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Sample records for malle jrvan miralda

  1. It's a Mall, Mall, Mall, Mall World: Jobs in Shopping Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Provides information about a variety of nonsales jobs available in shopping malls: mall management, customer service, marketing, operations, security, maintenance, and administration. Includes information about educational requirements. (JOW)

  2. MALL: The Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the development of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) over the past 20 years is reviewed with a particular focus on the pedagogical challenges facing its exploitation. Following a consideration of the definition of mobile learning, the paper describes the dominant mobile technologies upon which MALL applications have been…

  3. Functional Morphology at the Mall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    The primary decorative flooring tile in the Southpark Mall in Charlotte, North Carolina, is fossiliferous limestone that contains Jurassic ammonoids and belemnoids. Visible in these tiles are more than 500 ammonoids, many of which have been cross sectioned equatorially perpendicular to the plane of coiling. Upper-level undergraduate students from…

  4. The Shopping Mall: A Teenager Hangout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Kathryn H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)

  5. Ibn Battuta Mall: Edutaining the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chae Ho

    2010-01-01

    Nakheel, a Dubai World Company has created the world's largest themed mall based on the narrative of Ibn Battuta, a 14th century Muslim explorer whose world travels are well documented. The Ibn Battuta Mall is located in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates and utilizes a communication strategy called edutainment: a neologistic…

  6. Ivy-Covered Malls and Creeping Commercialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2005-01-01

    The Simon Property Group, United States' largest mall developer, since 1998 has partnered with local public school systems to open 19 alternative public schools in malls in 11 states through its nonprofit Simon Youth Foundation. Lafayette Square's school, with a 200-student capacity is the newest and largest, which according to a watchdog group,…

  7. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  8. Public Relations Program for a Shopping Mall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigley, David A.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of a highly successful sports, health, and recreation exhibit run by Rutgers University (New Jersey) in a public shopping mall. Organization and entertainment were the keynotes of the success. (LH)

  9. Analysis of Jingdong Mall Logistics Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kang; Cheng, Feng

    In recent years, the development of electronic commerce in our country to speed up the pace. The role of logistics has been highlighted, more and more electronic commerce enterprise are beginning to realize the importance of logistics in the success or failure of the enterprise. In this paper, the author take Jingdong Mall for example, performing a SWOT analysis of their current situation of self-built logistics system, find out the problems existing in the current Jingdong Mall logistics distribution and give appropriate recommendations.

  10. Decreased MALL expression negatively impacts colorectal cancer patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Feifei; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Yan, Dongwang; Zhou, Chongzhi; Deng, Guilong; Wang, Bin; Qi, Xiaosheng; Wang, Shuyun; Qu, Lei; Deng, Biao; Pan, Ming; Chen, Jian; Wang, Yupeng; Song, Guohe; Tang, Huamei; Zhou, Zongguang; Peng, Zhihai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether MALL expression is associated with colon cancer progression and patient survival. MALL mRNA expression was reduced in the tumor tissues of 70% of the colon cancer patients and 75% of the rectal cancer patients as compared to their normal tissues. MALL protein was also significantly reduced in the tumor tissues of colon cancer patients (P < 0.001). Increased LOH and methylation of MALL was observed in tumor tissues as compared to normal tissues. Reduced MALL expression was associated with vessin invasion, disease recurrence and metastasis or death (P ≤ 0.027). Furthermore, patients with MALL-negative tumors had significantly decreased overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.008 and P < 0.011, respectively). Univariate analysis indicated that MALL expression was significantly associated with OS and DFS. Finally, overexpression of MALL suppressed HCT116 and SW480 cell proliferation and inhibited HCT116 migration. MALL may play a role in colorectal cancer progression as suppression of its expression in tumor tissues negatively impacts colorectal cancer patient survival. Further analyses are required to determine if reduced MALL expression is due to LOH and/or methylation. PMID:26992238

  11. Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R.; Cormier, Marc L.; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L.; King, Diane K.; Marquez, David X.; Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. Methods We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. Results We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. Conclusion We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking

  12. The Shopping Mall: Film Chronotope of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Michael V.

    This paper examines the portrayal of shopping malls in the films of the 1980s and attempts to "narrativize" the trend found between the films as the story of a subculture as it adopts and develops a belief system based on consumerism. The paper begins with an exploration of the evolution of the mall as a modern meeting place and center of social…

  13. The Reality of Mall: Still on the Fringes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) has existed now for nearly two decades with its application to foreign language instruction chronicled in some 340 implementation studies. For several years already, proponents have claimed that MALL is commonplace in foreign language instruction. In reality, with few exceptions, published studies of MALL…

  14. Astronomy Festival on the National Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2015-11-01

    The annual Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM) takes place on 11 acres north of the Washington Monument in June (previous AFNM were April and July). AFNM, sponsored by Hofstra University, features optical and radio telescope viewing of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, clusters, and nebulae; a live large-screen image, a cell phone imaging mount; exhibits; hands-on activities; videos; large outdoor banners and posters; citizen science activities; hand-outs; bookmarks, and teacher information materials. With no tall buildings almost the entire sky is visible and 10th mag. moons of Saturn and the Ring Nebula (9.75 mag.) were easily visible on clear nights. Representatives from some of the nation's foremost scientific and educational institutions presented exciting demonstrations and activities; and answered questions about careers in science, celestial objects, and the latest astronomical discoveries. Local amateur astronomers set up twenty telescopes on the Mall and long lines of 20-30 people waited to look through the telescopes. Visitors met astronaut Dr. John Grunsfeld (Associate Administrator, NASA) and astronomers Dr. Lisse, Dr. Livengood, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Paul Hertz (Director, Astrophysics Division, NASA). Important historical astronomers spoke to the attendees: Caroline Herschel (Lynn King); Tycho Brahe (Dean Howarth); and Johannes Kepler (Jeff Jones). Free telescopes, donated by Celestron, were raffled off.

  15. Context, view to north from mall; from left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context, view to north from mall; from left to right, flight markers, camp buildings, and visitor center - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  16. 37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING NORTH, August 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING SOUTH, summer 1985 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Pulling Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into the Mainstream: MALL in Broad Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The researcher designed a smartphone app to help college students to learn English (L2) vocabulary. The app contained 3,402 English words that were compiled into an alphabetic wordlist with each word displayed on three features; namely: spelling, pronunciation and Chinese definitions. To test the effectiveness of the app, an experimental group (with app) was compared with a control group (without app) and knowledge of words was tested before and after the research. The study revealed that the students using the program significantly outperformed those in the control group in vocabulary acquisition. This paper introduced a research design method and set up a pedagogical paradigm which can be followed as a way to practice MALL. PMID:26010606

  1. Pulling Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into the Mainstream: MALL in Broad Practice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The researcher designed a smartphone app to help college students to learn English (L2) vocabulary. The app contained 3,402 English words that were compiled into an alphabetic wordlist with each word displayed on three features; namely: spelling, pronunciation and Chinese definitions. To test the effectiveness of the app, an experimental group (with app) was compared with a control group (without app) and knowledge of words was tested before and after the research. The study revealed that the students using the program significantly outperformed those in the control group in vocabulary acquisition. This paper introduced a research design method and set up a pedagogical paradigm which can be followed as a way to practice MALL. PMID:26010606

  2. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Museum, Memorial and Mall: Postcolonialism, Pedagogies, Racism and Reconciliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Vicki; Matthews, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Through museum and shopping mall and the possibilities, subtleties, banalities and disparities of reconciliation in South Africa and Australia, this paper immerses itself in the question of pedagogies and in particular the pedagogies of reconciliation, public spaces and postcolonialism. In both Australia and South Africa postcolonialism as theory…

  5. Virtual Learning Environments on the Go: CALL Meets MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arús Hita, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents "Eating out," a Moodle-based digital learning resource for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching that can be run both on computers and mobile devices. It is argued that Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) resources do not necessarily need to be specifically designed for such platforms. Rather, a carefully…

  6. Education in the Marketplace: School at Mall of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Mary E.

    Educators have long acknowledged that not all learning occurs in a classroom. This paper describes an innovative educational program in Minnesota, where the educational facility was built in a dedicated space at the Mall of America. The program is based on an outcomes-based, transdisciplinary curriculum for 16- to 19-year-old youth, featuring the…

  7. Let's Go to the Mall: Thinking outside the Neighborhood Branch, Libraries in Malls Make for Happy Partnerships and Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankinship, Donna Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Branches in shopping malls help build community by attracting new patrons to the library. They help libraries offer exciting new venues with a retail-like approach and raise awareness of the work libraries are doing. In some cases, though not at Glendale, the library is more cost-effective owing to the smaller space used to serve patrons. These…

  8. Return to Flight activities at The Mall at Cortana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Christian Gonzales, 11 (right), watches as his little brother Walter, 2, adds his own brand of good wishes to a banner encouraging the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on NASA's Return to Flight mission, scheduled to launch in summer 2005. The brothers, of Baton Rouge, were participating in a Camp Kids event at The Mall at Cortana, where Return to Flight activities were presented by NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC).

  9. Twenty Years of MALL Project Implementation: A Meta-Analysis of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Despite the hundreds of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) publications over the past twenty years, statistically reliable measures of learning outcomes are few and far between. In part, this is due to the fact that well over half of all MALL-related studies report no objectively quantifiable learning outcomes, either because they did not…

  10. InfoMall: An Innovative Strategy for High-Performance Computing and Communications Applications Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Kim; Fox, Geoffrey

    1994-01-01

    Describes the InfoMall, a program led by the Northeast Parallel Architectures Center (NPAC) at Syracuse University (New York). The InfoMall features a partnership of approximately 24 organizations offering linked programs in High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) technology integration, software development, marketing, education and…

  11. Exploring the Application of a Conceptual Framework in a Social MALL App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Timothy; Bárcena, Elena; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a prototype social Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) app based on Kukulska-Hulme's (2012) conceptual framework. This research allows the exploration of time, place and activity type as key factors in the design of MALL apps, and is the first step toward a systematic analysis of such a framework in this type…

  12. A Survey of MALL Curriculum Integration: What the Published Research Doesn't Tell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of published articles dealing with Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) applications over the past two decades, very few relate to the curricular integration of mobile technologies beyond initial projects. This situation raises a primary research question as to whether or not MALL implementation publications reflect…

  13. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1994-01-01

    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms. PMID:7976757

  14. Design and Implementation of BusinessApp, a MALL Application to Make Successful Business Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Yanes, Lourdes Pomposo; Pareja-Lora, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Little by little, (or, simply, MALL) is taking force in the field of education, as it supports language blended learning and language learning ubiquity. The study presented here belongs in the Social Ontology-based Cognitively Augmented Language Learning Mobile Environment (SO-CALL-ME) research project, whose final aim is to design and create…

  15. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  16. Negotiating Liberalism and Bio-Politics: Stylizing Power in Defense of the Mall Curfew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    While Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self" are useful in explaining the convergence of liberalism and bio-politics, they fail to account for the appeal of juridical mechanisms that administer the conventions of bio-political control. A productive site from which to explore this convergence is provided by the "mall curfew," a bio-political…

  17. MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; Camarena, Margaret M.; Facer, Betty Rose

    2009-01-01

    Integrating Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technology (personal multimedia players, cell phones, and handheld devices) into the foreign language curriculum is becoming commonplace in many secondary and higher education institutions. Current research has identified both pedagogically sound applications and important benefits to students.…

  18. Of Mega-Malls and Soft-Shelled Turtles: Deep Ecological Education To Counter Homogeneity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael S.; Scott, Jennifer R.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to compare the modern retail/entertainment experience of the mega-mall to a singular encounter with a wild animal in its native community context. Explores the differences between seeking amusement and seeking happiness as well as the capacity for experiencing joy. Concludes with some implications of these experiences to the…

  19. Online Mall: How One District Got Started in E-Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Brian

    2001-01-01

    To address the problem of outdated vendor catalogs, Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools created a view-only online shopping mall that evolved into an electronic shopping program. Buyers can use credit cards for some transactions and cost coding for others. They can also sell unwanted items online. (MLH)

  20. Winning at Child Caring: Easier Ways with Young Children in Child Care Centers, Homes and Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Bette

    This booklet is a compilation of articles from a column in the "Warner Center News" written by an experienced early childhood educator on various topics related to child care. The brief articles describe the problems and pleasures that preschool children bring to child care centers, homes, markets, and malls. The articles are grouped into four…

  1. Shopping for Jobs: Mall Internship Program Opens Doors for HVAC Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolot, Terry

    1995-01-01

    Ivy Tech State College uses River Falls, a shopping mall, as an enormous heating, ventilation, and air conditioning laboratory. Students spend Saturdays working with full-time technicians getting invaluable training and experience. Students see the program as a professional opportunity and a direct route to jobs. (JOW)

  2. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    PubMed Central

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  3. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense. PMID:26193275

  4. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense. PMID:26193275

  5. Mall Walking as a Physical Activity Option: Results of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culos-Reed, S. Nicole; Stephenson, Lynette; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and benefits (fitness and quality of life) of an 8-week mall-walking program. A total of 52 participants ( n = 39 at post-testing) took part in the pilot project (mean age = 66.4; range 46-83 years), with an overall attendance rate of 62.4 per cent. Participants self-selected pace, time, and…

  6. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  7. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE TENTH STREET MALL (L’ENFANT PROMENADE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE TENTH STREET MALL (L’ENFANT PROMENADE) TOWARD THE JAMES FORRESTAL BUILDING (FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING NO. 5) AT 1000 INDEPENDENCE AVENUE; THE FORRESTAL BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY CURTIS & DAVIS AND COMPLETED IN 1969 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct. PMID:26027442

  9. GENERAL VIEW ALONG L’ENFANT PROMENADE OR TENTH STREET MALL DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW ALONG L’ENFANT PROMENADE OR TENTH STREET MALL DESIGNED BY I.M. PEI & PARTNERS LOOKING SOUTH; VIEW INCLUDES THE L’ENFANT PLAZA WEST BUILDING (USPS) AT 475 L’ENFANT PLAZA WAS DESIGNED BY VLASTIMIL KOUBEK AND COMPLETED IN 1971 AND, TO THE EAST, THE NASA BUILDING AS WELL AS THE ASTRAL BUILDING AND COMSAT BUILDING, BOTH OF WHICH WERE DESIGNED BY ARALDO A. COSSUTTA, OF I.M. PEI & PARTNERS, IN 1968 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. View of the STS 51-L Memorial service on JSC's main mall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Memorial services for the Challenger Seven were conducted on the morning of Jan. 31, 1986 at JSC's main mall. Among those in attendance were former and present astronauts and Space Shuttle payload specialists (PS). U.S. Sen. Jake Garn (R., Utah) vists at center with Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud of Saudi Arabia. Others pictured include German PS Ulf Merbold, French PS Patrick Baudry and NASA Astronauts Robert L. Stewart, Marsha S. Ivins, David C. Leestma and C. Gordon Fullerton, along with former astronaut Eugene A. Cernan.

  11. Volatile organic compounds in a multi-storey shopping mall in guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianhui; Chan, C. Y.; Wang, Xinming; Chan, L. Y.; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) specified in the USEPA TO-14 list were analysed in microenvironments of a multi-storey shopping mall in Guangzhou city, South China. The microenvironments studied include both indoor (department store, supermarket, fast-food court, electronic games room, children's playground, gallery and book store) and outdoor ones (rooftop and ground level entrance). The characteristics and concentration of VOCs varied widely in differing microenvironments. The average concentrations of the total VOCs in the indoor microenvironments ranged from 178.5 to 457.7 μg m -3 with a maximum of 596.8 μg m -3. The fast-food court and a leather products department store had the highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A high level of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was found in all indoor microenvironments with an average of 12.3 μg m -3 and a maximum of 44.3 μg m -3. The ratios of average indoor to outdoor concentrations (I/O ratio) in all indoor microenvironments fell between 1 and 3, except an average of 24.6 and a maximum of 77.8 in the fashion department store for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Indoor emission sources of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the shopping mall might include cooking stoves, leather products and building materials. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, however, were possibly connected with their use as cleaning agents or deodorizers.

  12. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2014-10-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature computation and pickpocket recognition. This is challenging because the environment is crowded, people move freely through areas which cannot be covered by a single camera, because the actual snatch is a subtle action, and because collaboration is complex social behavior. We carried out an experiment with more than 20 validated pickpocket incidents. We used a top-down approach to translate expert knowledge in features and rules, and a bottom-up approach to learn discriminating patterns with a classifier. The classifier was used to separate the pickpockets from normal passers-by who are shopping in the mall. We performed a cross validation to train and evaluate our system. In this paper, we describe our method, identify the most valuable features, and analyze the results that were obtained in the experiment. We estimate the quality of these features and the performance of automatic detection of (collaborating) pickpockets. The results show that many of the pickpockets can be detected at a low false alarm rate.

  13. Math Academy: Let's Go to the Mall! Explorations in Combinatorics. Book 5: Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimbey, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the "Math Academy--Let's Go to the Mall! Explorations in Combinatorics," which teachers can use to enhance…

  14. MALL--Somewhere between the Tower, the Field, the Classroom and the Market: A Reply to Professor Stockwell's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballance, Oliver James

    2013-01-01

    In the previous issue of "LLT", I commented upon Stockwell (2010), suggesting that the learning activities investigated limited the scope of his research on the effects of the MALL platform. Professor Stockwell responded in the same issue with a spirited riposte. However, it became clear that much of the disagreement lay in a matter of definition.…

  15. The Cacophony of Space and the Clink Clunk Clang in Architecture The mall corridor redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriano, Nolan

    The element of sound is nearly inescapable. The various ways in which sound is generated, perceived, represented, and hindered resonates not only within the realm of the auditory sense, but as well as the visual and tactile. Through investigating the representation of sound, both in the aural and visual worlds, a deeper understanding of its profound effects can be observed. In the world of architectural space it is the element of sound that is often forgotten, whereas the sonic nature of a space is not designed. This thesis endeavours to examine how, through a comprehensive understanding of the various facets of sound representations, effects, and history, it can inform specifically designed sonorously beneficial spaces that directly reflect and support their purpose. This notion will be explored through the redesign of the shopping-mall corridor within the heritage structure of the Ogilvy Building in Ottawa, Ontario. Through adaptive architecture, the possibility exists to create a subjective aural space.

  16. Real-time tracking and fast retrieval of persons in multiple surveillance cameras of a shopping mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Landsmeer, Sander; Kruszynski, Chris; van Antwerpen, Gert; Dijk, Judith

    2013-05-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for e.g. surveillance applications at large areas such as train stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras. In this paper, we present a system for real-time tracking and fast interactive retrieval of persons in video streams from multiple static surveillance cameras. This system is demonstrated in a shopping mall, where the cameras are positioned without overlapping fields-of-view and have different lighting conditions. The results show that the system allows an operator to find the origin or destination of a person more efficiently. The misses are reduced with 37%, which is a significant improvement.

  17. Influence of Social and Behavioural Characteristics of Users on Their Evaluation of Subjective Loudness and Acoustic Comfort in Shopping Malls

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qi; Kang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale subjective survey was conducted in six shopping malls in Harbin City, China, to determine the influence of social and behavioural characteristics of users on their evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort. The analysis of social characteristics shows that evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by income and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Meanwhile, evaluation of acoustic comfort evaluation is influenced by income, education level, and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.60 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The effect of gender and age on evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort is statistically insignificant. The effects of occupation are mainly caused by the differences in income and education level, in which the effects of income are greater than that of education level. In terms of behavioural characteristics, evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by the reason for visit, frequency of visit, and length of stay, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Evaluation of acoustic comfort is influenced by the reason for visit to the site, the frequency of visit, length of stay, and also season of visit, with correlation coefficients of 0.10 to 0.30 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In particular, users who are waiting for someone show lower evaluation of acoustic comfort, whereas users who go to shopping malls more than once a month show higher evaluation of acoustic comfort. On the contrary, the influence of the period of visit and the accompanying persons are found insignificant. PMID:23336003

  18. Influence of social and behavioural characteristics of users on their evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort in shopping malls.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Kang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale subjective survey was conducted in six shopping malls in Harbin City, China, to determine the influence of social and behavioural characteristics of users on their evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort. The analysis of social characteristics shows that evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by income and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Meanwhile, evaluation of acoustic comfort evaluation is influenced by income, education level, and occupation, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.60 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The effect of gender and age on evaluation of subjective loudness and acoustic comfort is statistically insignificant. The effects of occupation are mainly caused by the differences in income and education level, in which the effects of income are greater than that of education level. In terms of behavioural characteristics, evaluation of subjective loudness is influenced by the reason for visit, frequency of visit, and length of stay, with correlation coefficients or contingency coefficients of 0.10 to 0.40 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Evaluation of acoustic comfort is influenced by the reason for visit to the site, the frequency of visit, length of stay, and also season of visit, with correlation coefficients of 0.10 to 0.30 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). In particular, users who are waiting for someone show lower evaluation of acoustic comfort, whereas users who go to shopping malls more than once a month show higher evaluation of acoustic comfort. On the contrary, the influence of the period of visit and the accompanying persons are found insignificant. PMID:23336003

  19. Viewing experience of 3DTV: An exploration of the feeling of sickness and presence in a shopping mall

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Marianna; Wurhofer, Daniela; Meneweger, Thomas; Grill, Thomas; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The adoption and deployment of 3DTV can be seen as a major step in the history of television, comparable to the transition from analogue to digital and standard to high definition TV. Although 3D is expected to emerge from the cinema to peoples’ home, there is still a lack of knowledge on how people (future end users) perceive 3DTV and how this influences their viewing experience as well as their acceptance of 3DTV. Within this paper, findings from a three-day field evaluation study on people’s 3DTV experiences, focusing on the feeling of sickness and presence, are presented. Contrary to the traditional controlled laboratory setting, the study was conducted in the public setting of a shopping center and involved 700 participants. The study revealed initial insights on users’ feeling of presence and sickness when watching 3DTV content. Results from this explorative study show that most of the participants reported symptoms of sickness after watching 3DTV with an effect of gender and age on the reported feeling of sickness. Our results further suggest that the users’ previous experience with 3D content has an influence on how realistic people rate the viewing experience and how involved they feel. The particularities of the study environment, a shopping mall, are reflected in our findings and future research directions and action points for investigating people’s viewing experiences of 3DTV are summarized. PMID:23482894

  20. Viewing experience of 3DTV: An exploration of the feeling of sickness and presence in a shopping mall.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Marianna; Wurhofer, Daniela; Meneweger, Thomas; Grill, Thomas; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The adoption and deployment of 3DTV can be seen as a major step in the history of television, comparable to the transition from analogue to digital and standard to high definition TV. Although 3D is expected to emerge from the cinema to peoples' home, there is still a lack of knowledge on how people (future end users) perceive 3DTV and how this influences their viewing experience as well as their acceptance of 3DTV. Within this paper, findings from a three-day field evaluation study on people's 3DTV experiences, focusing on the feeling of sickness and presence, are presented. Contrary to the traditional controlled laboratory setting, the study was conducted in the public setting of a shopping center and involved 700 participants. The study revealed initial insights on users' feeling of presence and sickness when watching 3DTV content. Results from this explorative study show that most of the participants reported symptoms of sickness after watching 3DTV with an effect of gender and age on the reported feeling of sickness. Our results further suggest that the users' previous experience with 3D content has an influence on how realistic people rate the viewing experience and how involved they feel. The particularities of the study environment, a shopping mall, are reflected in our findings and future research directions and action points for investigating people's viewing experiences of 3DTV are summarized. PMID:23482894

  1. Qualitation and quantification of specific polysaccharides from Panax species using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and HPSEC-RID-MALLS.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Deng, Yong; Leong, Fong; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-11-20

    The objective of this study was to qualify and quantify the specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. The analyses of specific polysaccharides were performed by using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID). Results showed that compositional monosaccharides were the same in different species of Panax and composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, mannose, glucose, and galactose. Saccharide mapping results showed that glycosides linkages, which existed in specific polysaccharides from Panax spp., were similar. Additionally, the content of specific polysaccharides of P. ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolium were 17.9-20.5mg/g, 11.9-15.0mg/g, and 9.9-13.3mg/g, respectively. P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium could be clustered into three groups using both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results possessed great potential in characterization and content determination of specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. PMID:27561470

  2. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from. PMID:26052108

  3. Twitter in the Cross Fire—The Use of Social Media in the Westgate Mall Terror Attack in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  4. Twitter in the cross fire--the use of social media in the Westgate Mall terror attack in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  5. Chronologic implications of new Miocene mammals from the Cura-Mallín and Trapa Trapa formations, Laguna del Laja area, south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Croft, Darin A.; Gans, Phillip B.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Wyss, André R.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work in the central Andean Main Range of Chile near Laguna del Laja (˜37.5°S, 71°W) has produced the first mammal fossils for the region. Fossils, locally abundant and well preserved, occur patchily across a wide area southeast of the lake. Mammalian remains are derived from generally strongly folded (kilometer-scale) exposures of the locally ˜1.8 km thick, early to middle Miocene Cura-Mallín Formation; two identifiable specimens have been recovered from the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation as well. Both formations consist primarily of well-stratified (1-5 m thick layers) volcaniclastic and volcanic strata, deposited predominantly in fluviatile systems. The Cura-Mallín Formation is possibly the southern continuation of (or lateral equivalent to) the richly fossiliferous Abanico Formation mapped between ˜32°S and 36°S. Intensive sampling in a series of localities east and south of Laguna del Laja has yielded diverse faunas, in addition to radioisotopically dateable horizons. The new fossil mammal faunas represent as many as six South American Land Mammal "Ages" (SALMAs). Fossils, together with preliminary 40Ar/ 39Ar radioisotopic dates, ranging from ˜9 to 20 Ma across the exposed thickness of the Cura-Mallín Formation and into the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation, provide a robust geochronological framework for middle Cenozoic strata in the Laguna del Laja region. The sequence of directly superposed mammalian assemblages at Laguna del Laja is one of the longest in all of South America, rivaled only by the classic Gran Barranca section of Patagonian Argentina. These data illuminate the geological history of the area and its record of mammalian evolution. The potential to isotopically date these diverse faunas with high precision (error ± 0.5 Ma) presents a rare opportunity to calibrate related portions of the SALMA sequence.

  6. Rehabilitation living lab in the mall community of practice: learning together to improve rehabilitation, participation and social inclusion for people living with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian's conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  7. Mobile applications for participation at the shopping mall: content analysis and usability for persons with physical disabilities and communication or cognitive limitations.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Leduc, Emilie; Labbé, Delphine; Guay, Cassioppée; Fillion, Brigitte; Bottari, Carolina; Swaine, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the important features in content and usability of existing mobile applications evaluating environmental barriers and facilitators (EBF) to participation for persons with physical disabilities presenting mild communication or cognitive limitations. A rigorous process based on a user-centered design approach led to the identification of two relevant mobile applications to evaluate the EBF. An accessibility expert, the research team as well as five users then tested the mobile applications in a shopping mall. A thematic content analysis of the research team's and users' comments established 10 categories of key features that adequately respond to the needs of the clientele targeted in this study. In terms of content, granularity and contextualization of the information provided were considered important. With respect to usability, relevant features were place finding, rating system, presentation of results, compatibility, user-friendliness, aesthetics, credibility of the information as well as connectivity/interactiveness. The research team and the users agreed on some aspects such as aesthetics, but had different perspectives on features such as the rating system or the connectivity/interactiveness of the application. The users proposed new features suggesting that the existing mobile applications did not correspond to all their needs. PMID:25513999

  8. Mobile applications for participation at the shopping mall: content analysis and usability for persons with physical disabilities and communication or cognitive limitations.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Leduc, Emilie; Labbé, Delphine; Guay, Cassioppée; Fillion, Brigitte; Bottari, Carolina; Swaine, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the important features in content and usability of existing mobile applications evaluating environmental barriers and facilitators (EBF) to participation for persons with physical disabilities presenting mild communication or cognitive limitations. A rigorous process based on a user-centered design approach led to the identification of two relevant mobile applications to evaluate the EBF. An accessibility expert, the research team as well as five users then tested the mobile applications in a shopping mall. A thematic content analysis of the research team's and users' comments established 10 categories of key features that adequately respond to the needs of the clientele targeted in this study. In terms of content, granularity and contextualization of the information provided were considered important. With respect to usability, relevant features were place finding, rating system, presentation of results,compatibility, user-friendliness, aesthetics, credibility of the information as well as connectivity/interactiveness. The research team and the users agreed on some aspects such as aesthetics, but had different perspectives on features such as the rating system or the connectivity/interactiveness of the application. The users proposed new features suggesting that the existing mobile applications did not correspond to all their needs. PMID:25587605

  9. Mobile Applications for Participation at the Shopping Mall: Content Analysis and Usability for Persons with Physical Disabilities and Communication or Cognitive Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Claudine; Leduc, Emilie; Labbé, Delphine; Guay, Cassioppée; Fillion, Brigitte; Bottari, Carolina; Swaine, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the important features in content and usability of existing mobile applications evaluating environmental barriers and facilitators (EBF) to participation for persons with physical disabilities presenting mild communication or cognitive limitations. A rigorous process based on a user-centered design approach led to the identification of two relevant mobile applications to evaluate the EBF. An accessibility expert, the research team as well as five users then tested the mobile applications in a shopping mall. A thematic content analysis of the research team’s and users’ comments established 10 categories of key features that adequately respond to the needs of the clientele targeted in this study. In terms of content, granularity and contextualization of the information provided were considered important. With respect to usability, relevant features were place finding, rating system, presentation of results, compatibility, user-friendliness, aesthetics, credibility of the information as well as connectivity/interactiveness. The research team and the users agreed on some aspects such as aesthetics, but had different perspectives on features such as the rating system or the connectivity/interactiveness of the application. The users proposed new features suggesting that the existing mobile applications did not correspond to all their needs. PMID:25513999

  10. Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall Community of Practice: Learning Together to Improve Rehabilitation, Participation and Social Inclusion for People Living with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian’s conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  11. Environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the southern westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44° 40' S, 71° 42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the environmental and climatic dynamics in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated the middle Río Cisnes valley between 13 and 11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also indicating that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, the sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated with the synchronous high fire activity occurred, suggesting a rise in effective moisture associated with dry summers. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher effective moisture conditions than before combined with moderate dry summers that may have triggered a high frequency of low-magnitude crown fires that did not severely affect the forest. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening after 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change to open forest conditions around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. Around

  12. Environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2013-10-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the Southern Westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from Central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44°40' S; 71°42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the Central Chilean Patagonia environmental and climatic dynamics since Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated middle Río Cisnes valley between 13-11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also reflecting that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, a sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated to the synchronous high fire activity occurred suggesting a rise in effective moisture. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher/similar effective moisture conditions than before but under an unmarked precipitation seasonality. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening since 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. The recovery of an open Nothofagus forest related to slight wetter conditions (similar to present) occurred around 2 ka and persisted under highly variable climatic

  13. Contextualizing a MALL: Practice Design and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Yaming

    2012-01-01

    Mobile technologies have been successfully implemented in language learning, and have supported various innovative designs. However, many of these designs require considerable technical knowledge and support that are beyond the workload capacity of most language teachers. This paper discusses a study using an over-the-market mobile device combined…

  14. Art at the Mall: A Look at the Aesthetics of Popular Mall Art Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    Currently there is a scarcity of information in the art education literature about purchasing art. This article examines how art acquires economic and social value, as well as how consumers make decisions when purchasing a piece of art. Where does an art student, or the general public learn about buying art? How much, if any, of this process is…

  15. The Education Mall: "A 21st Century Learning Concept."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lyndon E.; Maas, Michael L.

    Real change in education has been hampered by at least three forces: education's lack of a vision of where society is moving and how education should play a part in this movement; the human makeup of educational institutions; and the need for the development of a new model for financing public postsecondary education. Regardless of these…

  16. Environmental Linguistics: A Typology of Visual Factors in Shopping Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, John D.; Sewell, Edward H., Jr.

    Environment may be regarded as a form of communication, with environmental linguistics becoming a new discipline that will have to be explored. Its goal is to demystify some of the constructs that contribute to the built environment as a communication tool. Treating the built environment as a language requires a recognition of its dynamic nature.…

  17. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  18. Psychosocial Treatment Malls for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Shannon H.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Pittman, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    The provision of active treatment for people with intellectual disabilities has been seminal in the literature and in practice for a number of years. Active treatment has programmatic, financial, and legal ramifications for agencies and should be at the center of all appropriate treatment plans. The current work examines the use of psychosocial…

  19. Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Practically since their availability, a succession of audiovisual recording devices (e.g., reel-to-reel, VCRs, PCs) has been used to capture language samples, and myriad playback and broadcast devices (e.g., phonographs, radios, televisions) have provided access to authentic speech samples. The espousal of audiolingual theory in the 1950s brought…

  20. A Social and Self-Reflective Approach to MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros i Sole, Cristina; Calic, Jelena; Neijmann, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that learning is increasingly taking place on the move and located beyond educational environments, "in the gaps of daily life" (Sharples et al., 2007). And yet, language learners have mostly been perceived as being fixed in particular contexts, whether in the educational environment, abroad, or in their homes and…

  1. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching courses at the author's…

  2. Clytemnestra at the Mall: A Plea for More Improvisational Pedagogy in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2010-01-01

    Advocating for improvisational pedagogy in the arts, this article argues for the incalculable benefits of a teaching style that refuses to adhere strictly to orchestration planned in advance; it propounds a pedagogical practice that welcomes cadenzas and that situates itself in the here-and-now of classrooms taken as sites of adventure, discovery,…

  3. Successful Learning of Academic Word List via MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemi, Minoo; Sarab, Mohammad Reza Anani; Lari, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones as new addition to information and communication technologies have created new ways to help learners in the process of foreign language learning. Given the importance of academic vocabularies for university students, this study tried to investigate the effectiveness of SMS on Iranian university students' vocabulary learning and…

  4. View of the STS 51-L Memorial service on JSC's main mall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A wide angle lens was used to capture only a portion of the crowd gathered for memorial services for the seven members of the STS 51-L Challenger crew at JSC. President Ronald Reagan speaks at the lectern at far left edge of the frame. The photographer for the picture was positioned on a large platform erected to accommodate the many members of the news media on hand for the event.

  5. A Classroom on the Mall: Indigenous Women and the Culture of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Martha

    1995-01-01

    When rural women do not participate in relevant decision making, development projects risk diminished effectiveness and may increase already onerous workloads. Consisting of 139 Mapuche women textile artisans in Chile, the Casa de la Mujer Mapuche provides its members with income, role models, and a platform to express women's needs and…

  6. Using Smart Phones in Language Learning--A Pilot Study to Turn CALL into MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kétyi, András

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of smart phones has increased enormously in the last few years. Because of the increasing penetration of these devices and the above-average willingness of our students using new tools and devices in language courses, we decided to design a voluntary pilot project for mobile language learning for students who learn German as a…

  7. A Visit to the Information Mall: Web Searching Behavior of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya; Davies, Rachel K.; Douglass, Mary H.; Holder, Jenny K.; Hopkins, Carla J.; Kushner, Elisabeth J.; Miyagishima, Bryan K.; Toney, Christina D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes Web-searching behavior for homework assignments of high school students through field observations in class and at the computer terminal with students thinking aloud, and through interviews with various participants. Results emphasize the need for training and for system design based on user seeking and search behavior. (Author/LRW)

  8. 75 FR 39969 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Final Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ..., symbolic, and heavily used public lands in our nation. DATES: The FEIS for the Plan will remain available for public review for 30 days beginning on the date the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency publishes... Preferred Alternative. The NPS issued press releases, contacted and worked with media to encourage...

