excluded position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.302 What is an excluded position? Excluded positions are described in 5 U.S.C. 8901(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) and 5 CFR....C., and 5 CFR part 430, subpart B; or (2) An employee serving under an interim...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section 778.225 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excluding value of lunches furnished. 548.304 Section 548.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Basic Rates § 548.304 Excluding value of lunches furnished. (a) Section 548.3(d) authorizes...

  8. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  11. 25 CFR 137.8 - Indian lands excluded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Indian lands excluded. 137.8 Section 137.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES REIMBURSEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION COSTS, SAN CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.8 Indian lands excluded. This public...

  12. 19 CFR 148.106 - Excluded articles of merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded articles of merchandise. 148.106 Section 148.106 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Limited Value § 148.106 Excluded articles of merchandise. The following articles of merchandise have...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... suspended; debarred; proposed for debarment under 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4; voluntarily excluded; or (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 1404.945 Section 1404.945 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND...

  20. 26 CFR 1.552-4 - Certain excluded banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain excluded banks. 1.552-4 Section 1.552-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-4 Certain excluded banks. (a)...