Science.gov

Sample records for mama tras tratamiento

  1. Un nuevo fármaco puede ser una opción de tratamiento para algunos cánceres de mama

    Cancer.gov

    Los resultados de un estudio clínico internacional permiten suponer que, en poco tiempo, habrá otra opción de tratamiento para las mujeres con cáncer de mama metastásico HER2 positivo que deja de responder a los tratamientos dirigidos con trastuzumab.

  2. STIS MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The performance of MAMA microchannel plates can be monitored using a MAMA fold distribution procedure. The fold distribution provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of change in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the STIS MAMA Fold Distribution, Proposal 13149, as Cycle 20.

  3. STIS MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The performance of MAMA microchannel plates can be monitored using a MAMA fold distribution procedure. The fold distribution provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of change in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the STIS MAMA Fold Distribution, Proposal 12778, as Cycle 19.

  4. STIS MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    The performance of MAMA microchannel plates can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the STIS MAMA Fold Analysis {11863} during Cycle 17.

  5. STIS MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The performance of MAMA microchannel plates can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the STIS MAMA Fold Analysis, Proposal 12416, as Cycle 18.

  6. Music Activities for "Mama", "Mama" and "Papa", "Papa"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Jean Marzollo creates two beautiful texts using a child's first words, "Mama, Mama" and "Papa, Papa" as a recurring theme. Wildlife artist, Laura Regan, illustrates Marzollo's poetry with loving images of parents and children in the animal kingdom. Poetry and illustrations highlight the tenderness and care of Mama and Papa as they bond with their…

  7. Imaging MAMA detector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Kasle, David B.

    1990-07-01

    Imaging multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with 1024 x 1024 pixel formats have been produced for visible and UV wavelengths; the UV types employ 'solar blind' photocathodes whose detective quantum efficiencies are significantly higher than those of currently available CCDs operating at far-UV and EUV wavelengths. Attention is presently given to the configurations and performance capabilities of state-of-the-art MAMA detectors, with a view to the development requirements of the hybrid electronic circuits needed for forthcoming spacecraft-sensor applications. Gain, dark noise, uniformity, and dynamic range performance data are presented for the curved-channel 'chevron', 'Z-plate', and helical-channel high gain microchannel plate configurations that are currently under evaluation with MAMA detector systems.

  8. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  9. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  10. MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    This proposal monitors the behavior of the dark current in each of the MAMA detectors, to look for evidence of change in the dark rate, indicative of detector problems developing.The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly with each detector. The pairs of exposures for each detector are linked so that they are taken at opposite ends of the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.For both detectors, additional blocks of exposures are taken once a year. These are groups of three 1314 s TIME-TAG darks for each of the MAMA detectors, distributed over a single SAA free interval. This will give more information on the brightness of the FUV MAMA dark current as a function of the amount of time that the HV has been on, and for the NUV MAMA will give a better measure of the short term temperature dependence.

  11. MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    This proposal monitors the behavior of the dark current in each of the MAMA detectors, to look for evidence of change in the dark rate, indicative of detector problems developing.The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly with each detector. The pairs of exposures for each detector are linked so that they are taken at opposite ends of the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.For both detectors, additional blocks of exposures are taken once a year. These are groups of three 1314 s TIME-TAG darks for each of the MAMA detectors, distributed over a single SAA free interval. This will give more information on the brightness of the FUV MAMA dark current as a function of the amount of time that the HV has been on, and for the NUV MAMA will give a better measure of the short term temperature dependence.

  12. COS NUV MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the COS MAMA Fold Analysis {11891} during Cycle 17.

  13. COS NUV MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the COS MAMA Fold Analysis {12723} during Cycle 19.

  14. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  15. COS NUV MAMA Fold Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13128.

  16. Cáncer de seno (mama)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, la genética, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de seno (mama), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y temas relacionados.

  17. COS Side 2 NUV MAMA Fold Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    The performance of the MAMA microchannel plate can be monitored using a MAMA fold analysis procedure. The fold analysis provides a measurement of the distribution of charge cloud sizes incident upon the anode giving some measure of changes in the pulse-height distribution of the MCP and, therefore, MCP gain. This proposal executes the same steps as the COS MAMA Fold Analysis {13128} during Cycle 20.This proposal is an exact duplication of nominal COS MAMA Fold Analysis {proposal 13128, Cycle 20}. Any changes 13128 or subsequent cycle submissions should be reflected in this proposal and vice versa.

  18. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  19. Tratamiento ayuda a mujeres jóvenes a preservar fertilidad durante quimioterapia para cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno (mama) lograron preservar la fertilidad durante los tratamientos del cáncer con un fármaco inyectable bloqueador de hormonas que les provocó menopausia temporal. Los resultados del estudio se anunciaron hoy en el con

  20. MAMA Software Features: Quantification Verification Documentation-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    This document reviews the verification of the basic shape quantification attributes in the MAMA software against hand calculations in order to show that the calculations are implemented mathematically correctly and give the expected quantification results.

  1. MAMA- User Feedback and Training Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B.; Ruggiero, Christy E.

    2014-05-21

    This document describes the current state of the MAMA (Morphological Analysis of Materials) software user identified bugs, issues, and requests for improvements. It also lists Current users and current training methods.

  2. Parental Reports of "MAMA" Sounds in Infants: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Herbert I.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the use of "mama" or similar sounds referred to as "mama" by 75 infants less than 6 months of age. Parents were directed to listen for "mama" sounds and to note the sounds made, the age of onset, whether the sounds appeared to be directed to any person or persons, or whether they appeared to have a purpose. (Author/VWL)

  3. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.

  4. MAMA detector systems - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Slater, David C.; Kasle, David B.; Bybee, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Third-generation, 224 x 960 and 360 x 1024-pixel multianode microchannel (MAMA) detectors are under development for satellite-borne FUV and EUV observations, using pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 microns. An account is presently given of the configurations, modes of operation, and recent performance data of these systems. At UV and visible wavelengths, these MAMAs employ a semitransparent, proximity-focused photocathode structure. At FUV and EUV wavelengths below about 1500 A, opaque alkali-halide photocathodes deposited directly on the front surface of the MCP furnish the best detective quantum efficiencies.

  5. STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12779.

  6. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  7. The STIS MAMA status: Current detector performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, A. C.; Joseph, C.; Bybee, R.; Argebright, V.; Abraham, J.; Kimble, R.; Woodgate, B.

    1992-01-01

    The STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) is a second generation Hubble instrument scheduled to fly in 1997. Through a variety of modes, the instrument will provide spectral resolutions from R approximately 50 in the objective spectroscopy mode to 100,000 in the high resolution echelle mode in the wavelength region from 115 to 1000 nm. In the UV the instrument employs two MAMA (Multimode Anode Microchannel plate Arrays) 1024 by 1024 pixel detectors, which provide high DQE (Detective Quantum Efficiency), and good dynamic range and resolution. The current progress and performance of these detectors are reported, illustrating that the technology is mature and that the performance is very close to flight requirements.

  8. Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

    Cancer.gov

    Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que ta

  9. Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

  10. Imaging MAMA detector systems. [Multi-Anode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Kasle, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Imaging multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with 1024 x 1024 pixel formats have been produced for visible and UV wavelengths; the UV types employ 'solar blind' photocathodes whose detective quantum efficiencies are significantly higher than those of currently available CCDs operating at far-UV and EUV wavelengths. Attention is presently given to the configurations and performance capabilities of state-of-the-art MAMA detectors, with a view to the development requirements of the hybrid electronic circuits needed for forthcoming spacecraft-sensor applications. Gain, dark noise, uniformity, and dynamic range performance data are presented for the curved-channel 'chevron', 'Z-plate', and helical-channel high gain microchannel plate configurations that are currently under evaluation with MAMA detector systems.

  11. STIS Bright Object Protection Observing for the MAMA Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitherer, C.; Baum, S.; Clampin, M.

    1996-08-01

    STScI will perform screening of all STIS MAMA science observations prior to their scheduling. Observations (target plus configuration combinations) which exceed defined limits will be disallowed. In this memo, we summarize STScI's policy for screening of GO and GTO STIS science observations for Bright Object Protection (BOP).

  12. METHODS ADVANCEMENT FOR MILK ANALYSIS: THE MAMA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) study was designed by US EPA and CDC investigators to provide data to support the technological and study design needs of the proposed National Children=s Study (NCS). The NCS is a multi-Agency-sponsored study, authorized under the...

  13. STIS MAMA Full-Field Sensitivity Monitor C18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, W.

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this program is to monitor the sensitivity of the MAMA detectors over the full field. This is achieved by observing the globular cluster NGC6681 once during Cycle 18. The data can be directly compared with similar data obtained in Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 17.

  14. Dark count rates in the STIS FUV MAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2015-09-01

    Dark count rates in the STIS FUV MAMA are regularly monitored. The observation sequence was altered from an earlier method to measure the rate as a function of time and temperature shortly after the instrument is turned on. The dark rate exhibits an approximately quadratic de-pendence on temperature. A recommendation for estimating the observation-specific dark rate is given.

  15. STIS MAMA Full-Field Sensitivity Monitor C20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to monitor the sensitivity of the MAMA detectors over the full field. This is achieved by observing the globular cluster NGC6681 once during Cycle 19. The data can be directly compared with similar data obtained in Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, and 18.

  16. High time-resolution imaging with the MAMA detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Timothy, J. Gethyn; Smith, Andrew M.; Hill, Bob; Kasle, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Current uses of the MAMA detector which utilize the photon time-tagging capabilities of these detectors are reported. These applications currently include image stabilization by means of post-processing corrections of platform drift and speckle interferometry. The initial results of a sounding rocket experiment to obtain UV images of NGC 6240 and results from speckle interferometry of Neptune's moon Triton are presented.