  9. Identity and privacy. Unique in the shopping mall: on the reidentifiability of credit card metadata.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Radaelli, Laura; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2015-01-30

    Large-scale data sets of human behavior have the potential to fundamentally transform the way we fight diseases, design cities, or perform research. Metadata, however, contain sensitive information. Understanding the privacy of these data sets is key to their broad use and, ultimately, their impact. We study 3 months of credit card records for 1.1 million people and show that four spatiotemporal points are enough to uniquely reidentify 90% of individuals. We show that knowing the price of a transaction increases the risk of reidentification by 22%, on average. Finally, we show that even data sets that provide coarse information at any or all of the dimensions provide little anonymity and that women are more reidentifiable than men in credit card metadata. PMID:25635097

  10. MALL in the Wild: Learners' Designs for Scaffolding Vocabulary Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Joshua; Luckin, Rosemary; Winters, Niall

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to inform the design of mobile apps for vocabulary learning. Learning vocabulary involves developing, connecting, and sustaining various types of knowledge and skills. Learners do not typically acquire these all at once, but rather over the course of distinct episodes of activity. Yet, little is known about learning experience…

  11. A Fresh Approach to Alternative Education: Using Malls to Reach At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Christopher Scott; Stelsel, Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Every 29 seconds, a U.S. student gives up on school. That's 124 students every hour; 2,979 every day; and more than 1 million every year. Most dropouts interviewed later in life stated they believe they could have succeeded in school if they had been given the right opportunity, and a special report in "Time" magazine reported "a full 88% of…

  12. Response to Comment on "Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata".

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2016-03-18

    Sánchez et al.'s textbook k-anonymization example does not prove, or even suggest, that location and other big-data data sets can be anonymized and of general use. The synthetic data set that they "successfully anonymize" bears no resemblance to modern high-dimensional data sets on which their methods fail. Moving forward, deidentification should not be considered a useful basis for policy. PMID:26989244

  13. Comment on "Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata".

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David; Martínez, Sergio; Domingo-Ferrer, Josep

    2016-03-18

    De Montjoye et al. (Reports, 30 January 2015, p. 536) claimed that most individuals can be reidentified from a deidentified transaction database and that anonymization mechanisms are not effective against reidentification. We demonstrate that anonymization can be performed by techniques well established in the literature. PMID:26989243

  14. 75 FR 1406 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Notice of Availability of an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... nation, dating from 1790. The study area contains a significant concentration of our Nation's memorials...: If you wish to comment, you may submit your comments online by visiting...

  15. Solar Decathlon 2011, The National Mall, Washington, D.C., Fall 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-04-01

    This brochure provides a high-level overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011-the competition's background, purpose, impact, 10 contests, 20 teams, and where to go for additional information.

  16. Using Audio Description to Improve FLL Students' Oral Competence in MALL: Methodological Preliminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibáñez Moreno, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, audiovisual products began to be audio described in order to make them accessible to blind and visually impaired people (Benecke, 2004). This means that visual information is orally described in the gaps between dialogues. In order to meet the wishes of the so-called On Demand (OD) generation that wants…

  17. Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, Not the Shopping Mall

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cause More Problems Than Chipped Teeth Dentists Tell Athletes Keep the Mouthguard, Take Out the Barbell Fast-paced Lifestyle Eroding Teens' Teeth So You Want to Pierce Your Tongue? Sports and Energy Drinks Responsible for Irreversible Damage to Teeth Start the ...

  18. From Call to Mall: The Effectiveness of Podcast on EFL Higher Education Students' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Qasim, Nada; Al Fadda, Hind

    2013-01-01

    Despite recognition that language can best be learned in an authentic context, and a growing emphasis on the importance of using technology to improve listening skills, only limited research in this area exists in a Saudi context. To add to this research, this quantitative study examines the influence of podcasting on the listening comprehension…

  19. Implementing Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in an EFL Context: Iranian EFL Teachers' Perspectives on Challenges and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has provided tremendous opportunities for language teachers to promote their computer literacy and adopt a learner-centered approach to teaching. Accordingly, with the rising advent of language learning technologies, language teachers would occupy a fundamental role in preparing and…

  20. "The Mall" and "the Plant": Choice and the Classed Construction of Possible Futures in Two Specialized Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; VanderDussen, Elena; Cairns, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how conceptions of choice and visions of the future are constructed within the context of specialized arts programs in two Canadian public high schools. The authors consider how discourses of the arts are implicated in the way that possible futures are envisioned differently, delimiting the range of choices available to…

  1. From PPP and CALL/MALL to a Praxis of Task-Based Teaching and Mobile Assisted Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw

    2015-01-01

    Two of the most significant trends in TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) over the last twenty years or so are the rise of task­-based language teaching (TBLT) and the growth of technology. With TBLT there is a challenging of more traditional structure-based models of delivery, and the increased capacity and mobility of…

  2. 76 FR 66960 - Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the National Mall Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... architecture, freedom of speech, First Amendment rights, landscape architecture, history, law enforcement... protected and the large areas of open space that are defining features of the designed historic landscape will be better maintained. The landscape will evolve to accommodate contemporary uses while...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP41 and WASP47 photometric and RV data (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Diaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Segransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2015-10-01

    Photometric time-series obtained during transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-47b, and RV time-series obtained on WASP-41 and WASP-47. The photometric time-series were obtained using the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South, the TRAPPIST telescope and the 1.54-m Danish telescope. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE and the ESO/HARPS spectrographs. (7 data files).

  4. Solar Decathlon Visitors Guide 2011, National Mall, West Potomac Park, Washington, D.C., September 23 - October 2, 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Guide to the student-designed houses, ten contests, exhibits, and workshops of the U.S. Department of Energy 2011 Solar Decathlon, held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 through October 2, 2011. Teams of college students designed and built the solar-powered houses on display here. They represent 13 U.S. states, five countries, and four continents. Now the teams are rising to the challenge by competing in 10 contests over nine days, with the championship trophy on the line. This is their time to shine. The 2011 teams may share a common goal - to design and build the best energy-efficient house powered by the sun - but their strategies are different. One house is made of precast concrete, while another 'dances' in response to its environment. Another house is meant to sit atop a building, proving the sky's the limit for energy innovation. Whatever your idea of sustainable living may be, you are bound to find it at the Solar Decathlon.

  5. The Mall, the Library and the Church: Inquiring into the Resourcing of Early Learning through New Spaces and Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Rainbird, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Early learning has increasingly been the focus of social policy and programmes with a proliferation of public, community and commercial entities entering the field of production. Understanding this phenomenon requires educational researchers to conceptualise early learning both within a globalised network of circulating commodities and within…

  6. A Multimedia Web-based Teaching/Learning Environment: One-Stop Shopping in an Online Educational Mall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.; Levin, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of several years of designing and implementing a Web-based multimedia distance learning system at Nova Southeastern University. Includes the methodology used, design issues for the software and hardware environment, user interfaces, functional aspects of the system including controls used by both teacher and learner, the…

  7. A resolution to express the sense of the Senate regarding the importance of recycling and the inception of recycling on the National Mall.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-11-15

    11/15/2010 Referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7909) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Add School Spice: Stir Up Public Support for Your Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdziel, Henry P.; Elbrand, Marcia L.

    1984-01-01

    The South Euclid-Lyndhurst School District, Ohio, organized a week-long demonstration of actual classroom activities at the local shopping mall that increased sales on the mall and publicity for the schools. (MLF)

  9. Do Simple Warning Signs Enhance the Use of Stairs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksay, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of stairways/moving stairways in shopping malls and examine the extent to which simple warning signs determined whether people took the stairs. Design: Large posters that could readily be seen by mall visitors were situated between the stairs and moving stairways in shopping malls.…

  10. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Implementation Studies 1994-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, project implementation descriptions have accounted for the majority of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) publications, some 345 in total. Those interested in MALL applications thus need to read widely to acquire an adequate perspective of MALL implementations. The intent of this bibliography is to facilitate this…

  11. To authorize National Mall Liberty Fund D.C. to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor free persons and slaves who fought for independence, liberty, and justice for all during the American Revolution.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2011-06-14

    07/11/2012 CHANGE OF PRIMARY SPONSOR REQUEST - Mr. Butterfield asked unanimous consent that he be considered the primary sponsor of H.R. 2181 in lieu of the late Donald Payne from New Jersey. Agreed to without objection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. A resolution condemning the September 2013 terrorist attack at the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, Kenya, and reaffirming United States support for the people and Government of Kenya, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-10-11

    11/06/2013 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7888-7889) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. The Importance of Teaching Preservice Teachers To Interpret Media and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Katherine L.

    Preservice teachers must learn about the media's impact so that they can educate their future students on how to become more savvy consumers and understand the negative effects of advertising. Students in every grade level can learn not to believe everything they read and see. Because teenagers hang out at malls, malls tend to capitalize on…

  14. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-005-1679, Dutch Girl Cleaners, Springdale, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Todd, W.

    1986-03-01

    An environmental survey at Dutch Girl Cleaners in the Thriftway Mini Mall, Springdale, Ohio, was conducted on October 25, 1985, and air samples collected on October 30, 1985 from the cleaners, an adjacent supermarket and the enclosed pedestrian mall were analyzed for perchloroethylene.

  15. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  16. Vocabulary Learning by Mobile-Assisted Authentic Content Creation and Social Meaning-Making: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, L-H.; Looi, C-K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed the concomitant rise of communicative and contextualized approaches as well as the paradigmatic development of the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) framework in analysing language learning. The focus of MALL research has gradually shifted from content-based (delivery of learning content through mobile…

  17. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  18. Mobile Assisted Language Learning: Review of the Recent Applications of Emerging Mobile Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-01-01

    As mobile computing technologies have been more powerful and inclusive in people's daily life, the issue of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has also been widely explored in CALL research. Many researches on MALL consider the emerging mobile technologies have considerable potentials for the effective language learning. This review study…

  19. Mobile Assisted Language Learning in University EFL Courses in Japan: Developing Attitudes and Skills for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Mutsumi; Ishikawa, Yasushige; Smith, Craig; Sakamoto, Kishio; Shimomura, Hidenori; Wada, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a project in which researchers at universities in Japan explored the use of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) practices by developing a learning module intended to help improve students' scores on the TOEIC Listening and Reading Tests. MALL practices are currently being developed at universities in Japan because almost…

  20. H.R.2181 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) To authorize National Mall Liberty Fund D.C. to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor free persons and slaves who fought for independence, liberty, and justice for...

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2011-06-14

    07/11/2012 CHANGE OF PRIMARY SPONSOR REQUEST - Mr. Butterfield asked unanimous consent that he be considered the primary sponsor of H.R. 2181 in lieu of the late Donald Payne from New Jersey. Agreed to without objection. (All Actions)

  1. Solar Decathlon 2002: The Event in Review

    SciTech Connect

    Eastment, M.; Hayter, S.; Nahan, R.; Stafford, B.; Warner, C.; Hancock, E.; Howard, R.

    2004-06-01

    This book describes the first Solar Decathlon, a competition for college and university students, which took place on the National Mall in fall 2002. Student teams competed to design, build, and operate the most attractive, energy-efficient house that used only solar energy. In addition to the competition, the Solar Decathlon was also a public event. The book describes the events on the Mall, including technical details about the ten contests that comprised the competition and descriptions of the public's and the media's responses to the event. The book also provides information about the student teams' activities in the year and a half before they arrived to compete on the Mall.

  2. 26 CFR 1.469-4 - Definition of activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a movie theater at a shopping mall in Baltimore and in a bakery and a movie theater in Philadelphia... and circumstances, the following groupings may or may not be permissible: a single activity; a...

  3. 26 CFR 1.469-4 - Definition of activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a movie theater at a shopping mall in Baltimore and in a bakery and a movie theater in Philadelphia... and circumstances, the following groupings may or may not be permissible: a single activity; a...

  4. 26 CFR 1.469-4 - Definition of activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a movie theater at a shopping mall in Baltimore and in a bakery and a movie theater in Philadelphia... and circumstances, the following groupings may or may not be permissible: a single activity; a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.469-4 - Definition of activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a movie theater at a shopping mall in Baltimore and in a bakery and a movie theater in Philadelphia... and circumstances, the following groupings may or may not be permissible: a single activity; a...

  6. How to Spot the Warning Signs of Heat Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIA explains. Those who lack access to air conditioning or transportation, who can't move around, wear ... the NIA advises. Those who don't have air conditioning should go to a mall, senior center, library ...

  7. The Case for Architecture by Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Multiple-architect designs and a preservative of chain-store identities accomplish visual variety for a one-of-a-kind campus at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, and an enclosed shopping mall in Los Cerritos, California. (Author)

  8. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SMALL CHAMBER FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses exposure generation considerations prior to implementation of sensory irritation bioassays for product emissions. mall chambers are used to generate source emissions from products for chemical and biological evaluation. esign of the source emissions chamber an...

  9. 29 CFR 1952.216 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room N3700....S. Department of Labor, The Curtis Center, 170 South Independence Mall West—Suite 740...

  10. 29 CFR 1952.216 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room N3700....S. Department of Labor, The Curtis Center, 170 South Independence Mall West—Suite 740...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.216 - Where the plan may be inspected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Room N3700....S. Department of Labor, The Curtis Center, 170 South Independence Mall West—Suite 740...

  12. Public staircase (ST2), looking north (bearing 20) from basement level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Public staircase (ST2), looking north (bearing 20) from basement level, with trash chute door open to right of frame. - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Daily Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... members who have small children, walk in the park or around schoolyards, go to school events, talk ... becoming too long. Go to a favorite restaurant, park, shopping mall, or museum. The Alzheimer’s Disease Education ...

  14. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about) the same object, which aids depth perception (how far away an object is) and is ... and jam-packed areas like shopping malls) depth perception disruptions that can affect hand-eye or eye- ...

  15. 6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST ALONG CAPITOL MALL - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... light activity such as cleaning house or playing baseball or golf 370 to 460 calories doing activity ... or karate class. You could also join a baseball or bowling team, or even a mall-walking ...

  17. 6. EAST CORNERShowing alley (southeastern) side and front. The Sixteenth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EAST CORNER--Showing alley (southeastern) side and front. The Sixteenth Street Mall is in the foreground. West - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. EXTRACTION OF SUGARS FROM ALGAE FOR DIRECT CONVERSION TO BUTANOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We will have a complete full scale design at the end of this project including algae growth and butanol production. Further, the group will have a working prototype for display at the National Mall.

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOVE THE POTOMAC RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOVE THE POTOMAC RIVER OVER THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND REFLECTING POOL TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT AND THE MALL BEYOND. - West Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking westsouthwest (bearing 250). Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Supreme Court Room (room 573), looking west-southwest (bearing 250). Not that missing scones are to be returned and presently obscured ceiling is proposed for restoration. - California State Library & Courts Building, 914 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. Creating Gyrangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2011-02-01

    One warm and sunny weekend last October, tens of thousands of people congregated on the National Mall in Washington, DC - not for a political rally or protest, but to attend the first ever US Science and Engineering Festival.

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, UNION PLAZA AND REFLECTING POOL AND THE BOTANIC GARDENS, LOOKING NORTH FROM OVER FIRST STREET, SW. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 78 FR 77708 - Notice of Continuation of Visitor Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Erichsen, Chief, Commercial Services Program, National Park Service, 1201 Eye Street NW., 11th Floor.... NACE003-86 Guest Services, Inc. National Mall and Memorial Parks. BLRI001-93 Southern Highland Blue...

  4. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  5. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you find yourself saying, “I used to enjoy gardening, cooking, and going to church. I don’t ... simple as walking the dog, yard work or gardening, or window shopping at the mall. Improve your ...

  6. Close view looking to left side of statue showing left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view looking to left side of statue showing left hand, shield, and laurel wreath - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Close view of statue showing her right hand on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of statue showing her right hand on the hilt of a sword - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Contradictions and Asides: A Social Critique of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iandoli, CeCe; Norris, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    Explores the sociocultural implications of the Internet: differences between analog and digital realities, knowledge versus facts, global connections versus individual isolation, ideal versus real self, equality versus privilege, and mall versus haven. (SK)

  9. UPGRADING TEXTILE OPERATIONS TO REDUCE POLLUTION - 2 VOLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This 2-volume set is oriented toward owners, managers, superintendents, and engineering and operating staffs of textile manufacturing facilities. mall industries can use this information to become acquainted with the various in-plant process modifications and control alternatives...

  10. View of Statue of Freedom atop the Capitol Dome but ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Statue of Freedom atop the Capitol Dome but under scaffolding - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Close view of statue showing the right side (with sword) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of statue showing the right side (with sword) and base - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Close view of the right side of statue looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of the right side of statue looking to head and crest - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. An Analysis of Wintertime Winds in Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-06-20

    This report consists of a description of the wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction around the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Meteorological data for this study were collected at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (Reagan National), Dulles International Airport (Dulles), and a set of surface meteorological stations that are located on a number of building tops around the National Mall. A five-year wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction measured at Reagan National and Dulles are presented. A more detailed analysis was completed for the period December 2003 through February 2004 using data gathered from stations located around the National Mall, Reagan National, and Dulles. Key findings of our study include the following: * There are systematic differences between the wind speed and wind direction observed at Reagan National and the wind speed and wind direction measured by building top weather stations located in the National Mall. Although Dulles is located much further from the National Mall than Reagan National, there is better agreement between the wind speed and wind direction measured at Dulles and the weather stations in the National Mall. * When the winds are light (less than 3 ms-1 or 7 mph), there are significant differences in the wind directions reported at the various weather stations within the Mall. * Although the mean characteristics of the wind are similar at the various locations, significant, short-term differences are found when the time series are compared. These differences have important implications for the dispersion of airborne contaminants. In support of wintertime special events in the area of the National Mall, we recommend placing four additional meteorological instruments: three additional surface stations, one on the east bank of the Potomac River, one south of the Reflecting Pool (to better define the flow within the Mall), and a surface station near the Herbert C. Hoover Building; and wind

  14. Preparation of carboxylic acid-bearing polysaccharide nanofiber made from euglenoid β-1,3-glucans.

    PubMed

    Shibakami, Motonari; Tsubouchi, Gen; Nakamura, Makoto; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2013-10-15

    This paper introduces a new strategy for creating surface modified polysaccharide nanofibers. To demonstrate proof of principle, the synthesis, structure, and self-assembly behavior of a carboxylic acid-bearing polysaccharide made from paramylon (β-1,3-glucan) and succinic anhydride were investigated. Examination by a combination of NMR, FT-IR, and SEC-MALLS confirmed that successful preparation of the desired succinylated paramylon without significant depolymerization. NMR, SEC-MALLS, visible absorption and CD spectroscopic analyses indicated that the paramylon derivative forms the triplex structure in solutions. SEM observation revealed that succinylated paramylon forms a nanofiber that has carboxylic acid on the surface. PMID:23987321

  15. Shopping for health information.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, M L; Mailander, N K; Danner, R A

    2000-01-01

    In this time of ongoing health care changes, consumers need to become better informed to actively participate in their health care decisions. As a result, hospital libraries are being challenged to address this need. Scottsdale Healthcare's Health Sciences Libraries have responded to this challenge by establishing a Health Information Center at the premiere shopping mall in the area. Implementing a Health Information Center at a mall is a unique way to bring medical information to the community. The purpose of this paper is to describe the planning process, the implementation, and the future vision of the Health Information Center at Scottsdale Fashion Square. PMID:11299612

  16. School Wellness in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The list of issues confronting education leaders today seems to be growing longer, with school wellness being pushed to the forefront by the surge in childhood obesity rates. Whether walking the halls of the schools or the local shopping mall, it is easy to see why society needs to adopt healthier lifestyles. That is why more community leaders,…

  17. A Typology of Tasks for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Recommendations from a Small-Scale Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Moonyoung; Slater, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In response to the research priorities of members of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), this study investigated language learners' realworld tasks in mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) to inform the future development of pedagogic tasks for academic English as a second language (ESL) courses. The data included…

  18. Designing and Experimenting of English Instructional Material for Facilitating Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Constructivism has emerged as one of the greatest influences on the practice of education in the last twenty-five years. Teachers have embraced constructivist-based pedagogy with an enthusiasm that is rare in these days of quick fixes and a shopping mall approach to school improvement. For many teachers, the focus on constructing…

  19. You're a "What"? Santa Claus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Professional Santas entertain children and adults during the holiday season at all types of events. They work at shopping malls or stores; entertain crowds at parades and tree lightings; and make appearances at holiday parties, charity events, and people's homes. Most Santas work during the Christmas holiday season, which usually lasts from late…

  20. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  1. Implementing Glossing in Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Environments: Directions and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hansol; Lee, Jang Ho

    2013-01-01

    While mobile technology, such as the touch-based smart-phone, has become part of our daily lives, research into and classroom practices surrounding mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) have generally not kept up with the pace of technological development. This situation may be caused in part by the fact that a considerable proportion of…

  2. Is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Really Useful? An Examination of Recall Automatization and Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takeshi; Murase, Fumiko; Burden, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the advantages of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL), especially vocabulary learning of English as a foreign or second language (L2) in terms of the two strands: automatization and learner autonomy. Previous studies articulate that technology-enhanced L2 learning could bring about some positive effects.…

  3. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  4. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... union participates in the construction of a shopping mall complex the lease shall cover only land where... its proposal until the appropriate regulatory agency has approved the requested charter change. (c... resulting from merger, acquisition, or change of control. When merger, acquisition, change of control...

  5. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... union participates in the construction of a shopping mall complex the lease shall cover only land where... its proposal until the appropriate regulatory agency has approved the requested charter change. (c... resulting from merger, acquisition, or change of control. When merger, acquisition, change of control...

  6. A Seamless Learning Design for Mobile Assisted Language Learning: An Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foomani, Elham Mohammadi; Hedayati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in information communication technology (ICT) have resulted in a paradigm shift in e-Learning and there is a growing interest in developing design-based research (DBR) focusing on learners and their involvement in knowledge sharing in a contextualized mode. The present study reports a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL)…

  7. At Your Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Marnie

    2000-01-01

    Describes Providence Place Academy in Rhode Island, the "School at the Mall" where students work for 90 minutes per day at various stores to learn about the retail industry while reinforcing what they learn in the retail/marketing-based curriculum and acquiring customer service skills. (JOW)

  8. Desirable Characteristics of a Counseling Agency: Report on a Focus Group Research Study for the Center for Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Joan T.; Yanos, Janet Hagan

    This study sought to identify characteristics of counselors and counseling services that are important in the selection of a counseling service. Subjects (N=28) were recruited through a newspaper advertisement and through mall intercepts. The screening criteria were designed to locate potential or previous counseling service consumers whose…

  9. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  10. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  11. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  12. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  13. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box 66), Philadelphia, PA 19105...—1801 Fifth Avenue, North (P.O. Box 830447), Birmingham, AL 35283-0447 Jacksonville Branch—800...

  14. Land and Native American Cultures: A Resource Guide for Teachers, Readings, Activities, and Sources, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blubaugh, Donelle; Borden, Carla, Ed.

    The educational materials in this resource guide were developed from information collected from the 1991 and 1994 Festival of American Folklife programs held at the National Mall in Washington, DC. The festivals were held in connection with the 500th anniversary of Spanish contact with the Americas and were celebrations of the diversity and…

  15. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT CITRUS PECTIN USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective was to investigate the use of ELS as a mass detector coupled with MALLS for determining the molecular weights of pectins and other polysaccharides under changing buffer concentrations using HPLC. This would permit the direct determination of the charge to size ratio of pectin which is imp...

  16. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  17. Generative Teaching and Learning of Economic Concepts: A Sample Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a scripted lesson plan for intermediate grades, based on M.C. Wittrock's model of generative teaching derived from brain lateralization research. Uses a shopping mall as the setting for hypothetical dilemmas. Offers a combination of verbal and imagined strategies that improve students' economic reasoning and teaches cost-benefit analysis.…

  18. An Investigation of Preservice English Teachers' Perceptions of Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preservice English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' perceptions about mobile assisted language learning (MALL) and find out whether their perceptions differed by gender, grade level and grade point average (GPA). The study also sought to determine whether gender, grade level and GPA variables would predict…

  19. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  20. Merging the Community & Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Douglas M.; Joyce, Kay

    2001-01-01

    An abandoned downtown shopping mall in Burnsville, Minnesota, was transformed into an innovative senior campus that also relieved overcrowding at the main facility. Seniors pursued "community-connections" experiences via programs involving mass media, the transit authority, the battered women's shelter, public affairs, creative writing, and…

  1. "We Don't Live like that Anymore": Native Peoples at the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, an annual event on the National Mall featuring tradition bearers from around the country, premiered a new American Indian program that combined presentations of Native traditions with panel discussions of contemporary social, political, and economic issues facing Native…

  2. Block Building for Children: Making Buildings of the World with the Ultimate Construction Toy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lester

    This book presents a series of projects for children of all levels of expertise, beginning with abstract patterns, rows, and towers and progressing to step-by-step instructions for 18 projects, including a bridge, boat dock, airport, shopping mall, skyscraper, castle, Greek temple, Toy Store City, City of the Future, and The Emerald City of Oz.…

  3. Mobile Language Learning: More than Just "The Platform"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballance, Oliver James

    2012-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is attracting a great deal of attention at present (Stockwell & Sotillo, 2011). However, it is important that teacher and researcher exploitation of technological developments be guided by more than just enthusiasm. "Language Learning & Technology's" commitment to empirical studies is admirable but, for…

  4. Approach to the Phenomenon of M-Learning in English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Sergio; Fombona, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This research analyzes the situation of mobile devices and some specific options of support for the teaching of the English language. The features of this complex and novel phenomenon of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) are addressed with an exploratory descriptive methodology. The article is part of a more extensive research which deals…

  5. Toward Mobile Assisted Language Learning Apps for Professionals That Integrate Learning into the Daily Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Read, Timothy; Rodríguez-Arancón, Pilar; Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Martín-Monje, Elena; Bárcena, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this short paper, we present some initial work on Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) undertaken by the ATLAS research group. ATLAS embraced this multidisciplinary field cutting across Mobile Learning and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as a natural step in their quest to find learning formulas for professional English that…

  6. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  7. Effect of Soil Water Potential on Growth of Apple Trees Infected with Pratylenchus penetrans.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, B A; Mai, W F

    1979-04-01

    Malling-Merton 106 apple rootstocks inoculated with Pratylenchus penetrans, or uninoculated, were grown in a growth chamber in pots of loamy sand maintained at two moisture levels, 0 to -0.4 bar or 0 to -10 bars. Either inoculation or low soil moisture suppressed shoot growth and increased root necrosis. However, the nematode-soil moisture interaction was not significant. PMID:19305552

  8. Visualizing Separations: How Shopping Can Be Useful for Introducing Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    A trip to the mall is used as a classroom demonstration to illustrate the fundamentals of separations without the need for chemicals or any chemistry background. Student volunteers are the "mixture", and depending on the shopping list they have been given, they spend varying amounts of time in the "stores" versus moving through…

  9. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATIONS IN UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PIPELINES CONTAINING GASOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common method of detecting a small leak in a pressurized underground Storage tank pipeline system containing petroleum is to monitor the pressure in the line. eak is declared if the pressure drops below a specified threshold pressure. mall changes in the temperature of the prod...

  10. Students' Personal and Social Meaning Making in a Chinese Idiom Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Tan, Chee-Lay; Liu, May

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design research study in Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) that emphasizes learner created content and contextualized meaning making. In learning Chinese idioms, students proactively used smartphones on a 1:1 basis to capture photos of the real-life contexts pertaining to the idioms, and to construct sentences…

  11. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  12. International Briefing 26: Training and Development in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udani, Zenon Arthur S.; Sunio, Varsolo C.; Dado, Raul H.; Udani, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines has a population of more than 94 million. In addition, 10 million Filipinos work and live overseas. Filipino talent is ubiquitous overseas, working in offices, universities, hotels and restaurants, factories, shopping malls, theaters and arenas, and private homes around the world. The country's projected high rate of economic…

  13. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  14. Shopping center wheelchair accessibility: ongoing advocacy to implement the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

    PubMed

    McClain, L

    2000-01-01

    Although the regulations of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 were phased in by 1992, monitoring and enforcement continue to be problematic. This study of three large shopping centers in the Southwest included one mall that was opened in the mid-1990s, and two malls that were constructed prior to the law (but have undergone recent renovations). Use of the ADA Accessibility Guidelines Checklist for Buildings and Facilities (Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board [ATBCB], 1992) generated data which were analyzed descriptively to determine the frequency and percent compliance in: parking lots, entrances, ramps, elevators, telephones, restrooms, food courts, and 12 specific store-types. No mall was fully compliant in any area, other than telephone specifications. In other areas, compliance ranged from 0% (ramp slopes in the newer mall) to many areas of 100% compliance (for example, outdoor curb ramps and food court seating spaces and aisles). The implications are that shoppers who are wheelchair mobile cannot count on complete compliance and cannot predict which physical architectural barriers they will find in shopping centers. PMID:10840287

  15. When the School Is a Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Describes two new vocational schools--the Laurel Oaks Educational Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, where glass-walled classrooms look out on a mall to promote community, and the Tulsa, Oklahoma, Technology Center that will include two jet-sized hangars, a runway, and a pressure chamber to measure the physical effects of altitude. (JOW)

  16. VIEW AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING THROUGH PILOTIS OF THE FORRESTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING THROUGH PILOTIS OF THE FORRESTAL BUILDING ACROSS INDEPENDENCE AVENUE TO THE NATIONAL MALL AND SMITHSONIAN CASTLE BEYOND - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. VIEW FROM BENEATH THE FORRESTAL BUILDING LOOKING TO THE NATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM BENEATH THE FORRESTAL BUILDING LOOKING TO THE NATIONAL MALL AND SMITHSONIAN CASTLE - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Branded Food Service Operations Come in Different Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes how one university got out of the food business and leased space in its student union comparable to the way that a mall food court leases space. The university acts as a commercial property owner and lessor, collects rent, pays the utility bills, services tenants, and aspires to break even. (RJM)

  19. Saving Old Merritt: An Oakland Neighborhood Preserves a Landmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    A North Oakland (California) neighborhood spent years convincing the city to convert an old college building into a senior center, housing, a park, and an African American cultural center instead of replacing it with a strip mall. Community strategies included publishing a monthly newsletter, attending meetings, replacing city politicians, and…

  20. Using the Student Edition of Update on Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides accompanying learning activities for each of the articles in the same issue. The brief articles address a number of legal issues concerning young people including dress codes, teen smoking, curfews, restricted areas (such as the mall), and child labor. Includes a law term crossword puzzle. (MJP)

  1. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  2. An Education Broker Toolset for Web Course Customization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Christian; Bodendorf, Freimut

    Within an electronic education market, an electronic education mall is defined as a virtual service center to support various transaction processes by providing a technological platform with appropriate value-added services and interfaces for suppliers and customers. In this context, an education broker service is of central importance, because…

  3. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  4. Polishing the Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodhead, Charles W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the methods a school board used to recruit students for its vocational education programs. Methods include buying radio time and running public service announcements on radio, newspaper advertisements, direct mail, billboards, newsletters, slide/tape presentations, brochures, displays at shopping malls, and promotional items (calendars,…

  5. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  6. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  7. A Place in the Sun: Groundbreaking on the National Museum of the American Indian Puts Native Peoples in Nation's Cultural Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Tanya

    1999-01-01

    Describes development of the National Museum of the American Indian, which was established by Congress in 1989 and will open in late 2002. Part of the Smithsonian, the museum will occupy 250,000 square feet on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., and will highlight the historic and contemporary accomplishments of Native peoples throughout the…

  8. 28 CFR 36.406 - Standards for new construction and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., element, facility, space, story. 36.401(d)(1)(ii), 36.404(a)(2): shopping center or shopping mall 36.401(d...). Elevator Exemption 36.401(d) 36.404 4.1.3(5). Other Exceptions 4.1.1(5), 4.1.3(5) and...

  9. Effects of Verbal Components in 3D Talking-Head on Pronunciation Learning among Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah; Hoe, Tan Wee

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the benefit of inclusion of various verbal elements in 3D talking-head on pronunciation learning among non-native speakers. In particular, the study examines the effects of three different multimedia presentation strategies in 3D talking-head Mobile-Assisted-Language-Learning (MALL) on the learning…

  10. How Many Chips off the Old Block?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Students analyze a photograph to solve mathematical questions related to the images captured in the photograph. This month, photographs of a massive sculpture near the National Mall in Washington, D.C., provide opportunities for counting problems, generalizing from a pattern, and fitting a quadratic to data.

  11. From Cafeteria to Cafe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    If school architects, cafeteria designers, and some food service personnel have their way, the long, grey serving line characterizing most school cafeterias will go the way of meatloaf and mashed potatoes. This means booths and restaurant-like tables, school colors, brightly lit menu boards, windows overlooking courtyards, and mall-like…

  12. Four Cost Effective, Practical Building Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Mall-fashioned school teaches shoppers'' the art of living. New Campus plan is developed in old railroad yard. Rhode Island school is remodeled and an addition built in one short summer. School turned inside out to solve problems of security, heat, and money. (Author)

  13. LOCAL AND GLOBAL THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES TO MRI ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. exposure guidelines restrict core temperature (Tc) from increasing over 1.0 degrees C and skin temperature (Tsk) from exceeding 40 degrees C during MR. mall number of studies suggest that these limits are not reached in most clinical scans. AR's of < 0.4 W/kg have li...

  14. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1999 NE-183 regional project planting: II. Fruit quality characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit quality performance of 23 apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cultivars and/or numbered selections on Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock was evaluated over four growing seasons at 12 locations across North America as part of the NE-183 Regional Project, "Multid sciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Culti...

  15. Cultural Connections: Celebrating Creativity around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley-Green, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The International Child Art Festival, sponsored by the International Child Art Foundation, was held September 9-12, 2003, on the National Mall in Washington, DC. The three-day event was a celebration of the creativity of youth around the world. This article briefly describes the highlights of the this festival.

  16. Festival of American Folklife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Theodore P.

    1976-01-01

    The "Festival of American Folklife in 1976 was the largest cultural event of its kind ever held". Describes the Festival programs representing the diverse cultural groups who displayed their traditions and skills at the Mall between the Lincoln and Washington monuments during the summer of 1976. (Author/RK)

  17. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  18. President Ronald Reagan speaks at STS 51-L Memorial service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan tells a large turnout of JSC employees and family and friends of the 51-L crewmembers about their accomplishments and sacrifices during memorial services held following the Challenger accident at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).'They slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God' the President told the thousands gathered on the central mall at JSC.

  19. Solar Decathlon: Powered by the Sun (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    The Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition to design and build the most energy efficient, solar-powered house. It is also an event on the National Mall in Washington D.C. to which the public is invited. This gatefold brochure describes the Solar Decathlon 2005 competition and event, including a schedule of activities.

  20. Underneath Hypercapitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2007-01-01

    As Joel Spring's (2007/this issue) description of Singapore's Orchard Road suggests, Benetton, Zara, Nike, BMW, LG, and Microsoft dominate the visual and textual landscape where signage, advertising, packaging, labeling, and the environments of the connected underground malls and walkways merge into a wall-to-wall, 24/7 print and visual…

  1. Mobile-Assisted Grammar Exercises: Effects on Self-Editing in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhi; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the development and implementation of a web-based mobile application, "Grammar Clinic," for an ESL writing class. Drawing on insights from the interactionist approach to Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the Noticing Hypothesis, and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), "Grammar Clinic" was…

  2. Diploma Mills. Degrees of Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; Spille, Henry A.

    Drawing on nearly 6 years of findings by the American Council of Education's Center for Adult Learning and Educational Credentials, this book exposes the techniques that diploma mills (shadowy educational institutions with addresses ranging from shopping malls to post office boxes) use to lure prospective students. Explanations of how many of…

  3. A University Center Leverages Resources and Provides Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baus, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    A parade of people composed of young mothers, young professionals, middle-aged men and women and elder South Carolinians are marching across the parking lot into the former McAlister Square Mall. They have access to higher education because higher education has come to them--not in the form of a traditional campus but as the concrete realization…

  4. In the Country of Anythink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the sprawling Denver International Airport, there's little to put Adams County, Colorado, on the map. The region's light rail only stretches south, so Adams County, a mostly working-class zone to the northeast, has come late to growth. There's no central city; the community is dominated by strip malls, big-box stores, and new developments.…

  5. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  6. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  7. Monitoring and Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Sanem, Julia R.; Adams, Monica L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws,…

  8. Opening the Doors: Engaging Young Children in the Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Thinking about three- to six-year-olds rarely brings to mind an image of young children engaged in conversation in the formal setting of an art museum, yet these are actual comments made by preschoolers and kindergartners who spend time on the Mall in Washington, DC, visiting museums as part of their early childhood program. Today, an increasing…

  9. Ming aralia (Polyscias fruticosa), a new host of phytoplasma subgroup 16SrVII-B 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'- related strains, in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ming aralia (Polyscias fruticosa) plants affected by a disease (ming aralia little leaf (MaLL)) in Brazil were observed to exhibit symptoms of yellowing and abnormally small leaves, indicative of the presence of a phytoplasma in the diseased plants. Amplification of DNA in PCRs, containing template ...

  10. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency Air Docket (6102), Attn: Docket No. A-96-O8, Waterside Mall, 401 M. St. SW., Washington DC... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental...

  11. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency Air Docket (6102), Attn: Docket No. A-96-O8, Waterside Mall, 401 M. St. SW., Washington DC... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental...

  12. 40 CFR 68.115 - Threshold determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency Air Docket (6102), Attn: Docket No. A-96-O8, Waterside Mall, 401 M. St. SW., Washington DC... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Environmental...

  13. Consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to conduct a consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program, together with some commercial varieties. A total of 153 mall intercept interviews were conducted with a random sample of fresh citrus fruit consumers in three markets: ...

  14. Public Relations Strategies for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Riley, Tracy

    1991-01-01

    Strategies useful in a public relations campaign for gifted education include mass media (such as television, newspapers, and brochures); interpersonal communication (including telephone hotlines, direct mail, and workshops); and special events (such as contests, proclamations, sponsorships, and booths at malls and civic events). (JDD)

  15. Geothermal heat, BAS controls: a capitol investment for Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    At the Capitol Mall in Boise, the old old problem of space heating has been solved by a marriage of old and new technologies: a geothermal heating system and a high-tech building automation system (BAS). The result is savings of more than $200,000 a year in natural gas costs.

  16. Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a health care provider's order. Yet this test that was once used solely by medical professionals is now being utilized by businesses in strip malls and shopping centers to sell keepsake prenatal portraits and videos. Using technology that allows parents to see high-resolution three- ...

  17. The reluctant entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Veit, K

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a lot of corporate executives, Ken Veit never longed to be his own boss. But after 30 years on the fast track, he lost his high-powered job at one of the world's largest insurance companies and was forced to take an entrepreneurial leap of faith. In 1989, Veit signed a franchise agreement to own and operate a Cartoon Corner store in a mall in Scottsdale, Arizona. Cartoon Corner was based on the Disney store idea, but it carried hundreds of products featuring cartoon characters from every movie studio. Most important, Cartoon Corner offered extensive training and an elaborate management support system for its franchisees. The company planned to franchise 100 stores over the next few years, then go public. If all went well, its young executives claimed, the Cartoon Corner chain would build a market valuation of up to $100 million by the mid-1990s. In addition, the mall, which was in the planning stages when Veit signed on, was supposed to become a new kind of entertainment mall, with seven movie theaters, a space-flight simulator, and a shark-filled aquarium. It had all sounded too good to be true--and it was. Despite Veit's careful forecasting, he suffered a series of unexpected catastrophes. The mall failed to keep its promises. The franchisor lost its venture capital. The Gulf War dried up retail traffic. But it was too late to back out. Veit went forward on his own, truly alone for the first time in his life. When the mall and his store finally opened in May 1991, they did so in the midst of a recession. Despite the inspirational stories of other former executives, Veit has learned that the life of an entrepreneur is not all it's cracked up to be. As he notes, "I began with well-above-average experience, a proven concept, and excellent capitalization, yet in my case, personal bankruptcy remains a distinct possibility." PMID:10122691

  18. Deep optical spectroscopy of extended Lyα emission around three radio-quiet z = 4.5 quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbin, F.; North, P.; Eigenbrod, A.; Chelouche, D.

    2008-09-01

    We report the first results of a spectroscopic search for Lyα envelopes around three z˜4.5 radio-quiet quasars. Our observational strategy adopts the FORS2 spectrograph mounted to the UT1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the multi-slit mode. This allows us to observe simultaneously the quasars and several PSF stars. The spectra of the latter are used to remove the point-like quasar from the data, and to unveil the faint underlying Lyα envelopes associated with the quasars to unprecedented depth. We clearly detect an envelope around two of the three quasars. The sizes of these envelopes are 10´´ and 13´´ (i.e. 67 kpc and 87 kpc). This is 5 to 10 times larger than predicted by the models of Haiman & Rees (2001, ApJ, 556, 87) and up to 100 times fainter. Our observations are in more robust agreement with models involving a clumpy envelope such as Alam & Miralda-Escudé (2002, ApJ, 568, 576) or Chelouche et al. (2007, ApJ, submitted). We find that the brighter quasars also have the brighter envelopes but that the extent of the envelopes does not depend on the quasar luminosity. Although our results are based on only two objects with a detected Lyα envelope, the quality of the spatial deblending of the spectra lends considerable for hope to estimating the luminosity function and surface brightness profiles of high redshift Lyα envelopes down to F˜ 2-3 × 10-21 erg s-1 cm-2 Å-1. We conclude that the most efficient strategy for studying high redshift Lyα quasar envelopes is to acquire both narrow-band images and deep slit-spectra. Based on observations made with the FORS2 multi-object spectrograph mounted on the Antu VLT telescope at ESO-Paranal Observatory (programme 079.B-0132B; PI: P. North).

  19. Towards determination of absolute molar mass of cellulose polymer by size exclusion chromatography with mulitple angle laser light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Thomas, Jacob L; Łojewski, Tomasz; Milczarek, Jakub M; Łojewska, Joanna

    2015-08-28

    The study focuses on determination of a set of crucial parameters for molar mass calculation of cellulose from the results of size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors. In the present work, cellulose has been derivatised to obtain cellulose tricarbanilate (CTC) soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The parameters of Rayleigh scattering in the MALLS detector: refractive index increment (dn/dc) and second virial coefficient (A2) of CTC in THF were determined for laser wavelength 658nm. In order to avoid errors resulting from cellulose derivatisation by-products present in the CTC solution, the so called "on-line" method of measuring dn/dc and A2 was applied. Based on the A2 determination, its influence on cellulose molar mass calculations and cellulose molecular dimensions were critically assessed. The latter includes evaluation of artificially aged cellulose towards conceivable branching by conformation plot analysis. PMID:26210115

  20. Astronomy in my shopping cart: Today I bought some asteroids, hundreds of black holes and three Solar Systems!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccato, C.; Lazzaretto, E.

    2008-06-01

    Here we will present a pilot project that will be tested and developed throughout 2007/08 in advance of the International Year of Astronomy. Why "putting astronomy in the shopping cart"? The aim of the project is to publicise astrophysics at a popular level, choosing a place that best matches the meaning of the word `popular': the shopping mall. With this project we want to arouse consumer interest in science, making use of the supermarket inside any shopping mall: a place people are familiar with and where they find common consumer goods. The final purpose is to give our science consumer the chance to bring home shopping bags filled not only with consumer goods, but also with a piece of knowledge about astronomy, astrophysics and the way astronomers work and think to understand the Universe and its phenomena.

  1. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  2. Evaluating the impact of different exogenous factors on silk textiles deterioration with use of size exclusion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Smoleń, Mariusz; Aksamit-Koperska, Monika A.; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), especially coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is a powerful tool in diagnostics of deterioration of historic and art objects to evaluate their condition. In this paper, SEC-UV-MALLS-DRI technique was applied to study degradation of silk fibroin samples ( Bombyx mori) artificially aged under various conditions: in the presence of oxygen, in different amount of water vapour and in volatile organic products (VOCs), all at temperature of 90 °C. Conditions were chosen in such a way that it mimicked real conditions of textiles' storing during exhibitions and in show cases. The influence of temperature, moisture and VOCs content on the state of silk textiles was examined with the use of size exclusion chromatography. Pseudo-zero-order Ekenstam equation was applied to study degradation rates of fibroin with use of the approximated values of DP of fibroin.

  3. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  4. Analytical Analysis and Case Study of Transient Behavior of Inrush Current in Power Transformer for Designing of Efficient Circuit Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmanpreet, Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Parneet

    2010-11-01

    Stability & security are main aspects in electrical power systems. Transformer protection is major issue of concern to system operation. There are many mall-trip cases of transformer protection are caused by inrush current problems. The phenomenon of transformer inrush current has been discussed in many papers since 1958. In this paper analytical analysis of inrush current in a transformer switched on dc and ac supply has been done. This analysis will help in design aspects of circuit breakers for better performance.

  5. PAZAR: a framework for collection and dissemination of cis-regulatory sequence annotation

    PubMed Central

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Kirov, Stefan; Lim, Jonathan; Lithwick, Stuart; Swanson, Magdalena I; Ticoll, Amy; Snoddy, Jay; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2007-01-01

    PAZAR is an open-access and open-source database of transcription factor and regulatory sequence annotation with associated web interface and programming tools for data submission and extraction. Curated boutique data collections can be maintained and disseminated through the unified schema of the mall-like PAZAR repository. The Pleiades Promoter Project collection of brain-linked regulatory sequences is introduced to demonstrate the depth of annotation possible within PAZAR. PAZAR, located at , is open for business. PMID:17916232

  6. Pretoria Centre Reaches Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    On 5 July 2014 six members of the Pretoria Centre of ASSA braved the light pollution of one of the shopping malls in Centurion to reach out to shoppers a la John Dobson and to show them the moon, Mars and Saturn. Although the centre hosts regular monthly public observing evenings, it was felt that we should take astronomy to the people rather than wait for the people to come to us.

  7. Visitors Center Educational Programs (Living and Working in Space)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Educational programs at the John C. Stennis Space Center Visitors Center reach more than 30,000 students in grades K-8 each year. Pictured above, a Stennis tour guide conducts a Living and Working in Space program for children at a local mall. This program, and others designed for specific age levels, is offered throughout the school year and summer for visiting students and youth groups.

  8. Small Heat Shock Protein Responses Differ between Chaparral Shrubs from Contrasting Microclimates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knight, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Smore » mall heat shock protein (sHsp) responses were studied for two evergreen perennial shrubs in the northern California chaparral; one common on warm, south-facing slopes ( Ceanothus cuneatus ), and the other on cooler, north-facing slopes ( Prunus ilicifolia ).mall Hsp expression was induced experimentally for field collected leaves. Leaf collections were made where the species co-occur.mall Hsp expression was quantified using two antibodies, one specific to a chloroplast 22 kD sHsp and another that detects a broad range of sHsps. Differences between chloroplast sHsp accumulation, which protects thermally labile proteins in PSII, and the general sHsp response were examined. The species from the cooler microclimate, Prunus , had a lower induction temperature and accumulated greater levels of sHsps at low temperatures. Both Prunus and Ceanothus reached peak sHsp expression at 42 ∘ C . The species from the warmer microclimate, Ceanothus , had greater sHsp expression at higher temperatures. Chloroplast sHsp expression generally tracked sHsp expression in Ceanothus , but in Prunus general Hsps were elevated before chloroplast sHsps. Variation between species for sHsp expression (induction temperatures, accumulation levels, and the duration of expression) coupled with the costs of Hsp synthesis, may contribute to differences in the abundance and distribution of plants across environmental gradients.« less

  9. Molecular investigations of flaxseed mucilage polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roulard, Romain; Petit, Emmanuel; Mesnard, François; Rhazi, Larbi

    2016-05-01

    The molecular properties of flaxseed mucilage were determined using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector coupled on-line to size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). Water and salt solution were tested as mobile phases. The SEC-MALLS method gave partial information and enabled molecular characterization of disaggregated mucilage molecules. Regardless of the eluent used, the observed Mw ranged from about 1.6 × 10(6) to more than 10 × 10(6) g/mol for mucilage polysaccharides. The AF4-MALLS system enabled a complete analysis of mucilage carbohydrate aggregates in water, in which two populations were satisfactorily separated. The molecular weight distribution (MWD) of molecules ranged from 1.5 × 10(6) to more than 4 × 10(8) g/mol. Experiments showed that the conformational structure of mucilage molecules was strongly influenced by ionic strength. Mucilage carbohydrates exhibited a spherical and compact structure in NaCl solution while they displayed a random-coil conformation in water. PMID:26851358

  10. Size-exclusion chromatography of ultrahigh molecular weight methylcellulose ethers and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers for reliable molecular weight distribution characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Shen, Hongwei; Lyons, John W; Sammler, Robert L; Brackhagen, Meinolf; Meunier, David M

    2016-03-15

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors was employed for determination of the molecular weight distributions (MWD) of methylcellulose ethers (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers (HPMC) having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 20 to more than 1,000kg/mol. In comparison to previous work involving right-angle light scattering (RALS) and a viscometer for MWD characterization of MC and HPMC, MALLS yields more reliable molecular weight for materials having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) exceeding about 300kg/mol. A non-ideal SEC separation was observed for cellulose ethers with Mw>800kg/mol, and was manifested by upward divergence of logM vs. elution volume (EV) at larger elution volume at typical SEC flow rate such as 1.0mL/min. As such, the number-average molecular weight (Mn) determined for the sample was erroneously large and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) was erroneously small. This non-ideality resulting in the late elution of high molecular weight chains could be due to the elongation of polymer chains when experimental conditions yield Deborah numbers (De) exceeding 0.5. Non-idealities were eliminated when sufficiently low flow rates were used. Thus, using carefully selected experimental conditions, SEC coupled with MALLS and DRI can provide reliable MWD characterization of MC and HPMC covering the entire ranges of compositions and molecular weights of commercial interest. PMID:26794765

  11. Partnership Brings Educational Exhibits, Events, and Resources from Seven National Research Laboratories to the Public in a New Retail Center: The Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R.; Carbone, L.; Vangundy, S.; Adams, L.; Becker, K.; Cobabe-Ammanns, E.; Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.; Foy, R.; Himes, C.; Howell, C.; Knight, C.; Morehouse, R.; Koch, L.; O'Brian, T.; Rooney, J.; Schassburger, P.

    2006-12-01

    Federally Funded Research and Development Centers and universities are challenged to disseminate their educational resources to national audiences, let alone to find ways to collaborate with each other while engaging with the schools and public in their local communities. A unique new partnership involving seven world renowned research laboratories and a commercial land developer in the Denver Metropolitan is celebrating the unveiling of exhibits, web kiosk portals, and public science education events in a shopping mall. The October 2006 opening of the Twenty Ninth Street retail sales center (formerly Crossroad Mall) in Boulder, Colorado, has revitalized 60 acres in the heart of the city. It offers outdoor plazas that accommodate science education installations and lab-sponsored public events. The goal of the partnership is to celebrate the long-standing contributions of research laboratories to the community, increase awareness of each institution's mission, and entice visitors of all ages to learn more about science, mathematics, engineering, technology and related educational opportunities and careers. We describe how the public is responding to the Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street, summarize lessons learned about this ambitious science education collaboration, and plans to sustain public and the K-12 community interest into the future. Partners in the Wonders of Science at Twenty Ninth Street include the JILA at the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Institute for Science and Technology, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Space Science Institute, and Westcor, the shopping mall's developer.

  12. A rapid and accurate method for the quantitative estimation of natural polysaccharides and their fractions using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-26

    In this study, a rapid and accurate method for quantitative analysis of natural polysaccharides and their different fractions was developed. Firstly, high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was utilized to separate natural polysaccharides. And then the molecular masses of their fractions were determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Finally, quantification of polysaccharides or their fractions was performed based on their response to refractive index detector (RID) and their universal refractive index increment (dn/dc). Accuracy of the developed method for the quantification of individual and mixed polysaccharide standards, including konjac glucomannan, CM-arabinan, xyloglucan, larch arabinogalactan, oat β-glucan, dextran (410, 270, and 25 kDa), mixed xyloglucan and CM-arabinan, and mixed dextran 270 K and CM-arabinan was determined, and their average recoveries were between 90.6% and 98.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were ranging from 10.68 to 20.25 μg/mL, and 42.70 to 68.85 μg/mL, respectively. Comparing to the conventional phenol sulfuric acid assay and HPSEC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPSEC-ELSD) analysis, the developed HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions is much more simple, rapid, and accurate with no need of individual polysaccharide standard, as well as free of calibration curve. The developed method was also successfully utilized for quantitative analysis of polysaccharides and their different fractions from three medicinal plants of Panax genus, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius. The results suggested that the HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc could be used as a routine technique for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions in natural resources. PMID:25990349

  13. Lessons from an Evaluation of a Provincial-Level Smoking Control Policy in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Gao, Junling; Zhang, Zhixing; Wei, Minqi; Zheng, Pinpin; Nehl, Eric J.; Wong, Frank Y.; Berg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Shanghai Public Places Smoking Control Legislation was implemented in March 2010 as the first provincial-level legislation promoting smoke-free public places in China. Objective To evaluate the compliance with this policy as well as its impact on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), respiratory symptoms, and related attitudes among employees in five kinds of workplaces (schools, kindergartens, hospitals, hotels, and shopping malls). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted six months before and then six months after the policy was implemented. Five types of occupational employees from 52 work settings were surveyed anonymously using multistage stratified cluster sampling. Results Six months after implementation, 82% of the participants agreed that “legislation is enforced most of the time”. The percentage of self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke declined from round up to 49% to 36%. High compliance rates were achieved in schools and kindergartens (above 90%), with less compliance in hotels and shopping malls (about 70%). Accordingly, prevalence of exposure to SHS was low in schools and kindergartens (less than 10%) and high in hotels and shopping malls (40% and above). The prevalence of respiratory and sensory symptoms (e.g., red or irritated eyes) among employees decreased from 83% to 67%. Conclusions Initial positive effects were achieved after the implementation of Shanghai Smoking Control legislation including decreased exposure to SHS. However, compliance with the policies was a considerable problem in some settings. Further evaluation of such policy implementation should be conducted to inform strategies for increasing compliance in the future. PMID:24058544

  14. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results. PMID:22930994

  15. ESO at the IAU General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The 25th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union was held in Sydney,Australia, from 13-24 July 2003. For two weeks the world of professional astronomy descended on Darling Harbour. In the early days it was used for receiving fresh produce and timber from Parramatta and the north coast, but with time had become a somewhat derelict dock area. Following massive redevelopment of the old wharves in the course of the 1980s, it now constitutes a spectacular example of contemporary urban renovation, with shopping malls, hotels, restaurants, museums and other leisure facilities, as well as the magnificent Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre (SCEC).

  16. WPSS: watching people security services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Borsboom, Sander; van Zon, Kasper; Luo, Xinghan; Loke, Ben; Stoeller, Bram; van Kuilenburg, Hans; Dijk, Judith

    2013-10-01

    To improve security, the number of surveillance cameras is rapidly increasing. However, the number of human operators remains limited and only a selection of the video streams are observed. Intelligent software services can help to find people quickly, evaluate their behavior and show the most relevant and deviant patterns. We present a software platform that contributes to the retrieval and observation of humans and to the analysis of their behavior. The platform consists of mono- and stereo-camera tracking, re-identification, behavioral feature computation, track analysis, behavior interpretation and visualization. This system is demonstrated in a busy shopping mall with multiple cameras and different lighting conditions.

  17. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  18. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories. PMID:25776591

  19. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  20. Tensile Fabrics Enhance Architecture Around the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Using a remarkable fabric originally developed to protect Apollo astronauts, Birdair Inc. of Amherst, New York, has crafted highly durable, safe, environmentally friendly, and architecturally stunning tensile membrane roofs for over 900 landmark structures around the world. Travelers in airports, sports fans at stadiums, and shoppers in malls have all experienced the benefits of the Teflon-coated fiberglass fabric that has enabled Birdair to grow from a small company established in its founder?s kitchen in 1955 to a multimillion-dollar specialty contractor today.

  1. Jumping into the healthcare retail market: our experience.

    PubMed

    Pollert, Pat; Dobberstein, Darla; Wiisanen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Who among us has not heard of the retail-based clinic concept? Retail-based clinics have been springing up across the country in Target, Walmart, grocery stores, drugstores, and shopping malls. Due to multiple marketplace issues, others who have not traditionally been providers of healthcare saw an opportunity to meet the consumer's demand. Do retail and healthcare mix, and can this model be successful? MeritCare Health System in Fargo, ND made the decision to embrace and experiment with this new emerging consumerism model. This article reviews our experience in developing the first retail-based clinic in our service area and the state of North Dakota. PMID:18435356

  2. The not so new electric car -- Step child of Detroit

    SciTech Connect

    Lough, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    In the first decade of the 20th century, gas and electric vehicles were in a head to head battle. Actually until after 1915, electric trucks dominated the urban scene. At this time it was not only commercial concerns who preferred electric`s but women too, for they were clean, easy to start and drive, and you know something--they still are! In lacking the foresight to develop electric car technology the US has created a global monster. Urban sprawl, suburbs, malls, pollution on a global scale, and an infrastructure which is not going to give up market share without a fight.

  3. KSC volunteers help Meals on Wheels as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC volunteers at Miracle City Mall, Titusville, help unload containers for Meals on Wheels delivery as part of their '99 Days of Caring participation. The volunteers will also help deliver the meals. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  4. Early fire sensing using near-IR diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-09-01

    We describe research leading to a trace gas detection system based on optical absorption using near-IR diode lasers that is intended to provide early warning of incipient fires. Applications include "high loss" structures such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels and shopping malls as well as airplanes and manned spacecraft where convention smoke detectors generate unacceptably high false alarm rates. Simultaneous or near-simultaneous detection of several gases (typically carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide) provides high sensitivity while reducing the chance of false alarms. Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations also provides an internal check of instrument performance because ambient levels will not drop below ~350 ppm.

  5. Game-Based Learning Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments (PISE) are not just connection points, they are meeting places. They are the new public squares, village centers, malt shops, malls and pubs all rolled into one. They come with a sense of 'thereness" that engages the mind like a real place does. Learning starts as a real code. The code defines "objects." The objects exist in computer space, known as the "grid." The objects and space combine to create a "place." A "world" is created, Before long, the grid and code becomes obscure, and the "world maintains focus.

  6. 40. SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING M STREET (NOW CAPITOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING M STREET (NOW CAPITOL MALL) APPROACHING FROM LOWER RIGHT, WATCHMAN'S SHANTY AT CENTER, TRACKS OF SACRAMENTO NORTHERN RAILWAY ALONG CENTERLINE OF M STREET AND BRIDGE, AND TRACKS OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD CROSSING M STREET ON FRONT STREET. RIVER LINES BUILDING AT LEFT WAS SACRAMENTO TERMINAL FOR RIVER STEAMERS DELTA QUEEN AND DELTA KING. Pencil and wash drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1935. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  8. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, Jasper R.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale walking patterns and interactions between people. For example, pickpocketing can be recognized by the actual snatch (small scale), when he follows the victim, or when he interacts with an accomplice before and after the incident (longer time scale). This paper focusses on event recognition by detecting large-scale track-based patterns. Our event recognition method consists of several steps: pedestrian detection, object tracking, track-based feature computation and rule-based event classification. In the experiment, we focused on single track actions (walk, run, loiter, stop, turn) and track interactions (pass, meet, merge, split). The experiment includes a controlled setup, where 10 actors perform these actions. The method is also applied to all tracks that are generated in a crowded shopping mall in a selected time frame. The results show that most of the actions can be detected reliably (on average 90%) at a low false positive rate (1.1%), and that the interactions obtain lower detection rates (70% at 0.3% FP). This method may become one of the components that assists operators to find threatening behavior and enrich the selection of videos that are to be observed.

  9. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  10. Rationale of subdermal superficial liposuction related to the anatomy of subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1995-01-01

    The liposuction technique has changed greatly over the years. In 1989, the authors presented subdermal superficial liposuction which treats the superficial fat layer and yields better skin retraction. With this technique the surgeon can treat thin adipose layers to obtain better results in more cases than the traditional liposuction technique. The technique can be used in cases with difficult skin adjustment and in secondary cases when "deep only" liposuction has been performed and there were residual adiposities. Subdermal superficial liposuction evolved so that one could obtain good skin retraction by performing massive liposuction of all the fat layers. The authors named this technique MALL (Massive All Layer Liposuction). The technique is applied in body areas where the fat layer is very thick and stretches the skin because of its volume and weight such as in the abdomen, posterior arms, and internal surface of the upper third of the thighs. MALL liposuction drastically reduces the indications for abdominoplasty and inner thigh and arm dermolipectomies. Knowledge of the anatomy of the subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system allows one to explain the subdermal superficial liposuction from an anatomical point of view, to perform a more rational and effective procedure, and to differentiate the technique depending on the area of the body. PMID:7900550

  11. The multi-hemoglobin system of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila. I. Reexamination of the number and masses of its constituents.

    PubMed

    Zal, F; Lallier, F H; Wall, J S; Vinogradov, S N; Toulmond, A

    1996-04-12

    The deep-sea tube worm Riftia pachyptila Jones possesses a well developed circulatory system and a large coelomic compartment, both containing extracellular hemoglobins. Fresh vascular blood is heterogeneous and contains two different hemoglobins (V1 and V2), whereas the coelomic fluid is homogeneous and comprises only one hemoglobin (C1). Their molecular weights have been determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy mass mapping (STEM) and by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Both methods yielded approximately the same molecular weights with masses significantly higher than the literature data for V1. V1, V2, and C1 had Mr of 3396 +/- 540 x 10(3), 393 +/- 71 x 10(3), and 410 +/- 51 x 10(3) by STEM, and 3503 +/- 13 x 10(3), 433 +/- 8 x 10(3), and 380 +/- 4 x 10(3) by MALLS, respectively. Transmission electron micrographs of V1 are typical of an hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL Hb). When submitted to dilution or osmotic shock, V1 dissociates into halves and one-twelfth subunits like annelid HBL Hbs. V1 is resistant to urea treatment, indicating that hydrophobic interactions play a small role in its quaternary structure. Conversely, V1 Hb is rather unstable in solution without denaturant, a property which seems to be characteristic of vestimentiferan HBL Hbs and could be explained by an important number of hydrogen bonds. PMID:8621528

  12. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  13. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future. PMID:25936285

  14. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  15. KODAMA and VPC based Framework for Ubiquitous Systems and its Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Amamiya, Satoshi; Iwao, Tadashige; Zhong, Guoqiang; Kainuma, Tatsuya; Amamiya, Makoto

    Recently, agent technologies have attracted a lot of interest as an emerging programming paradigm. With such agent technologies, services are provided through collaboration among agents. At the same time, the spread of mobile technologies and communication infrastructures has made it possible to access the network anytime and from anywhere. Using agents and mobile technologies to realize ubiquitous computing systems, we propose a new framework based on KODAMA and VPC. KODAMA provides distributed management mechanisms by using the concept of community and communication infrastructure to deliver messages among agents without agents being aware of the physical network. VPC provides a method of defining peer-to-peer services based on agent communication with policy packages. By merging the characteristics of both KODAMA and VPC functions, we propose a new framework for ubiquitous computing environments. It provides distributed management functions according to the concept of agent communities, agent communications which are abstracted from the physical environment, and agent collaboration with policy packages. Using our new framework, we conducted a large-scale experiment in shopping malls in Nagoya, which sent advertisement e-mails to users' cellular phones according to user location and attributes. The empirical results showed that our new framework worked effectively for sales in shopping malls.

  16. Simultaneous detection of randomly arranged multiple barcodes using time division multiplexing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Saad Md. Jaglul; Islam, Md. Kafiul

    2010-02-01

    A method of detecting multiple barcodes simultaneously using time division multiplexing technique has been proposed in this paper to minimize the effective time needed for handling multiple tags of barcodes and to lessen the overall workload. Available barcode detection systems can handle multiple types of barcode but a single barcode at a time. This is not so efficient and can create large queue and chaos in places like mega shopping malls or large warehouses where we need to scan huge number of barcodes daily. Our proposed system is expected to improve the real time identification of goods or products on production lines and in automated warehouses or in mega shopping malls in a much more convenient and efficient way. For identifying of multiple barcodes simultaneously, a particular arrangement and orientation of LASER scanner and reflector have been used with a special curve shaped basement where the barcodes are placed. An effective and novel algorithm is developed to extract information from multiple barcodes which introduces starting pattern and ending pattern in barcodes with bit stuffing technique for the convenience of multiple detections. CRC technique is also used for trustworthiness of detection. The overall system enhances the existing single barcode detection system by a great amount although it is easy to implement and use.

  17. Does perceived steepness deter stair climbing when an alternative is available?

    PubMed

    Eves, Frank F; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Lewis, Amanda; Taylor-Covill, Guy A H

    2014-06-01

    Perception of hill slant is exaggerated in explicit awareness. Proffitt (Perspectives on Psychological Science 1:110-122, 2006) argued that explicit perception of the slant of a climb allows individuals to plan locomotion in keeping with their available locomotor resources, yet no behavioral evidence supports this contention. Pedestrians in a built environment can often avoid climbing stairs, the man-made equivalent of steep hills, by choosing an adjacent escalator. Stair climbing is avoided more by women, the old, and the overweight than by their comparators. Two studies tested perceived steepness of the stairs as a cue that promotes this avoidance. In the first study, participants estimated the steepness of a staircase in a train station (n = 269). Sex, age, height, and weight were recorded. Women, older individuals, and those who were heavier and shorter reported the staircase as steeper than did their comparison groups. In a follow-up study in a shopping mall, pedestrians were recruited from those who chose the stairs and those who avoided them, with the samples stratified for sex, age, and weight status. Participants (n = 229) estimated the steepness of a life-sized image of the stairs they had just encountered, presented on the wall of a vacant shop in the mall. Pedestrians who avoided stair climbing by choosing the escalator reported the stairs as steeper even when demographic differences were controlled. Perceived steepness may to be a contextual cue that pedestrians use to avoid stair climbing when an alternative is available. PMID:24197656

  18. Simultaneous determination of molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions from Lycium barbarum collected in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Lam, Shing-Chung; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wei, Feng; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Long, Ze-Rong; Lv, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Jing; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-10

    Molecular weights and contents of water-soluble polysaccharides and their fractions in fifty batches of fruits of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) collected from different regions of China, including Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, were simultaneously determined using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID) with the refractive index increment (dn/dc). Results showed that HPSEC chromatograms and molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from different regions of China were similar. Furthermore, the average contents of each polysaccharide fraction (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in crude polysaccharides of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were similar with those of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Gansu, respectively. However, significant difference was found between polysaccharides in L. barbarum collected from Ningxia and Qinghai. Moreover, the average amounts of total polysaccharide fractions (peaks 1, 2, and 3) in the raw material of L. barbarum collected from Ningxia were significantly higher than that of Qinghai. These results may contribute to the rational usage of L. barbarum produced in China, and are beneficial for the improvement of their quality control. Results suggested that HPSEC-MALLS-RID with the dn/dc method could be used as a routine method for the quality evaluation of polysaccharides from natural resources and their products. PMID:27429371

  19. Cell Wall N-Linked Mannoprotein Biosynthesis Requires Goa1p, a Putative Regulator of Mitochondrial Complex I in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    She, Xiaodong; Calderone, Richard; Kruppa, Michael; Lowman, Douglas; Williams, David; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Ying; Khamooshi, Kasra; Liu, Weida; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The Goa1p of Candida albicans regulates mitochondrial Complex I (CI) activities in its role as a putative CI accessory protein. Transcriptional profiling of goa1∆ revealed a down regulation of genes encoding β-oligomannosyl transferases. Herein, we present data on cell wall phenotypes of goa1∆ (strain GOA31). We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), GPC/MALLS, and NMR to compare GOA31 to a gene-reconstituted strain (GOA32) and parental cells. We note by TEM a reduction in outer wall fibrils, increased inner wall transparency, and the loss of a defined wall layer close to the plasma membrane. GPC-MALLS revealed a reduction in high and intermediate Mw mannan by 85% in GOA31. A reduction of β-mannosyl but not α-mannosyl linkages was noted in GOA31 cells. β-(1,6)-linked glucan side chains were branched about twice as often but were shorter in length for GOA31. We conclude that mitochondrial CI energy production is highly integrated with cell wall formation. Our data also suggest that not all cell wall biosynthetic processes are dependent upon Goa1p even though it provides high levels of ATP to cells. The availability of both broadly conserved and fungal-specific mutants lacking CI subunit proteins should be useful in assessing functions of fungal-specific functions subunit proteins. PMID:26809064

  20. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment. PMID:24892726

  1. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  2. Molecular and classical genetic analyses of his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa. I. Tests for allelic complementation and specific revertibility.

    PubMed

    Overton, L K; Dubins, J S; de Serres, F J

    1989-10-01

    A collection of 81 his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa was analyzed in assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility. In these studies, the linearity of the complementation map of the his-3 cistron (Webber, 1965) was confirmed and mutants were classified as complementing with non-polarized or polarized complementation patterns, or non-complementing. In the assays for spontaneous or induced revertibility, 89% (71/80) of the mutants reverted either spontaneously or after treatment with the chemical mutagens N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-[ethyl-2-chloroethyl]aminopropylamino) acridine dihydrochloride, nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. The frequency of revertible mutants among the non-polarized complementing mutants was 96% (45/47), and 79% (15/19) for the polarized complementing and 79% (11/14) for the non-complementing mutants. The results of these classical genetic assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility suggest a correlation between complementation pattern and presumptive genetic alterations at the molecular level among his-3 mutants similar to that found with ad-3B mutants induced by nitrous acid (Malling and de Serres, 1967), ethyl methanesulfonate (Malling and de Serres, 1968), or ultraviolet (Kilbey et al., 1971). PMID:2529437

  3. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban midlife African-American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the women’s neighborhoods included: walkability (land use mix, street intersection density, housing unit density, public transit stop density), aesthetics (physical deterioration, industrial land use), availability of outdoor (recreational open space) and indoor (recreation centers, shopping malls) walking facilities/spaces, and safety (violent crime incidents). Ordinary least squares regression estimated relationships. We found presence of one and especially both types of indoor walking facilities were associated with greater adherence. No associations were found between adherence and the other environmental variables. The effect of the enhanced intervention on adherence did not differ by environmental characteristics. Aspects of the environment may influence African-American women who want to be more active. PMID:18669878

  4. Control and prevention of emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B

    2003-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses are zoonotic diseases caused by either totally new or partially new agents or by microorganisms previously known but now occurring in places or in species where the disease was previously unknown. Zoonotic diseases account for the majority of all emerging infectious diseases. Several factors have led to the emergence of these infections, including human demographics, the industrialization of food production, globalization, international travel and commerce, land use, microbial adaptation, and changes and breakdown in public health measures. Several zoonotic agents are also potential agents that could be used as biological weapons. The recent use of anthrax spores in tainted mall in the US underlines our need for preparedness against bioterrorism. Prevention and control of these emerging zoonotic diseases is based on recognition, investigation, and collaboration, the development of advanced diagnosis and surveillance tools, the use of applied epidemiology and molecular biology methods, as well as education, information, communication, and technology transfer. PMID:12970860

  5. Interface: reflections of an ethnic toygirl.

    PubMed

    Yue, A

    1999-01-01

    This essay interrogates the colonial modernity of Anglo-Australian lesbian hegemony through an experimental text which plays with the aesthetics of cyberspace. Mobilizing the hypertext mark up language (HTML) form of the Internet, it spatializes the creative, the erotic, and the political that landscape the vicissitudes of everyday life for a lesbian of Southeast Asian background living in Australia. "interface" performs as a tryst that drives the queer body politic through the postcolonial in-formations of color, race, gender and identity. This text bears indelible marks from multiple sites and sources: the charges of electronic conversations and etchings on the World Wide Web; the raw pulp of inner-urban graffiti scrawls; passionate voicemails; racist policies in queer venues; fury banner posts; luscious lesbian cinema screenings; sexy fantasy malls; and fleshy style shopping. PMID:10197549

  6. Hydrophobication and characterisation of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan for papermaking and barrier applications.