  17. STIS MAMA Full-Field Sensitivity Monitor C21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to monitor the sensitivity of the MAMA detectors over the full field. This is achieved by observing the globular cluster NGC6681 once during Cycle 21. The data can be directly compared with similar data obtained in previous cycles.

  18. STIS MAMA Full-Field Sensitivity Monitor C19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to monitor the sensitivity of the MAMA detectors over the full field. This is achieved by observing the globular cluster NGC6681 once during Cycle 19. The data can be directly compared with similar data obtained in Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, and 18.

  19. Position sensitivity of MAMA detectors. [Multi-Anode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. S.; Slater, D. S.; Timothy, J. G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1988-01-01

    The results of laboratory and telescopic measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible MAMA detector utilizing a 'coarse-fine' array are presented. The photometric accuracy of this detector was determined under point source illumination. It was found that computed centroid positions are accurate across the entire array to within 0.04 pixels.

  20. Monolithic integrated circuit charge amplifier and comparator for MAMA readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Edward H.; Smeins, Larry G.

    1991-01-01

    Prototype ICs for the Solar Heliospheric Observatory's Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) have been developed; these ICs' charge-amplifier and comparator components were then tested with a view to pulse response and noise performance. All model performance predictions have been exceeded. Electrostatic discharge protection has been included on all IC connections; device operation over temperature has been consistent with model predictions.

  1. SOHO MAMA openable cover/vacuum seal mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Mitchell T.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements, design, and test results of an openable cover mechanism with a high-vacuum seal developed for the Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) Detectors, aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The mechanism, tested in summer/fall of 1991, has completed 1000 test cycles in an inert atmosphere at room temperature and pressure. Measured mechanism performance included: vacuum seal less than 5 x 10 exp -10 torr-liter/second, 103 degree angular range of travel, 20-minute cycle time, and successful latching functions. An openable cover mechanism that provides a clean, high-vacuum seal is vital to the success of a MAMA Detector operating over a full wavelength coverage from 500 to 1600 A.

  2. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  3. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostroem, Azalee

    2011-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  4. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, Rachel

    2010-09-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  5. MAMA Spectroscopic Sensitivity and Focus Monitor Cycle 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Monitor sensitivity of each MAMA grating mode to detect any change due tocontamination or other causes. Also monitor the STIS focus in a spectroscopic and animaging mode.Obtain exposures in each of the 2 low-resolution MAMA spectroscopic modes every 4 months, in each of the 2 medium-resolution modes once a year, and in each of the 4 echelle modes every 3 months,using unique calibration standards for each mode, and ratio the results to the firstobservations to detect any trends. In addition, each L-mode sequence will be preceded by twospectroscopic ACQ/PEAKs with the CCD/G230LB and crossed linear patterns, with the purpose of measuringthe focus {PSF across the dispersion as a function of UV wavelength}; and each M-mode sequence will be preceded by aCCD/F28X50OII direct image also to monitor the focus.Whenever possible, obtain parallel airglow spectra with COS.

  6. Preliminary results from the MAMA detectors for the SOHO mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Bergamini, Paolo; Bumala, Robert W.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems are being fabricated and tested for use in the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) and the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission. The SOHO MAMA detector systems have formats of 360 x 1024 pixels and pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 sq microns and are optimized for operation at Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths between 40 and 160 nm. In this paper we report on the initial results of measurements of the performance characteristics of the first flight-configuration detector system employing the new custom Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) which are designed to improve both the dynamic range and the uniformity of response. The performance characteristics of this detector system are compared with those of earlier breadboard systems employing discrete-component electronics circuits.

  7. Wavelength Calibration Accuracy for the STIS CCD and MAMA Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Hodge, Phil; Proffitt, Charles R.; Ayres, T.

    2011-03-01

    Two calibration programs were carried out to determine the accuracy of the wavelength solutions for the most used STIS CCD and MAMA modes after Servicing Mission 4. We report here on the analysis of this dataset and show that the STIS wavelength solution has not changed after SM4. We also show that a typical accuracy for the absolute wavelength zero-points is 0.1 pixels while the relative wavelength accuracy is 0.2 pixels.

  8. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667…

  9. Speckle imaging with the MAMA detector: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horch, E.; Heanue, J. F.; Morgan, J. S.; Timothy, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the first successful speckle imaging studies using the Stanford University speckle interferometry system, an instrument that uses a multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector as the imaging device. The method of producing high-resolution images is based on the analysis of so-called 'near-axis' bispectral subplanes and follows the work of Lohmann et al. (1983). In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the bispectrum, the frame-oversampling technique of Nakajima et al. (1989) is also employed. We present speckle imaging results of binary stars and other objects from V magnitude 5.5 to 11, and the quality of these images is studied. While the Stanford system is capable of good speckle imaging results, it is limited by the overall quantum efficiency of the current MAMA detector (which is due to the response of the photocathode at visible wavelengths and other detector properties) and by channel saturation of the microchannel plate. Both affect the signal-to-noise ratio of the power spectrum and bispectrum.

  10. Development of the MAMA Detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn

    1997-01-01

    The development of the Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems started in the early 1970's in order to produce multi-element detector arrays for use in spectrographs for solar studies from the Skylab-B mission. Development of the MAMA detectors for spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began in the late 1970's, and reached its culmination with the successful installation of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the second HST servicing mission (STS-82 launched 11 February 1997). Under NASA Contract NAS5-29389 from December 1986 through June 1994 we supported the development of the MAMA detectors for STIS, including complementary sounding rocket and ground-based research programs. This final report describes the results of the MAMA detector development program for STIS.

  11. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  12. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated. PMID:22902514

  13. A new-speckle interferometry system for the MAMA detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horch, E.; Morgan, J. S.; Giaretta, G.; Kasle, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a new system for making speckle observations with the multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector. This system is a true photon-counting imaging device which records the arrival time of every detected photon and allows for reconstruction of image features near the diffraction limit of the telescope. We present a description of the system and summary of observational results obtained at the Lick Observatory 1-m reflector in 1991 September. The diffraction limit of the 1-m telescope at 5029 A is about 0.125 arcsec and we have successfully resolved the catalogued interferometric binary HD 202582 with a separation of 0.157 +/- 0.031 arcsec. A pair of stars in the open cluster Chi Persei separated by 2.65 +/- 0.22 arcsec with approximate V magnitudes 8.6 and 11.5 has also been successfully analyzed with the speckle technique.

  14. Laboratory test data on the stability of the STIS MAMAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1997-01-01

    STIS has two MAMA detectors systems with distinctly different tube configurations. The first (designated BAND 1) has an opaque CsI photocathode deposited on the microchannel plate (MCP) providing wavelength coverage from 1150A to 1700A. The other MAMA (designated BAND 2) has a semitransparent CS2Te photocathode deposited on the faceplate in close proximity to the input of the MCP. It covers the 1650A to 3100A bandpass and serves as a backup for the short wavelength detector. Laboratory test data indicate that both of these detectors have good sensitivity, have good uniformity and provide stable response, making each capable of collecting data with a signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 100 per Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical resolution element. Over a multiyear development effort, a substantial body of laboratory test data (more than 6 GBytes spanning more than 6 years of collection) has accumulated on more than a dozen fabricated tubes. These tests even included a few destructive evaluations to examine the limitations and operating life. In addition, analyses where conducted regarding impact caused by the specified electronic tolerances and expected changes in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal environment. Perhaps the simplest test of stability is to collect a sequence of images, each with a uniform illumination, and use these individual "flat fields" to remove the pixel-to-pixel sensitivity in the other flat fields. These sequences typically spanned 3-5 weeks of time. The detectors are very stable, allowing the pixel-to-pixel sensitivity to be removed with good precision. The STIS specification for stability is 1% (sufficient for data with a S/N = 100) over a 1 week period and 2% over 30 days. All Engineering Model Units as well as Flight Detectors tested exceeded this specification.

  15. Full-field sensitivity and its time-dependence for the STIS CCD and MAMAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Proffitt, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The three STIS detectors - CCD, NUV-MAMA, FUV-MAMA - are subject to temperature- and time-dependent sensitivity changes. These temporal sensitivity variations are cal- ibrated as part of routine calibration monitoring programs, and corrected for in the standard CALSTIS pipeline. In order to determine whether the correction algorithms, developed based on spectroscopic observations prior to the 2004 failure of STIS, are adequate for pre- and post-SM4 STIS imaging data, we examine the photometry of stan- dard stellar fields (NGC5139 for the CCD, NGC6681 for the MAMAs) obtained between 1997 and 2012 as part of the routine full-field sensitivity calibration programs. For the CCD, we include a correction for CTE effects. We find statistically significant residual temporal variations in the full-field sensitivity of 0.5 mmag/year, 0.04 mmag/year, and 0.54 mmag/year for the CCD, NUV-MAMA, and FUV-MAMA respectively. However, these residual trends are small: they do not incur flux changes exceeding 1% over a 15 year time period.

  16. Self-recognition mechanism of MamA, a magnetosome-associated TPR-containing protein, promotes complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Ozyamak, Ertan; Ben-Harush, Kfir; Davidov, Geula; Levin, Maxim; Gat, Yair; Moyal, Tal; Brik, Ashraf; Komeili, Arash; Zarivach, Raz

    2011-08-16

    The magnetosome, a biomineralizing organelle within magnetotactic bacteria, allows their navigation along geomagnetic fields. Magnetosomes are membrane-bound compartments containing magnetic nanoparticles and organized into a chain within the cell, the assembly and biomineralization of magnetosomes are controlled by magnetosome-associated proteins. Here, we describe the crystal structures of the magnetosome-associated protein, MamA, from Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 and Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. MamA folds as a sequential tetra-trico-peptide repeat (TPR) protein with a unique hook-like shape. Analysis of the MamA structures indicates two distinct domains that can undergo conformational changes. Furthermore, structural analysis of seven crystal forms verified that the core of MamA is not affected by crystallization conditions and identified three protein-protein interaction sites, namely a concave site, a convex site, and a putative TPR repeat. Additionally, relying on transmission electron microscopy and size exclusion chromatography, we show that highly stable complexes form upon MamA homooligomerization. Disruption of the MamA putative TPR motif or N-terminal domain led to protein mislocalization in vivo and prevented MamA oligomerization in vitro. We, therefore, propose that MamA self-assembles through its putative TPR motif and its concave site to create a large homooligomeric scaffold which can interact with other magnetosome-associated proteins via the MamA convex site. We discuss the structural basis for TPR homooligomerization that allows the proper function of a prokaryotic organelle. PMID:21784982

  17. Instantánea del cáncer de seno (mama)

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de seno (mama); así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  18. Performance characteristics of the imaging MAMA detector systems for SOHO, STIS, and FUSE/Lyman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Imaging Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 360 x 1024 pixels and pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 sq microns are being fabricated and tested for flight in two instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). In addition, very-large-format (1024 x 1024)- and (2048 x 2048)-pixel Far Ultraviolet (FUV) and EUV MAMA detectors with pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 sq microns are being fabricated and tested for use in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a second-generation instrument scheduled for in-orbit installation in 1997. Finally, FUV MAMA detectors with formats of 224 x 960 pixels and pixel dimensions of 14 x 14 sq microns are being evaluated as prototypes of the detector for the prime FUV spectrograph of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE/Lyman) mission. The configurations and performance characteristics of the different detector systems are described, and the plans for further development of the Advanced Technology MAMA detector system discussed.

  19. Side 2: MSM Positioning of STIS MAMA Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash

    2000-07-01

    The MSM positions for different STIS modes are slightly different when the STIS is run through side 2 than when it is run from side 1. These MSM positions for various STIS prime MAMA modes shall be confirmed by taking images with the IM Pt/Cr/Ne calibration lamp. For first order long-slit modes, the exposures shall be made through 52x0.1arcsec slit. For the echelle modes, the exposures shall be made through echelle slits of the nominal height, to avoid order confusion. One exposure shall be taken for each prime mode except for the medium dispersion{M}, long slit modes. For the medium dispersion, long-slit modes, additional exposures shall be taken at the long and short wavelength settings of the nominal scan range. Exposures shall be sufficiently long to bring out enough line features to confirm wavelength identifications, with sufficient signal to noise to reveal the shadows of the fiducials in the long slit images to confirm spatial pointing. This activity will test all primary modes and test the extremes of the MSM scanning cylinders by observing the extreme settings of the modes. RESULTS: All images will be downlinked and analyzed. The results are confirmation of the standard MSM encoder values for each mode. If the wavelength shifts are less than the budgeted value, the changes will be handled through updating the siaf files. If excess shifts are seen, new MSM positions will be derived and uplinked to the onboard MSM pointing table. Any modes for which revised MSM positions are uplinked will have to be re-observed for confirmation that the correct offsets were applied.

  20. MamA as a Model Protein for Structure-Based Insight into the Evolutionary Origins of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Arnoux, Pascal; Baran, Dror; Shtein, Zvi; Davidov, Geula; Zarivach, Raz

    2015-01-01

    MamA is a highly conserved protein found in magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), a diverse group of prokaryotes capable of navigating according to magnetic fields – an ability known as magnetotaxis. Questions surround the acquisition of this magnetic navigation ability; namely, whether it arose through horizontal or vertical gene transfer. Though its exact function is unknown, MamA surrounds the magnetosome, the magnetic organelle embedding a biomineralised nanoparticle and responsible for magnetotaxis. Several structures for MamA from a variety of species have been determined and show a high degree of structural similarity. By determining the structure of MamA from Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1 using X-ray crystallography, we have opened up the structure-sequence landscape. As such, this allows us to perform structural- and phylogenetic-based analyses using a variety of previously determined MamA from a diverse range of MTB species across various phylogenetic groups. We found that MamA has remained remarkably constant throughout evolution with minimal change between different taxa despite sequence variations. These findings, coupled with the generation of phylogenetic trees using both amino acid sequences and 16S rRNA, indicate that magnetotaxis likely did not spread via horizontal gene transfer and instead has a significantly earlier, primordial origin. PMID:26114501

  1. Inter-phylum structural conservation of the magnetosome-associated TPR-containing protein, MamA.

    PubMed

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Baran, Dror; Davidov, Geula; Zarivach, Raz

    2012-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria enclose the magnetosome, a unique prokaryotic sub-cellular organelle that allows the biomineralization of magnetic nano-crystals. Membrane-coated magnetosomes are arranged into a linear chain that permits magnetotactic bacteria to navigate geomagnetic fields. Magnetosome assembly and biomineralization are controlled by conserved magnetosome-associated proteins, including MamA, a tetra-trico-peptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein that was shown to coat the magnetosome membrane. In this study, two MamA structures from Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum (Mbav) were determined via X-ray crystallography. These structures confirm that Mbav MamA folds as a sequential TPR protein and shares a high degree of structural similarity with homologous MamA proteins from Magnetospirillum species. Furthermore, the two TPR-containing domains of MamA are separated by an interphylum-conserved region containing a flexible hinge that is involved in ligand binding and recognition. Finally, substantial differences were found in the local stabilization of the MamA N-terminal domain as a result of the loss of an evolutionary conserved salt bridge. PMID:22917855

  2. Photometry with Multi-anode Microchannel Arrays (mamas) and Charge Injection Devices (cids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of two kinds of detectors are summarized with emphasis on those aspects that would affect their use in high accuracy astronomical photometry. The first type, the multianode microchannel arrays (MAMA), are a family of pulse counting array detectors. Components and operation principles are reviewed and quantum efficiency, noise characteristics, and dynamic range characteristics are described. The second type, charge injection devices (CID), are discussed in reference to their applicability to photometric detection at optical wavelengths.

  3. Sissies, Mama's Boys, and Tomboys: Is Children's Gender Nonconformity More Acceptable When Nonconforming Traits Are Positive?

    PubMed

    Coyle, Emily F; Fulcher, Megan; Trübutschek, Darinka

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of gender nonconformity in children was examined in two studies. In Study 1, 48 young adults evaluated the positivity of culturally popular labels for gender nonconformity, including "tomboy," "sissy," and two new labels generated in a pilot study, "mama's boy" and "brat." The "mama's boy" was described as a boy who has positive feminine traits (gentle and well-mannered) as opposed to the "sissy" who was described as having negative feminine traits (crying and easily frightened). In Study 2, 161 young adults read descriptions of gender-typical and nonconforming children, evaluating them in several domains. The label "mama's boy" was considered negative in Study 1 but an unlabeled positive nonconforming boy was rated as likable and competent in Study 2. However, participants worried about nonconforming boys, saying they would encourage them to behave differently and describing such children with derogatory sexual orientation slurs. "Tomboy" was generally considered a positive label in Study 1. In Study 2, gender nonconforming girls were considered neither likable nor dislikeable, and neither competent nor incompetent, reflecting ambivalence about girls' nonconformity. It may be that we use gender nonconformity labels as indicators of sexual orientation, even in young children. Therefore, even when an individual displays objectively positive traits, the stigma associated with homosexuality taints judgments about their nonconforming behavior. PMID:26951493

  4. Dynamic range considerations for EUV MAMA detectors. [Extreme UV Multianode Microchannel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Illing, Rainer M. E.; Bybee, Richard L.; Timothy, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    The multianode microchannel array (MAMA) has been chosen as the detector for two instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar Heliospheric Observatory. The response of the MAMA to the two extreme types of solar spectra, disk and corona, have been modeled with a view toward evaluating dynamic range effects present. The method of MAMA operation is discussed, with emphasis given to modeling the effect of electron cloud charge spreading to several detector anodes and amplifiers (n-fold events). Representative synthetic EUV spectra have been created. The detector response to these spectra is modeled by dissecting the input photon radiation field across the detector array into contributions to the various amplifier channels. The results of this dissection are shown for spectral regions across the entire wavelength region of interest. These results are used to identify regions in which total array photon counting rate or individual amplifier rate may exceed the design limits. This allows the design or operational modes to be tailored to eliminate the problem areas.

  5. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  6. Far-ultraviolet MAMA detector imagery and emission-line CCD imagery of NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew M.; Hill, Robert S.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Timothy, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An image of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 at 1480 A was obtained using a multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector with a rocket-borne telescope. At distances greater than 12 arcsec from the nucleus, the measured ultraviolet luminosity implies intensive star formation activity equal to 2-3 times that of a spiral galaxy such as M83. Optical images in the H-beta and forbidden O III 5007 A emission lines reveal a region of high excitation east of the nucleus between the centers of disks 1 and 2 as described by Bland-Hawthorn et al.