    PubMed

    Kisonen, Victor; Eklund, Patrik; Auer, Markku; Sjöholm, Rainer; Pranovich, Andrey; Hemming, Jarl; Sundberg, Anna; Aseyev, Vladimir; Willför, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    Norway spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGM) are water-soluble hemicelluloses that have potential to be produced in large scale as a side product of the mechanical pulping industry or by hot-water extraction of wood. Chemical modification is often needed to tailor such water-soluble polysaccharides into industrially valuable compounds. In this work, treatment of GGM with butyric and benzoic anhydride in pyridine/dimethylformamide rendered GGM derivatives, which were hydrophobic and partially soluble in organic solvents. The degree of substitution can be adjusted by varying the quantity of the reagent and reaction temperature. The dn/dc value for the benzoyl ester of GGM was determined in 0.05 M LiBr DMSO in order to obtain accurate molar mass analysis with SEC-MALLS-RI. Novel substances with adjusted hydrophobicity can thus be prepared on one step synthesis from natural hemicelluloses, which then showed a slight increase in the molar mass upon esterification. PMID:22370176

  7. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a novel ampholytic pullulan derivative with amphiphilic behavior in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Souguir, Z; Roudesli, S; About-Jaudet, E; Le Cerf, D; Picton, L

    2007-09-01

    Pullulan derivative was synthesized by coupling carboxymethylpullulan (degree of substitution DS(0)(in)=0.7) and dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA), activated by a hydrosoluble carbodiimide N(')-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC). FTIR and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses have evidenced that the polysaccharide has been successfully modified. (1)H NMR, nitrogen analysis, and conductimetric measurements allow determination of the degree of substitution in both carboxylic acid and amine functions. We have found that both functions present a similar DS of 0.35, which is characteristic of an ampholytic polymer with possible zwitterionic-type properties. Solution properties have been studied by flow field flow fractionation (F4) coupled on-line with multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) and quasi elastic light scattering (QELS), surface tension, and viscosity measurements. The behavior has been found largely pH dependent and an amphiphilic behavior has been evidenced in alkaline media. PMID:17498729

  8. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  9. Multimedia electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Brian

    1990-08-01

    Electronic mail is a facility, analogous to postal mail, in which computers are used to compose, deliver, and receive messages. Traditional electronic mail systems rely solely on text as the medium of communication. A multi-media electronic mall application, Mail, combines the media of Rich Text, voice, images, and electronic documents to facilitate interpersonal communication. With Mail, these various media can be integrated into a single message. The variety of available media and the complexity of the messages that result from their combination make it important for Mail to have a simple user interface. It was possible to develop a simple, graphically-based interface that would accommodate Mail's message complexity. The integration of these diverse media is made practical by the rich operating environment in which Mail runs. Modern advances in hardware, operating systems, libraries, and servers make possible this powerful multi-media electronic mail application.

  10. Object instance recognition using motion cues and instance specific appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Arne

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present an object instance retrieval approach. The baseline approach consists of a pool of image features which are computed on the bounding boxes of a query object track and compared to a database of tracks in order to find additional appearances of the same object instance. We improve over this simple baseline approach in multiple ways: 1) we include motion cues to achieve improved robustness to viewpoint and rotation changes, 2) we include operator feedback to iteratively re-rank the resulting retrieval lists and 3) we use operator feedback and location constraints to train classifiers and learn an instance specific appearance model. We use these classifiers to further improve the retrieval results. The approach is evaluated on two popular public datasets for two different applications. We evaluate person re-identification on the CAVIAR shopping mall surveillance dataset and vehicle instance recognition on the VIVID aerial dataset and achieve significant improvements over our baseline results.

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Forest Glen Subdivision, Niagara Falls, NY. (First remedial action), December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-29

    The Forest Glen Subdivision site consists of 21 acres of developed residential properties and undeveloped land in Niagara Fall, Niagara County, New York. Land in the area surrounding the Forest Glen subdivision is used for residential and industrial purposes, including a mobile home park, small shopping mall, and the CECOS Landfill. Chemical companies reportedly disposed of wastes onsite from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. Sampling by EPA's Field Investigation Team revealed the presence of high concentrations of unknown and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) in August 1987, and further soil sampling was conducted to identify the TICs. EPA has executed interim measures to stabilize site conditions including collecting, staging, and securing drums in areas north and east of the subdivision and temporarily covering visibily contaminated soil with concrete. The remedial activity is the first of two planned operable units and addresses resident relocation only. A subsequent operable unit will address the remediation of site contamination once the relocation is complete.

  12. Detection of liquid hazardous molecules using linearly focused Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Chung, Jin Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    In security, it is an important issue to analyze hazardous materials in sealed bottles. Particularly, prompt nondestructive checking of sealed liquid bottles in a very short time at the checkpoints of crowded malls, stadiums, or airports is of particular importance to prevent probable terrorist attack using liquid explosives. Aiming to design and fabricate a detector for liquid explosives, we have used linearly focused Raman spectroscopy to analyze liquid materials in transparent or semi-transparent bottles without opening their caps. Continuous lasers with 532 nm wavelength and 58 mW/130 mW beam energy have been used for the Raman spectroscopy. Various hazardous materials including flammable liquids and explosive materials have successfully been distinguished and identified within a couple of seconds. We believe that our technique will be one of suitable methods for fast screening of liquid materials in sealed bottles.

  13. Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunlin; Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Eklund, Patrik; Holmlund, Peter; Sjöholm, Rainer; Sundberg, Kenneth; Willför, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    Acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) are the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilized as, for example, bioactive polymers, hydrocolloids, papermaking chemicals, or coating polymers. Acetylation of spruce GGM using acetic anhydride with pyridine as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale, whereas, as a classic method, it can be potentially transferred to the industrial scale. The effects of the amount of catalyst and acetic anhydride, reaction time, temperature and pretreatment by acetic acid were investigated. A fully acetylated product was obtained by refluxing GGM for two hours. The structures of the acetylated GGMs were determined by SEC-MALLS/RI, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. NMR studies also indicated migration of acetyl groups from O-2 or O-3 to O-6 after a heating treatment in a water bath. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. PMID:20144827

  14. Survey mode effects on valuation of environmental goods.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W Kip

    2011-04-01

    This article evaluates the effect of the choice of survey recruitment mode on the value of water quality in lakes, rivers, and streams. Four different modes are compared: bringing respondents to one central location after phone recruitment, mall intercepts in two states, national phone-mail survey, and an Internet survey with a national, probability-based panel. The modes differ in terms of the representativeness of the samples, non-response rates, sample selection effects, and consistency of responses. The article also shows that the estimated value of water quality can differ substantially depending on the survey mode. The national Internet panel has the most desirable properties with respect to performance on the four important survey dimensions of interest. PMID:21695037

  15. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  16. Making Stuff Outreach at the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University

    SciTech Connect

    Ament, Katherine; Karsjen, Steven; Leshem-Ackerman, Adah; King, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory in Ames, Iowa was a coalition partner for outreach activities connected with NOVA's Making Stuff television series on PBS. Volunteers affiliated with the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, with backgrounds in materials science, took part in activities including a science-themed Family Night at a local mall, Science Cafes at the Science Center of Iowa, teacher workshops, demonstrations at science nights in elementary and middle schools, and various other events. We describe a selection of the activities and present a summary of their outcomes and extent of their impact on Ames, Des Moines and the surrounding communities in Iowa. In Part 2, results of a volunteer attitude survey are presented, which shed some light on the volunteer experience and show how the volunteers participation in outreach activities has affected their views of materials education.

  17. Chemosynthesis of poly(ε-lysine)-analogous polymers by microwave-assisted click polymerization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinshan; Wei, Ying; Zhou, Dongfang; Cai, Pingqiang; Jing, Xiabin; Chen, Xue-Si; Huang, Yubin

    2011-03-14

    Poly(ε-lysine) (ε-PL)-analogous click polypeptides with not only similar α-amino side groups but also similar main chain to ε-PL were chemically synthesized for the first time through click polymerization from aspartic (or glutamic)-acid-based dialkyne and diazide monomers. With microwave-assisting, the reaction time of click polymerization was compressed into 30 min. The polymers were fully characterized by NMR, ATR-FTIR, and SEC-MALLS analysis. The deprotected click polypeptides had similar pK(a) value (7.5) and relatively low cytotoxicity as ε-PL and could be used as substitutes of ε-PL in biomedical applications, especially in endotoxin selective removal. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing alternating copolymers with α-amino groups were also synthesized and characterized. After deprotection, the polymers could be used as functional gene vector with PEG shadowing system and NCA initiator to get amphiphilic graft polymers. PMID:21302898

  18. Solar Decathlon 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.; Nahan, R.; King, R.

    2005-01-01

    Solar Decathlon 2005 is a U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory competition involving 19 colleges and universities from the United States, Canada, and Spain. These teams will compete to design, build, and demonstrate solar homes. In fall 2005, teams will transport their competition solar houses to Washington, D.C., where they will construct a solar village on the National Mall. When the houses are assembled, the teams will compete against each other in 10 contests (hence, a decathlon) for about a week. The contests range from design to comfort to energy performance. Each team must provide an aesthetically pleasing entry that produces sufficient solar energy for space conditioning, hot water, lighting, appliances, and an electric car. The Solar Decathlon is co-sponsored by BP, The Home Depot, the American Institute of Architects, the National Association of Home Builders, and the DIY Network. For more information, visit the Web site at www.solardecathlon.org.

  19. Impact of HVAC filter on indoor air quality in terms of ozone removal and carbonyls generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Chen, Hsuan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study aims at detecting ozone removal rates and corresponding carbonyls generated by ozone reaction with HVAC filters from various building, i.e., shopping mall, school, and office building. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental chamber. By examining dust properties including organic carbon proportion and specific surface area of dusts adsorbed on filters along with ozone removal rates and carbonyls generation rate, the relationship among dust properties, ozone removal rates, and carbonyls generation was identified. The results indicate a well-defined positive correlation between ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generation on filters, as well as a positive correlation among the mass of organic carbon on filters, ozone removal efficiency and carbonyls generations.

  20. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  1. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  2. Design of a Net-Metering and PV Exhibit for the 2005 Solar Decathlon

    SciTech Connect

    Wassmer, M.; Warner, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the 2005 Solar Decathlon competition, 19 collegiate teams will design, build, and operate grid-independent homes powered by photovoltaic (PV) arrays on the National Mall. The prominence of grid-interconnected systems in the marketplace has provided the impetus for the development of a net-metering exhibit to be installed and operated during the competition. The exhibit will inform the visiting public about PV basics and appropriate alternatives to grid-independent systems. It will consist of four interactive components. One will be designed to educate people about the principles of net metering using a small PV array, a grid-interactive inverter, and a variable load. Additional components of the exhibit will demonstrate the effects of orientation, cloud cover, and nighttime on performance. The nighttime component will discuss appropriate storage options for different applications.

  3. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences. PMID:26103697

  4. An evaluation system for characterization of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and identification of its commercial product.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Qian-Xia; Ju, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-25

    An evaluation system including colorimetric assay with iodine and potassium iodide, HPSEC-MALLS-RID analysis, GC-MS analysis, and saccharide mapping based on PACE analysis was proposed for the identification and discrimination of commercial product of Hericium erinaceus based on the chemical characters of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus fruiting body collected from different regions of China. The results showed that the molecular weights, the compositional monosaccharides and the glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus collected from different regions of China were similar, respectively. However, polysaccharides in the widely consumed product of H. erinaceus in China were significantly different from those of H. erinaceus fruiting body. The implications from these results were found to be beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from the H. erinaceus fruiting body, and suggest that the proposed evaluation system could be used as a routine approach for the quality control of polysaccharides in other edible and medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25839812

  5. Optimal design of spatial distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastner, Michael T.; Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-07-01

    We consider the problem of constructing facilities such as hospitals, airports, or malls in a country with a nonuniform population density, such that the average distance from a person’s home to the nearest facility is minimized. We review some previous approximate treatments of this problem that indicate that the optimal distribution of facilities should have a density that increases with population density, but does so slower than linearly, as the two-thirds power. We confirm this result numerically for the particular case of the United States with recent population data using two independent methods, one a straightforward regression analysis, the other based on density-dependent map projections. We also consider strategies for linking the facilities to form a spatial network, such as a network of flights between airports, so that the combined cost of maintenance of and travel on the network is minimized. We show specific examples of such optimal networks for the case of the United States.

  6. Monitoring and analysis of a chill storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Brett, C. E.

    1982-12-01

    Parisian, a major department store in University Mall, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, has a free cooling system installed to provide air conditioning. The system uses a cooling tower during cold weather, below 47 F Wet bulb temperature, to chill water to an average 43 F. The cold water is stored in an unconfined aquifer and recovered as required for air conditioning on an annual basis. This contract provides monitoring of this system to evaluate system performance. Instrumentation for monitoring has been selected and is being installed. Water temperatures and integrated flow entering and leaving the air conditioning cooling coils and the cooling tower are the prime measurements. Power input to all pumps and cooling tower is also measured. In addition, the temperatures leaving and entering the wells and near the bottom of the wells are measured at random intervals. The water levels in the wells are measured at similar times. Store and ambient data are also recorded.

  7. Celebrity Appeal: Reaching Women to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A.; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation’s National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50–75 years (n = 772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  8. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems. PMID:26828487

  9. Shape-memory starch for resorbable biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Beilvert, A; Chaubet, F; Chaunier, L; Guilois, S; Pavon-Djavid, G; Letourneur, D; Meddahi-Pellé, A; Lourdin, D

    2014-01-01

    Shape-memory resorbable materials were obtained by extrusion-cooking of potato starch with 20% glycerol under usual conditions. They presented an efficient shape-memory with a high recovery ratio (Rr>90%). Their recovery could be triggered at 37°C in water. After water immersion at 37°C, the modulus decreased from 1GPa to 2.4MPa and remained almost constant over 21 days. Gamma-ray sterilization did not have a dramatic impact on their mechanical properties, despite a large decrease of molecular mass analyzed by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (AFFFF-MALLS). Samples implanted in a rat model exhibited normal tissue integration with a low inflammatory response. Thus, as previously investigated in the case of shape-memory synthetic polymers, natural starch, without chemical grafting, can now be considered for manufacturing innovative biodegradable devices for less-invasive surgery. PMID:24274502

  10. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction. PMID:26912092

  11. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  12. [Mechanisms of caffeine-induced diuresis].

    PubMed

    Marx, Barbara; Scuvée, Éléonore; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline; Seutin, Vincent; Jouret, François

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid which belongs to the family of methylxanthines and is present in beverages, food and drugs. Caffeine competitively antagonizes the adenosine receptors (AR), which are G protein-coupled receptors largely distributed throughout the body, including brain, heart, vessels and kidneys. Caffeine consumption has a well-known diuretic effect. The homeostasis of salt and water involves different segments of the nephron, in which adenosine plays complex roles depending on the differential expression of AR. Hence, caffeine increases glomerular filtration rate by opposing the vasoconstriction of renal afferent arteriole mediated by adenosine via type 1 AR during the tubuloglomerular feedback. Caffeine also inhibits Na(+) reabsorption at the level of renal proximal tubules. In addition, caffeine perturbs the hepatorenal reflex via sensory nerves in Mall's intrahepatic spaces. Here, we review the physiology of caffeine-induced natriuresis and diuresis, as well as the putative pathological implications. PMID:27225921

  13. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  14. Expanding public outreach: The solar system ambassadors program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, K.

    The Solar System Ambassadors Program is a public outreach program sponsored by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California designed to work with motivated volunteers across the nation. These competitively selected volunteers or- ganize and conduct public events that communicate exciting discoveries and plans in Solar System research, exploration and technology through non_traditional forums; e.g. community service clubs, libraries, museums, planetariums, "star parties," mall displays, etc. In this talk I will give an overview of the program and discuss lessons learned. The Solar System Ambassadors Program is , an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and a lead research and development center for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  15. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. PMID:25722170

  16. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  17. Consumer valuation of functional foods and nutraceuticals in Canada. A conjoint study using probiotics.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Getu; Boecker, Andreas; Henson, Spencer; Cranfield, John

    2009-04-01

    This paper applied conjoint analysis to elicit consumer preferences over attributes of functional foods and nutraceuticals using probiotics as the functional compound of interest. Data were gathered through a mall intercept survey in Guelph, Canada. Cluster analysis and chi-square tests were used to examine the relationship between respondents' characteristics and preferences for product variants. On the basis of cluster analysis of the part-worth scores from the conjoint analysis, three clusters were identified. Clusters differed predominantly according to the preferred mode of delivery and source of health claims. The value attached to health claims related to probiotics was also explored. The results suggested that consumers place a strong premium on claims verified by government, but little value on 'non-verified' claims made by product manufacturers. PMID:19007828

  18. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci—principally malls and schools—we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation. PMID:26166907

  19. Washington, D.C. and the Baltimore, Maryland area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Washington, D.C. and the Baltimore, Maryland area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Chesapeake Bay is on the right (east) side of the picture. The Potomac River flows through the Washington area in the lower left (southwest) corner of the photograph. Several transportation routes and major highways stand out distinctly. Identifiable features in the Washington area include the Capitol Building, the Mall area, Robert F. Kennedy Stadium (white circle), the five bridges across the Potomac, Andrews Air Force Base (on east loop), and the smaller Anacostia River. Chesapeake Bay circulation patterns are indicated by contrast of dark and light blue. Sediment plumes (red) are seen entering the bay north and east of Baltimore. The bay bridge stands out white against the blue water.

  20. Sap flow measurement in a street and park of a hot and arid city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Potchter, O.; Yaakov, Y.; Bar-Kutiel, P.; Tanny, J.

    2012-04-01

    Urban trees mitigate hot climate by shading, but also through transpirational cooling. Transpiration from urban trees can be a significant part of the urban energy budget, but is difficult to quantify. A direct method for measuring tree transpiration is through the use of sap flow sensors. Several methods have been developed for this, where the most common use heat as a tracer of sap flow. The most popular method among plant environmental ecologists is the thermal dissipation or 'Granier' method, the latter name for its inventor. In this method continuously heated and unheated sensors are inserted into the tree stem and the temperature difference between the two is roughly inversely proportional to sap flux density. Although the method can be accurate, sap flux density can be highly variable in the stem, depending on depth in the stem and azimuth. Inter-tree variation is also large, so a number of sensors per tree and a number of trees need to be monitored for accurate determinations. Finally, it is a good idea to calibrate the sensors for the configuration and species being monitored. We measured sap flow in a tree covered open mall and a city park in Beer Sheva, Israel - a hot and arid city. Trees that shaded the open mall were of the Delonix regia species while those in the park were Prosopis and Tamarix sp. Individual tree sap flux for large trees exceeded 100 liters on many of the days, equivalent to over 100 W m-2 at mid-day. This paper will discuss methodological issues as well as some of the results.

  1. [Preliminary Investigation of the Amount, the Molecular Weight and the Activity of Polysaccharides from Chaenomeles Speciosa Fruits in Ethanol Fractional Precipitation].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-mei; Xie, Xiao-mei; Shen, Pan-pan; Yang, Mo; Zhang, Sheng-long; Tang, Qing-jiu

    2015-05-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruits were extracted using water. The extracts were precipitated with 20%~95% (φ) ethanol, respectively. The amount of total polysaccharide was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. A method using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multiangle laser-light-scattering photometry (MALLS) and differential refractometry (RI) was presented for determining the molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution. RAW264.7 macrophage were cultured and stimulated with the polysaccharides in vitro and the production of nitric oxide in the cells was determined by the Griess assay. The aim of the study is to determine the amount and the molecular weight of the polysaccharides from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits, and preliminary investigate the immunomodulatory activity, The study provided the basis datas for the further research of Chaenomeles speciosa fruits. , and provided a simple and system method for the research of natural polysaccharide. The ethanol fractional precipitation showed that the order of total polysaccharide content was 95%>80%>40% ≥60%>20%. The results indicated that most polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits might be precipitated when ethanol concentration was up to 95% (T) and the crude polysaccharide purity had risen from 35. 1% to 45. 0% when the concentration of ethanol increased from 20% to 95%. HPSEC-MALLS-RI system showed that all the polysaccharide samples had the similar compositions. They appeared three chromatographic peaks and the retention time were not apparently different. The Mw were 6. 570 X 10(4) g . mol-1 and 1. 393 X 10(4) g . mol-1 respectively, and one less than 10 000 which was failure to obtain accurate values. The molecular weight of the first two polysaccharide distribution index(Mw/Mn)were 1. 336 and 1. 639 respectively. The polysaccharide samples had not exhibited immunomodulatory activity assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW264. 7 macrophage

  2. Medical Genetics and the First Studies of the Genetics of Populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Following World War II (WWII), there was a new emphasis within genetics on studying the genetic composition of populations. This probably had a dual source in the growing strength of evolutionary biology and the new international interest in understanding the effects of radiation on human populations, following the atomic bombings in Japan. These global concerns were shared by Mexican physicians. Indeed, Mexico was one of the leading centers of this trend in human genetics. Three leading players in this story were Mario Salazar Mallén, Adolfo Karl, and Rubén Lisker. Their trajectories and the international networks in human genetics that were established after WWII, paved the way for the establishment of medical and population genetics in Mexico. Salazar Mallén's studies on the distribution and characterization of ABO blood groups in indigenous populations were the starting point while Karl's studies on the distribution of abnormal hemoglobin in Mexican indigenous populations showed the relationships observed in other laboratories at the time. It was Lisker's studies, however, that were instrumental in the development of population genetics in the context of national public policies for extending health care services to the Mexican population. In particular, he conducted studies on Mexican indigenous groups contributing to the knowledge of the biological diversity of human populations according to international trends that focused on the variability of human populations in terms of genetic frequencies. From the start, however, Lisker was as committed to the reconstruction of shared languages and practices as he was to building networks of collaboration in order to guarantee the necessary groundwork for establishing the study of the genetics of human populations in Mexico. This study also allows us to place Mexican science within a global context in which connected narratives describe the interplay between global trends and national contexts. PMID:27601615

  3. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B.; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli’s association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ- mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ+ strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922’s association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization. PMID:27014210

  4. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli's association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ(-) mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ(+) strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922's association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization. PMID:27014210

  5. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  6. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  7. Characterization of hyperbranched glycopolymers produced in vitro using enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Guilois, Sophie; Grimaud, Florent; Lancelon-Pin, Christine; Roussel, Xavier; Laguerre, Sandrine; Viksø-Nielsen, Anders; Putaux, Jean-Luc; D'Hulst, Christophe; Potocki-Véronèse, Gabrielle; Buléon, Alain

    2014-02-01

    Asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4) has proven to be a very powerful and quantitative method for the determination of the macromolecular structure of high molar mass branched biopolymers, when coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). This work describes a detailed investigation of the macromolecular structure of native glycogens and hyperbranched α-glucans (HBPs), with average molar mass ranging from 2 × 10(6) to 4.3 × 10(7) g mol(-1), which are not well fractionated by means of classical size-exclusion chromatography. HBPs were enzymatically produced from sucrose by the tandem action of an amylosucrase and a branching enzyme mimicking in vitro the elongation and branching steps involved in glycogen biosynthesis. Size and molar mass distributions were studied by AF4, coupled with online quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and transmission electron microscopy. AF4-MALLS-QELS has shown a remarkable agreement between hydrodynamic radii obtained by online QELS and by AF4 theory in normal mode with constant cross flow. Molar mass, size, and dispersity were shown to significantly increase with initial sucrose concentration, and to decrease when the branching enzyme activity increases. Several populations with different size range were observed: the amount of small size molecules decreasing with increasing sucrose concentration. The spherical and dense global conformation thus highlighted was partly similar to native glycogens. A more detailed study of HBPs synthesized from low and high initial sucrose concentrations was performed using complementary enzymatic hydrolysis of external chains and chromatography. It emphasized a more homogeneous branching pattern than native glycogens with a denser core and shorter external chains. PMID:24220756

  8. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering for stability comparison of virus-like particles in different solution environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Yuefang; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-06-01

    The stabilities of two commercially available virus like particles, CHO-HBsAg expressed by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Hans-HBsAg expressed by Hansenula polymorpha (Hans), were compared using AF4-MALLS under different treatment processes. The initial molecular weight and hydrodynamic diameter of CHO-HBsAg measured with AF4-MALLS were 4727kDa and 29.4nm, while those of Hans-HBsAg were 3039kDa and 22.8nm respectively. In salt solution of 2M ammonium sulfate, the molecular weight and size of CHO-HBsAg had little change, and its antigenicity remained 95%, while those of Hans-HBsAg changed greatly, resulting in aggregation and 75% antigenicity loss. In freeze-thaw operations, Hans-HBsAg aggregated heavily. Most of the aggregates precipitated and the rest soluble aggregates reached 10(5)-10(6)kDa in molecular weight. The antigenicity of Hans-HBsAg decreased to 26.9% after five freeze-thaw cycles. For CHO-HBsAg, there was no obvious aggregation in freeze-thaw, and the antigenicity retained above 98%. In heating process, Hans-HBsAg gradually aggregated to large particles with temperature and the antigenicity decreased to 10% when the temperature reached 80°C. In contrast, CHO-HBsAg would not aggregate with temperature, remained 92% antigenicity at 80°C. The study demonstrated that CHO-HBsAg appeared to be a superior vaccine antigen in term of particle stability and constant antigenicity, which are important in production, transportation and storage. PMID:27129428

  9. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  10. Validation of the Virtual MET as an assessment tool for executive functions.

    PubMed

    Rand, Debbie; Basha-Abu Rukan, Soraya; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Katz, Noomi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish ecological validity and initial construct validity of a Virtual Multiple Errands Test (VMET) as an assessment tool for executive functions. It was implemented within the Virtual Mall (VMall), a novel functional video-capture virtual shopping environment. The main objectives were (1) to examine the relationships between the performance of three groups of participants in the Multiple Errands Test (MET) carried out in a real shopping mall and their performance in the VMET, (2) to assess the relationships between the MET and VMET of the post-stroke participant's level of executive functioning and independence in instrumental activities of daily living, and (3) to compare the performance of post-stroke participants to those of healthy young and older controls in both the MET and VMET. The study population included three groups; post-stroke participants (n = 9), healthy young participants (n = 20), and healthy older participants (n = 20). The VMET was able to differentiate between two age groups of healthy participants and between healthy and post-stroke participants thus demonstrating that it is sensitive to brain injury and ageing and supports construct validity between known groups. In addition, significant correlations were found between the MET and the VMET for both the post-stroke participants and older healthy participants. This provides initial support for the ecological validity of the VMET as an assessment tool of executive functions. However, further psychometric data on temporal stability are needed, namely test-retest reliability and responsiveness, before it is ready for clinical application. Further research using the VMET as an assessment tool within the VMall with larger groups and in additional populations is also recommended. PMID:19058093

  11. "Enough is enough, I don't want any audience": exploring medical students' explanations of consent-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Knight, L V; Rees, C E

    2008-11-01

    Medical students are often faced with an ethical dilemma within the clinical setting--to learn from as many patients as possible but to learn only with consenting patients. Although studies have examined patients' and students' views about informed consent, none have examined how medical students talk about consent-related behaviours in 'naturalistic' focus group settings. This paper aims to explore medical students' explanations of behaviours relating to patient consent. Thirty-five excerpts across eight focus group discussions were identified using what we call momentum analysis: an identification of where the impetus of the groups' discussions changed noticeably. Ten were related to consent issues, seven of which occurred in focus groups with medical students. Utilising Malle's folk conceptual theory of behavioural explanation (2004. How the mind explains behavior. Folk explanations, meaning, and social interaction. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press) within a narrative framework, we identified seven types of consent-related behaviour across the seven excerpts and 101 explanations for these behaviours by students. We found that students employed less reason explanations but more causal history reason (CHR) and enabling factor explanations than is found in other studies of naturally occurring talk, suggesting that consent-related behaviours were difficult and that our students actively managed others' impressions of them and their behaviours. Although our data is generally supportive of Malle's folk conceptual theory of behavioural explanation we suggest potential developments to this theoretical framework following our analysis with naturally occurring talk. However, further research is needed with larger samples of behavioural explanations to contribute more fully to theoretical development. PMID:17146611

  12. Quaternary structure of the extracellular haemoglobin of the lugworm Arenicola marina: a multi-angle-laser-light-scattering and electrospray-ionisation-mass-spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Zal, F; Green, B N; Lallier, F H; Vinogradov, S N; Toulmond, A

    1997-01-15

    To elucidate the quaternary structure of the extracellular haemoglobin (Hb) of the marine polychaete Arenicola marina (lugworm) it was subjected to multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and to electrospray-ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It was also subjected to SDS/PAGE analysis for comparative purposes. MALLS analysis gave a molecular mass of 3648 +/- 24 kDa and a gyration radius of 11.3 +/- 1.7 nm. Maximum entropy analysis of the multiply charged electrospray spectra of the native, dehaemed, reduced and carbamidomethylated Hb forms, provided its complete polypeptide chain and subunit composition. We found, in the reduced condition, eight globin chains of molecular masses 15952.5 Da (a1), 15974.8 Da (a2), 15920.9 Da (b1), 16020.1 Da (b2), 16036.2 Da (b3), 16664.8 Da (c), 16983.2 Da (d1), 17033.1 Da (d2) and two linker chains L1, 25174.1 Da, and L2, 26829.7 Da. In the native Hb, chains b, c, d occur as five disulphide-bonded trimer subunits T with masses of 49560.4 Da (T1), 49613.9 Da (T2), 49658.6 Da (T3), 49706.8 Da (T4), 49724.5 Da (T5). Linker chains L1 and L2 occur as one disulphide-bonded homodimer 2L1 (D1) of 50323.1 Da and one disulphide-bonded heterodimer L1-L2 (D2) of 51 981.5 Da. Polypeptide chains a and d possess one free cysteine residue and chains d possess an unusual total of five cysteine residues. Semi-quantitative analysis of ESI-MS data allowed us to propose the following model for the one-twelfth protomer: [(3a1)(3a2)2T] (T corresponding to either T3, T4 or T5). From electron micrograph data T1 and T2 are probably located at the centre of the molecule as mentioned in previous studies. The Hb would thus be composed of 198 polypeptide chains with 156 globin chains and 42 linker chains, each twelfth being in contact with 3.5 linker subunits, providing a total mass of 3682 kDa including haems in agreement with the experimental molecular mass determined by MALLS. From ESI-MS relative intensities and the model proposed above, the globin

  13. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  14. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  15. Advanced analysis of polymer emulsions: Particle size and particle size distribution by field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Makan, Ashwell C; Spallek, Markus J; du Toit, Madeleine; Klein, Thorsten; Pasch, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is an advanced fractionation technique for the analyses of very sensitive particles. In this study, different FFF techniques were used for the fractionation and analysis of polymer emulsions/latexes. As model systems, a pure acrylic emulsion and emulsions containing titanium dioxide were prepared and analyzed. An acrylic emulsion polymerization was conducted, continuously sampled from the reactor and subsequently analyzed to determine the particle size, radius of gyration in specific, of the latex particles throughout the polymerization reaction. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF), coupled to a multidetector system, multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI), respectively, were used to investigate the evolution of particle sizes and particle size distributions (PSDs) as the polymerization progressed. The obtained particle sizes were compared against batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results indicated differences between AF4 and DLS results due to DLS taking hydration layers into account, whereas both AF4 and SdFFF were coupled to MALLS detection, hence not taking the hydration layer into account for size determination. SdFFF has additional separation capabilities with a much higher resolution compared to AF4. The calculated radii values were 5 nm larger for SdFFF measurements for each analyzed sample against the corresponding AF4 values. Additionally a low particle size shoulder was observed for SdFFF indicating bimodality in the reactor very early during the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, different emulsions were mixed with inorganic species used as additives in cosmetics and coatings such as TiO2. These complex mixtures of species were analyzed to investigate the retention and particle interaction behavior under different AF4 experimental conditions, such as the mobile phase. The AF4 system was coupled online

  16. How Do Spherical Diblock Copolymer Nanoparticles Grow during RAFT Alcoholic Dispersion Polymerization?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) chain transfer agent (CTA) is used for the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) alcoholic dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol at 70 °C. THF GPC analysis indicated a well-controlled polymerization with molecular weight increasing linearly with conversion. GPC traces also showed high blocking efficiency with no homopolymer contamination apparent and Mw/Mn values below 1.35 in all cases. 1H NMR studies confirmed greater than 98% BzMA conversion for a target PBzMA degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 600. The PBzMA block becomes insoluble as it grows, leading to the in situ formation of sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nanoparticles via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Fixing the mean DP of the PDMA stabilizer block at 94 units and systematically varying the DP of the PBzMA block enabled a series of spherical nanoparticles of tunable diameter to be obtained. These nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, MALLS, and SAXS, with mean diameters ranging from 35 to 100 nm. The latter technique was particularly informative: data fits to a spherical micelle model enabled calculation of the core diameter, surface area occupied per copolymer chain, and the mean aggregation number (Nagg). The scaling exponent derived from a double-logarithmic plot of core diameter vs PBzMA DP suggests that the conformation of the PBzMA chains is intermediate between the collapsed and fully extended state. This is in good agreement with 1H NMR studies, which suggest that only 5−13% of the BzMA residues of the core-forming chains are solvated. The Nagg values calculated from SAXS and MALLS are in good agreement and scale approximately linearly with PBzMA DP. This suggests that spherical micelles grow in size not only as a result of the increase in copolymer molecular weight during the PISA synthesis but also by exchange of individual copolymer chains between micelles

  17. A comparative study of iron abundance estimation methods: Application to the western nearside of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Megha; Mall, Urs; Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Bugiolacchi, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The FeO weight percentage (wt.%) abundance of the Moon's western nearside (55°S-55°N and 5°E-40°W) is estimated using data from the InfraRed Spectrometer-2 (SIR-2) and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). In this study, we modified an FeO abundance estimation algorithm (Bhatt, M., Mall, U., Bugiolacchi, R., McKenna-Lawlor, S., Banaszkiewicz, M., Nathues, A., Ullaland, K. [2012]. Icarus 220, 51-64) which relies exclusively on the 2-μm absorption band parameters. The modified FeO abundance estimation algorithm and the regression-based elemental abundance estimation algorithm (Wöhler, C., Grumpe, A., Berezhnoy, A., Bhatt, M.U., Mall, U. [2014]. Icarus 235, 86-122) which is based on the 1-μm and 2-μm absorption band parameters is applied to the M3 data. We have compared results obtained from these two modified algorithms with a previously published Clementine's FeO wt.% map (Lucey, P.G., Blewett, D.T., Jolliff, B.L. [2000]. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20297-20306). The effects of topography and space weathering on FeO wt.% estimates have been successfully minimized using the modified algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption band parameters. Thus, this algorithm can be successfully applied at middle to high latitudes. Furthermore, a correction for TiO2 is applied to the FeO abundance estimation algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption band parameters using the M3 data. Our comparative study shows a good correspondence between the three algorithms discussed. There are two locations: the crater Tycho and the region around Rima Bode which show major discrepancies. Our modified algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption parameters predicts 3-4 wt.% less FeO for the ray system of Tycho than for the surrounding region. The average iron abundance for the lunar highlands is about 6 wt.% and for the mare regions is about 16 wt.% using the regression-based elemental abundance estimation algorithm and the algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption parameters. This result is consistent with

  18. DNA recognition by peptide nucleic acid-modified PCFs: from models to real samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, S.; Coscelli, E.; Poli, F.; Passaro, D.; Cucinotta, A.; Lantano, C.; Corradini, R.; Marchelli, R.