  7. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  8. The Funky Mamas: Learning to Create and Perform Music for Young Children within a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a case study examining the music learning and making of the Funky Mamas--five professional mother-musicians who create and perform music for young children at festivals, fairs, theatres and community events across Canada. Data were collected through interviews with the band members and field observations of rehearsals and live…

  9. MAMA: an algebraic map for the secular dynamics of planetesimals in tight binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Correa-Otto, J. A.; Beaugé, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present an algebraic map (MAMA) for the dynamical and collisional evolution of a planetesimal swarm orbiting the main star of a tight binary system. The orbital evolution of each planetesimal is dictated by the secular perturbations of the secondary star and gas drag due to interactions with a protoplanetary disc. The gas disc is assumed eccentric with a constant precession rate. Gravitational interactions between the planetesimals are ignored. All bodies are assumed coplanar. A comparison with full N-body simulations shows that the map is of the order of 102 times faster, while preserving all the main characteristics of the full system. In a second part of the work, we apply multiparticle algebraic map for accretion (MAMA) to the γ-Cephei, searching for friendly scenarios that may explain the formation of the giant planet detected in this system. For low-mass protoplanetary discs, we find that a low-eccentricity static disc aligned with the binary yields impact velocities between planetesimals below the disruption threshold. All other scenarios appear hostile to planetary formation.

  10. MAMA Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

  11. Trend of Dark Rates of the COS and STIS NUV MAMA Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sahnow, D.; Ake, T. B.; Keyes, C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Hodge, P.; Oliveira, C.; Bostroem, A.; Long, C.; Aloisi, A.

    2010-07-01

    The dark rate of the STIS NUV MAMA detector was about an order of magnitude higher after SM4 repair than anticipated, with an initial rate of 0.01 count sec^-1 pixel^-1. Measurements over the past year show a dual-component exponential decline with e-folding timescales of o 30 and 300 days. The most recent measurements show a rate of 2.8 × 10^-3 count sec^-1 pixel^-1. The dark rate of the COS NUV detector started at a very low value of 6 × 10^-5 count sec^-1 pixel^-1, and has displayed a steady increase, approaching the ground-tested level of 3.7 × 10^-4 count sec^-1 pixel^-1. Still, the rate of COS NUV detector is considerably lower than that of its STIS counterpart. The rates for both detectors are sensitive to detector and tube temperatures, and the rate fluctuations can be fit with an empirical model.

  12. The flat fielding and achievable signal-to-noise of the MAMA detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Lindler, Don J.; Bohlin, Ralph C.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was designed to achieve a signal-to-noise (S/N) of at least 100:1 per resolution element. Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMA) observations during Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) confirm that this specification can be met. From analysis of a single spectrum of GD153, with counting statistics of approximately 165 a S/N of approximately 125 is achieved per spectral resolution element in the far ultraviolet (FUV) over the spectral range of 1280A to 1455A. Co-adding spectra of GRW+7OD5824 to increase the counting statistics to approximately 300 yields a S/N of approximately 190 per spectral resolution element over the region extending from 1347A to 1480A in the FUV. In the near ultraviolet (NUV), a single spectrum of GRW+7OD5824 with counting statistics of approximately 200 yields a S/N of approximately 150 per spectral resolution element over the spectral region extending from 2167 to 2520A. Details of the flat field construction, the spectral extraction, and the definition of a spectral resolution element will be described in the text.

  13. Genetic analysis of quartz from pegmatites of the Mama-Chuya mica belt based on distribuition of isomorphic impurities, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, L. T.; Tkachev, A. V.; Sakhnov, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of the formation conditions of pegmatites in the Mama-Chuya mica belt on the distribution of isomorphic Al, Ti, and Ge impurities in quartz detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been estimated using the isogen method, which takes into account the relationship between this distribution and geological time. It has been revealed that each of the studied types of pegmatite veins is described by special isogens that reflect interrelations between concentrations of various isomorphic impurities. The typification of veins, enrichment of parental melt in water, and other factors affect the isogens. New potentialities of the isogen method for genetic analysis of quartz have been established.

  14. A common structure for concepts of individuals, stuffs, and real kinds: more Mama, more milk, and more mouse.

    PubMed

    Millikan, R G

    1998-02-01

    Concepts are highly theoretical entities. One cannot study them empirically without committing oneself to substantial preliminary assumptions. Among the competing theories of concepts and categorization developed by psychologists in the last thirty years, the implicit theoretical assumption that what falls under a concept is determined by description ("descriptionism") has never been seriously challenged. I present a nondescriptionist theory of our most basic concepts, "substances," which include (1) stuffs (gold, milk), (2) real kinds (cat, chair), and (3) individuals (Mama, Bill Clinton, the Empire State Building). On the basis of something important that all three have in common, our earliest and most basic concepts of substances are identical in structure. The membership of the category "cat," like that of "Mama," is a natural unit in nature, to which the concept "cat" does something like pointing, and continues to point despite large changes in the properties the thinker represents the unit as having. For example, large changes can occur in the way a child identifies cats and the things it is willing to call "cat" without affecting the extension of its word "cat." The difficulty is to cash in the metaphor of "pointing" in this context. Having substance concepts need not depend on knowing words, but language interacts with substance concepts, completely transforming the conceptual repertoire. I will discuss how public language plays a crucial role in both the acquisition of substance concepts and their completed structure. PMID:10097011

  15. Anticipated uncertainty budgets of PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques as applied to ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Wolf, Peter; Uhrich, Pierre J. M.; Schaefer, W.; Nau, H.; Veillet, Christian

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Soundings, ExTRAS, was conceived jointly by the European Space Agency, ESA, and the Russian Space Agency, RSA. It is also designated the 'Hydrogen-maser in Space/Meteor-3M project'. The launch of the satellite is scheduled for early 1997. The package, to be flown on board a Russian meteorological satellite includes ultra-stable frequency and time sources, namely two active and auto-tuned hydrogen masers. Communication between the on-board hydrogen masers and the ground station clocks is effected by means of a microwave link using the modified version for time transfer of the Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment, PRARETIME, technique, and an optical link which uses the Time Transfer by Laser Link, T2L2, method. Both the PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques operate in a two-directional mode, which makes it possible to carry out accurate transmissions without precise knowledge of the satellite and station positions. Due to the exceptional quality of the on-board clocks and to the high performance of the communication techniques with the satellite, satellite clock monitoring and ground clocks synchronization are anticipated to be performed with uncertainties below 0.5 ns (1 sigma). Uncertainty budgets and related comments are presented.

  16. Satellite test of the isotropy of the one-way spe ed of light using ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A test of the second postulate of special relativity, the universality of the speed of light, using the ExTRAS (Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Sounding) payload to be flown on board a Russian Meteor-3M satellite (launch date January 1997) is proposed. The propagation time of a light signal transmitted from one point to another without reflection would be measured directly by comparing the phases of two hydrogen maser clocks, one on board and one on the ground, using laser or microwave time transfer systems. An estimated uncertainty budget of the proposed measurements is given, resulting in an expected sensitivity of the experiment of delta c/c is less than 8xl0(exp -10) which would be an improvement by a factor of approximately 430 over previous direct measurements and by a factor of approximately 4 over the best indirect measurement. The proposed test would require no equipment additional to what is already planned and so is of inherently low-cost. It could be carried out by anyone having access to a laser or microwave ground station and a hydrogen maser.

  17. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  18. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  19. Foraminotomia cervical posterior en el tratamiento de conflictos foraminales

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Álvaro; Barrera, Ramiro; Ajler, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La foraminomotima cervical posterior es un procedimiento utilizado para la descompresion radicular por via posterior y constituye una alternativa a la via clásica anterior. En este trabajo evaluamos nuestra serie de pacientes tratados por esta via. Método: Desde enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2011, 17 pacientes (18 foraminotomías) fueron operados por presentar cervicobraquialgia a causa de un conflicto foraminal, realizando un foraminotomía cervical posterior. Los pacientes fueron evaluados en el postoperatorio inmediato, al mes y a los 3 meses de la cirugía. Los parámetros para valorar los resultados fueron la Escala Análoga del Dolor (VAS), la Neck Disability Index y los criterios de Odom. Resultados: El dolor radicular por conflicto foraminal secundario a hernia de disco cervical fue el síntoma y la patología predominante. El nivel más afectado fue C5-C6. La resolución completa del dolor radicular se observó en casi todos los pacientes. La VAS preoperatoria en promedio fue de 8.8 (mínimo 8 – máximo 10), con una franca mejoría en todos los casos (0.4 en el último control). La media en la Neck Disability Index al inicio fue de 35.3 (mínimo 32 – máximo 45), con una evolución favorable en la evaluación final (0.6). Los Criterios de Odom para la evaluación de pacientes operados de columna cervical fueron satisfactorios con un promedio de 1.17. Se observaron complicaciones en 4 pacientes (23%), todas tuvieron una evolución favorable. No hubo infecciones, discitis ni empeoramiento de los síntomas preexistentes en ningún paciente. Conclusión: La foraminotomía cervical posterior es un procedimiento efectivo para el tratamiento del dolor radicular en los conflictos foraminales PMID:23596556

  20. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents. PMID:26358160

  1. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  2. MAMA Dispersion Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-09-01

    Internal wavecals will be obtained at primary and secondary central wavelengths chosen to cover Cycle 17 use. There is also overlap with choices of configurations used with previous calibration programs which will enable long-term monitoring. This program uses the LINE lamp for a total of approximately 1.5 hours, typically at a lamp current of 10 mA.

  3. NUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly.. The pairs of exposures are linked so that they are taken about 6 hours apart in the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.

  4. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2012-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature. The frequency has been reduced from bi-weekly to once every six weeks to stay within a reasonable orbit count.

  5. MAMA Dispersion Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2012-10-01

    Internal wavecals will be obtained at primary and secondary central wavelengths chosen to cover Cycle 20 use. There is also overlap with choices of configurations used with previous calibration programs which will enable long-term monitoring. This program uses the LINE lamp for a total of approximately 1.5 hours, typically at a lamp current of 10 mA.

  6. MAMA Dispersion Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2011-10-01

    Internal wavecals will be obtained at primary and secondary central wavelengths chosen to cover Cycle 17 use. There is also overlap with choices of configurations used with previous calibration programs which will enable long-term monitoring. This program uses the LINE lamp for a total of approximately 1.5 hours, typically at a lamp current of 10 mA.

  7. NUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The basic monitor takes two 1300s TIME-TAG darks bi-weekly.. The pairs of exposures are linked so that they are taken about 6 hours apart in the same SAA free interval. This pairing of exposures will make it easier to separate long and short term temporal variability from temperature dependent changes.

  8. FUV MAMA Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The monitor takes six 1300s TIME-TAG darks every six weeks. The exposures are distributed over about six hours from initial turn-on to characterize the rate increase as a function of turn-on time and temperature.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children (CoTras-C) to examine cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation program for children with developmental disabilities. [Subjects] Subjects included 29 children with developmental disabilities. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental group or control group. Experimental group subjects received computer-based cognitive rehabilitation using the CoTras-C while control group subjects received conventional cognitive rehabilitation. All subjects received 20 sessions (2 days a week for 10 weeks) of the experimental or control intervention for 30 minutes. To compare the two groups, the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were performed before and after the intervention. [Results] Both groups showed statistically significant improvement in their scores after intervention. Additionally, there were significant differences in the scores between the two groups. [Conclusion] The computer-based cognitive rehabilitation with CoTras-C may be helpful in improving the recovery of cognitive function and visual perception in children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26834318

  10. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  11. Fumar durante el tratamiento de cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia de seguir fumando sobre el tratamiento del cáncer y el riesgo de segundos cánceres. Se mencionan las intervenciones que estimulan dejar el hábito de fumar.

  12. ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session. PMID:3654235

  13. Mama Software Features: Uncertainty Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-30

    This document reviews how the uncertainty in the calculations is being determined with test image data. The results of this testing give an ‘initial uncertainty’ number than can be used to estimate the ‘back end’ uncertainty in digital image quantification in images. Statisticians are refining these numbers as part of a UQ effort.

  14. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  15. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-21

    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.

  16. MAMA Software Features: Visual Examples of Quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Christy E.; Porter, Reid B.

    2014-05-20

    This document shows examples of the results from quantifying objects of certain sizes and types in the software. It is intended to give users a better feel for some of the quantification calculations, and, more importantly, to help users understand the challenges with using a small set of ‘shape’ quantification calculations for objects that can vary widely in shapes and features. We will add more examples to this in the coming year.

  17. "Mama Talking to Papa Under the Tree."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchue, Leah Gaskin

    Among blacks of low socioeconomic status, mothers have a particularly important role to play in determining the academic paths of their children in public schools. In research conducted by Dr. Virginia Shipman, key indices for minority student academic achievement have been shown to be (1) the extent of maternal encouragement and involvement with…

  18. "Mama" and "Papa" in Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruke-Dravina, Velta

    1976-01-01

    This case study of two Latvian children attempts to show how the parental terms for"mummy" and "daddy" in Latvian are acquired, paying particular attention to the changing relationship between the input and output forms during the acquisition process. (Author/RM)

  19. The Phonetics of "Cat" and "Mama."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labov, William; Labov, Teresa

    1978-01-01

    A detailed analysis of a six-month period in a child's acquisition of phonetic and phonological capacities indicates that the apparent plateau of the second year is a site of intensive language learning, which is not reflected in the growth of vocabulary or mean length of utterance. (Author/EJS)

  20. STIS MAMA Dispersion SolutionsMonitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2013-10-01

    Internal wavecals will be obtained at primary and secondary central wavelengths chosen to cover Cycle 21 use. There is also overlap with choices of configurations used with previous calibration programs which will enable long-term monitoring. This program uses the LINE lamp for a total of approximately 1.5 hours, typically at a lamp current of 10 mA.

  1. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

  2. Tratamiento Quirúrgico de los Meningiomas del Foramen Óptico, Técnicay Resultados de una Serie de 18 Pacientes

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Álvaro; Landriel, Federico; Sposito, Maximiliano; Carrizo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los meningiomas del foramen óptico producen un rápido deterioro de la función visual aún cuando su tamaño es pequeño, por eso su diagnóstico y manejo difiere del resto de los meningiomas clinoideos. El propósito de este estudio es presentar la técnica y los resultados de nuestro manejo quirúrgico de meningiomas foraminales (MF). Pacientes y Métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión de las historias clínicas de 47 pacientes con meningiomas primarios intraorbitarios. Se realizaron 52 cirugías en los pacientes con MF. Se empleó una craneotomía fronto-orbitaria, seguida de una descompresión extradural del canal óptico, resección del componente intraorbitario y exploración intradural del nervio óptico. Resultados: de los 12 pacientes con MF que presentaban la visión conservada, la agudeza visual fue preservada en 7 casos, mejoró en 2, y empeoró en 3. En 18 pacientes, el principal síntoma fue exoftalmos y en 35 pacientes ceguera unilateral. Ocurrieron 6 recurrencias, 2 a 10 años después de la resección quirúrgica. Cinco de ellos fueron reoperados. Se indicó radioterapia después de la recurrencia en 3 pacientes. Conclusión: el manejo de los MF continúa siendo controvertido y frecuentemente se propone un tratamiento conservador. Basados en nuestros hallazgos de frecuente extensión intracraneal, proponemos realizar una resección total o subtotal del tumor, preservando el nervio óptico en pacientes con visión prequirúrgica conservada. PMID:25165616

  3. OntoMama: An Ontology Applied to Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Melo, M T D; Gonçalves, V H L; Costa, H D R; Braga, D S; Gomide, L B; Alves, C S; Brasil, L M

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of building an ontology to assist medical students and professionals specialized in Oncology. The ontology allows the user to obtain knowledge more quickly and thus assist professionals in their decision-making. PMID:26262403

  4. Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycans that are highly abundant in and unique to human milk. Originally, HMOs were discovered as a prebiotic “bifidus factor” that serves as a metabolic substrate for desired bacteria and shapes an intestinal microbiota composition with health benefits for the breast-fed neonate. Today, HMOs are known to be more than just “food for bugs”. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that HMOs are antiadhesive antimicrobials that serve as soluble decoy receptors, prevent pathogen attachment to infant mucosal surfaces and lower the risk for viral, bacterial and protozoan parasite infections. In addition, HMOs may modulate epithelial and immune cell responses, reduce excessive mucosal leukocyte infiltration and activation, lower the risk for necrotizing enterocolitis and provide the infant with sialic acid as a potentially essential nutrient for brain development and cognition. Most data, however, stem from in vitro, ex vivo or animal studies and occasionally from association studies in mother–infant cohorts. Powered, randomized and controlled intervention studies will be needed to confirm relevance for human neonates. The first part of this review introduces the pioneers in HMO research, outlines HMO structural diversity and describes what is known about HMO biosynthesis in the mother's mammary gland and their metabolism in the breast-fed infant. The second part highlights the postulated beneficial effects of HMO for the breast-fed neonate, compares HMOs with oligosaccharides in the milk of other mammals and in infant formula and summarizes the current roadblocks and future opportunities for HMO research. PMID:22513036

  5. All God's Chillun Got a Mama and a Papa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Willard F.

    1972-01-01

    Describes alternate methods of schematically representing genetic lines of descent, and illustrates the different patterns obtained with random mating, line breeding, parthanogentic males, cloning, and grafting. (AL)

  6. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  7. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  8. Criptococosis cutánea primaria en paciente inmunocompetente.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Igor Vázquez; García-Rodiño, Sara; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Labandeira, Javier; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, MDolores; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    La criptococosis cutánea es una micosis propia de pacientes inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo aquellos con infección por el virusde la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Sin embargo, existen casos infrecuentes de criptococosis cutánea en pacientes inmunocompetentes, que suelen simular otras dermatosis, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón pluripatológico de 79 años, con úlceras dolorosas en dorso de mano derecha que no respondían a tratamientos tópicos. A través del estudio histopatológico y micológico se alcanzó el diagnóstico de criptococosis cutánea primaria, lográndose la remisión de las lesiones tras 6 meses de tratamiento con fluconazol. PMID:27617525

  9. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK IN THE US EPA MAMA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products including PVC, plastic toys, and medical devices. These products are widely used by the general population. Phthalates act as anti-androgens and in utero or perinatal exposure in laboratory animal models leads to ...

  10. Results of the Workshop on Microwave-Absorbing Materials for Accelerators (MAMA): A Personal View

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I E

    1993-04-01

    The first workshop on the properties and uses of special materials for absorption of microwaves in particle accelerators was held at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, February 22-24, 1993. The meeting's purpose was to review the advances of ceramic and materials science and to describe the accelerator projects the success of which strongly depends on the existence and availability of microwave-absorbing materials with special characteristics. Scientists from various branches of physics, materials science, microwave engineering, accelerator physics and from national and international laboratories, from universities and industries participated in this gathering. This interdisciplinary meeting brought new people and new ideas together which in the future will bloom into better understanding of general materials and of physical processes and eventually to collaborative efforts to design and produce custom made materials. This paper describes the major topics covered in the workshop and is a personal elaboration of the author on the future possibilities opened by this interaction.