    2010-04-01

    The increased concern, emerged in the last few years, on food products safety has stimulated the research on new techniques for traceability of raw food materials. DNA analysis is one of the most powerful tools for the certification of food quality, and it is presently performed through the polymerase chain reaction technique. Photonic crystal fibers, due to the presence of an array of air holes running along their length, can be exploited for performing DNA recognition by derivatizing hole surfaces and checking hybridization of complementary nucledotide chains in the sample. In this paper the application of a suspended core photonic crystal fiber in the recognition of DNA sequences is discussed. The fiber is characterized in terms of electromagnetic properties by means of a full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method. Then, the performances of the fiber in the recognition of mall synthetic oligonucleotides are discussed, together with a test of the possibility to extend this recognition to samples of DNA of applicative interest, such as olive leaves.

  19. VLC-based indoor location awareness using LED light and image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok-Ju; Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, indoor LED lighting can be considered for constructing green infra with energy saving and additionally providing LED-IT convergence services such as visible light communication (VLC) based location awareness and navigation services. For example, in case of large complex shopping mall, location awareness to navigate the destination is very important issue. However, the conventional navigation using GPS is not working indoors. Alternative location service based on WLAN has a problem that the position accuracy is low. For example, it is difficult to estimate the height exactly. If the position error of the height is greater than the height between floors, it may cause big problem. Therefore, conventional navigation is inappropriate for indoor navigation. Alternative possible solution for indoor navigation is VLC based location awareness scheme. Because indoor LED infra will be definitely equipped for providing lighting functionality, indoor LED lighting has a possibility to provide relatively high accuracy of position estimation combined with VLC technology. In this paper, we provide a new VLC based positioning system using visible LED lights and image sensors. Our system uses location of image sensor lens and location of reception plane. By using more than two image sensor, we can determine transmitter position less than 1m position error. Through simulation, we verify the validity of the proposed VLC based new positioning system using visible LED light and image sensors.

  20. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at 14 public places in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.; Chiu, M.Y.

    1999-05-01

    The indoor and outdoor air quality of 14 public places with mechanical ventilation systems in Hong Kong were investigated from October 1996 to March 1997. Fourteen public places located in urban residential, commercial, industrial, and rural areas were selected for indoor/outdoor (I/O) air pollutant measurement. The public places included restaurants, libraries, recreation places, shopping malls, sport centers, and a car park. The concentrations of SO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were measured during peak traffic hours at each sampling location. I/O correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed. High I/O ratios of CO, CO{sub 2}, THC, and PM{sub 10} were due to a high infiltration rate and the presence of indoor sources. The results show that the I/O ratios at public places were higher than those at homes and offices. Insufficient ventilation caused high CO{sub 2} levels. The I/O ratios of PM{sub 10} and CO at public places where tobacco smoking is permitted were 4 times and 1.6 times those where smoking is prohibited.

  1. Bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls in workplace dust and its implication for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan; Yin, Yi; Man, Yubon; Li, Laisheng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Zeng, Lixuan; Luo, Jiwen; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to bioaccessible PCBs via indoor dust is limited around the world. In the present study, the workplace dust sample from commercial office, hospital, secondary school, shopping mall, electronic factory and manufacturing plant were collected from Hong Kong for PCBs analyses. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 46.8 to 249 ng g(-1), with a median of 107 ng g(-1). Manufacturing plant showed the highest concentration among all of sampling sites. PCB 77 was found as the dominant congeners. The bioaccessibility of PCBs in small intestinal juice ranging from 8.3% to 26.0% was significantly higher than that in gastric condition, ranging from 4.8% to 12.4%. In addition, significant negative correlations (p<0.05) were observed between KOW and bioaccessibility for all workplace dust samples. Risk assessment indicated that the averaged daily dose of dioxin-like PCBs via non-dietary intake of workplace dust, considering the bioaccessibility of PCBs, were much lower than the TDI of dioxins (2.3 pg WHO-TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1)) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. PMID:23838041

  2. Structural characterization of a branched (1→6)-α-mannan and β-glucans isolated from the fruiting bodies of Cantharellus cibarius.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Anna Armika T; Aachmann, Finn L; Rise, Frode; Ballance, Simon; Samuelsen, Anne Berit C

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of polysaccharides from the chanterelle was performed. Experiments included both linkage analysis by methylation and GC-MS, monosaccharide composition analysis by methanolysis, SEC-MALLS and several NMR experiments including COSY, HSQC, TOCSY, HSQC-TOCSY, NOESY, and HMBC. A 671kDa (1→6)-linked α-d-mannan with single and short (1→2)-linked side chains (WCcF1b) was isolated from the hot water extract, after protease treatment and fractionation by size exclusion chromatography. The hot 1M NaOH extract contained two types of β-glucan; a water soluble (1→6)-linked β-d-glucan with single and short (1→3)-linked β-glucan side chains (ACcSw) and a less branched (1→3)-linked β-d-glucan (ACcIw/ACcId), proposed to contain short side chains in O-4. Chemical shifts assignments of the α-mannan and β-glucan are presented as well as chemical shift values obtained from a (1→6)/(1→3)-β-d-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which was used as reference. PMID:27112866

  3. Terraforming Mars: Can We Feed Ourselves If We Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James M.; Elliot, Kandis

    2003-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have recognized for a long time that transporting food supplies from Earth to extraterrestrial colonies is not a feasible option over the long run because of weight, distance, and ultimately costs. It has therefore been accepted that colonists on the Moon and Mars will have to be capable of feeding themselves from greenhouse-grown crops. A number of greenhouse designs have been proposed, and the designs fall into two categories: inflatable greenhouses manufactured on Earth and transported to Mars and greenhouses manufactured on Mars using local materials and resources. Both types come in small, spartan versions and large-scale architectural masterpieces, the latter envisioning beautiful mall-like vistas in which grain fields and orchards are interspersed with fishponds and goat pastures, while strawberry-munching gardeners oversee the scene. We propose some guidelines for the construction of greenhouses on Mars with the emphasis on the biological challenges presented by growing plants and other organisms on a continual basis to sustain a human population. We regard greenhouses to be the first, small terraformed surface areas on Mars and will suggest how the knowledge gained in their operation may be applied to the later course of biological terraforming of the entire planet.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific polysaccharides in Dendrobium huoshanense by using saccharide mapping and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Han, Bang-Xing; Wu, Ding-Tao; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-09-10

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific polysaccharides from ten batches of Dendrobium huoshanense were performed using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and saccharide mapping based on polysaccharides analysis by using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results showed that molecular weights, the radius of gyrations, and contents of specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense were ranging from 1.16×10(5) to 2.17×10(5)Da, 38.8 to 52.1nm, and 9.9% to 19.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the main monosaccharide compositions were Man and Glc. Indeed, the main glycosidic linkages were β-1,4-Manp and β-1,4-Glcp, and substituted with acetyl groups at O-2 and O-3 of 1,4-linked Manp. Moreover, results showed that PACE and HPTLC fingerprints of partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysates of specific polysaccharides were similar, which are helpful to better understand the specific polysaccharides in D. huoshanense and beneficial to improve their quality control. These approaches could also be routinely used for quality control of polysaccharides in other medicinal plants. PMID:27424197

  5. Bioethics and anti-bioethics in light of Nazi medicine: what must we remember?

    PubMed

    Wikler, D; Barondess, J

    1993-03-01

    Only recently have historians explored in depth the role of the medical profession in Nazi Germany. Several recent works reveal that physicians joined the Nazi party in disproportionate numbers and lent both their efforts and their authority to Nazi eugenic and racist programs. While the crimes of the physician Mengele and a few others are well known, recent research points to a much broader involvement by the profession, even in its everyday clinical work. Analogous activities existed in the German legal and industrial communities; disruption of the medical ethic thus sprang from the broader social contexts of Nazi Germany. The new United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, now opening on the Mall in Washington, D.C., will have an opportunity to educate the public about both the great crimes at Auschwitz and other camps, and the gradual but thorough degradation of ethics in the German medical profession. From this presentation, contemporary bioethics can ponder the proper use of the Nazi analogy in bioethical debate. PMID:10171397

  6. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  7. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  8. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  9. Structural properties of poly C-scleroglucan complexes.

    PubMed

    Sletmoen, Marit; Stokke, Bjørn T

    2005-10-15

    Successive changes of solvent conditions can be used to dissociate and reassociate the triple-helical structure of (1,3)-beta-D-glucans. Ultramicroscopic techniques have revealed a blend of circular and other structures following renaturation. When this solvent exchange process is carried out in the presence of certain polynucleotides, the process creates a novel macromolecular complex. Here, we use size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to study such (1,3)-beta-D-glucan-polynucleotide complexes. Online multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index (RI) detectors allowed determination of molecular weight and radius of gyration of the molecules. An ultraviolet (UV) detector allowed specific detection of the polynucleotide. The poly-cytidylic acid (poly C) shifted to coelution with the linear fraction of the scleroglucan following the renaturation of poly C-scleroglucan blends, indicating that poly C is incorporated in linear, but not in circular, structures of scleroglucan. This conclusion was consistent with AFM topographs that revealed a decreased fraction of circular structures upon addition of poly C during the renaturation process. The combined information about radius of gyration (R(g)) and molecular weight (M(w)) allowed us to conclude that the poly C-scleroglucan complexes are more dense and have a higher persistence length than linear scleroglucan triple helixes. The experimentally determined mass per unit length was used as a basis for elucidating possible molecular arrangements within the poly C-scleroglucan complex. PMID:16013056

  10. Distilling Big Data: Refining Quality Information in the Era of Yottabytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandramurthy, Sivaraman; Subramaniam, Srinivasan; Ramasamy, Chandrasekeran

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is the buzzword of the modern century. With the invasion of pervasive computing, we live in a data centric environment, where we always leave a track of data related to our day to day activities. Be it a visit to a shopping mall or hospital or surfing Internet, we create voluminous data related to credit card transactions, user details, location information, and so on. These trails of data simply define an individual and form the backbone for user-profiling. With the mobile phones and their easy access to online social networks on the go, sensor data such as geo-taggings and events and sentiments around them contribute to the already overwhelming data containers. With reductions in the cost of storage and computational devices and with increasing proliferation of Cloud, we never felt any constraints in storing or processing such data. Eventually we end up having several exabytes of data and analysing them for their usefulness has introduced new frontiers of research. Effective distillation of these data is the need of the hour to improve the veracity of the Big Data. This research targets the utilization of the Fuzzy Bayesian process model to improve the quality of information in Big Data. PMID:26495424

  11. An integrated framework for detecting suspicious behaviors in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Thi Thi; Tin, Pyke; Hama, Hiromitsu; Toriu, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated framework for detecting suspicious behaviors in video surveillance systems which are established in public places such as railway stations, airports, shopping malls and etc. Especially, people loitering in suspicion, unattended objects left behind and exchanging suspicious objects between persons are common security concerns in airports and other transit scenarios. These involve understanding scene/event, analyzing human movements, recognizing controllable objects, and observing the effect of the human movement on those objects. In the proposed framework, multiple background modeling technique, high level motion feature extraction method and embedded Markov chain models are integrated for detecting suspicious behaviors in real time video surveillance systems. Specifically, the proposed framework employs probability based multiple backgrounds modeling technique to detect moving objects. Then the velocity and distance measures are computed as the high level motion features of the interests. By using an integration of the computed features and the first passage time probabilities of the embedded Markov chain, the suspicious behaviors in video surveillance are analyzed for detecting loitering persons, objects left behind and human interactions such as fighting. The proposed framework has been tested by using standard public datasets and our own video surveillance scenarios.

  12. Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Coronavirus Pandemic Among Public in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M; Al Helih, Eyad M; Moussa, Mahaman; Boshaiqah, Ahmad E; Saleh Alajilan, Abdulrahman; Vinluan, Jason M; Almutairi, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    New cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were reported in Gulf countries in 2014, and to date, it has reportedly infected 837 people and killed 291 globally. Awareness of an individual's knowledge and being able to predict his or her behavior is crucial when evaluating clinical preparedness for pandemics with a highly pathogenic virus. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to MERS-CoV among the public in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 1147 adult subjects recruited from various shopping malls in Riyadh was conducted. All the subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that tested their knowledge, attitudes, and use of precautionary measures in relation to the MERS-CoV pandemic. The majority of the participants showed high levels of concern and had utilized precautionary measures. After adjusting for other variables, gender was the only significant predictor of the level of concern (P < .001), while knowledge was the significant predictor of both the level of concern and precaution (P < .001). High concern translated into a higher compliance with precautionary recommendations. Frequent communication between health care providers and the public is recommended to help dispel myths about the disease and to empower the public with the information needed to help the Saudi government in containing the disease outbreak. PMID:26291193

  13. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  14. Design and Simulation of a Birdcage Coil using CST Studio Suite for Application at 7T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau Tomas, Bernat; Li, Houmin; Anjum, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the study of coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. The principal objective is the design of a birdcage Radio Frequency (RF) coil to use in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner. Higher strength field generates a better SNR and increased chemical shift effect, improving spectral fat suppression and spectroscopy. Moreover, a better SNR increases the spatial resolution or reduces the imaging time. This research work presented recent developments based on high field 7T design using CST studio. The birdcage coil achieves circular polarization and generates a high homogeneous radio frequency magnetic field under many conditions. Design of a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain the images from s mall animals (i.e. mouse). It opens the door to design and construct a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain human brain images. Firstly we design a birdcage coil then the results are obtained with simulator CST Wave Studio, creating a 3D model and generating a simulation. Finally the parameters are re adjusted to obtain our desired Larmor frequency 298.2 MHz for a correct operation in 7T. This research work demonstrates the theoretical results from our design and shows the designed antenna behavior.

  15. High-Throughput Typing Method To Identify a Non-Outbreak-Involved Legionella pneumophila Strain Colonizing the Entire Water Supply System in the Town of Rennes, France ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, D.; Le Cann, P.; Gerard, A.; Jarraud, S.; Lebeau, B.; Loisy-Hamon, F.; Vergnaud, G.; Pourcel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Two legionellosis outbreaks occurred in the city of Rennes, France, during the past decade, requiring in-depth monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in the water network and the cooling towers in the city. In order to characterize the resulting large collection of isolates, an automated low-cost typing method was developed. The multiplex capillary-based variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (multiple-locus VNTR analysis [MLVA]) assay requiring only one PCR amplification per isolate ensures a high level of discrimination and reduces hands-on and time requirements. In less than 2 days and using one 4-capillary apparatus, 217 environmental isolates collected between 2000 and 2009 and 5 clinical isolates obtained during outbreaks in 2000 and 2006 in Rennes were analyzed, and 15 different genotypes were identified. A large cluster of isolates with closely related genotypes and representing 77% of the population was composed exclusively of environmental isolates extracted from hot water supply systems. It was not responsible for the known Rennes epidemic cases, although strains showing a similar MLVA profile have regularly been involved in European outbreaks. The clinical isolates in Rennes had the same genotype as isolates contaminating a mall's cooling tower. This study further demonstrates that unknown environmental or genetic factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some strains. This work illustrates the potential of the high-throughput MLVA typing method to investigate the origin of legionellosis cases by allowing the systematic typing of any new isolate and inclusion of data in shared databases. PMID:21821761

  16. Long-term degradation study of hyaluronic acid in aqueous solutions without protection against microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Simulescu, Vasile; Kalina, Michal; Mondek, Jakub; Pekař, Miloslav

    2016-02-10

    The degradation of hyaluronan (HA) of different molecular weights (Mw 14.3, 267.2 and 1160.6 kDa, measured for fresh solutions, before degradation) was studied in aqueous solutions by SEC-MALLS determination of molecular mass, polydispersity and conformation parameters. The solutions were stored either at laboratory or refrigerator temperatures for two months. After this period the weight average molecular weight decreased by 90% for 14.3 kDa, 95% for 267.2 kDa and 71% for 1160.6 kDa hyaluronan (room temperature) or 5.6% for 14.3 kDa, 6.2% for 267.2 kDa and 7.7% for 1160.6 kDa hyaluronan (refrigerator temperature). The hyaluronan aqueous solutions studied did not contain sodium azide or other protectants against microorganisms, because the aim of our study was to assess the degradation in solutions to be used in medicine or cosmetics (without any compounds that are poisonous or toxic for the human body). The solvent used to prepare the samples was pure water. The polydispersity of all the samples remained unaltered during the entire degradation at both temperatures. This indicates a non-random mechanism of degradation. PMID:26686177

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Korean red paprika and factors to be considered in prevention strategy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jongsung; Kim, Dongho; Jang, Han-Sub; Kim, Yeongmin; Shim, Won-Bo; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2010-11-01

    A large amount-260,000 tons-of red paprika is consumed annually in Korea, where the people prefer hot and pungent to sweet foods. Concern has recently grown among consumers over contamination of paprika powder by mycotoxins; contamination can occur at any stage from pre-harvest to drying, storage, grinding, and eventually transport to the retail market. This study had dual aims: to investigate the current level of contamination of hot peppers by ochratoxin A and to identify the critical control points in the food chain. We measured the ochratoxin A (OTA) content of 200 samples from various sources including supermarkets, an online shopping mall, small stakeholder mills, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)-implemented factories, and an import company. Mycotoxin was determined using immunoaffinity column cleanup/HPLC quantification as well as strong anion exchange cleanup/stable isotope dilution assay. Monitoring revealed that approximately 30% of red paprika samples were OTA-positive, indicating a need to establish a maximum level for regulation. We selected two model factories that had adopted HACCP in different ways, and compared data in order to develop guidelines for alleviation of mitigation of the mycotoxin contamination. PMID:23605491

  18. Initial communication survey results for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.

    1991-03-01

    To support the public communication efforts of the Technical Steering Panel of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a public survey was conducted. The survey was intended to provide information about the public's knowledge and interest in the project and the best ways to communicate project results. Questions about the project were included as part of an omnibus survey conducted by Washington State University. The survey was conducted by phone to Washington State residents in the spring of 1990. This report gives the HEDR-related questions and summary data of responses. Questions associated with the HEDR Project were grouped into four categories: knowledge of the HEDR Project; interest in the project; preferred ways of receiving information about the project (including public information meetings, a newsletter mailed to homes, presentations to civic groups in the respondent's community, a computer bulletin board respondent could access with a modem, information displays at public buildings and shopping malls, and an information video sent to respondent); and level of concern over past exposure from Hanford operations. Questions abut whom state residents are most likely to trust about radiation issues were also part of the omnibus survey, and responses are included in this report.

  19. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents. PMID:27213369

  20. An intelligent inspection and survey robot

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.; Holland, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System) is a semi-autonomous robotic system intended for use in the automatic inspection of stored containers of low level nuclear waste. The project is being performed by a team under the SCUREF (South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation) comprised of the University of South Carolina, and Clemson University, and their industrial partner Cybermotion Inc., with funding from METC, Morgantown, WV. The ARIES program is unusual in the level of cooperation between the universities and Cybermotion. By maintaining daily communications via telephone and E-Mall, participating in frequent meetings with each other and the end users, and by developing an open flow of (sometimes sensitive) technical information, the team has been able to build on a very broad base of intellectual strengths and existing technology without wasteful duplication. This base includes all of the navigation and control software and hardware developed by Cybermotion over nearly a decade and the deep technology resources of the university partners. It is anticipated that the result will be a technically advanced system that is much closer to a deployable configuration than is typical for this stage of research. In this decade of shrinking budgets, such relationships can provide a crucial advantage for all participants.

  1. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  2. Practical Implementation of Semi-Automated As-Built Bim Creation for Complex Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Jung, J.; Heo, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent days, for efficient management and operation of existing buildings, the importance of as-built BIM is emphasized in AEC/FM domain. However, fully automated as-built BIM creation is a tough issue since newly-constructed buildings are becoming more complex. To manage this problem, our research group has developed a semi-automated approach, focusing on productive 3D as-built BIM creation for complex indoor environments. In order to test its feasibility for a variety of complex indoor environments, we applied the developed approach to model the `Charlotte stairs' in Lotte World Mall, Korea. The approach includes 4 main phases: data acquisition, data pre-processing, geometric drawing, and as-built BIM creation. In the data acquisition phase, due to its complex structure, we moved the scanner location several times to obtain the entire point clouds of the test site. After which, data pre-processing phase entailing point-cloud registration, noise removal, and coordinate transformation was followed. The 3D geometric drawing was created using the RANSAC-based plane detection and boundary tracing methods. Finally, in order to create a semantically-rich BIM, the geometric drawing was imported into the commercial BIM software. The final as-built BIM confirmed that the feasibility of the proposed approach in the complex indoor environment.

  3. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice. PMID:10382408

  4. Architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dvoskin, Joel A; Radomski, Steven J; Bennett, Charles; Olin, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Robert L; Dotson, Linda A; Drewnicky, Irene N

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital. The project combined input from staff at all levels of the client organization, outside consultants, and a team of experienced architects. The design team was able to create a design that maximized patient dignity and privacy on one hand, and the ability of staff to observe all patient activity on the other. The design centers around 24-bed units, broken into smaller living wings of eight beds each. Each eight-bed living wing has its own private bathrooms (two) and showers (two), as well as a small living area solely reserved for these eight patients and their guests. An indoor-outdoor dayroom allows patients to go outside whenever they choose, while allowing staff to continue observing them. The heart of the facility is a large treatment mall, designed to foster the acquisition of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral skills that will help patients to safely return to their communities. PMID:12239707

  5. Chlorinated organic compounds in ground water at Roosevelt Field, Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, D.A.; Pearsall, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have been detected in water from five public-supply wells and six cooling-water wells that tap the Magothy aquifer at Roosevelt Field, a 200-acre area that is now a large shopping mall and office-building complex. The cooling water is discharged after use to the water table (upper glacial) aquifer through a nearby recharge basin and a subsurface drain field. Three plumes of TCE in groundwater have been delineated--the source plume, which has penetrated both aquifers , and two more recent plumes emanating from the two discharge sites in the water-table aquifer. Concentrations of inorganic constituents in the three plumes are the same as those in ambient water in the area. The two secondary plumes discharged cooling water extended at least 1,000 ft south-southeastward in the direction of regional groundwater flow. Pumping at wells screened in the middle and basal sections of the Magothy aquifers, where clay layers are absent and sandy zones provide good vertical hydraulic connection within the aquifer system, has increased the rate of downward contaminant advection. The transient increases in downward movement are cumulative over time and have brought TCE to the bottom of the Magothy aquifer, 500 ft below land surface. (USGS)

  6. Characterisation of assembly and ubiquitylation by the RBCC motif of Trim5α

    PubMed Central

    Keown, Jeremy R.; Yang, Joy X.; Douglas, Jordan; Goldstone, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The post-entry restriction factor Trim5α blocks infection of retroviral pathogens shortly after the virus gains entry to the cell, preventing reverse transcription and integration into the host genome. Central to the mechanism of restriction is recognition of the lattice of capsid protein that forms the inner-shell of the retrovirus. To recognise this lattice, Trim5α has been shown to assemble into a large hexagonal array, complementary to the capsid lattice. Structures of the Trim5α coiled-coil region reveal an elongated anti-parallel dimer consistent with the edges of this array placing the Bbox domain at each end of the coiled-coil to facilitate assembly. To investigate the nature of this assembly we have designed and characterised a monomeric version of the TRIM RBCC motif with a truncated coiled-coil. Biophysical characterisation by SEC-MALLS, AUC, and SAXS demonstrate that this construct forms compact folded domain that assembles into a trimer that would support the formation of a hexagonal lattice. Furthermore, the RING domain and elements of the coiled-coil region are shown to contribute to assembly. Ubiquitylation assays demonstrate that this assembly increases ubiquitylation activity providing a link from recognition of the capsid lattice and assembly to the activation of innate immune signalling and restriction. PMID:27230667

  7. a Comparison Study of Different Marker Selection Methods for Spectral-Spatial Classification of Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, D.; Safari, A. R.; Homayouni, S.; Khazai, S.

    2015-12-01

    An effective approach based on the Minimum Spanning Forest (MSF), grown from automatically selected markers using Support Vector Machines (SVM), has been proposed for spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images by Tarabalka et al. This paper aims at improving this approach by using image segmentation to integrate the spatial information into marker selection process. In this study, the markers are extracted from the classification maps, obtained by both SVM and segmentation algorithms, and then are used to build the MSF. The segmentation algorithms are the watershed, expectation maximization (EM) and hierarchical clustering. These algorithms are used in parallel and independently to segment the image. Moreover, the pixels of each class, with the largest population in the classification map, are kept for each region of the segmentation map. Lastly, the most reliable classified pixels are chosen from among the exiting pixels as markers. Two benchmark urban hyperspectral datasets are used for evaluation: Washington DC Mall and Berlin. The results of our experiments indicate that, compared to the original MSF approach, the marker selection using segmentation algorithms leads in more accurate classification maps.

  8. Architecture and health care: a place for sociology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah; Buse, Christina; Prior, Lindsay; Twigg, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists of health and illness have tended to overlook the architecture and buildings used in health care. This contrasts with medical geographers who have yielded a body of work on the significance of places and spaces in the experience of health and illness. A review of sociological studies of the role of the built environment in the performance of medical practice uncovers an important vein of work, worthy of further study. Through the historically situated example of hospital architecture, this article seeks to tease out substantive and methodological issues that can inform a distinctive sociology of healthcare architecture. Contemporary healthcare buildings manifest design models developed for hotels, shopping malls and homes. These design features are congruent with neoliberal forms of subjectivity in which patients are constituted as consumers and responsibilised citizens. We conclude that an adequate sociology of healthcare architecture necessitates an appreciation of both the construction and experience of buildings, exploring the briefs and plans of their designers, and observing their everyday uses. Combining approaches and methods from the sociology of health and illness and science and technology studies offers potential for a novel research agenda that takes healthcare buildings as its substantive focus. PMID:25929329

  9. Skin Self-Examinations and Visual Identification of Atypical Nevi: Comparing Individual and Crowdsourcing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    King, Andy J.; Gehl, Robert; Grossman, Douglas; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Skin self-examination (SSE) is one method for identifying atypical nevi among members of the general public. Unfortunately, past research has shown that SSE has low sensitivity in detecting atypical nevi. The current study investigates whether crowdsourcing (collective effort) can improve SSE identification accuracy. Collective effort is potentially useful for improving people’s visual identification of atypical nevi during SSE because, even when a single person has low reliability at a task, the pattern of the group can overcome the limitations of each individual. Methods Adults (N = 500) were recruited from a shopping mall in the Midwest. Participants viewed educational pamphlets about SSE and then completed a mole identification task. For the task, participants were asked to circle mole images that appeared atypical. Forty nevi images were provided; nine of the images were of nevi that were later diagnosed as melanoma. Results Consistent with past research, individual effort exhibited modest sensitivity (.58) for identifying atypical nevi in the mole identification task. As predicted, collective effort overcame the limitations of individual effort. Specifically, a 19% collective effort identification threshold exhibited superior sensitivity (.90). Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that limitations of SSE can be countered by collective effort, a finding that supports the pursuit of interventions promoting early melanoma detection that contain crowdsourcing visual identification components. PMID:24075797

  10. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers. PMID:7591353

  11. Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole and its derivatives (collectively referred to BTHs) are used widely in many consumer (e.g., textiles) and industrial (e.g., rubber) products. Very little is known about the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to these substances. In this study, 81 indoor air samples collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 were analyzed for BTHs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BTHs were found in all indoor air samples, and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 4.36-2229 ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 32.7 ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 148 ng/m(3)) were found in automobiles, followed by homes (49.5)>automobile garages (46.0)>public places, e.g., shopping malls (24.2)>barbershops (18.9) >offices (18.8)>laboratories (15.1). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BTHs for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 27.7, 26.3, 17.9, 10.5, and 7.77 ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The estimated contribution of indoor air to total BTHs intake was approximately 10%. This is the first study on the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air. PMID:26954474

  12. Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2014-07-17

    A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at δ 101.6, δ 75.5, δ 73.9, δ 72.5, and δ 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1→4)-linked β-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration. PMID:24702919

  13. Utilizing LANDSAT TM thermal data to map urban heat islands in Dallas/Fort Worth

    SciTech Connect

    Aniello, C.A.; Lowry, S.A.; Morgan, K.; Newland, L.; Busbey, A.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Many cities experience loss of vegetation due to urbanization. A recognized result of this defoliation is the occurrence of hot spots' which act to increase the temperature of surrounding areas. These heat islands' lead to higher energy consumption and costs. In this study a methodology was developed to produce thermal/land cover satellite images of areas in the Metroplex using visible, infrared and thermal TM bands. An index of vegetation cover was made from bands 3 and 4 to differentiate areas of vegetation and to provide a basis for temperature comparisons. TM band 6 was merged with the vegetation index image, classified and color coded to show temperature differences in the study areas, then verified in the field. Verified hot spots included roads, parking lots, strip malls and developed intersections. This study was done in cooperation with the Texas Forest Service in an effort to identify heat islands that need tree planting to help cool down cities and filter out harmful air pollutants.

  14. Three dimensional indoor positioning based on visible light with Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenjun; Zhang, Weizhi; Wang, Jin; Amini Kashani, M. R.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, location based services (LBS) have found their wide applications in indoor environments, such as large shopping malls, hospitals, warehouses, airports, etc. Current technologies provide wide choices of available solutions, which include Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Ultra wideband (UWB), wireless local area network (WLAN) and Bluetooth. With the rapid development of light-emitting-diodes (LED) technology, visible light communications (VLC) also bring a practical approach to LBS. As visible light has a better immunity against multipath effect than radio waves, higher positioning accuracy is achieved. LEDs are utilized both for illumination and positioning purpose to realize relatively lower infrastructure cost. In this paper, an indoor positioning system using VLC is proposed, with LEDs as transmitters and photo diodes as receivers. The algorithm for estimation is based on received-signalstrength (RSS) information collected from photo diodes and trilateration technique. By appropriately making use of the characteristics of receiver movements and the property of trilateration, estimation on three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates is attained. Filtering technique is applied to enable tracking capability of the algorithm, and a higher accuracy is reached compare to raw estimates. Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) is proposed for this 3-D system, which introduces the notion of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The number of particles in the filter is reduced by approximating the probability distribution with Gaussian components.

  15. Structural and physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch treated with ultra-high pressure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Lu, Xu; Zhou, Meiling; Zheng, Mingjing; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous lotus seed starch suspensions (15%, w/w) were subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment (UHP, 100-600 MPa) for 30 min. The effects of UHP treatment on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch were investigated. The SEM and laser diffraction particle size analysis revealed that UHP treatment affected the shape and size distribution of starch granules. The morphological structure of starch was completely destroyed at 600 MPa, indicating complete gelatinization. Analysis of HPSEC-MALLS-RI suggested that the dispersity index of UHP-treated starch were decreased from 1.28 to 1.11. According to XRD analyses, UHP treatment converted native starch (C-type) into a B-type pattern. The swelling power and solubility presented a significant decrease at 85 and 95 °C, but opposite trends were found at 55-75 °C. The DSC results indicated a reduction in gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy with increasing pressure treatment. The RVA viscograms revealed that UHP-treated starch showed a decreased breakdown and setback viscosity, reflecting lower retrogradation tendency compared to native starch. PMID:25976814

  16. Murder Must Memorize

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Memory reports usually provide the evidence that is most determinative of guilt or innocence in criminal proceedings—including in the most serious proceedings, capital murder trials. Thus, memory research is bedrock science when it comes to the reliability of legal evidence, and expert testimony on such research is a linchpin of just verdicts. This principle is illustrated with a capital murder trial in which several of the most powerful forms of memory distortion were present (e.g., phantom recollections, robust interrogation methods that stimulate false self-incrimination). A key question before the jury, whether to regard the defendant’s confession as true or false, turned on a theoretical principle that is used to explain memory distortion in the laboratory, the verbatim-gist distinction, and on research showing that it is possible to create false memories that embody the gist of experience. The scientific testimony focused on instances in which false gist memories had been created under controlled conditions (e.g., of having been lost in a mall, of receiving surgery for a fictitious injury), as well as on real-life examples of false memory for the gist experience (e.g., recovered memories of sexual abuse, alien abduction memories). The defendant was found innocent of capital murder. PMID:23638648

  17. Murder must memorise.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J

    2013-05-01

    Memory reports usually provide the evidence that is most determinative of guilt or innocence in criminal proceedings-including in the most serious proceedings, capital murder trials. Thus memory research is bedrock science when it comes to the reliability of legal evidence, and expert testimony on such research is a linchpin of just verdicts. This principle is illustrated with a capital murder trial in which several of the most powerful forms of memory distortion were present (e.g., phantom recollections, robust interrogation methods that stimulate false self-incrimination). A key question before the jury, whether to regard the defendant's confession as true or false, turned on a theoretical principle that is used to explain memory distortion in the laboratory, the verbatim-gist distinction, and on research showing that it is possible to create false memories that embody the gist of experience. The scientific testimony focused on instances in which false gist memories had been created under controlled conditions (e.g., of having been lost in a mall, of receiving surgery for a fictitious injury), as well as on real-life examples of false memory for the gist experience (e.g., recovered memories of sexual abuse, alien abduction memories). The defendant was found innocent of capital murder. PMID:23638648

  18. Conformational and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the chain conformation and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate extracted from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Aj-fCS). By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI, Mw, z(1/2), Rh and [η] for Aj-fCS were determined as 58.0±4.4kDa, 21.8±1.3nm, 12.5±1.3nm and 27.8±0.5mL/g respectively. Conformation parameter αs derived from the relationship of Mw-z(1/2) (0.39) and structure-sensitive parameter ρ (1.74) consistently indicated that Aj-fCS adopted a random coil conformation in solution, which was also supported by atomic force microscopy. Stiffness parameters of Aj-fCS chains including q (2.72nm), d (1.03nm) and C∞ (5.28) were furthermore deduced from the worm-like cylinder model. Aj-fCS demonstrated a shear-thinning rheological behavior, relatively low apparent viscosity, negative charge in wide pH and ionic strength ranges, and favorable thermostability. These results have important implications for designing and fabricating functional foods or drugs based on Aj-fCS. PMID:27516246

  19. Degradation of chitosan by gamma ray with presence of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Maznah; Naziri, Muhammad Ihsan; Yacob, Norzita; Talip, Norhashidah; Abdullah, Zahid

    2014-02-01

    The radiation degraded chitosan samples were prepared by swelling the chitosan powder in water and exposed for gamma irradiation. The ratio chitosan to water was 1:6 with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1%-5%. These chitosan-water mixtures were irradiated at 6kGy, which is the lowest irradiation dose that facility can offered. All samples were purified and proceed with characterization. The molecular weight (MW) study was monitored by size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). Results showed that MW of chitosan reduced as the dose increased. Application of H2O2 enhanced the degradation rate of chitosan even at very low irradiation dose. Homogenous degradation also occurred during treatment with H2O2based on the polydispersity index (PDI) derived from the calculation of weight average molecular weight over number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn). Mechanism of chitosan radiation degradation with and without hydrogen peroxide was also discussed in this paper. Structure of degraded products was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) values of the samples was determined by acid-base titration. Solubility test results showed that, chitosan powder even at low Mw was insoluble in water even at low pH water. Chitosan as well as irradiated chitosan powder are soluble in strong and weak acid solution. Further discussion on behaviours of radiation degraded chitosan will be elaborated more in this paper.

  20. Polypeptide chain composition diversity of hexagonal-bilayer haemoglobins within a single family of annelids, the alvinellidae.