  11. The children of mama coca: coca, cocaine and the fate of harm reduction in South America.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco I; Caiaffa, Waleska; Rossi, Diana; Vila, Marcelo; Malta, Monica

    2007-03-01

    The paper reviews the main findings from substance misuse research carried out over the last two decades in South America looking at the main initiatives aimed at reducing drug related harm and curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases. The current challenges faced by harm reduction in the region are analysed from the perspective of the history of coca and its different uses in South America. Except in Brazil and Argentina, the implementation of initiatives to reduce drug related harm in South America has been very cautious. The paper aims to link the analysis of harms associated with the use of illicit substances, with the often paradoxically harmful effects of supply-side drug policies in the world's largest coca/cocaine producing area. Despite the undeniable success of many initiatives, the broader context of harm maximization through structural violence and entrenched corruption acts as a major disincentive for the comprehensive adoption of sound public health policies. PMID:17689352

  12. The Day Mama Got Her Bonus. An Actions for Health Book. Contemporary Health Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ETR Associates, Santa Cruz, CA.

    This document contains a short fictional story about three brothers who must decide how to spend $200 after their mother receives an unexpected bonus. The boys in the story have a brainstorming session and seek advice from adults before reaching a compromise that is acceptable to all of them. Readers learn about compromise, money management, and…

  13. Life on the Net: Virtual Musings of a Middle-Aged Techno-Mama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Carol

    1996-01-01

    An Internet user talks about her experiences as a result of a graduate-level class, "Telecommunications in the Classroom," at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Discussion focuses on the Internet community and the various kinds of talk on the Internet, including bulletin boards, real time, creative, political, expert, international, and fun.…

  14. Moratorium-Achievement (Mama) Cycles in Lifespan Identity Development: Value Orientations and Reasoning System Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Joanne; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined significance of instrumental versus experiential orientation and of formistic versus dialectical thinking in identity research. Among 60 college students, those in identity status characterized by formation and maintenance of structure (Foreclosure) were instrumentally oriented whereas those characterized by openness to change and…

  15. Centroid position measurements and subpixel sensitivity variations with the MAMA detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Slater, D. C.; Timothy, John G.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1989-01-01

    Initial measurements of the position sensitivity of a visible-light multianode microchannel array detector show that centroid calculations for image spots are accurate to better than 0.04 pixels even with sources that are essentially delta functions at the photocathode.Subpixel sensitivity variations of 10-15 percent are typically found for pixels in the array. Variations as large as 30 percent are possible in the worst conditions. These variations limit the photometric accuracy of the detector when very small scale features are observed. The photometric accuracy and the position sensitivity of the detector appear to be limited by cross-coupling effects within the anode array. Initial measurements with more recent designs of the detector show that most or all of this cross-coupling has been eliminated.

  16. "Mama," Affection, and Migration: Recommended Books about Latinos for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books to teach children and adolescents about Latinos and the Latino culture. Topics of the books range from the spirit of the Latino folk arts to poetic expressions, migration stories, and insightful essays about Cuba under Castro. (SM)

  17. The Time-Dependent Sensitivity of the MAMA and CCD Long-Slit Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bostroem, Azalee; Oliveria, Cristina; Proffitt, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of observing flux standard stars used to determine trends in the sensitivities of the five STIS low-resolution, long-slit gratings between 1997 and 2013. Also, the assumption that the sensitivity trends for the medium-resolution and echelle gratings are the same as those for the corresponding low-resolution gratings is tested.

  18. Does Mama Bear Always Serve the Porridge? Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Reading Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Margaret E.; Deffenbaugh, Sue

    Sex role stereotyping is the process by which people are defined by their sex rather than by their thoughts, feelings, interests, and abilities. It is the portrayal of people in typical situations as determined by their sex and does not allow either males or females to express the totality of their humanity. This paper discusses the problem of sex…

  19. Jesus, Mama, and the constraints on salvific love in contemporary country music .

    PubMed

    Grossman, M L

    2002-01-01

    The discourse of contemporary country music creates a world permeated with religion and centered on the notion of salvific love. This form of salvation arises in the connection between people (or between people and God) and includes elements of sacrifice and transformation. Although highly conventional, country music must meet standards of 'authenticity' and 'relevance', which require the incorporation of contemporary American religious values (including self-love and self-actualization). An analysis of recent country music lyrics reveals the remarkable openness to new religious messages. However, the only acceptable messages are those that can be harmonized with the implicit Protestant Christian sensibility of the music. Salvific love, for this reason, is always heterosexual and at least compatible with a Christian message. While the music industry does its best to erase minority sexualities, the music itself is often surprisingly open to a queer interpretation. PMID:20681105

  20. Como Lo Hago Yo: Tratamiento Quirurgico Del Mielomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    En Argentina hay plan de fortificación con ácido fólico. Diagnostico prenatal no siempre es correcto. Cierre según técnica. Cerramos músculo. No favorecemos corpectomía temprana en casos de cifosis. Suturamos la plaqueta. Cerramos el plano muscular. Hidrocefalia: Válvula de derivación, generalmente dentro de los dos primeros meses. Ventriculostomía no está indicada. Chiari II. Laminectomia cervical alta. Siringomielia: Derivación desde la cavidad al peritoneo. PMID:24791219

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    La obesidad es una enfermedad muy prevalente con múltiples complicaciones crónicas que se reducen o desaparecen tras pérdidas pequeñas (5-10%) pero mantenidas de peso. Sin embargo, mantener la pérdida de peso tras el tratamiento es muy difícil, siendo uno de los mayores retos en el control de esta enfermedad. Aunque las razones que contribuyen a recuperar el peso perdido son de diversa índole, relacionadas con la respuesta biológica a la restricción calórica y con la pérdida de adherencia al tratamiento, hasta un 20% de los pacientes son capaces de mantenerlo. Las claves del éxito están relacionadas con el mantenimiento de los hábitos de vida saludable, el ejercicio físico y una ingesta calórica razonable que permita realizar una vida normal, sin pérdida de vida social. En este sentido, aprender a distinguir las opciones de comida y bebida en una sociedad donde la vida social gira en torno a la mesa en muchas ocasiones es muy importante. Revisamos en este artículo las claves para mantener el peso tras una dieta, así como el papel de las bebidas fermentadas, en especial, la cerveza, en este proceso. En conclusión, mantener el peso perdido es más difícil que perderlo. El consumo leve-moderado de bebidas fermentadas como la cerveza no se asocia con incremento del peso. PMID:27571862

  2. Eight New Genomes and Synthetic Controls Increase the Accessibility of Rapid Melt-MAMA SNP Typing of Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    Byström, Mona; Forsman, Mats; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Janse, Ingmar; Larsson, Pär; Lindgren, Petter; Öhrman, Caroline; van Rotterdam, Bart; Sjödin, Andreas; Myrtennäs, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The case rate of Q fever in Europe has increased dramatically in recent years, mainly because of an epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Consequently, there is a need for more extensive genetic characterization of the disease agent Coxiella burnetii in order to better understand the epidemiology and spread of this disease. Genome reference data are essential for this purpose, but only thirteen genome sequences are currently available. Current methods for typing C. burnetii are criticized for having problems in comparing results across laboratories, require the use of genomic control DNA, and/or rely on markers in highly variable regions. We developed in this work a method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing of C. burnetii isolates and tissue samples based on new assays targeting ten phylogenetically stable synonymous canonical SNPs (canSNPs). These canSNPs represent previously known phylogenetic branches and were here identified from sequence comparisons of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes, eight of which were sequenced in this work. Importantly, synthetic control templates were developed, to make the method useful to laboratories lacking genomic control DNA. An analysis of twenty-one C. burnetii genomes confirmed that the species exhibits high sequence identity. Most of its SNPs (7,493/7,559 shared by >1 genome) follow a clonal inheritance pattern and are therefore stable phylogenetic typing markers. The assays were validated using twenty-six genetically diverse C. burnetii isolates and three tissue samples from small ruminants infected during the epidemic in the Netherlands. Each sample was assigned to a clade. Synthetic controls (vector and PCR amplified) gave identical results compared to the corresponding genomic controls and are viable alternatives to genomic DNA. The results from the described method indicate that it could be useful for cheap and rapid disease source tracking at non-specialized laboratories, which requires accurate genotyping, assay accessibility and inter-laboratory comparisons. PMID:24465554

  3. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  4. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hosptal

    PubMed Central

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management .The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014 .The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused group discussion. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 18.0. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed to determine significant associations. The study established that sex, age, level of education and adolescent awareness about existence of friendly health services offered were significantly associated with utilization at p<0.05. Long queues, unfavorable working hours and lack of money negatively affected consumption of AFHS.The study concluded that the utilization of health services among the adolescents was low largely due to unfriendliness of the health care providers at health facilities and lack of awareness of AFHS services. In view of the findings, this study recommends need for the Government through the Ministry of Health and partners in health service provision to increase the number of AFHS and ensure that the recommendations of Adolescent Package of care is implemented fully with good evaluation strategies in place. Laborious awareness drives to sensitize the adolescents about the available services through rigorous health education and increased involvement of both parents/guardians and teachers to scale up implementation are also recommended. PMID:26153176

  5. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital.