    PubMed

    Zal, F; Green, B N; Martineu, P; Lallier, F H; Toulmond, A; Vinogradov, S N; Childress, J J

    2000-08-01

    Following previous analysis of the structure of Alvinella pompejana heaxagonal-bilayer haemoglobin (HBL Hb) [1], we report in this paper the structure of three other HBL Hbs belonging to Alvinella caudata, Paralvinella grasslei and Paralvinella palmiformis, members of the Alvinellidae, annelid family strictly endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents located on the ridge crests in the Pacific ocean. The multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis revealed a broad range of molecular masses for the extracellular Hb molecules, 3517 +/- 14 kDa (A. caudata), 3822 +/- 28 kDa (P. grasslei) and 3750 +/- 150 kDa (P. palmiformis). Native and derivative Hbs (reduced, carbamidomethylated and deglycosylated) were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) and the data was processed by the maximum entropy deconvolution system (MaxEnt). The most important difference between alvinellid HBL Hbs was the variation in their composition, from two to four monomeric globin chains, and from one to four linker chains. Therefore, despite the fact that all these species belong to a single family, notable differences in the polypeptide chain composition of their HBL Hbs were observed, probably accounting for their different functional properties as previously reported by this group Toulmond, A., El Idrissi Slitine, F., De Frescheville, J. & Jouin, C. (1990) Biol. Bull. 179, 366-373. PMID:10931208

  1. Investigation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the extracellular hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana: an unusual hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zal, F; Green, B N; Lallier, F H; Toulmond, A

    1997-09-30

    Alvinella pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites along the East-Pacific Rise, where it colonizes the walls of actively venting high-temperature chimneys. This worm is the most thermophilic metazoan known to date. In Alvinella, as in other alvinellids, oxygen transport is mainly achieved by an extracellular Hb dissolved in the vascular blood. This Hb has a molecular mass of 3833 +/- 14 kDa as revealed by multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS). Native and derivative Hb (reduced, carbamidomethylated, and deglycosylated) were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The data were processed by the maximum entropy deconvolution system (MaxEnt). We identified three groups of peaks for Alvinella Hb, at ca. 16, 23-26, and 50 kDa corresponding to (i) four monomeric globin chains, a1 (16 633.4), a2(16 532.4), a3 (16 419.6), and a4(16 348.9); (ii) four linker chains, L1-L4 (22 887. 1, 24 230.5, 26 233.6, and 25 974.4); and (iii) one disulfide-bonded trimer T (51 431.9) composed of globin chains b (16 477.5), c (16 916.1), and d (18 048.8). These Hbs were also subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis for comparative purposes. In addition, using the ESI-MS data we propose two alternative models for the quaternary structure of Alvinella's Hb. PMID:9305968

  2. Two quantitative trait loci, Dw1 and Dw2, are primarily responsible for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple.

    PubMed

    Foster, Toshi M; Celton, Jean-Marc; Chagné, David; Tustin, D Stuart; Gardiner, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The apple dwarfing rootstock 'Malling9' ('M9') has been used worldwide both to reduce scion vigour and as a genetic source for breeding new rootstocks. Progeny of 'M9' segregate for rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion, indicating that this trait is controlled by one or more genetic factors. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a rootstock population derived from the cross between 'M9' × 'Robusta5' (non-dwarfing) and grafted with 'Braeburn' scions identified a major QTL (Dw1) on linkage group (LG) 5, which exhibits a significant influence on dwarfing of the scion. A smaller-effect QTL affecting dwarfing (Dw2) was identified on LG11, and four minor-effect QTLs were found on LG6, LG9, LG10 and LG12. Phenotypic analysis indicates that the combination of Dw1 and Dw2 has the strongest influence on rootstock-induced dwarfing, and that Dw1 has a stronger effect than Dw2. Genetic markers linked to Dw1 and Dw2 were screened over 41 rootstock accessions that confer a range of effects on scion growth. The majority of the dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock accessions screened carried marker alleles linked to Dw1 and Dw2. This suggests that most apple dwarfing rootstocks have been derived from the same genetic source. PMID:26504562

  3. Shifts in xylem vessel diameter and embolisms in grafted apple trees of differing rootstock growth potential in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Taryn L; Centinari, Michela; Bauerle, William L

    2011-11-01

    We investigated responses of plant growth rate, hydraulic resistance, and xylem cavitation in scion-rootstock-combinations of Malus domestica L. cv. Honeycrisp scions grafted onto a high-shoot vigor (HSV) rootstock, (semi-dwarfing Malling111), or onto a low-shoot vigor (LSV) rootstock, (dwarfing Budagovsky 9), in response to substrate moisture limitation. Adjustments in xylem vessel diameter and frequency were related to hydraulic resistance measurements for high- versus low- vigor apple trees. We observed a greater tolerance to water deficit in the high-shoot compared to the low-shoot vigor plants under water deficit as evidenced by increased growth in several plant organs, and greater scion anatomical response to limited water availability with ca. 25% increased vessel frequency and ca. 28% narrower current season xylem ring width. Whereas water limitation resulted in greater graft union hydraulic resistance of high-shoot vigor trees, the opposite was true when water was not limiting. The graft union of the low-shoot vigor rootstock exhibited higher hydraulic resistance under well-watered conditions. Scions of high-shoot vigor rootstocks had fewer embolisms at low plant water status compared to scions of low-shoot vigor rootstocks, presumably as a result of large differences in xylem vessel diameter. Our results demonstrated that anatomical differences were related to shifts in hydraulic conductivity and cavitation events, a direct result of grafting, under limited soil water. PMID:21710199

  4. Innovations in Physics Pedagogy: A Paperless Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, Charles; Plano-Clark, V. L.; Moore, C. J.; Kirkman, T.; Fuller, R. G.; Dunbar, Steven R.; Spiegel, Amy N.

    1997-04-01

    The ability to analyze data and solve problems in the real world is increasingly important. The effective use of information and technology requires education in science and mathematics as well as development of the skills necessary to use available technical resources. We address the application of computers, computer software, and information technology to physics teaching and describe an experimental paperless course in general physics that is designed for engineering and physical science majors. The course, taught in an interactive classroom, uses the ''Physics InfoMall'' CD-ROM instead of a textbook to integrate multimedia and mathematics with physics. Modern technology is used to enhance the student-teacher interaction and to examine physical phenomena in the real world. The students are using computers to conduct experiments using electronic transducers for data acquisition, analyze data, and do homework problems using standard software packages. The challenges encoutered in developin this course including curriculum development, technical issues, assessing student performance, and evaluating course effectiveness will be discussed. Lessons learned in developing this paperless physics course will be described.

  5. Two quantitative trait loci, Dw1 and Dw2, are primarily responsible for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Toshi M; Celton, Jean-Marc; Chagné, David; Tustin, D Stuart; Gardiner, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The apple dwarfing rootstock ‘Malling9’ (‘M9’) has been used worldwide both to reduce scion vigour and as a genetic source for breeding new rootstocks. Progeny of ‘M9’ segregate for rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion, indicating that this trait is controlled by one or more genetic factors. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a rootstock population derived from the cross between ‘M9’ × ‘Robusta5’ (non-dwarfing) and grafted with ‘Braeburn’ scions identified a major QTL (Dw1) on linkage group (LG) 5, which exhibits a significant influence on dwarfing of the scion. A smaller-effect QTL affecting dwarfing (Dw2) was identified on LG11, and four minor-effect QTLs were found on LG6, LG9, LG10 and LG12. Phenotypic analysis indicates that the combination of Dw1 and Dw2 has the strongest influence on rootstock-induced dwarfing, and that Dw1 has a stronger effect than Dw2. Genetic markers linked to Dw1 and Dw2 were screened over 41 rootstock accessions that confer a range of effects on scion growth. The majority of the dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock accessions screened carried marker alleles linked to Dw1 and Dw2. This suggests that most apple dwarfing rootstocks have been derived from the same genetic source. PMID:26504562

  6. Multi-cue object detection and tracking for security in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahsan, Unaiza; Sattar, Sohail Abdul; Noor, Humera; Zafar, Munzir

    2012-05-01

    Efficient moving object tracking requires near flawless detection results to establish correct correspondences between frames. This is especially true in the defense sector where accuracy and speed are critical factors of success. However, problems such as camera motion, lighting and weather changes, texture variation and inter-object occlusions result in misdetections or false positive detections which in turn, lead to broken tracks. In this paper, we propose to use background subtraction and an optimized version of Horn & Schunk's optical flow algorithm in order to boost detection response. We use the frame differencing method, followed by morphological operations to show that it works in many scenarios and the optimized optical flow technique serves to complement the detector results. The Horn & Schunk's method yields color-coded motion vectors for each frame pixel. To segment the moving regions in the frame, we apply color thresholding to distinguish the blobs. Next, we extract appearance-based features from the detected object and establish the correspondences between objects' features, in our case, the object's centroid. We have used the Euclidean distance measure to compute the minimum distances between the centroids. The centroids are matched by using Hungarian algorithm, thus obtaining point correspondences. The Hungarian algorithm's output matrix dictates the objects' associations with each other. We have tested the algorithm to detect people in corridor, mall and field sequences and our early results with an accuracy of 86.4% indicate that this system has the ability to detect and track objects in video sequences robustly.

  7. Globalisation and human dignity: the case of the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    Hamelink, C J

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Vice President Al Gore coined the concept of the Information Superhighway during a speech in Buenos Aires in which he proposed the development of a global information infrastructure. The project envisions the incorporation of all existing communication networks into one system, facilitating the globalization of markets. The internet, a decentralized network of computer networks, is one small-scale, existing model of what the superhighway could be, a public space owned by nobody in which communication takes place largely for noncommercial purposes. The internet currently connects 40 million computer users from at least 90 countries. The alternative model for the superhighway is the privately managed global shopping mall, a global interactive marketplace for information, entertainment, and advertising. The author warns, however, that it is not possible to predict the future social impact of such an information superhighway. Decision makers nonetheless push ahead in development, full of confidence in the merit and infallibility of technology. Since one cannot accurately predict the future, it rational to assume that social consequences may both promote and threaten human dignity. The author explains at which level he believes the superhighway threatens the human rights norms of equality, inviolability, and liberty, and discusses what the World Association for Christian Communication can do. PMID:12290854

  8. Formation and properties of hyaluronan/nano Ag and hyaluronan-lecithin/nano Ag films.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Gohar; Khachatryan, Karen; Grzyb, Jacek; Fiedorowicz, Maciej

    2016-10-20

    A facile and environmentally friendly method of the preparation of silver nanoparticles embedded in hyaluronan (Hyal/Ag) and hyaluronan-lecithin (Hyal-L/Ag) matrix was developed. Thin, elastic foils were prepared from gels by an in situ synthesis of Ag in an aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (Hyal), using aq. d-(+)-xylose solution as a reducing agent. The gels were applied to a clean, smooth, defatted Teflon surface and left for drying in the air. The dry foils were stored in a closed container. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed formation of about 10nm ball-shaped Ag nanoparticles situated within the polysaccharide template. Thermal properties of the composites were characterized involving differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses, whereas molecular weights of polysaccharide chains of the matrix were estimated with the size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering and refractometric detectors (HPSEC-MALLS-RI). An increase in the molecular weight of the hyaluronate after generation of Ag nanoparticles was observed. The foils showed specific properties. The study confirmed that silver nanoparticles can be successfully prepared with environmentally friendly method, using hyaluronan as a stabilizing template. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan-lecithin matrices provide nanocrystals uniform in size and shape. The composites demonstrated a bacteriostatic activity. PMID:27474588

  9. We don’t live in igloos

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Janet

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine what health problems concern youth in the Canadian North and what solutions these youths propose to address these problems by interviewing Inuvik youths, using their photographs to spark discussion. DESIGN Qualitative study and photo-novella technique. SETTING Inuvik, NWT, from July 1 to August 31, 2004. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-five youths from Inuvik between the ages of 10 and 22. Two boys and 2 girls between the ages of 17 and 22 from the Inuvialuit and Gwich’in cultures featured in an educational video developed from the study. METHOD Disposable cameras were distributed to 35 youths; interviews structured around the photographs were recorded with 14 youths. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was completed; the themes identified formed the basis of a 19-minute video featuring 4 of these youths. MAIN FINDINGS Themes developed around mothers, culture, the land, and boredom. Specific health concerns identified were smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and teen pregnancy. Solutions suggested included sources of recreation and distraction from substance abuse, such as a movie theatre, a shopping mall, and upgrades to the skatepark. CONCLUSION By having Inuvik youths share their stories and perspectives, health care providers can gain insight into the issues and concerns of youth in northern communities and expand their capacity to heal. Photo novella is a useful method for research in adolescent health. PMID:17872749

  10. Residential mobility breeds familiarity-seeking.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility. PMID:21843015

  11. STEPPING - Smartphone-Based Portable Pedestrian Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianto, C.; Sternberg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many current smartphones are fitted with GPS receivers, which, in combination with a map application form a pedestrian navigation system for outdoor purposes. However, once an area with insufficient satellite signal coverage is entered, these navigation systems cease to function. For indoor positioning, there are already several solutions available which are usually based on measured distances to reference points. These solutions can achieve resolutions as low as the sub-millimetre range depending on the complexity of the set-up. STEPPING project, developed at HCU Hamburg Germany aims at designing an indoor navigation system consisting of a small inertial navigation system and a new, robust sensor fusion algorithm running on a current smartphone. As this system is theoretically able to integrate any available positioning method, it is independent of a particular method and can thus be realized on a smartphone without affecting user mobility. Potential applications include --but are not limited to: Large trade fairs, airports, parking decks and shopping malls, as well as ambient assisted living scenarios.

  12. Point-of-care screenings at the University of Minnesota: mechanism for civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Palombi, Laura C; Bastianelli, Karen; Stratton, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe Wellness Initiative of the Northland (WIN) screening events; present participant results from those events; discuss the benefits of pharmacist-conducted, community-based point-of-care (POC) testing to medically underserved patients and to the profession of pharmacy; and describe logistical considerations in launching disease screening services. SETTING Pharmacist-led community health fairs in a variety of settings, including shopping malls, churches, community pharmacies, senior residence facilities, critical-access hospitals, and clinics. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Disease screenings for economically disadvantaged residents of northeastern Minnesota and northwest Wisconsin, held between 2005 and 2012, through WIN. PRACTICE INNOVATION Mobile POC screenings for dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Percentage of screenings with out-of-range readings. RESULTS Since 2005, WIN screenings have served more than 2,000 individuals, providing 4,152 POC screenings. Out-of-range readings were obtained for 40.3% of fingerstick cholesterol tests, 24.8% of fingerstick blood glucose tests, 24.3% of blood pressure tests, and 38.7% of quantitative ultrasound heel bone density readings. CONCLUSION Community-conducted POC testing functions both as an important public health service and a mechanism by which pharmacists and student pharmacists can become involved in civic engagement. PMID:24407741

  13. Expression and preliminary characterization of human MICU2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Wu, Wenping; Pei, Hairun; Wei, Qiang; Yang, Qingzhan; Zheng, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MICU2 has been reported to interact with MICU1 and participate in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, although the molecular determinants underlying the function of MICU2 is unknown. In order to characterize MICU2 we screened a series of N-terminal and C-terminal truncations and obtained constructs which can be expressed in abundance, giving rise to soluble samples to enable subsequent characterizations. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) revealed that MICU2 exists as a monomer in Ca2+-free conditions but forms a dimer in Ca2+-bound conditions. Unlike MICU1, the C-helix domain of MICU2 exhibits no influence on protein conformation in both Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound forms. Furthermore, mutation of the first EF-hand abolishes the ability of MICU2 to switch to a dimer in the presence of Ca2+, indicating that the first EF-hand is not only involved in Ca2+ binding but also in conformational change. Our pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays suggest that, in addition to disulfide bonds, salt bridges also contribute to MICU1-MICU2 heterodimer formation. PMID:27334695

  14. Expression and preliminary characterization of human MICU2.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wu, Wenping; Pei, Hairun; Wei, Qiang; Yang, Qingzhan; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    MICU2 has been reported to interact with MICU1 and participate in the regulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, although the molecular determinants underlying the function of MICU2 is unknown. In order to characterize MICU2 we screened a series of N-terminal and C-terminal truncations and obtained constructs which can be expressed in abundance, giving rise to soluble samples to enable subsequent characterizations. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) revealed that MICU2 exists as a monomer in Ca(2+)-free conditions but forms a dimer in Ca(2+)-bound conditions. Unlike MICU1, the C-helix domain of MICU2 exhibits no influence on protein conformation in both Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound forms. Furthermore, mutation of the first EF-hand abolishes the ability of MICU2 to switch to a dimer in the presence of Ca(2+), indicating that the first EF-hand is not only involved in Ca(2+) binding but also in conformational change. Our pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays suggest that, in addition to disulfide bonds, salt bridges also contribute to MICU1-MICU2 heterodimer formation. PMID:27334695

  15. Influencing of warning label signal words on perceived hazard level.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, M S; Jarrard, S W; Simpson, S N

    1994-09-01

    This experiment investigated the influence of warnings, signal words, and a signal icon on perceived hazard of consumer products. Under the guise of a marketing research study, 135 people (high school students, college students, and participants from a shopping mall) rated product labels on six dimensions, including how hazardous they perceived the products to be. A total of 16 labels from actual household products were used: 9 carried the experimental conditions, and 7 were filler product labels that never carried a warning. Five conditions presented the signal words NOTE, CAUTION, WARNING, DANGER, and LETHAL together with a brief warning message. In another two conditions, a signal icon (exclamation point surrounded by a triangle) was presented together with the terms DANGER and LETHAL. In the final two conditions, one lacked a signal word but retained the warning message, and the other lacked both the warning message and the signal word. Results showed that the presence of a signal word increased perceived product hazard compared with its absence. Significant differences were noted between extreme terms (e.g., NOTE and DANGER) but not between terms usually recommended in warning design guidelines (e.g., CAUTION and WARNING). The signal icon showed no significant effect on hazard perception. Implications of the results and the value of the methodology for future warnings investigations are discussed. PMID:7989055

  16. Un essai contrôlé randomisé: effet du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inferieur

    PubMed Central

    Koussihouèdé, Fifamè Eudia Nadège; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fousseni, El-Mansour Barres

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Véritable attribut de la féminité, le port de chaussures à talons est devenu une exigence professionnelle dans certaines structures des pays en développement comme le Bénin. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les effets spécifiques du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inférieur. Méthodes Des examens radiographiques de face et de profil de la cheville et du genou ont été effectués sur 122 femmes volontaires, âgées en moyenne de 25,09 ± 1,34 ans et ayant les genu varum qui ont participé à cette étude. Résultats Les résultats ont indiqué une augmentation significative de l’écart inter malléolaire, de l’écart inter condylien, de l'angle antérieur du pied et de l'angle fémoro-patellaire. Une diminution significative de l'angle postérieur du pied a été constatée. Conclusion Le port de chaussures à talons hauts est l'une des causes de la gonarthrose, des troubles des articulations de la cheville et du pied. PMID:26113922

  17. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  18. Effects of Molecular Weight on poly( -pentadecalactone) Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J.; Liu, C; Cai, M; Zhu, J; Zuo, F; Hsiao, B; Gross, R

    2010-01-01

    A series of poly({omega}-pentadecalactone) (PPDL) samples, synthesized by lipase catalysis, were prepared by systematic variation of reaction time and water content. These samples possessed weight-average molecular weights (M{sub w}), determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), from 2.5 x 10{sup 4} to 48.1 x 10{sup 4}. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature of PPDL samples with M{sub W} between 4.5 x 10{sup 4} and 8.1 x 10{sup 4} showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. For PPDL with M{sub W} of 8.1 x 10{sup 4}, inter-fibrillar slippage dominates during deformation until fracture. Increasing M{sub W} above 18.9 x 10{sup 4} resulted in enhanced entanglement network strength and strain-hardening. The high M{sub W} samples also exhibited tough properties with elongation at break about 650% and tensile strength about 60.8 MPa, comparable to linear high density polyethylene (HDPE). Relationships among molecular weight, Young's modulus, stress, strain at yield, melting and crystallization enthalpy (by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) and crystallinity (from wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) were correlated for PPDL samples. Similarities and differences of linear HDPE and PPDL molecular weight dependence on their mechanical and thermal properties were also compared.

  19. Smoking Prevalence Increases following Canterbury Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Background. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. Aim. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Methods. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. Results. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. Conclusion. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers. PMID:24311978

  20. Mechanically modified xanthan gum: Rheology and polydispersity aspects.

    PubMed

    Eren, Necla Mine; Santos, Paulo H S; Campanella, Osvaldo

    2015-12-10

    Xanthan gum solutions were treated with high-pressure homogenization (HPH) in order to provide alternative treatments to enzymatic and chemical modification of this carbohydrate. Rheological properties of the treated and control samples were investigated in detail to gain an understanding of functional consequences of physical modification. The molecular structural properties were investigated via Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with Multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and Circular dichroism (CD). Structured network of xanthan gum solutions was lost gradually depending on the severity of the HPH treatment as evidenced by the observed changes in the viscosity and viscoelasticity of the treated solutions. Reduction in molecular weight and a significant increase in polydispersity of the polymer were the expected causes of these rheological changes. Observed increase in hydrodynamic volume upon HPH treatment was not surprising and attributed to the loss of structured networks. Changes in the rheological and structural characteristics of biopolymer were irreversible and significant recovery was not detected over a period of 11 weeks. PMID:26428149

  1. Living off-grid in an arid environment without a well : can residential and commercial/industrial water harvesting help solve water supply problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, Carl L.; Ferrando, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Our family of three lives comfortably off-grid without a well in an arid region ({approx}9 in/yr, average). This year we expect to achieve water sustainability with harvested or grey water supporting all of our needs (including a garden and trees), except drinking water (about 7 gallons/week). We discuss our implementation and the implication that for an investment of a few thousand dollars, many single family homes could supply a large portion of their own water needs, significantly reducing municipal water demand. Generally, harvested water is very low in minerals and pollutants, but may need treatment for microbes in order to be potable. This may be addressed via filters, UV light irradiation or through chemical treatment (bleach). Looking further into the possibility of commercial water harvesting from malls, big box stores and factories, we ask whether water harvesting could supply a significant portion of potable water by looking at two cities with water supply problems. We look at the implications of separate municipal water lines for potable and clean non-potable uses. Implications on changes to future building codes are explored.

  2. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  3. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  4. A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    PubMed

    Baum, C; Fleischer, L-G; Roessner, D; Meyer, W; Siebers, D

    2002-01-01

    The rheological properties of the stratum corneum of the pilot whale (Globicephala melas) were investigated with emphasis on their significance to the self-cleaning abilities of the skin surface smoothed by a jelly material enriched with various hydrolytic enzymes. The gel formation of the collected fluid was monitored by applying periodic-harmonic oscillating loads using a stress-controlled rheometer. In the mechanical spectrum of the gel, the plateau region of the storage modulus G' (<1200 Pa) and the loss modulus G" (>120 Pa) were independent of frequency (omega = 43.98 to 0.13 rad x s(-1), tau = 15 Pa, T = 20 degrees C), indicating high elastic performance of a covalently cross-linked viscoelastic solid. In addition, multi-angle laser light scattering experiments (MALLS) were performed to analyse the potential time-dependent changes in the weight-average molar mass of the samples. The observed increase showed that the gel formation is based on the assembly of covalently cross-linked aggregates. The viscoelastic properties and the shear resistance of the gel assure that the enzyme-containing jelly material smoothing the skin surface is not removed from the stratum corneum by shear regimes during dolphin jumping. The even skin surface is considered to be most important for the self-cleaning abilities of the dolphin skin against biofouling. PMID:12454437

  5. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  6. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  7. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification. PMID:25363129

  8. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    PubMed

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period. PMID:22312797

  9. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. PMID:27507517

  10. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  11. Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

  12. High-throughput typing method to identify a non-outbreak-involved Legionella pneumophila strain colonizing the entire water supply system in the town of Rennes, France.

    PubMed

    Sobral, D; Le Cann, P; Gerard, A; Jarraud, S; Lebeau, B; Loisy-Hamon, F; Vergnaud, G; Pourcel, C

    2011-10-01

    Two legionellosis outbreaks occurred in the city of Rennes, France, during the past decade, requiring in-depth monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in the water network and the cooling towers in the city. In order to characterize the resulting large collection of isolates, an automated low-cost typing method was developed. The multiplex capillary-based variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (multiple-locus VNTR analysis [MLVA]) assay requiring only one PCR amplification per isolate ensures a high level of discrimination and reduces hands-on and time requirements. In less than 2 days and using one 4-capillary apparatus, 217 environmental isolates collected between 2000 and 2009 and 5 clinical isolates obtained during outbreaks in 2000 and 2006 in Rennes were analyzed, and 15 different genotypes were identified. A large cluster of isolates with closely related genotypes and representing 77% of the population was composed exclusively of environmental isolates extracted from hot water supply systems. It was not responsible for the known Rennes epidemic cases, although strains showing a similar MLVA profile have regularly been involved in European outbreaks. The clinical isolates in Rennes had the same genotype as isolates contaminating a mall's cooling tower. This study further demonstrates that unknown environmental or genetic factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some strains. This work illustrates the potential of the high-throughput MLVA typing method to investigate the origin of legionellosis cases by allowing the systematic typing of any new isolate and inclusion of data in shared databases. PMID:21821761

  13. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg−1, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  14. Consumption, Health Attitudes and Perception Toward Fast Food Among Arab Consumers in Kuwait: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume “double” burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their “fast food” classification. PMID:25363129

  15. Investigation of pyridine/propargyl bromide reaction and strong fluorescence enhancements of the resultant poly(propargyl pyridinium bromide).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changming; Gao, Yong; Chen, Daoyong

    2012-09-20

    Poly(propargyl pyridinium bromide), a kind of conjugated polyelectrolyte with polyacetylene as the backbone and pyridinium as side groups, was synthesized simply via reaction between pyridine and propargyl bromide under mild conditions. The resultant polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, FT-IR, and GPC-MALLS. An alkyne group was confirmed as the end group of the polymer chains by the alkyne/azide click chemistry, which reveals that the polymerization is terminated by the reaction between propargyl bromide and carbon anions. It is known that monosubstituted polyacetylenes reported have very weak fluorescence intensities, which limit their applications. As a monosubstituted polyacetylene, the freshly prepared poly(propargyl pyridinium bromide) also has a very weak fluorescence. However, we confirmed that addition of some anions to the polymer solution in DMF or DMSO leads to the fluorescence enhancements up to 25 times. Besides, heating the polymer solution at a temperature between 70 and 130 °C for longer than 0.5 h greatly enhanced the fluorescence intensity. The interaction with the anions or the heating enhances the effective exciton confinement within the conjugated backbone and thus results in the fluorescence enhancements. After the fluorescence enhancements, poly(propargyl pyridinium bromide) has relatively strong fluorescence emissions, which will make it promising in fluorescence-based applications. PMID:22928912

  16. Obama Boosts Science Education During White House Student Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    With the East Room of the White House flush with Nobel laureates and government officials, including freshly sworn-in U.S. National Science Foundation director Subra Suresh, President Barack Obama honored dozens of students who participated in a White House science fair on 18 October. The fair—many of whose participants have won other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions—is part of a series of events that culminated 23-24 October in the USA Science and Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D. C., and at 50 satellite events around the country. “We welcome championship sports teams to the White House to celebrate their victories,” Obama said, noting that the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, New Orleans Saints football team, and others have been to the White House. “I thought we ought to do the same thing for the winners of science fair and robotic contests and math competitions, because often we don’t give these victories the attention that they deserve. When you win first place at a science fair, nobody is rushing the field or dumping Gatorade over your head [in celebration].”

  17. Accurate optical analysis of single-molecule entrapment in nanoscale vesicles.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Joseph E; Jahn, Andreas; Stavis, Samuel M; Culbertson, Michael J; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Burden, Daniel L; Geist, Jon; Gaitan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a nondestructive method to accurately characterize low analyte concentrations (0-10 molecules) in nanometer-scale lipid vesicles. Our approach is based on the application of fluorescence fluctuation analysis (FFA) and multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) in conjunction with asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) to measure the entrapment efficiency (the ratio of the concentration of encapsulated dye to the initial bulk concentration) of an ensemble of liposomes with an average diameter less than 100 nm. Water-soluble sulforhodamine B (SRB) was loaded into the aqueous interior of nanoscale liposomes synthesized in a microfluidic device. A confocal microscope was used to detect a laser-induced fluorescence signal resulting from both encapsulated and unencapsulated SRB molecules. The first two cumulants of this signal along with the autocorrelation function (ACF) were used to quantify liposome entrapment efficiency. Our analysis moves beyond typical, nonphysical assumptions of equal liposome size and brightness. These advances are essential for characterizing liposomes in the single-molecule encapsulation regime. Our work has further analytical impact because it could increase the interrogation time of free-solution molecular analysis by an order of magnitude and form the basis for the development of liposome standard reference materials. PMID:19950933

  18. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti

    2014-10-01

    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'. PMID:24799233

  19. Ergonomic evaluation of ubiquitous computing with monocular head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Takashi; Häkkinen, Jukka; Yamazoe, Takashi; Saito, Hiroko; Kishi, Shinsuke; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mustonen, Terhi; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Göte

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors conducted an experiment to evaluate the UX in an actual outdoor environment, assuming the casual use of monocular HMD to view video content while short walking. In conducting the experiment, eight subjects were asked to view news videos on a monocular HMD while walking through a large shopping mall. Two types of monocular HMDs and a hand-held media player were used, and the psycho-physiological responses of the subjects were measured before, during, and after the experiment. The VSQ, SSQ and NASA-TLX were used to assess the subjective workloads and symptoms. The objective indexes were heart rate and stride and a video recording of the environment in front of the subject's face. The results revealed differences between the two types of monocular HMDs as well as between the monocular HMDs and other conditions. Differences between the types of monocular HMDs may have been due to screen vibration during walking, and it was considered as a major factor in the UX in terms of the workload. Future experiments to be conducted in other locations will have higher cognitive loads in order to study the performance and the situation awareness to actual and media environments.

  20. Physical characterization and profiling of airway epithelial derived exosomes using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Gupta, Richa

    2015-10-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles have been gaining interest during the last decade due to their emerging role in biology and, disease pathogenesis and their biomarker potential. Almost all published research related to exosomes and other extracellular vesicles include some form of physical characterization. Therefore, these vesicles should be precisely profiled and characterized physically before studying their biological role as intercellular messengers, biomarkers or therapeutic tools. Using a combination of light scattering techniques, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and multi-angle laser light scattering combined with size exclusion separation (SEC-MALLS), we physically characterized and compared distinct extracellular vesicles derived from the apical secretions of two different cultured airway epithelial cells. The results indicated that epithelial cells release vesicles with distinct physical properties and sizes. Human primary tracheobronchial cell culture (HTBE) derived vesicles have a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 340 nm while their radius of gyration (Rg) is approximately 200 nm. Electron microscopy analysis, however, revealed that their spherical component is 40-100 nm in size, and they carry filamentous, entangled membrane mucins on their surface that increases their overall radius. The mucin decoration on the surface defines their size and charge as measured using light scattering techniques. Their surface properties mirror the properties of the cells from which they are derived. This may provide a unique tool for researchers to elucidate the unanswered questions in normal airway biology and innate and adaptive defense, including the remodeling of airways during inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. PMID:25823850

  1. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  2. Distilling Big Data: Refining Quality Information in the Era of Yottabytes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandramurthy, Sivaraman; Subramaniam, Srinivasan; Ramasamy, Chandrasekeran

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is the buzzword of the modern century. With the invasion of pervasive computing, we live in a data centric environment, where we always leave a track of data related to our day to day activities. Be it a visit to a shopping mall or hospital or surfing Internet, we create voluminous data related to credit card transactions, user details, location information, and so on. These trails of data simply define an individual and form the backbone for user-profiling. With the mobile phones and their easy access to online social networks on the go, sensor data such as geo-taggings and events and sentiments around them contribute to the already overwhelming data containers. With reductions in the cost of storage and computational devices and with increasing proliferation of Cloud, we never felt any constraints in storing or processing such data. Eventually we end up having several exabytes of data and analysing them for their usefulness has introduced new frontiers of research. Effective distillation of these data is the need of the hour to improve the veracity of the Big Data. This research targets the utilization of the Fuzzy Bayesian process model to improve the quality of information in Big Data. PMID:26495424

  3. Structure, chain conformation, and immunomodulatory activity of the polysaccharide purified from Bacillus Calmette Guerin formulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hong; Yu, Juping; Liu, Yameng; Lu, Weisheng; Chai, Yin; Liu, Chao; Pan, Chun; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-10-01

    A polysaccharide, coded as BDP, purified from the injection powder of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) polysaccharide and nucleic acid, was composed mainly of α-D-(1→4)-linked glucan with (1→6)-linked branches and trace amounts of fucose and mannose from the results of FT-IR, HPAEC-PAD and NMR spectrum. The Mw, Mn, Mz, and [Formula: see text] were determined to be 1.320×10(5)g/mol, 1.012×10(5)g/mol, 2.139×10(5)g/mol, and 21.8±3.2%nm by using HPSEC-MALLS, respectively. The ν value from [Formula: see text] was calculated to be 0.52±0.01, which firstly clarified that BDP existed as random coils in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. AFM and SEM combined with Congo-red test also revealed that the polysaccharide was irregular globular like or curly structure. Furthermore, in vitro tests on RAW264.7 murine macrophages cells revealed that BDP exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:27312624

  4. Relationships between objective acoustic indices and acoustic comfort evaluation in nonacoustic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian

    2001-05-01

    Much attention has been paid to acoustic spaces such as concert halls and recording studios, whereas research on nonacoustic buildings/spaces has been rather limited, especially from the viewpoint of acoustic comfort. In this research a series of case studies has been carried out on this topic, considering various spaces including shopping mall atrium spaces, library reading rooms, football stadia, swimming spaces, churches, dining spaces, as well as urban open public spaces. The studies focus on the relationships between objective acoustic indices such as sound pressure level and reverberation time and perceptions of acoustic comfort. The results show that the acoustic atmosphere is an important consideration in such spaces and the evaluation of acoustic comfort may vary considerably even if the objective acoustic indices are the same. It is suggested that current guidelines and technical regulations are insufficient in terms of acoustic design of these spaces, and the relationships established from the case studies between objective and subjective aspects would be useful for developing further design guidelines. [Work supported partly by the British Academy.

  5. Differentiation and functional connection of vascular elements in compatible and incompatible pear/quince internode micrografts.

    PubMed

    Espen, Luca; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio

    2005-11-01

    Micrografts of internodes excised from in vitro grown pear plants (Pyrus communis L. cv. 'Bosc' (B) and cv. 'Butirra Hardy' (BH)) and quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill. East Malling clone C (EMC)), were cultured aseptically to test the effectiveness of their functional vascular reconnection in relation to incompatibility-compatibility relationships that these genotypes exhibit in the field. The incompatible heterograft (B/EMC) showed a marked delay in internode cohesion compared with the autografts (both B/B and BH/BH) and the compatible heterograft (BH/EMC). Even when fused, the translocation of [14C]-sorbitol from upper to lower internode was lower in B/EMC micrografts than in the other combinations. Epifluorescence studies performed with carboxyfluorescin, a specific phloem probe, indicated that the limited translocation was caused by a delay in the establishment of functional phloem continuity between the two internodes. In the B/EMC combination, new differentiated tracheary elements (TE) in the parenchyma tissue at the graft interface between the two internodes were not detected until 30 days after grafting, whereas in the BH/EMC heterograft and both autografts, new xylem connections appeared to cross the interface 20 days after grafting. Immunohistochemical detection (terminal nick-end labeling assay) of the number of cells undergoing nuclear DNA fragmentation at the graft interface confirmed that the limited and delayed TE differentiation in B/EMC heterografts was associated with a decrease in the activity of programmed cell death processes involved in the differentiation of TE. PMID:16105809

  6. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  7. A Needs Analysis Study of Amateur Astronomers As Regards To the National Virtual Observatory Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, N.; Price, A.; Mattei, J.; Mendez, B.; Hawkins, I.; UC Berkeley Team; AAVSO Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    Astronomy, more than any other science, benefits from the active contribution of Amateur Astronomers, who bring to this field a high degree of skill and dedication. Amateur Astronomers make direct contributions to informal and public education: they present public lectures and courses; organize star parties, international Astronomy Day programs, and special displays in libraries and shopping malls; they write articles and books and produce radio and television programs; they lobby for planetariums, science centers, public observatories, and even NASA satellites. Above all, amateur astronomers convey their enthusiasm for science with dedication and devotion. They represent a unique and exceptional way in which ordinary citizens can support science and education at the grass-roots level. We have conducted a needs analysis survey, with collaboration of The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) to identify areas in which the National Virtual Observatory (NVO) Education & Public Outreach efforts can best address the astronomical needs and interest of the amateur astronomical community. We found that above all amateurs want access to the same data the professionals use and in a format that allows them to use the data in their own personal manner. We will discuss the further results of this qualitative and quantitative survey. This study is supported by Science Education Gateway (SEGway) Project, a NASA SR&T (Supporting Research and Technology) Program.