    PubMed

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M

    2015-11-01

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused group discussion. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 18.0. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were performed to determine significant associations. The study established that sex, age, level of education and adolescent awareness about existence of friendly health services offered were significantly associated with utilization at p<0.05. Long queues, unfavorable working hours and lack of money negatively affected consumption of AFHS. The study concluded that the utilization of health services among the adolescents was low largely due to unfriendliness of the health care providers at health facilities and lack of awareness of AFHS services. In view of the findings, this study recommends need for the Government through the Ministry of Health and partners in health service provision to increase the number of AFHS and ensure that the recommendations of Adolescent Package of care is implemented fully with good evaluation strategies in place. Laborious awareness drives to sensitize the adolescents about the available services through rigorous health education and increased involvement of both parents/guardians and teachers to scale up implementation are also recommended. PMID:26153176

  6. Recovering from "Yo Mama Is so Stupid": (En)gendering a Critical Paradigm on Black Feminist Theory and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the dozens using Black feminist theory. The dozens are a ritualized verbal game of insults that historically have used sexual offenses against Black women as the vehicle for insults. Rather than simply viewing the dozens as a cultural phenomenon, the article draws a connection between its occurrence in West…

  7. Dear Mama: Why Don't They Love Me Anymore? NCME Measurement in Education, Vol. 6, No. 4, Fall 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbon, Thomas J.

    In this speech given at the 1976 annual breakfast of the National Council on Measurement in Education Dr. Thomas J. Fitzgibbon, outgoing president of NCME, responds to critics of standardized testing and outlines the correct uses for it. He believes that many criticisms of standardized testing are due to misunderstanding or a lack of information.…

  8. And My Mama Said...: The (Relative) Parental Influence on Fear of Crime among Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groof, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to examine the predictors of fear of crime among adults, but feelings of insecurity among children and adolescents have been practically ignored. The aim of this study is to search for relevant determinants of fear of crime in a representative sample of 1,212 Flemish (Belgian) adolescents, age 14 to 18, and one of…

  9. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Multiple Functions of Agro-Ecosystems: A Case Study of Tras-os-Montes Olive Groves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleskens, Luuk; Duarte, Filomena; Eicher, Irmgard

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctionality in agriculture has received a lot of attention the last decade from researchers and policy-makers alike, perhaps most notably evidenced by the important changes made to the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. While the concept has been embraced by environmentalists envisioning positive impulses for decoupling and a range of local…

  10. Health Information in Swahili (Kiswahili): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mother-to-Child - English Kuzuia Kuenea kwa VVU – Mama-hadi-Mtoto - Kiswahili (Swahili) PDF Healthy Roads Media ... Mother-to-Child - English Kuzuia Kuenea kwa VVU – Mama-hadi-Mtoto - Kiswahili (Swahili) Multimedia Healthy Roads Media ...

  11. Performance characteristics of multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The multi-anode microchannel arrays (MAMAs) are state-of-the-art, pulse-counting, photoelectric array detectors designed specifically for use in space astrophysics instruments. The present paper provides a description of recent progress related to the development of ultraviolet and visible-light versions of the MAMA detectors, taking into account a comparison of the operating characteristics of these devices with those of photoconductive array detectors, such as the CCDs. Attention is given to MAMA detector system design parameters, the operating characteristics of MAMAs and CCDs, MAMA performance characteristics, and future developments.

  12. Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in African American youth and psychosocial barriers to participation in depression research and treatment. Findings indicate that success in recruiting and retaining African American youth in depression research and treatment may include using innovative means to overcome the culturally embedded attributions of depression to non-biological causes, beliefs about the cultural insensitivity of treatments and challenges in the logistics of obtaining care. Adults report that encouraging youth and familial involvement in treatments and research should include targeted, community-partnered activities involving diverse staff in leadership roles and including community members as equal partners. PMID:21512751

  13. Recruiting--Why Publication Staffs Are Like a Box of Chocolates (and Other Things You Wish Your Mama Had Told You).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1995-01-01

    Provides ideas on how to improve the staff of a student newspaper and the newspaper's quality: cover the newspaper as a beat like any other organization at school; be enthusiastic in news coverage; form mutual support networks among the student staff; recruit a variety of student reporters; and recruit student specialists, such as graphic…

  14. Brominated flame retardant levels in human milk and serum from MAMA study participants: Correlations over time, matrix, and with questionnaire results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic, lipophilic, and bioaccumulative compounds used to prevent the combustion of a variety of items including electronics and furniture. There are 75 classes of BFRs, two of which are the polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and the polybrom...

  15. Tratamiento del cáncer sin daño al corazón

    Cancer.gov

    Investigadores de los campos de oncología y de cardiología están trabajando para encontrar formas de impedir, manejar y posiblemente aun revertir los efectos secundarios cardiovasculares de ciertas terapias del cáncer.

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Pomar, María D; Suárez Gutiérrez, Alfonso; Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Otero Redondo, Concepción; Herrero Moratiel, Manuel; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Burón Llamazares, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) afecta al menos a una cuarta parte de los pacientes hospitalizados, aumentando la morbimortalidad del paciente durante su hospitalización y al alta. Sin embargo, su repercusión en la actividad hospitalaria no está bien cuantificada.Objetivo: determinar el impacto de una adecuada codificación de la DRE y los procedimientos empleados para revertirla en el peso medio del hospital y otros índices hospitalarios.Material y métodos: estudio comparativo realizado en todos los pacientes subsidiarios de soporte nutricional artificial seguidos por la Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y Dietética de la Sección de Endocrinología y Nutrición (UNCyD-SEyN) del Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León durante los años 2008 y 2013. Se realizó un informe de codificación nutricional del diagnóstico, el tratamiento nutricional y la vía de acceso según la CIE-9-MC. Se comparó el peso medio depurado del hospital, el índice de estancia media ajustada (IEMA), la casuística e índice de funcionamiento previo a la codificación nutricional y tras la misma.Resultados: el peso medio depurado del hospital se incrementó tras la codificación, tanto en 2008 (+ 4,1%) como en 2013 (+1,7%) y especialmente en aquellos servicios en los que se realiza cribado nutricional (Hematología, +10,5%). El IEMA se redujo por debajo de 1 (-5,7% y -0,2% en 2008 y 2013), indicando un mejor funcionamiento, y también disminuyó el índice funcional (-5,6% y -0,4% en 2008 y 2013), lo que supondría una mayor eficiencia.Conclusión: la correcta codificación del diagnóstico y el tratamiento nutricional del paciente con desnutrición aumenta el peso medio depurado de un hospital de tercer nivel, y mejora el IEMA y el índice de funcionamiento. PMID:27019251

  17. Rhemium-186-monoaminemonoamidedithiol-conjugated bisphosphonate derivatives for bone pain palliation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Mukai, Takahiro; Arano, Yasushi; Otaka, Akira; Ueda, Masashi; Uehara, Tomoya; Magata, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saji, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    To develop a radiopharmaceutical for the palliation of painful bone metastases based on the concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we synthesized a bisphosphonate derivative labeled with rhenium-186 (186Re) that contains a hydroxyl group at the central carbon of its bisphosphonate structure, we attached a stable 186Re-MAMA chelate to the amino group of a 4-amino butylidene-bisphosphonate derivative [N-[2-[[4-[(4-hydroxy-4,4-diphosphonobutyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl]-2-thioethylamino]acetyl]-2-aminoethanethiolate] oxorhenium (V) (186Re-MAMA-HBP) and we investigated the effect of a hydroxyl group at the central carbon of its bisphosphonate structure on affinity for hydroxyapatite and on biodistribution by conducting a comparative study with [N-[2-[[3-(3,3-diphosphonopropylcarbamoyl)propyl]-2-thioethylamino]acetyl]-2-aminoethanethiolate] oxorhenium (V) (186Re-MAMA-BP). The precursor of 186Re-MAMA-HBP, trityl (Tr)-MAMA-HBP, was obtained by coupling a Tr-MAMA derivative to 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate. 186Re-MAMA-HBP was prepared by a reaction with 186ReO(4-) and SnCl2 in citrate buffer after the deprotection of the Tr groups of Tr-MAMA-HBP. After reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, 186Re-MAMA-HBP had a radiochemical purity of over 95%. Compared with 186Re-MAMA-BP, 186Re-MAMA-HBP showed a greater affinity for hydroxyapatite beads in vitro and accumulated a significantly higher level in the femur in vivo. Thus, the introduction of a hydroxyl group into 186Re complex-conjugated bisphosphonates would be effective in enhancing accumulation in bones. These findings provide useful information on the design of bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:16720243

  18. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  19. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religión en las personas que tienen cáncer. Se discuten varios métodos sobre manejo e intervención.

  20. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  1. La espiritualidad en el tratamiento del cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la influencia que tiene la espiritualidad y la religión en las personas que tienen cáncer. Se discuten varios métodos sobre manejo e intervención.