  8. Space Weather Outreach: Connection to STEM Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists are studying the Sun-Earth system and attempting to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space environment observations and forecasts. Research programs and missions serve as an ideal focal point for creating educational content, making this an ideal time to inform the public about the importance and value of space weather research. In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Space Science Institute (SSI) is developing a comprehensive Space Weather Outreach program to reach students, educators, and other members of the public, and share with them the exciting discoveries from this important scientific discipline. The Space Weather Outreach program has the following five components: (1) the Space Weather Center Website that includes online educational games; (2) Small Exhibits for Libraries, Shopping Malls, and Science Centers; (3) After-School Programs; (4) Professional Development Workshops for Educators, and (5) an innovative Evaluation and Education Research project. Its overarching goal is to inspire, engage, and educate a broad spectrum of the public and make strategic and innovative connections between informal and K-12 education communities. An important factor in the success of this program will be its alignment with STEM standards especially those related to science and mathematics. This presentation will describe the Space Weather Outreach program and how standards are being used in the development of each of its components.

  9. Direct synthesis of ordered L10 FePt nanoparticles in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Ping

    2005-03-01

    Uniform L10 FePt nanoparticle is one of the candidates for future extremely high magnetic recording media. Chemical methods of fabricating FePt nanoparticles require post-annealing process that usually leads to particle agglomeration^1. We have developed a controllable approach to fabricate ordered FePt nanoparticles with uniform size and free of particle agglomeration based on nanocluster deposition technique^2. In the approach, FePt nanoparticles were generated through gas-phase aggregation using magnetron sputtering at high argon pressure. Differential pressure forces drove the particles flying through an on-line infrared heater where particles transform from disordered A1 phase into ordered L10 phase. Particle nucleation, growth and ordering happened at separated sequential stages in vacuum. FePt nanoparticle size can be controlled by adjusting various deposition parameters including sputtering power density, argon pressure, aggregation length, etc. Without further treatment, FePt nanoparticles with on-line heating showed high anisotropy that verified the direct deposition of the L10 phase particles. References: *Z. R. Dai, S. Sun, and Z. L. Wang, Nano Lett. 1, 443 (2001) *H. Haberland, M. Karrais, M. Mall, Y. Thurner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10, 3266 (1992)

  10. Modeling the thermal characteristics of masonry mortar containing recycled materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laney, Morgan Gretchen

    As the building industry in the United States rapidly expands, the reuse of recycled demolition waste aggregates is becoming increasingly more important. Currently, the building industry is the largest consumer of natural resources. The constant use of raw virgin aggregate is resulting in depleting resources, lack of space for landfills, increasing costs, and heightened levels of pollution. The use of these recycled aggregates in building envelopes and the study of thermal properties are becoming a popular area of research in order to improve building energy usage. The construction of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) is encouraged by the United States government as a result of the unresolved finite resources and environmental pollution. The focus of this research is on the impact of using recycled demolition waste aggregates on thermal properties, including specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, in masonry mortar applications. The new forms of aggregate were analyzed for efficiency and practical utilization in construction in seven locations across the United States by embedding the new material into the building envelope of a strip mall mercantile build model from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program (BESP). It was determined that the recycled aggregate mortar mixtures performed as well as or better than the traditional mortar mix. Opportunities for future research in recycled aggregate mortar mixtures exist in a regional analysis, a regional recycled aggregate cost analysis, and a life cycled cost analysis (LCCA).

  11. Influence of amino acids, buffers, and ph on the γ-irradiation-induced degradation of alginates.

    PubMed

    Ulset, Ann-Sissel T; Mori, Hideki; Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Hara, Masayuki; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2014-12-01

    Alginate-based biomaterials and medical devices are commonly subjected to γ-irradiation as a means of sterilization, either in the dry state or the gel (hydrated) state. In this process the alginate chains degrade randomly in a dose-dependent manner, altering alginates' material properties. The addition of free radical scavenging amino acids such as histidine and phenylalanine protects the alginate significantly against degradation, as shown by monitoring changes in the molecular weight distributions using SEC-MALLS and determining the pseudo first order rate constants of degradation. Tris buffer (0.5 M), but not acetate, citrate, or phosphate buffers had a similar effect on the degradation rate. Changes in pH itself had only marginal effects on the rate of alginate degradation and on the protective effect of amino acids. Contrary to previous reports, the chemical composition (M/G profile) of the alginates, including homopolymeric mannuronan, was unaltered following irradiation up to 10 kGy. PMID:25412478

  12. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  13. Structure characterization, chemical and enzymatic degradation, and chain conformation of an acidic polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yameng; Zhu, Rui; Yu, Juping; Lu, Weisheng; Pan, Chun; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-08-20

    An acidic polysaccharide, named as p-LBP, was isolated from Lycium barbarum L. by water extraction and purified by decoloration, ion exchange chromatography, dialysis and gel chromatography, successively. The primary structure analysis was determined by HPAEC-PAD, HPSEC, FT-IR, GC-MS, and NMR. The results showed p-LBP was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide as a pectin molecule with an average molecular weight of 64kDa p-LBP was an approximately 87nm hollow sphere in 0.05mol/L sodium sulfate solution determined by HPSEC-MALLS, DLS and TEM. A discussion of degradation patterns gave the detailed structural information of p-LBP. Therefore, the results from degraded fragments elucidated that the backbone of p-LBP was formed by →4-α-GalpA-(1→, repeatedly. Partial region was connected by →4-α-GalpA-(1→ and →2-α-Rhap-(1→, alternatively. On the C-4 of partial →2-α-Rhap-(1→ residues existed branches forming by →4-β-Galp-(1→, →3-β-Galp-(1→ or →5-α-Araf-(1→, while on the C-6 of partial →3-β-Galp-(1→ residues existed secondary branches forming by terminal-α-Araf, terminal-β-Galp or →3-α-Araf-(1→. PMID:27178915

  14. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. RESULTS The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption. PMID:24944779

  15. Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Raymond; Ilasi, Nicholas; Sekulic, Sonja S

    2011-12-01

    Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) to determine molecular weight distributions of HPMCAS polymers. A solvent screen study reveals that a mixed solvent (60:40%, v/v 50mM NaH(2)PO(4) with 0.1M NaNO(3) buffer: acetonitrile, pH* 8.0) is the best for HPMCAS-LF and MF sub-classes. Use of a mixed solvent creates a challenging condition for the method that uses refractive index detector. Therefore, we thoroughly evaluated the method performance and robustness. The mean weight average molecular weight of a polyethylene oxide standard has a 95% confidence interval of (28,443-28,793) g/mol vs. 28,700g/mol from the Certificate of Analysis. The relative standard deviations of average molecular weights for all polymers are 3-6%. These results and the Design of Experiments study demonstrate that the method is accurate and robust. PMID:21840663

  16. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  17. Effects of Messages Emphasizing Environmental Determinants of Obesity on Intentions to Engage in Diet and Exercise Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A.; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Methods Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants’ weight status. Results In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Conclusion Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior. PMID:24331282

  18. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS. PMID:26256344

  19. Polysaccharides from Rhizoma Panacis Majoris and its anti-oxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Shaopeng; Wang, Rufeng; Li, Danping; Hu, Yuanhua; Nie, Jing; Zhao, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Response surface method (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Rhizoma Panacis Majoris (the rhizomes of Panax japonicus C. A. Mey. var. major (Burk.) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng) (RPMP), a well-known Chinese traditional medicine. In order to obtain the optimal processing parameters, a three-variable Box-Behnken designs (BBD) were applied for experimental designs. RSM analysis indicated the good correspondence between experimental and predicted values, the optimal conditions for the yield of polysaccharides were as follows: the ultrasound time is 31.15min, extraction temperature is 92.50°C, and the ratio of water to raw material is 40mL/g. The maximum value (13.87±0.16%) of the yield of polysaccharides was obtained under these optimal conditions. The molecular weight (MW) was determined to be 1.48×10(5)(±0.39%)Da by HPSEC-MALLS-RID chromatography system. FT-IR spectra demonstrated obvious characteristic peaks of polysaccharides. The antioxidant activities of RPMP were investigated including scavenging activity of hydrogen radicals, ABTS radicals, and free radicals of superoxide anion in vitro, and the results exhibited that RPMP had a good potential for antioxidant. PMID:26826292

  20. [Orthogonal projection divergence-based hyperspectral band selection].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-jun; Sheng, Ye-hua; Yang, He; Du, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Due to the high data dimensionality of a hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction algorithm has attracted much attention in hyperspectral image analysis. Band selection algorithm, which selects appropriate bands from the original set of spectral bands, can preserve original information from the data and is useful for image classification and recognition. In the present paper, a novel band selection algorithm based on orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) is proposed, it aims to discriminate the interesting objects from background and noise information, maximize the spectral similarity between different spectral vectors by projecting the original data to feature space. Two HYDICE Washington DC Mall images and an HYMAP Purdue campus image data were experimented, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for classification. The selected band number varies from 5 to 40 in order to study the impacts of different band selection algorithms on different features. For the computation complex, the sequential floating forward search (SFFS) was used to get the appropriate bands. The experiments have proved that our proposed OPD algorithm can outperform other traditional band selection methods such as SAM, ED, SID, and LCMV-BCC for hyperspectral image analysis. It is proven that OPD band selection is effective and robust in hyperspectral remote sensing dimensionality reduction PMID:21800589

  1. Burger King, Dunkin Donuts and community mental health care.

    PubMed

    Knowles, C

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the patchwork of cottage industries and human warehousing composing Montréal's 'community mental health care' system. It examines the ways in which this system's clients assemble a collage of ad hoc facilities including homeless shelters, rooming houses, food banks and soup kitchens through which they pursue the fragmented task of daily survival. In their various forms of transit around the city, released psychiatric patients, who rotate in and out of the local psychiatric wards, construe the grammar of urban space. In examining their use of key city sites - malls, fast food outlets, churches and the streets - it becomes apparent that the 'mad' have a particular relationship to these places which they pass through and use on certain terms. Examining the nature of their journeys, the scenes on which they are set and the social relationships of space in play, it is evident that the 'mad' have a particular (dialogical) relationship to the city: a relationship which they share with other, multiply disenfranchised people. This raises significant social questions concerning the politics of city space, and the kinds of fragmented lives and forms of subjectivity that they produce. PMID:10936776

  2. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 10⁵ Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents. PMID:27213369

  3. Extraction, Purification and Primary Characterization of Polysaccharides from Defatted Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Cakes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhi; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Li; Sheng, Xiaojing; Shi, Aimin; Hu, Hui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The hot-water extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake (PPC) were investigated in this study. A Box-Behnken factorial design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X₁), extraction time (X₂) and ratio of water to raw material (X₃). The optimum conditions were 85 °C, 3 h and 20:1 (mL/g) respectively. Regression analysis was done to reveal the experimental results which include 34.97% extraction rate while the value verified under these conditions was 34.49%. The crude PPC was sequentially further purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one purified fraction was obtained. The PPC purified fraction was characterized by FT-IR, HPAEC; SEC-MALLS. The average molecular weight of the PPC purified fraction was 2.383 × 10⁵ Da. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose. The PPC have the typical absorption of polysaccharide. PMID:27258246

  4. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

  5. Candidate metastasis suppressor genes uncovered by array comparative genomic hybridization in a mouse allograft model of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yajun; Nandana, Srinivas; Case, Thomas; Nelson, Colleen; Radmilovic, Tatjana; Matusik, Robert J; Tsuchiya, Karen D

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify candidate metastasis suppressor genes from a mouse allograft model of prostate cancer (NE-10). This allograft model originally developed metastases by twelve weeks after implantation in male athymic nude mice, but lost the ability to metastasize after a number of in vivo passages. We performed high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization on the metastasizing and non-metastasizing allografts to identify chromosome imbalances that differed between the two groups of tumors. Results This analysis uncovered a deletion on chromosome 2 that differed between the metastasizing and non-metastasizing tumors. Bioinformatics filters were employed to mine this region of the genome for candidate metastasis suppressor genes. Of the 146 known genes that reside within the region of interest on mouse chromosome 2, four candidate metastasis suppressor genes (Slc27a2, Mall, Snrpb, and Rassf2) were identified. Quantitative expression analysis confirmed decreased expression of these genes in the metastasizing compared to non-metastasizing tumors. Conclusion This study presents combined genomics and bioinformatics approaches for identifying potential metastasis suppressor genes. The genes identified here are candidates for further studies to determine their functional role in inhibiting metastases in the NE-10 allograft model and human prostate cancer. PMID:19781100

  6. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    PubMed

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area. PMID:19739417

  7. Korean consumers' perceptions of health/functional food claims according to the strength of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kang, Eun Jin; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    In this study, we investigated that consumers could differentiate between levels of claims and clarify how a visual aid influences consumer understanding of the different claim levels. We interviewed 2,000 consumers in 13 shopping malls on their perception of and confidence in different levels of health claims using seven point scales. The average confidence scores given by participants were 4.17 for the probable level and 4.07 for the possible level; the score for the probable level was significantly higher than that for the possible level (P < 0.05). Scores for confidence in claims after reading labels with and without a visual aid were 5.27 and 4.43, respectively; the score for labeling with a visual aid was significantly higher than for labeling without a visual aid (P < 0.01). Our results provide compelling evidence that providing health claims with qualifying language differentiating levels of scientific evidence can help consumers understand the strength of scientific evidence behind those claims. Moreover, when a visual aid was included, consumers perceived the scientific levels more clearly and had greater confidence in their meanings than when a visual aid was not included. Although this result suggests that consumers react differently to different claim levels, it is not yet clear whether consumers understand the variations in the degree of scientific support. PMID:21103090

  8. Detection of cavity migration risks using radar interferometric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hanssen, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The upward migration of near-surface underground cavities can pose a major hazard for people and infrastructure. Being the major cause of sudden collapse-sinkholes, or causing a sudden lack of support of building foundations, a migrating cavity can cause the collapse of buildings, water defense systems, drainage of water bodies, or transport infrastructure. Cavity migration can occur naturally, e.g. in karst-massifs, but could also be caused by anthropogenic activities such as mining. The chief difficulty in the assessment of sinkhole risk is the lack of prior knowledge on the location of the cavity. Although in situ measurements such as gravimetry, seismic or EM-surveying or GPR are in principle able to detect an underground void, it is generally not economically possible to use these techniques over vast areas. Moreover, the risk of casualties is highest for urbanized areas, in which it is difficult to get close enough to perform these measurements. The second problem is that there is usually no data available prior to the collapse, to understand whether there is for example precursory motion, and how far ahead in time critical levels can be detected. Here we report on the catastrophic collapse of the foundation of an underground parking garage in Heerlen, the Netherlands. In December 2011, some pillars supporting the roof of the garage and the shopping mall above it suddenly subsided more than one meter. This caused the near collapse of a part of the shopping mall, the immediate evacuation of the building, and the decision of the authorities to eliminate the building. In the analysis of the event, several hypotheses were formulated on the driving mechanisms, such as subsurface water flows and karst. However, as the region was subject to coal mining in the last century, alternative hypotheses were cavity migration due to the mining, or rebound of the surface due to mine water. Our study jointly exploits the data archives of four imaging radar satellites, ERS-1

  9. Mineral Composition Determination of the Lunar Crust with the SIR-2 Instrument on CHANDRAYAAN-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, Urs; Bhatt, Megha; Bugiolacchi, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Imbrium region, a well-studied nearside lunar region with a varied surface geology including distinct lava flows, intriguing geomorphological features (i.e. rilles and ridges), and craters with ages spanning the whole lunar history gamut. We will shows the distribution of spectrally distinct surface materials classified according to their absorption characteristics. We demonstrate the potential of our method [3] developed and tailored specifically to SIR-2 data in discerning mineralogical and geological units. Our initial interpretation of the spectral maps include: Ca-poor pyroxenes (px); intermediate px; older, Fe-poorer, but Ca-richer mare basalts. Clearly, given both the high-spatial resolution of the instrument and the geographical extent of the area under investigation, we present here just the preliminary results of our classification in the broadest of terms, pending much more in-depth work. Further, these results will be enhanced by a quantitative estimation of the constituent minerals [4] and iron abundance [5] carried out by the SIR-2 team. Comparison of our results should offer new insights into the materials exposed on the lunar surface and aid our understanding of the Moon's thermal history. References: [1] Mall, U. et al. (2009) Current Science, 96, 506--511. [2] Klima, R. et al. (2007) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 42, Nr 2, 235--253. [3] Bugiolacchi, R. et al. (2011) Icarus 213, 43-63. [4] Mall, U. et al. (2012) LPSC XLIII, 1893. [5] Bhatt, M. et al. (2012) LPSC XLIII, 1409.

  10. INCREASED OIL RECOVERY FROM MATURE OIL FIELDS USING GELLED POLYMER TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Willhite; D.W. Green; C.S. McCool

    2003-05-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a three-year research program aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production. The work focused on the gel system composed of polyacrylamide and chromium acetate. The molar mass of the polymer was about six million. Chromium(III) acetate reacted and formed crosslinks between polymer molecules. The crosslinked polymer molecules, or pre-gel aggregates, combine and grow to eventually form a 3-dimensional gel. A fundamental study to characterize the formation and growth of pre-gel aggregates was conducted. Two methods, flow field-flow fractionation (FFFF) and multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) were used. Studies using FFFF were inconclusive. Data taken using MALLS showed that at the gel time the average molar mass of gel aggregates increased by a factor of about three while the average size increase was approximately 50%. Increased acetate concentration in the gelant increases the gel time. The in situ performance of an added-acetate system was investigated to determine the applicability for in-depth treatments. Increased acetate concentrations delayed the development of increased flow resistance during gelant injection in short sandpacks. The development of increased flow resistance (in situ gelation) was extended from 2 to 34 days by increasing the acetate-to-chromium ratio from 38 to 153. In situ gelation occurred at a time that was approximately 22% of the bulk gelation time. When carbonate rocks are treated with gel, chromium retention in the rock may limit in

  11. Optimization of the Solid-state Fermentation and Properties of a Polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueyong; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Chang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS) produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Plackett–Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS) generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%), rhamnose (32.1%), xylose (14.5%) and arabinose (10.2%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75×106 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw) and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg2)z1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants. PMID:24498337

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust and human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, settled workplace dust ( n = 55) from commercial offices, secondary schools, shopping malls, hospitals, electronic factories and manufacturing plants in Hong Kong and settled home dust ( n = 23) from Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, around the Pearl River Delta were collected. Chemical analyses showed that the total PBDEs in workplace dust ranged from 397 to 40,236 ng g -1, with the dust samples from electronic factories having the highest levels (2122-40,236 ng g -1), and dust from homes ranging from 685 to 18,385 ng g -1. The most abundant BDE congeners found were BDE-209 in both workplace dust and home dust, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. No significant correlations were observed between total PBDE concentrations in home dust and the age or the house ( p > 0.05), concentrations of BDE-99 + BDE-47 and the number of furniture containing foam ( p > 0.05), and concentrations of BDE-209 and the number of electronic appliances ( p > 0.05). BDE-47, -99, -100 and -183 were found in most of the hair samples collected from occupants of these homes with BDE-47 being the dominant congener (0.86-5.24 ng g -1). The BDE-183 concentration in home dust was significantly correlated with that in human hair ( r = 0.55, p < 0.05, n = 18). Risk assessment indicated that daily intake of PBDEs for children via non-dietary ingestion of dust (101-404 ng day -1) was higher than that via food consumption (77-190 ng day -1).

  13. Extremely high genetic diversity in a single tumor points to prevalence of non-Darwinian cell evolution

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Shaoping; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Zuyu; Yang, Fang; Li, Yawei; Lin, Pei; Chen, Ke; Dong, Lili; Cao, Lihua; Tao, Yong; Hao, Lingtong; Chen, Qingjian; Gong, Qiang; Wu, Dafei; Li, Wenjie; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Xiuyun; Hao, Chunyi; Hungate, Eric A.; Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Hudson, Richard R.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Lu, Xuemei; Wu, Chung-I

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing view that the evolution of cells in a tumor is driven by Darwinian selection has never been rigorously tested. Because selection greatly affects the level of intratumor genetic diversity, it is important to assess whether intratumor evolution follows the Darwinian or the non-Darwinian mode of evolution. To provide the statistical power, many regions in a single tumor need to be sampled and analyzed much more extensively than has been attempted in previous intratumor studies. Here, from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor, we evaluated multiregional samples from the tumor, using either whole-exome sequencing (WES) (n = 23 samples) or genotyping (n = 286) under both the infinite-site and infinite-allele models of population genetics. In addition to the many single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) present in all samples, there were 35 “polymorphic” SNVs among samples. High genetic diversity was evident as the 23 WES samples defined 20 unique cell clones. With all 286 samples genotyped, clonal diversity agreed well with the non-Darwinian model with no evidence of positive Darwinian selection. Under the non-Darwinian model, MALL (the number of coding region mutations in the entire tumor) was estimated to be greater than 100 million in this tumor. DNA sequences reveal local diversities in small patches of cells and validate the estimation. In contrast, the genetic diversity under a Darwinian model would generally be orders of magnitude smaller. Because the level of genetic diversity will have implications on therapeutic resistance, non-Darwinian evolution should be heeded in cancer treatments even for microscopic tumors. PMID:26561581

  14. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Zain; Noor, Arish; Aqil, Amash; Bham, Nida Shahab; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Hassan, Irfan Nazir; Kadir, M. Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied. Results Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of ‘sheesha’ across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods. Conclusion This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25946006

  15. You Can't Flush Science Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobnes, Emilie; Mitchell, S. E.

    2008-05-01

    Did you know... that the writing on the bathroom wall isn't just graffiti anymore? Studies have shown that messages in unusual locations can have extraordinary impact. A growing number of companies and non-profit organizations are placing signage in unexpected venues, such as bathroom stalls, sporting arena seatbacks, gas stations, and diaper-changing areas. A 2003 study found that public response to promotional materials posted in restrooms was overwhelmingly positive, and respondents view these materials for up to two minutes instead of the 3 to 5 seconds they spend with traditional print marketing. Recall rates of content and messages are high, and researchers found bathroom signage to be 40% more effective than a typical print sign. It is often difficult to design effective education and outreach programs that reach a broader audience than a fairly self-selective one. Most of our events and projects ask audiences to come to us. This format inherently attracts a science-interested audience. So how do you reach the other half, those non-traditional learners, in an effective manner? Take the science to them! Help your message be more effective by "shocking” them with the science. Placing science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) content in unexpected venues makes it accessible, memorable, and likely to reach a captive audience that might not otherwise seek it out. The "Did You Know?” campaign brings STEM messages to underserved audiences through innovative placement. Bathroom stalls, movie theaters, and shopping malls are visited by thousands each day and provide a surprising and overlooked venue for outreach.

  16. Impact of Photovoltaic Canopy Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in a Hot Desert City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-04-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade on thermal comfort through microclimate observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. Six stationary sensors under solar canopies and in nearby sun-exposed and tree-shaded locations monitored 5-min temperature and humidity for a year. On selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly microclimate transects from 7:00AM to 6:00PM and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on the Likert scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. The shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shade are equally efficient in semi-arid desert environments. Globe temperature explained 50% of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors include adaptation level, gender, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, season, and time of day. A regression of perceived comfort on Physiological Equivalent Temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6°C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1°C-38.1°C with a preferred temperature of 20.8°C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperatures felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 minutes prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas.

  17. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-05-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  18. Consumer Behavior in Shopping Streets: The Importance of the Salesperson's Professional Personal Attention

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Natalia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Sierra-Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies' strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson–customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer's point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive) are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1) courteous attention and (2) personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research. PMID:26903927

  19. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  20. Indoor 3D Route Modeling Based On Estate Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wen, Y.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    Indoor three-dimensional route model is essential for space intelligence navigation and emergency evacuation. This paper is motivated by the need of constructing indoor route model automatically and as far as possible. By comparing existing building data sources, this paper firstly explained the reason why the estate spatial management data is chosen as the data source. Then, an applicable method of construction three-dimensional route model in a building is introduced by establishing the mapping relationship between geographic entities and their topological expression. This data model is a weighted graph consist of "node" and "path" to express the spatial relationship and topological structure of a building components. The whole process of modelling internal space of a building is addressed by two key steps: (1) each single floor route model is constructed, including path extraction of corridor using Delaunay triangulation algorithm with constrained edge, fusion of room nodes into the path; (2) the single floor route model is connected with stairs and elevators and the multi-floor route model is eventually generated. In order to validate the method in this paper, a shopping mall called "Longjiang New City Plaza" in Nanjing is chosen as a case of study. And the whole building space is constructed according to the modelling method above. By integrating of existing path finding algorithm, the usability of this modelling method is verified, which shows the indoor three-dimensional route modelling method based on estate spatial data in this paper can support indoor route planning and evacuation route design very well.

  1. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  2. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  3. Isolation and structural and pharmacological characterization of α-elapitoxin-Dpp2d, an amidated three finger toxin from black mamba venom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Reeks, Timothy; Vetter, Irina; Vergara, Irene; Kovtun, Oleksiy; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Durek, Thomas

    2014-06-17

    We isolated a novel, atypical long-chain three-finger toxin (TFT), α-elapitoxin-Dpp2d (α-EPTX-Dpp2d), from black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis) venom. Proteolytic digestion with trypsin and V8 protease, together with MS/MS de novo sequencing, indicated that the mature toxin has an amidated C-terminal arginine, a posttranslational modification rarely observed for snake TFTs. α-EPTX-Dpp2d was found to potently inhibit α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR; IC₅₀, 58 ± 24 nM) and muscle-type nAChR (IC₅₀, 114 ± 37 nM) but did not affect α3β2 and α3β4 nAChR isoforms at 1 μM concentrations. Competitive radioligand binding assays demonstrated that α-EPTX-Dpp2d competes with epibatidine binding to the Lymnea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein (Ls-AChBP; IC₅₀, 4.9 ± 2.3 nM). The activity profile and binding data are reminiscent of classical long-chain TFTs with a free carboxyl termini, suggesting that amidation does not significantly affect toxin selectivity. The crystal structure of α-EPTX-Dpp2d was determined at 1.7 Å resolution and displayed a dimeric toxin assembly with each monomer positioned in an antiparallel orientation. The dimeric structure is stabilized by extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions, which raised the possibility that the toxin may exist as a noncovalent homodimer in solution. However, chemical cross-linking and size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) data indicated that the toxin is predominantly monomeric under physiological conditions. Because of its high potency and selectivity, we expect this toxin to be a valuable pharmacological tool for studying the structure and function of nAChRs. PMID:24867092

  4. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  5. The psychological effects of reporting extreme violence: a study of Kenyan journalists

    PubMed Central

    Wanga, Justus; Owen, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the psychological health of journalists in Kenya who have reported on, and been exposed to, extreme violence. Design Descriptive. Psychological responses were elicited to two stressors, the ethnic violence surrounding the disputed 2007 general election and the Al-Shabab attack on the Westgate Mall in Nairobi. Participants A representative sample of 90 Kenyan journalists was enrolled. Setting Newsrooms of two national news organizations in Kenya. Main outcome measures Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (Impact of Event Scale-revised), depression (Deck Depression inventory-revised) and general psychological wellbeing (General Health Questionnaire). Results Of the 90 journalists approached 57 (63.3%) responded. Journalists covering the election violence (n = 23) reported significantly more PTSD type intrusion (p = 0.027) and arousal (p = 0.024) symptoms than their colleagues (n = 34) who had not covered the violence. Reporting the Westgate attack was not associated with increased psychopathology. Being wounded (n = 11) emerged as the most robust independent predictor of emotional distress. Journalists covering the ethnic violence compared to colleagues who did not were not more likely to receive psychological counselling. Conclusions These data, the first of their kind from an African country, replicate findings over a decade old from Western media, namely that journalists asked to cover life-threatening events may develop significant symptoms of emotional difficulties and fail to receive therapy for them. Good journalism, a pillar of civil society, depends on healthy journalists. It is hoped that these data act as a catalyst encouraging news organisations sending journalists into harm’s way to look out for their psychological health in doing so. PMID:26464808

  6. On The Eve Of IYA2009 In Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Breland, K.; Hay, K.; Lane, D.; Lacasse, R.; Lemay, D.; Langill, P.; Percy, J.; Welch, D.; Woodsworth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Local events organized by astronomy clubs, colleges and universities across Canada will softly launch IYA on Saturday, 10 January and begin building awareness of opportunities for every Canadian to experience a `Galileo Moment’ in 2009. The launch typifies our `grass roots’ philosophy based upon our strong partnership of amateurs and professionals which already represents an IYA legacy. In this poster we anticipate the activities of the first half of 2009 and exhibit the educational and public outreach materials and programs we have produced in both official languages, e.g., Astronomy Trading Cards, Mary Lou's New Telescope, Star Finder, etc. Some of these play central roles in our tracking of participation, including allowing people to register to have their name launched into space in 2010. Several contests for youth are underway, with the prize in one being an hour of Gemini telescope observing. In the first half of 2009 some 30,000 grade 6 students will experience `Music of the Spheres’ astronomical orchestral programming conducted by Galileo (a.k.a. Tania Miller, Victoria Symphony). Audiences in Canada and the US will experience Taflemusik's marvelous new soundscape of music and words exploring the deep connections between astronomy and Baroque-era music. An Astronomy Kit featuring Galileoscope for classroom and astronomy club EPO will be tested. Canada Post will issue two stamps during 100 Hours of Astronomy. A new production, Galileo Live!, by Canadian planetaria involving live actors will premier, as will the national Galileo Legacy Lectures in which top astronomers familiarize the public with forefront research being done in Canada. Image exhibits drawing upon material generated by Canadian astronomers and artists, as well as from the IAU Cornerstones, FETTU and TWAN, are opening in malls and airports early in 2009. We will present the latest information about these and other events.

  7. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    shopping mall or transportation hub parking areas could provide additional capacity and convenience.

  8. Association between sleeping hours and cardiometabolic risk factors for metabolic syndrome in a Saudi Arabian population

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Jason; Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Alkhatim, Alser A; Abdou, Mamdouh H; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological and molecular studies have shown that sleep duration is associated with metabolic syndrome (MtS), a disease that is on the rise in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We aim to investigate the association between sleep duration and selected cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Setting Secondary care was given to the participants. There were 2 participating centres, shopping malls in North and South Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants We recruited 2686 participants over a 1-year study period. Participants were selected based on their willingness. The only criterion for exclusion was living in the area (North or South Jeddah) for less than 15 years. Planned and primary outcome measures Participants were measured for blood sugar levels, blood pressure and body mass index. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results There was a positive association between longer sleep duration and obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia. The adjusted ORs for obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia were 1.54 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.98), 1.89 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.48) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.13), respectively, in participants sleeping >8 h/night, as compared with those sleeping 7 h. The positive associations between longer sleep duration, defined as sleeping >7 h, and the disease status, did not differ from other risk factors such as physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions This is the first epidemiological study reporting on the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors of MtS in a Saudi Arabian population. Sleep durations of 8 h or greater were found to be associated with all 3 cardiometabolic risk factors: obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, and this relationship was not confounded by quality of nutrition or physical activity levels. PMID:26621514

  9. In-situ calibration of nonuniformity in infrared staring and modulated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Wiley T.

    Infrared cameras can directly measure the apparent temperature of objects, providing thermal imaging. However, the raw output from most infrared cameras suffers from a strong, often limiting noise source called nonuniformity. Manufacturing imperfections in infrared focal planes lead to high pixel-to-pixel sensitivity to electronic bias, focal plane temperature, and other effects. The resulting imagery can only provide useful thermal imaging after a nonuniformity calibration has been performed. Traditionally, these calibrations are performed by momentarily blocking the field of view with a at temperature plate or blackbody cavity. However because the pattern is a coupling of manufactured sensitivities with operational variations, periodic recalibration is required, sometimes on the order of tens of seconds. A class of computational methods called Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction (SBNUC) has been researched for over 20 years where the nonuniformity calibration is estimated in digital processing by analysis of the video stream in the presence of camera motion. The most sophisticated SBNUC methods can completely and robustly eliminate the high-spatial frequency component of nonuniformity with only an initial reference calibration or potentially no physical calibration. I will demonstrate a novel algorithm that advances these SBNUC techniques to support all spatial frequencies of nonuniformity correction. Long-wave infrared microgrid polarimeters are a class of camera that incorporate a microscale per-pixel wire-grid polarizer directly affixed to each pixel of the focal plane. These cameras have the capability of simultaneously measuring thermal imagery and polarization in a robust integrated package with no moving parts. I will describe the necessary adaptations of my SBNUC method to operate on this class of sensor as well as demonstrate SBNUC performance in LWIR polarimetry video collected on the UA mall.

  10. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. ); Kammerud, R.C. )

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  11. Urban Options for Psychological Restoration: Common Strategies in Everyday Situations

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Henk; Jahncke, Helena; Herzog, Thomas R.; Hartig, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Given the need for knowledge on the restorative potential of urban settings, we sought to estimate the effects of personal and contextual factors on preferences and restoration likelihood assessments for different urban activities-in-environments. We also sought to study the generality of these effects across different countries. Methods We conducted a true experiment with convenience samples of university students in the Netherlands (n = 80), Sweden (n = 100), and the USA (n = 316). In each country, the experiment had a mixed design with activities-in-environments (sitting in a park, sitting in a cafe, walking in a shopping mall, walking along a busy street) manipulated within-subjects and the need for restoration (attentional fatigue, no attentional fatigue) and immediate social context (in company, alone) manipulated between-subjects. The manipulations relied on previously tested scenarios describing everyday situations that participants were instructed to remember and imagine themselves being in. For each imagined situation (activity-in-environment with antecedent fatigue condition and immediate social context), subjects provided two criterion measures: general preference and the likelihood of achieving psychological restoration. Results The settings received different preference and restoration likelihood ratings as expected, affirming that a busy street, often used in comparisons with natural settings, is not representative of the restorative potential of urban settings. Being with a close friend and attentional fatigue both moderated ratings for specific settings. Findings of additional moderation by country of residence caution against broad generalizations regarding preferences for and the expected restorative effects of different urban settings. Conclusions Preferences and restoration likelihood ratings for urban activity-environment combinations are subject to multiple personal and contextual determinants, including level of attentional

  12. Brownfield reuse of dredged New York Harbor sediment by cement-based solidification/stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Loest, K.; Wilk, C.M.

    1998-12-31

    Newly effective federal regulations restrict the ocean disposal of sediments dredged from the harbors of New York and Newark. The New York Port Authority is faced with a critical situation: find land-based disposal/uses for 10`s of millions cubic yards of sediments or lose standing as a commercial port for ocean-going ships. One of the technologies now being employed to manage the sediments is portland cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. At least 4 million cubic yards of the sediments will undergo cement-based S/S treatment. This treatment will immobilize heavy metals, dioxin, PCBs and other organic contaminants in the sediment. The treatment changes the sediment from a environmental liability into a valuable structural fill. This structural fill is being used at two properties. The first property is an old municipal landfill in Port Newark, New Jersey. The treated sediments are being used as structural fill to cover about 20 acres of the landfill. This will allow planned redevelopment of the landfill property into a shopping mall. The second property called the Seaboard site, was the location of a coal gasification facility and later a wood preservation facility. This 160-acre property has been designated for brownfield redevelopment. Over 4 million cubic yards of treated sediments will eventually cover this site. Portland cement is the selected S/S binding reagent. Nearly 500,000 tons of cement will eventually be used to treat the sediments. Cement was selected for its ability to (a) change the peanut butter-like consistency of the sediments into a structural material and (b) to physically and chemically immobilize hazardous constituents in the sediment.

  13. Space Radar Image of Washington D.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The city of Washington, D.C., is shown is this space radar image. Images like these are useful tools for urban planners and managers, who use them to map and monitor land use patterns. Downtown Washington is the bright area between the Potomac (upper center to lower left) and Anacostia (middle right) rivers. The dark cross shape that is formed by the National Mall, Tidal Basin, the White House and Ellipse is seen in the center of the image. Arlington National Cemetery is the dark blue area on the Virginia (left) side of the Potomac River near the center of the image. The Pentagon is visible in bright white and red, south of the cemetery. Due to the alignment of the radar and the streets, the avenues that form the boundary between Washington and Maryland appear as bright red lines in the top, right and bottom parts of the image, parallel to the image borders. This image is centered at 38.85 degrees north latitude, 77.05 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The area shown is approximately 29 km by 26 km (18 miles by 16 miles). Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is the L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is the L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is the C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  15. Non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction of UV filter compounds from water samples.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Schrader, Steffi; Moeder, Monika

    2009-06-12

    A method for the determination of nine UV filter compounds [benzophenone-3 (BP-3), isoamyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene (OC), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), ethylhexyl salicylate and homosalate] in water samples was developed and evaluated. The procedure includes non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (MALLE) and LC-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI)-MS/MS. Membrane bags made of different polymeric materials were examined to enable a fast and simple extraction of the target analytes. Among the polymeric materials tested, low- and high-density polyethylene membranes proved to be well suited to adsorb the analytes from water samples. Finally, 2 cm length tailor-made membrane bags were prepared from low-density polyethylene in order to accommodate 100 microL of propanol. The fully optimised protocol provides recoveries from 76% to 101% and limits of detection (LOD) between 0.4 ng L(-1) (OD-PABA) and 16 ng L(-1) (EHMC). The interday repeatability of the whole protocol was below 18%. The effective separation of matrix molecules was proved by only marginal matrix influence during the APPI-MS analysis since no ion suppression effects were observed. During the extraction step, the influence of the matrix was only significant when non-treated wastewater was analysed. The analysis of lake water indicated the presence of seven UV filter compounds included in this study at concentrations between 40 ng L(-1) (BP-3) and 4381 ng L(-1) (OC). In non-treated wastewater several UV filters were also detected at concentration levels as high as 5322 ng L(-1) (OC). PMID:19419722

  16. Contextual marketing--the real business of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D; Marshall, J F

    2000-01-01

    The painful truth is that the Internet has been a letdown for most companies--largely because the dominant model for Internet commerce, the destination Web site, doesn't suit the needs of those companies or their customers. Most consumer product companies don't provide enough value or dynamic information to induce customers to make the repeat visits--and disclose the detailed information--that make such sites profitable. In this article, David Kenny and John F. Marshall suggest that companies discard the notion that a Web site equals an Internet strategy. Instead of trying to create destinations that people will come to, companies need to use the power and reach of the Internet to deliver tailored messages and information to customers. Companies have to become what the authors call "contextual marketers." Delivering the most relevant information possible to consumers in the most timely manner possible will become feasible, the authors say, as access moves beyond the PC to shopping malls, retail stores, airports, bus stations, and even cars. The authors describe how the ubiquitous Internet will hasten the demise of the destination Web site--and open up scads of opportunities to reach customers through marketing "mobilemediaries," such as smart cards, e-wallets, and bar code scanners. The companies that master the complexity of the ubiquitous Internet will gain significant advantages: they'll gain greater intimacy with customers and target market segments more efficiently. The ones that don't will be dismissed as nuisances, the authors conclude. They suggest ways to become welcome additions--not unwelcome intrusions--to customers' lives. PMID:11184966

  17. Enhancing Nontraditional Informal Programs Using Exhibitions: a case study of MarsQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2001-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed a large traveling exhibition called MarsQuest. The 5,000 square foot exhibition will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. A large exhibition, like MarsQuest, can provide a memorable experience for visitors, but it does not have to end there. A variety of nontraditional informal activities can tie into such informal science education projects to enhance and extend their impact. I will first discuss the MarsQuest exhibition that features compelling hands-on displays, updateable computer stations, and models that offer memorable experiences for visitors of all ages. The MarsQuest Education Program includes a professional development workshop for teachers, a museum staff orientation, web resources, and a public talk by a Mars scientist. By surrounding visitors with vivid Mars images, the planetarium show, narrated by Patrick Stewart, expands on the exhibition's main themes and allows visitors to delve deeper into the mysteries of Mars. The MarsQuest exhibition is proving to be extraordinarily successful. The exhibit's three-year tour is already fully booked (a second 3-year tour is planned), and the exhibit has been met with tremendous amounts of publicity and press coverage at its venues to date. The MarsQuest experience will be used to explore how a large exhibition can enhance nontraditional informal programs such as public talks by scientists, mall science events, camp-ins, public demonstrations, interactive web events, and the creation of mini versions that can travel to smaller venues in underserved regions of the country. I will then discuss how these activities can best piggyback on the media attention and public awareness that is generated by a large exhibition.

  18. Synthesis of selenium-containing Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides: Solution conformation and anti-tumor activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Li, Qingyao; Bao, Aijuan; Liu, Xiurong; Zeng, Junyuan; Yang, Xiaopin; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-11-01

    It has been reported in our previous work that selenized Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharides (SeASPs) with the Se content range of 168-1703μg/g were synthesized by using Na2SeO3/HNO3/BaCl2 system. In the present work, the solution property of SeASP was studied by using size exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). A decrease in df values indicated that SeASPs with different conformational features that were highly dependent on MW. SeASPs exhibited a more rigid conformation (df value of 1.29-1.52) in low molecular weight range (MW of 1.026-1.426×10(4)g/mol) and compact spherical conformation in high molecular weight range (MW of 2.268-4.363×10(4)g/mol). It could be due to the degradation of polysaccharide chains in HNO3, which was supported in monosaccharide composition analysis. Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results also confirmed the conformational transition and the evidence on the shape of the rigid chains. In vitro anti-tumor assays, SeASP2 displayed greater anti-proliferative effects against three tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells, lung adenocarcinom A549 cells and cervical squamous carcinoma Hela cells) in a dose-dependent manner. This suggested that selenylation could significantly enhance the anti-tumor activities of polysaccharide derivatives in vitro. PMID:27516251

  19. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby.

    PubMed

    Adams, Annmarie; Theodore, David; Goldenberg, Ellie; McLaren, Coralee; McKeever, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The study reported here adopts an interdisciplinary focus to elicit children's views about hospital environments. Based at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, the research explores the ways in which designers and patients understand and use the eight-storey lobby, The Atrium, a monumental addition constructed in 1993. It is a public place that never closes; hundreds of children pass through the namesake atrium every day. Combining methodological approaches from architectural history and health sociology, the intentions and uses of central features of the hospital atrium are examined. Data were collected from observations, focused interviews, and textual and visual documents. We locate the contemporary atrium in a historical context of building typologies rarely connected to hospital design, such as shopping malls, hotels and airports. We link the design of these multi-storey, glass-roofed spaces to other urban experiences especially consumption as normalizing forces in the everyday lives of Canadian children. Seeking to uncover children's self-identified, self-articulated place within contemporary pediatric hospitals, we assess how the atrium--by providing important, but difficult-to-measure functions such as comfort, socialization, interface, wayfinding, contact with nature and diurnal rhythms, and respite from adjacent medicalized spaces--contributes to the well-being of young patients. We used theoretical underpinnings from architecture and humanistic geography, and participatory methods advocated by child researchers and theorists. Our findings begin to address the significant gap in understanding about the relationship between the perceptions of children and the settings where their healthcare occurs. The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. PMID:19962223

  20. What do Omani Women know about Breast Cancer Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Renganathan, Lakshmi; Ramasubramaniam, Shanthi; Al-Touby, Salem; Seshan, Vidya; Al-Balushi, Amal; Al-Amri, Warda; Al-Nasseri, Yusra; Al-Rawahi, Yuthar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Studies to detect the awareness of breast cancer among Arab women are few and point to a lack of breast cancer knowledge among females. Early detection of breast cancer plays a leading role in reducing mortality rates and improving prognosis. This study aims to assess the knowledge and awareness of breast cancer symptoms among Omani women. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was carried out in Muscat, Oman. The study was conducted at three health centers and three shopping malls using convenience sampling. A total of 369 women consented to be part of the study and completed a questionnaire. Responses to the questionnaire were summed to give an overall knowledge score. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data, which was also analyzed statistically. Results Among the total number of women 68 (19%) were calculated to have poor knowledge, 219 (59%) had average knowledge, 77 (21%) had good knowledge, and five (1%) had excellent knowledge on breast cancer. Among the variables, education status (p=0.002, p<0.050), and family history of breast cancer (p =0.000, p<0.010) was significantly related to a higher knowledge level. Conclusion The study revealed that there was lack of awareness and knowledge on breast cancer symptoms among Omani women. Breast cancer awareness and early detection through regular breast screening is important to reduce the mortality and morbidity of the disease. PMID:25584157

  1. Use of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets to model geographic distribution of climatic risk for European canker (Neonectria galligena) of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Beresford, Robert M

    2012-02-01

    A rule-based model was developed to assess climatic risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena), which is a major disease of apple in some temperate zones. A descriptive rule was derived from published observations on climatic conditions favorable for European canker development. Fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate the descriptive rule quantitatively. The amount and frequency of rainfall and the average number of hours between 11 and 16°C/day were used as input variables whose values were matched with terms in the rule, e.g., 'high' or 'low'. The degree of a term, e.g., the state of being high or low, to a given input value was determined using a membership function that converts an input value to a number between 0 and 1. The rule was evaluated by combining the degree of the terms associated with monthly climate data. Monthly risk index values derived using the rule were combined for pairs of consecutive months over 12 months. The annual risk of European canker development was represented by the maximum risk index value for 2 months combined. The membership function parameters were adjusted iteratively to achieve a specified level of risk at Talca (Chile), Loughgall (Northern Ireland), East Malling (UK), and Sebastopol (USA), where European canker risk was known. The rule-based model was validated with data collected from Canada, Ecuador, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest (USA), where European canker has been reported to occur. In these validation areas, the model's risk prediction agreed with reports of disease occurrence. The rule-based model also predicted high risk areas more reliably than the climate matching model, CLIMEX, which relies on correlations between the spatial distribution of a species and climatic conditions. The combination of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets could be used for other applications where prediction of the geographic distribution of organisms is required for

  2. Short-term exposure to PM 10, PM 2.5, ultrafine particles and CO 2 for passengers at an intercity bus terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsiao-Peng; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2011-04-01

    The Taipei Bus Station is the main transportation hub for over 50 bus routes to eastern, central, and southern Taiwan. Daily traffic volume at this station is about 2500 vehicles, serving over 45,000 passengers daily. The station is a massive 24-story building housing a bus terminal, a business hotel, a shopping mall, several cinemas, offices, private residential suites, and over 900 parking spaces. However, air quality inside this bus terminal is a concern as over 2500 buses are scheduled to run daily. This study investigates the PM 10, PM 2.5, UFP and CO 2 levels inside and outside the bus terminal. All measurements were taken between February and April 2010. Measurement results show that coarse PM inside the bus terminal was resuspended by the movement of large numbers of passengers. The fine and ultrafine PM in the station concourse were from outside vehicles. Moreover, fine and ultrafine PM at waiting areas were exhausted directly from buses in the building. The CO 2 levels at waiting areas were likely elevated by bus exhaust and passengers exhaling. The PM 10, PM 2.5 and CO 2 levels at the bus terminal were lower than Taiwan's EPA suggested standards for indoor air quality. However, UFP levels at the bus terminal were significantly higher than those in the urban background by about 10 times. Therefore, the effects of UFPs on the health of passengers and workers must be addressed at this bus terminal since the levels of UFPs are higher than >1.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3.

  3. Paid caregiver motivation, work conditions, and falls among senior clients.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Tam, Karen; Friesema, Elisha; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivation of paid non-familial caregivers of seniors, understand more about their work conditions, and identify any links to negative outcomes among their senior clients. Ninety-eight paid caregivers (eighty-five female and thirteen male), recruited from multiple sites (i.e. senior centers, shopping malls, local parks, lobbies of senior apartments, caregiver agency meetings) completed face-to-face questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We found that 60.7% of participants chose to become a caregiver because they enjoyed being with seniors while 31.7% were unable to obtain other work, and 8.2% stated it was a prerequisite to a different health related occupation. Caregivers stated that the most challenging conditions of their work were physical lifting (24.5%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (24.5%), senior depression/mood changes (18.4%), attachment with impending death (8.2%), missing injuries to client (5.1%), lack of sleep (4.1%), and lack of connection with outside world (3.1%). Caregivers who reported that the best part of their job was the salary, flexible hours, and ease of work were significantly more likely to have clients who fell and fractured a bone than those who enjoyed being with seniors (job characteristics, 62.5% vs. senior enjoyment, 25.6%; p<0.004). We concluded that in pursuing their occupation, paid caregivers are motivated commonly by their love of seniors and also by their lack of other job opportunities. Paid caregivers frequently face challenging work conditions. When seeking a caregiver for a senior, motivation of the caregiver should be considered when hiring. PMID:22360830

  4. The role of nanominerals and mineral nanoparticles in the transport of toxic trace metals: Field-flow fractionation and analytical TEM analyses after nanoparticle isolation and density separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plathe, Kelly L.; von der Kammer, Frank; Hassellöv, Martin; Moore, Johnnie N.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hofmann, Thilo; Hochella, Michael F.

    2013-02-01

    Nanominerals and mineral nanoparticles from a mining-contaminated river system were examined to determine their potential to co-transport toxic trace metals. A recent large-scale dam removal project on the Clark Fork River in western Montana (USA) has released reservoir and upstream sediments contaminated with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cu and Zn), which had accumulated there as a consequence of more than a century and a half of mining activity proximal to the river's headwaters near the cities of Butte and Anaconda. To isolate the high-density nanoparticle fractions from riverbed and bank sediments, a density separation with sodium polytungstate (2.8 g/cm3) was employed prior to a standard nanoparticle extraction procedure. The stable, dispersed nanoparticulate fraction was then analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy (aTEM) and flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled to both multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and high-resolution, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS). FlFFF analysis revealed a size distribution in the nano range and that the elution profiles of the trace metals matched most closely to that for Fe and Ti. aTEM confirmed these results as the majority of the Fe and Ti oxides analyzed were associated with one or more of the trace metals of interest. The main mineral phases hosting trace metals are goethite, ferrihydrite and brookite. This demonstrates that they are likely playing a significant role in dictating the transport and distribution of trace metals in this river system, which could affect the bioavailability and toxicity of these metals.

  5. Consumer Behavior in Shopping Streets: The Importance of the Salesperson's Professional Personal Attention.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Natalia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Sierra-Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies' strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson-customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer's point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive) are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1) courteous attention and (2) personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research. PMID:26903927

  6. Degradation of chitosan by gamma ray with presence of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmud, Maznah; Yacob, Norzita; Talip, Norhashidah; Abdullah, Zahid; Naziri, Muhammad Ihsan

    2014-02-12

    The radiation degraded chitosan samples were prepared by swelling the chitosan powder in water and exposed for gamma irradiation. The ratio chitosan to water was 1:6 with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), 1%–5%. These chitosan-water mixtures were irradiated at 6kGy, which is the lowest irradiation dose that facility can offered. All samples were purified and proceed with characterization. The molecular weight (MW) study was monitored by size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). Results showed that MW of chitosan reduced as the dose increased. Application of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhanced the degradation rate of chitosan even at very low irradiation dose. Homogenous degradation also occurred during treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}based on the polydispersity index (PDI) derived from the calculation of weight average molecular weight over number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn). Mechanism of chitosan radiation degradation with and without hydrogen peroxide was also discussed in this paper. Structure of degraded products was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) values of the samples was determined by acid-base titration. Solubility test results showed that, chitosan powder even at low Mw was insoluble in water even at low pH water. Chitosan as well as irradiated chitosan powder are soluble in strong and weak acid solution. Further discussion on behaviours of radiation degraded chitosan will be elaborated more in this paper.

  7. The Impact of Cigarette Pack Design, Descriptors, and Warning Labels on Risk Perception in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. Purpose This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. Methods A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo, NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text vs graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Results Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged <18 years, and contained cigarettes of better quality. Conclusions The findings support larger, graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. PMID:21565661

  8. Beyond Neighborhood Food Environments: Distance Traveled to Food Establishments in 5 US Cities, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Cohen, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate conceptualizations of neighborhood environments are important in the design of policies and programs aiming to improve access to healthy food. Neighborhood environments are often defined by administrative units or buffers around points of interest. An individual may eat and shop for food within or outside these areas, which may not reflect accessibility of food establishments. This article examines the relevance of different definitions of food environments. Methods We collected data on trips to food establishments using a 1-week food and travel diary and global positioning system devices. Spatial-temporal clustering methods were applied to identify homes and food establishments visited by study participants. Results We identified 513 visits to food establishments (sit-down restaurants, fast-food/convenience stores, malls or stores, groceries/supermarkets) by 135 participants in 5 US cities. The average distance between the food establishments and homes was 2.6 miles (standard deviation, 3.7 miles). Only 34% of the visited food establishments were within participants’ neighborhood census tract. Buffers of 1 or 2 miles around the home covered 55% to 65% of visited food establishments. There was a significant difference in the mean distances to food establishments types (P = .008). On average, participants traveled the longest distances to restaurants and the shortest distances to groceries/supermarkets. Conclusion Many definitions of the neighborhood food environment are misaligned with individual travel patterns, which may help explain the mixed findings in studies of neighborhood food environments. Neighborhood environments defined by actual travel activity may provide more insight on how the food environment influences dietary and food shopping choices. PMID:26247426

  9. Extremely high genetic diversity in a single tumor points to prevalence of non-Darwinian cell evolution.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shaoping; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Zuyu; Yang, Fang; Li, Yawei; Lin, Pei; Chen, Ke; Dong, Lili; Cao, Lihua; Tao, Yong; Hao, Lingtong; Chen, Qingjian; Gong, Qiang; Wu, Dafei; Li, Wenjie; Zhao, Wenming; Tian, Xiuyun; Hao, Chunyi; Hungate, Eric A; Catenacci, Daniel V T; Hudson, Richard R; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Lu, Xuemei; Wu, Chung-I

    2015-11-24

    The prevailing view that the evolution of cells in a tumor is driven by Darwinian selection has never been rigorously tested. Because selection greatly affects the level of intratumor genetic diversity, it is important to assess whether intratumor evolution follows the Darwinian or the non-Darwinian mode of evolution. To provide the statistical power, many regions in a single tumor need to be sampled and analyzed much more extensively than has been attempted in previous intratumor studies. Here, from a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor, we evaluated multiregional samples from the tumor, using either whole-exome sequencing (WES) (n = 23 samples) or genotyping (n = 286) under both the infinite-site and infinite-allele models of population genetics. In addition to the many single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) present in all samples, there were 35 "polymorphic" SNVs among samples. High genetic diversity was evident as the 23 WES samples defined 20 unique cell clones. With all 286 samples genotyped, clonal diversity agreed well with the non-Darwinian model with no evidence of positive Darwinian selection. Under the non-Darwinian model, MALL (the number of coding region mutations in the entire tumor) was estimated to be greater than 100 million in this tumor. DNA sequences reveal local diversities in small patches of cells and validate the estimation. In contrast, the genetic diversity under a Darwinian model would generally be orders of magnitude smaller. Because the level of genetic diversity will have implications on therapeutic resistance, non-Darwinian evolution should be heeded in cancer treatments even for microscopic tumors. PMID:26561581

  10. Specific oxidation pattern of soluble starch with TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO system.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jie; Lu, Jiaojiao; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2016-08-01

    Oxidized starch, one of the most important starch derivatives, has many different properties and applications. Currently, there are two ways to produce oxidized starch, through specific and nonspecific oxidation. Specific oxidation using the stable nitroxyl radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl preparidinloxy (TEMPO), with NaBr and NaClO can produce oxidized starches with different properties under good quality control. In the current study, we examine the products of specifically oxidized starch. As the amount of oxidant and the temperature, two critical factors impacting the oxidation of starch were thoroughly investigated. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW), degree of oxidization (DO) and the detailed structures of corresponding products was accomplished using gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering (GPC-MALLS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quadrapole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS). According to the analytical results, the oxidation patterns of starch treated with specific oxidant TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO were established. When high amounts of oxidant was applied, more glucose residues within starch were oxidized to glucuronic acids (higher DO) and substantial degradation to starch oligosaccharides was observed. By selecting a reaction temperature of 25°C a high DO could be obtained for a given amount of oxidant. The reducing end sugar residue within oxidized starch was itself oxidized and ring opened in all TEMPO-NaBr-NaClO reactions. Furthermore, extra oxidant generated additional novel structures in the reducing end residues of some products, particularly in low temperature reactions. PMID:27112871

  11. Physicochemical characterization of the polysaccharide from Bletilla striata: effect of drying method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingshan; Yu, Ling; Feng, Tao; Yin, Xiujun; Liu, Tianjing; Dong, Lei

    2015-07-10

    The polysaccharide from Bletilla striata, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, was obtained by different drying techniques: vacuum-drying (BVPS) or vacuum freeze-drying (BFPS). The effect of drying method on the physicochemical properties of the B striata polysaccharide was evaluated using high size exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering (HPSEC-MALLS), FT-IR and UV spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The monosaccharide analysis and pH test revealed that the polysaccharide derived from B. striata was a neutral polysaccharide that is composed of glucose and mannose. The solubility and moisture content test's results demonstrated that BFPS was greater than BVPS. The number average molecular weight (Mn) and the computed average molecular weight (Mw) of 99.3% BFPS were 7.297×10(4)g/mol and 9.545×10(4)g/mol, respectively, whereas the Mn and Mw of 97.6% BVPS were 1.218×10(5)g/mol and 1.472×10(5)g/mol, respectively. The FT-IR and UV results indicated that drying technique has little effect on the structure of the polysaccharide. The thermal analysis showed that weight loss event was at 307.85°C and 305.50°C to BVPS and BFPS, respectively. Furthermore, the XRD confirmed that the polysaccharide was the amorphous nature. However, both SEM and AFM images exhibited that the drying technique had a significant impact on the morphology and conformation of the polysaccharide. PMID:25857953

  12. History of medicine: the metamorphosis of scientific medicine in the ever-present past.

    PubMed

    Cruse, J M

    1999-09-01

    Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), the father of medicine, developed principles for medical diagnosis and treatment together with a code of ethics. When the first Ptolemy ruled Egypt, he created a great library of 700,000 rolls at Alexandria, which became a repository for the works of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, and all the writings of the known world, but it was destroyed by a great fire. Galen of Pergamum (129-216), who lived 500 years after Hippocrates, was well educated and studied anatomy, surgery, drugs and Hippocratic medicine. His ideas influenced medical thinking for the next 1500 years. The Arabic physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote a great medical work entitled Canon of Medicine. After the Dark Ages (500 to 1050), academic medicine was reestablished in Europe, especially at Salerno, Bologna, Padua, Paris, Montpellier, and Oxford. The greatest medical disaster of the Middle Ages was the Black Death. Other diseases of note were leprosy, smallpox, tuberculosis, typhus, measles, diarrhea, meningitis, and colic. As interest in human dissection increased, the study of anatomy became popular. With development of the printing press, medical knowledge became more widely disseminated and technical advances in science flourished. Advances in medicine occurred in concert with developments in technology. These included the microscope, the stethoscope, anesthetic agents, discoveries in bacteriology, a carbolic acid spray to reduce infection during surgery, the clinical thermometer, blood transfusions, electrocardiography, X-rays, and the sphygmomanometer. Johns Hopkins University was established at the end of the 19th century to train scientifically knowledgeable physicians. The first faculty included Welch, Osler, Halstead, Kelly, Mall, and Abel. Graduates of the new school carried scientific medicine to universities throughout America. More medical advances have been made during the 20th century than in all the other centuries combined. Advances in medical

  13. National incidence of smoking and misclassification among the U.S. married female population.

    PubMed

    Ogden, M W; Morgan, W T; Heavner, D L; Davis, R A; Steichen, T J

    1997-03-01

    Because of a lack of representative data on smoking status misclassification among U.S. married females, a two-part study was conducted. Part I was conducted to obtain nationally representative estimates of the percentage of U.S. women who report themselves to be current, former, and never smokers, to determine the concordance of smoking habits among spouse pairs, and to establish field quotas and probability weightings for Part II. Part II was conducted to determine smoker misclassification rates using salivary cotinine as an indication of active smoking. Part I, conducted in January 25-29, 1992, utilized random-digit dialing telephone interviewing throughout the 48 contiguous United States. Part II, conducted from February 19, 1992 to March 7, 1992, was a mall-intercept study in nine geographically disperse U.S. cities and it involved interviewing and saliva collection. Among married U.S. women, 25% reported they were current smokers, 22% reported they were former smokers, and 53% reported they were never smokers. Using a cotinine concentration of either > 35 ng/ml or > 106 ng/ml to indicate regular smoking, 3.61% and 2.55% of regular smokers, respectively, reported themselves to be never smokers. The concordance ratio, an important parameter in correcting for non-differential misclassification bias, was found to be 5.52. In addition, an indication of substantial differential misclassification was found between exposed and unexposed populations. This type of misclassification bias has previously not been accounted for in the adjustment of epidemiology-based risk assessments of tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer. Taken together, these data suggest that misclassification bias alone is likely to explain any lung cancer risk elevation observed in the U.S. epidemiology of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among nonsmoking women. PMID:9120524

  14. Medical educators' social acts of explaining passing underperformance in students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E; Lewis, Natalie J; Cleland, Jennifer A

    2011-05-01

    Passing underperformance in students is ubiquitous across health and social care educators and is intimately related to the subsequent welfare of patients: underperforming students may become underperforming practitioners. This paper aims to examine how medical educators construct passing underperformance through an analysis of their social act of explaining such behaviours in peer-group settings. Ten focus groups were conducted with 70 medical educators across two UK schools with different curricular/assessment styles (England, Scotland). A qualitative content analysis of how educators explained their behaviours of passing underperformance was undertaken using the psychological concepts of proximality and distalness according to: (1) Malle's F.Ex. coding framework for behavioural explanations, and (2) participants' use of pronouns. 149 explanations of passing underperformance were identified: 72 for participants' own behaviour, 77 for others' behaviour. When explaining their own behaviour, participants used the proximal pronoun I 37% (n = 27) of the time and the distancing pronouns we/you 51% (n = 37) of the time. More Causal History of Reasons (38%; n = 27) and Enabling Factors (29%; n = 21) than Reasons (33%; n = 24) were cited. A similar pattern was found for explaining others' behaviour. Thus, medical educators used linguistic form, explanation mode and informational content within peer-group discussions to distance themselves from intentionality for their action of passing underperformance and highlighted desirable characteristics of themselves and medical educators in general. Faculty development programmes should develop assessors' awareness of how implicit factors within their talk can legitimise a culture of passing underperformance and explore the steps for cultural change. PMID:21063770

  15. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Ammouri, Ali A.; Tailakh, Ayman; Isac, Chandrani; Kamanyire, Joy K.; Muliira, Joshua; Balachandran, Shreedevi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21). Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%). Of these, 69 participants (60.5%) had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023), marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036) and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006). Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman. PMID:27226910

  16. Field, Laboratory and Numerical Study of Turbulent Dispersion in Built Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Princevac, M.; Pan, H.; Bartolome, C.

    2009-09-01

    Field measurements were conducted in seven southern Californian cities. These included SF6 tracer studies in Wilmington and Palm Springs and traffic related particulate measurements in Los Angeles, Long Beach, Anaheim, Pasadena and Huntington Beach. Urban areas were selected to cover five typical building arrangements which are 1) low density settlement, 2) low-rise settlement, 3) mid-rise settlement, 4) high-rise settlement, and 5) strip mall with surface parking. In addition to SF6 and particulate concentration extensive micrometeorological measurements were performed at each site. The field experiments were accompanied with systematical laboratory modeling in a water channel. Detailed velocity and concentration fields within model urban settings were simultaneously measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) system. Model buildings were created from transparent acrylic blocks to allow for the whole plane measurements inside the urban canopy. Complexity of modeled urban areas ranged from uniform cubical arrays to scaled downtowns of Los Angeles, Long Beach and Huntington Beach. Numerical simulations of flows and dispersion in these urban areas were performed using three fundamentally different models: 1) AERMOD - similarity based US EPA regulatory model, 2) CFD k-e model, and 3) QUIC - semi empirical, fast response model. Performance of each numerical model will be discussed and the advantages and challenges of utilizing laboratory experiments to model urban flows will be presented. Surface energy balance components, measured via net radiometer, krypton hygrometer, sonic anemometer and heat flux plates were utilized to develop new models for estimates of sensible, latent and ground fluxes over different surfaces and surroundings. This extensive study for the first time explained phenomena of lateral channeling in regular arrays which is responsible for a sudden plume spread at the entrance of the obstacle array.

  17. Compliance with smoke-free legislation within public buildings: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çarkoğlu, Asli; Ergör, Gül; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Magid, Hoda; Pollak, Jonathan; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate public compliance with legislation to prohibit smoking within public buildings and the extent of tobacco smoking in outdoor areas in Turkey. Methods Using a standardized observation protocol, we determined whether smoking occurred and whether ashtrays, cigarette butts and/or no-smoking signs were present in a random selection of 884 public venues in 12 cities in Turkey. We visited indoor and outdoor locations in bars/nightclubs, cafes, government buildings, hospitals, restaurants, schools, shopping malls, traditional coffee houses and universities. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between the presence of ashtrays or the absence of no-smoking signs and the presence of individuals smoking or cigarette butts. Findings Most venues had no-smoking signs (629/884). We observed at least one person smoking in 145 venues, most frequently observed in bars/nightclubs (63/79), hospital dining areas (18/79), traditional coffee houses (27/120) and government-building dining areas (5/23). For 538 venues, we observed outdoor smoking close to public buildings. The presence of ashtrays was positively associated with indoor smoking and cigarette butts, adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 315.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 174.9–570.8 and aOR: 165.4; 95% CI: 98.0–279.1, respectively. No-smoking signs were negatively associated with the presence of cigarette butts, aOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8. Conclusion Additional efforts are needed to improve the implementation of legislation prohibiting smoking in indoor public areas in Turkey, especially in areas in which we frequently observed people smoking. Possible interventions include removing all ashtrays from public places and increasing the number of no-smoking signs. PMID:26908959

  18. Oxidative stress and senescence-like status of pear calli co-cultured on suspensions of incompatible quince microcalli.

    PubMed

    Nocito, Fabio F; Espen, Luca; Fedeli, Chiara; Lancilli, Clarissa; Musacchi, Stefano; Serra, Sara; Sansavini, Silviero; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio

    2010-04-01

    This work presents a simple in vitro system to study physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occurring in a pear callus (Pyrus communis L., cv. Beurré Bosc) grown in close proximity to spatially separated undifferentiated homologous (pear) or heterologous (quince; Cydonia oblonga Mill., East Malling clone C) cells in its neighboring environment. After a 7-day co-culture period, the presence of heterologous cells produced negative effects on the pear callus, whose relative weight increase and adenylate energy charge decreased by 30 and 24%, respectively. Such behavior was associated with a higher O(2) consumption rate (+125%) which did not seem to be coupled to adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Analyses of alternative oxidase and enzymatic activities involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification strongly suggested that the higher O(2) consumption rate, measured in the pear callus grown in the heterologous combination, may probably be ascribed to extra-respiratory activities. These, in turn, might contribute to generate metabolic scenarios where ROS-induced oxidative stresses may have the upper hand. The increase in the levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive metabolites, considered as diagnostic indicators of ROS-induced lipid peroxidation, seemed to confirm this hypothesis. Moreover, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression levels of a few senescence-associated genes were higher in the pear callus grown in the heterologous combination than in the homologous one. Taken as a whole, physiological and molecular data strongly suggest that undifferentiated cells belonging to a pear graft-incompatible quince clone may induce an early senescence-like status in a closely co-cultured pear callus. PMID:20190345

  19. Extraction optimization, structure and antioxidant activities of Fortunella margarita Swingle polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongliang; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Yingting; Tian, Yuting; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to maximize the yield of polysaccharides extracted from Fortunella margarita Swingle (FMPS) and investigate the relationship between the structure and antioxidant activities. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of FMPS were ultrasonic power 171W, extraction temperature 50°C, water volume to raw material weight (W/M) ratio 32 ml/g and extraction time 87 min. Under these conditions, the yield of FMPS was 4.15±0.11% (w/w), which was increased by 129.28% compared to hot water extraction. FMPS3, the main fraction of FMPS, was isolated by DEAE Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. According to size-exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), the molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (Mw/Mn) and root-mean-square turning radius (Rg) of FMPS3 were 4.58×10(5) (±2.02%) Da, 1.08 (±1.23%), 28.13 (±1.73%) nm, respectively. FMPS3, linked mainly by β-glycosidic bonds, consisted of galactose, galacturonic acid, glucose, mannose and rhamnose as shown by HPLC, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Furthermore, FMPS3 displayed strong scavenging ability against hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH radicals. The activity was affected by the monosaccharide composition, molecular weight and proportion of β-glycosidic bonds and was a result of a combination of multiple structural factors. FMPS3 is potentially a novel natural antioxidant agent. PMID:25542164

  20. Understanding Neighborhood Environment Related to Hong Kong Children’s Physical Activity: A Qualitative Study Using Nominal Group Technique

    PubMed Central

    He, Gang; Cerin, Ester; Huang, Wendy Y.; Wong, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relationships between the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity have been well documented in Western countries but are less investigated in ultra-dense Asian cities. The aim of this study was to identify the environmental facilitators and barriers of physical activity behaviors among Hong Kong Chinese children using nominal group technique. Methods Five nominal groups were conducted among 34 children aged 10–11 years from four types of neighborhoods varying in socio-economic status and walkability in Hong Kong. Environmental factors were generated by children in response to the question “What neighborhood environments do you think would increase or decrease your willingness to do physical activity?” Factors were prioritized in order of their importance to children’s physical activity. Results Sixteen unique environmental factors, which were perceived as the most important to children’s physical activity, were identified. Factors perceived as physical activity-facilitators included “Sufficient lighting”, “Bridge or tunnel”, “Few cars on roads”, “Convenient transportation”, “Subway station”, “Recreation grounds”, “Shopping malls with air conditioning”, “Fresh air”, “Interesting animals”, and “Perfume shop”. Factors perceived as physical activity-barriers included “People who make me feel unsafe”, “Crimes nearby”, “Afraid of being taken or hurt at night”, “Hard to find toilet in shopping mall”, “Too much noise”, and “Too many people in recreation grounds”. Conclusions Specific physical activity-related environmental facilitators and barriers, which are unique in an ultra-dense city, were identified by Hong Kong children. These initial findings can inform future examinations of the physical activity-environment relationship among children in Hong Kong and similar Asian cities. PMID:25187960