  2. Analysis of HCV resistance mutations during combination therapy with protease inhibitor boceprevir and PEG-IFN alpha-2b using TaqMan mismatch amplification mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Curry, Stephanie; Qiu, Ping; Tong, Xiao

    2008-11-01

    TaqMan Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (TaqMAMA) is a highly sensitive allelic discrimination method. The mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) is based on preferential amplification of mutant allele by the 'MAMA' primer, which is designed to have two mismatches with the wild-type allele and only one mismatch with the mutant allele. In this report, the TaqMAMA method was adapted for the detection and quantitation of minor HCV variants resistant to the protease inhibitor boceprevir (SCH 503034) from clinical samples. A good correlation of mutant frequency was observed between TaqMAMA and the results of clonal sequencing. TaqMAMA detected consistently minor variants at a level as low as 0.1%. Using TaqMAMA, it was demonstrated that resistant variants existed in the viral population before boceprevir treatment. The frequency of two resistant mutants (T54A and V170A) increased significantly during treatment with boceprevir, but was suppressed by combination treatment of PEG-IFN alpha-2b and boceprevir. The prevalence of both mutants decreased at the end of the two-week follow-up period. These results show that TaqMAMA can be used to detect minor resistant variants in pretreatment samples and to study in detail the evolution of mutant viruses during targeted antiviral therapy. PMID:18755220

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Valle, Ana; Navarro-Ferrando, María Ángeles; Boj-Carceller, Diana; Escanero-Marcén, Jesús Fernando; Sanz-Paris, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: poco se conoce sobre el impacto de orlistat en el sistema leptina. Estudiamos la respuesta de la leptina plasmática y la sensación de saciedad tras dos días de tratamiento con orlistat sin dieta hipocalórica ni pérdida de peso. Material y métodos: reclutamos veinte mujeres obesas en nuestras consultas externas de medicina. Habían recibido restricción dietética y modificación del estilo de vida, pero se habían mantenido obesas con peso corporal estable durante seis meses antes de su inclusión en el estudio. Resultados: las pacientes tomaron 120 mg de orlistat 3 veces al día y mantuvieron su dieta habitual. Al inicio y dos días después del tratamiento con orlistat se repitieron el examen físico, la sensación de hambre y la analítica. No hubo diferencias significativas en el consumo de energía de la dieta, el peso corporal y la relación cintura-cadera, así como en glucosa sérica, insulina y péptido C. Solamente las concentraciones de leptina y triglicéridos en suero disminuyeron (p: 0,0001 y 0,01, respectivamente). La disminución de la concentración de leptina en suero se correlacionó positivamente con cambios en la concentración de triglicéridos (p: 0.01, r2: 0,45). La sensación de hambre aumento antes de la cena y se correlacionó negativamente con la disminución de la leptina (p: 0,0001, r2: 0,74) y triglicéridos (p: 0,02, r2: 0.59). Conclusión: estos datos sugieren que la malabsorción parcial de grasas por el tratamiento con orlistat disminuye rápidamente los niveles plasmáticos de triglicéridos y leptina. Este descenso se asoció con aumento del apetito antes de la ingesta que sigue a la comida principal del día. PMID:27238788

  4. Kathy Talks with Other Mothers about Breastfeeding an Older Baby. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Habla con Otras Mamas sobre el Amamantar a un Bebe Mayorcito. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. The book explains that a 1- or 2-year old breastfed baby is comforted by breastfeeding, breast milk continues to have nutritional value (even if the mother becomes pregnant), and that…

  5. High-resolution pulse-counting array detectors for imaging and spectroscopy at ultraviolet wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn; Bybee, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance characteristics of multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems which have formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels and which have application to imaging and spectroscopy at UV wavelengths are evaluated. Sealed and open-structure MAMA detector tubes with opaque CsI photocathodes can determine the arrival time of the detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. Very large format MAMA detectors with CsI and Cs2Te photocathodes and active areas of 52 x 52 mm (2048 x 2048 pixels) will be used as the UV solar blind detectors for the NASA STIS.

  6. Multi-anode microchannel arrays. [for use in ground-based and spaceborne telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Mount, G. H.; Bybee, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMA's) are a family of photoelectric, photon-counting array detectors being developed for use in instruments on both ground-based and space-borne telescopes. These detectors combine high sensitivity and photometric stability with a high-resolution imaging capability. MAMA detectors can be operated in a windowless configuration at extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths or in a sealed configuration at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. Prototype MAMA detectors with up to 512 x 512 pixels are now being tested in the laboratory and telescope operation of a simple (10 x 10)-pixel visible-light detector has been initiated. The construction and modes-of-operation of the MAMA detectors are briefly described and performance data are presented.

  7. Detector arrays for photometric measurements at soft X-ray, ultraviolet and visible wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Mount, G. H.; Bybee, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The construction and modes of operation of the Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detectors are described, and the designs of spectrometers utilizing them are outlined. MAMA consists of a curved microchannel array plate, an opaque photocathode (peak quantum efficiency of 19% at 1216 A), and a multi-anode (either discrete- or coincidence-anode) readout array. Designed for use in instruments on spaceborne telescopes, MAMA can be operated in a windowless configuration in extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths, or in a sealed configuration at UV and visible wavelengths. Advantages of MAMA include low applied potential (less than 3.0 kV), high gain (greater than 10 to the 6th electrons/pulse), low sensitivity to high-energy charged particles, and immunity to external magnetic fields of less than 500 Gauss

  8. Multianode microchannel array detectors for Space Shuttle imaging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs) are a family of photoelectric, photoncounting array detectors that have been developed and qualified specifically for use in space. MAMA detectors with formats as large as 256 x 1024 pixels are now in use or under construction for a variety of imaging and tracking applications. These photo-emissive detectors can be operated in a windowless configuration at extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths or in a sealed configuration at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. The construction and modes-of-operation of the MAMA detectors are briefly described and the scientific objectives of a number of sounding rocket and Space Shuttle instruments utilizing these detectors are outlined. Performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors that are of fundamental importance for operation in the Space Shuttle environment are described and compared with those of the photo-conductive array detectors such as the CCDs and CIDs.

  9. Los pronombres de cortesia: su tratamiento en espanol y en otros idiomas, El adverbio (Pronouns of Courtesy: Their Treatment in Spanish and Other Languages, the Adverbs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1973-01-01

    Compares use of pronouns and adverbs in Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, English, German, Rumanian, and Slavic languages. Excerpted from the book Fisonomia del y de las lenguas modernas'' ( Features of Modern Languages''). (DS)

  10. Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras [Tratamientos de la superficie de rodadura para reducir la erosion en caminos forestales en Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera, Samuel; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2009-01-01

    Testing road surface treatments to reduce erosion in forest roads in Honduras. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(3):425-432. Using forest roads produces more erosion and sedimentation than any other forest or agricultural activity. This study evaluated soil losses from a forest road in central Honduras over two consecutive years. We divided a 400-m segment of road into 8 experimental units, each 50 m in length. Four units were treated with Best Management Practices (BMPs) and four were left untreated. The BMP treatments included reshaping the road prism, installing culverts and reshaping of road ditches, compacting 20-cm layers of the road tread, crowning the road surface (3% slope, double drainage), longitudinal sloping (less than 12%), and adding a 10-cm layer of gravel (crush size = 0.63 cm). Soil movement was measured daily during the rainy seasons. The highest soil loss occurred in the control road, around 500 m3 km-1 per year, while the road treated with BMP lost approximately 225 m3km-1 per year. These results show that road surface erosion can be reduced up to 50% with the implementation of surface treatments.

  11. Study of urinary 2-{[2-(acetylamino-2-carboxyethyl]sulfanyl}butanedioic acid, a mercapturic acid of rats treated with maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu-Syuan; Tsai, Hsin-Yun; Chen, Hsin-Chang; Wu, Charlene; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2015-08-01

    Maleic anhydride was reported illegally adulterated into starch to prepare traditional foods for decades in Taiwan. Maleic acid (MA), hydrolyzed from maleic anhydride, could cause kidney damages to animals. The potential health effects due to long-term MA exposures through food consumption have been of great concerns. Assessment of the dietary MA exposures could be very difficult and complicated. One of the alternatives is to analyze an MA-specific biomarker to assess the daily total MA intake. Therefore, this paper aimed to study the mercapturic acid of MA, 2-{[2-(acetylamino)-2-carboxyethyl]sulfanyl}butanedioic acid (MAMA), with our newly-developed isotope-dilution online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-SPE-LC-MS/MS) method. MAMA was first synthesized, purified, and characterized with NMR to reveal two diastereomers and used for developing the analytical method. The method was validated to reveal excellent sensitivity with a LOD at 16.3ng/mL and a LOQ at 20.6ng/mL and used to analyze MAMA in urine samples collected from Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a single dose of 0mg/kg, 6mg/kg, and 60mg/kg (n=5) of MA through gavage. Our results show dose-dependent increases in urinary MAMA contents, and 70% MAMA was excreted within 12h with no gender differences (p>0.05). A half life of urinary MAMA was estimated at 6.8h for rat. The formation of urinary MAMA validates it as a chemically-specific biomarker for current MA exposure. Future study of MA metabolism in vivo will elucidate mechanisms of MAMA formation, and analysis of this marker in epidemiology studies could help to shed light on the causal effects of MA on human. PMID:25997398

  12. Rapid, Simple and Cost-Effective Molecular Method to Differentiate the Temperature Sensitive (ts+) MS-H Vaccine Strain and Wild-Type Mycoplasma synoviae Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Pásztor, Alexandra; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Povazsán, János; Kőrösi, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens and turkeys can cause respiratory disease, infectious synovitis and eggshell apex abnormality; thus it is an economically important pathogen. Control of M. synoviae infection comprises eradication, medication or vaccination. The differentiation of the temperature sensitive (ts+) MS-H vaccine strain from field isolates is crucial during vaccination programs. Melt-curve and agarose gel based mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) are provided in the present study to distinguish between the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain, its non-temperature sensitive re-isolates and wild-type M. synoviae isolates based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms at nt367 and nt629 of the obg gene. The two melt-MAMAs and the two agarose-MAMAs clearly distinguish the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain genotype from its non-temperature sensitive re-isolate genotype and wild-type M. synoviae isolate genotype, and no cross-reactions with other Mycoplasma species infecting birds occur. The sensitivity of the melt-MAMAs and agarose-MAMAs was 103 and 104 copy numbers, respectively. The assays can be performed directly on clinical samples and they can be run simultaneously at the same annealing temperature. The assays can be performed in laboratories with limited facilities, using basic real-time PCR machine or conventional thermocycler coupled with agarose gel electrophoresis. The advantages of the described assays compared with previously used methods are simplicity, sufficient sensitivity, time and cost effectiveness and specificity. PMID:26207635

  13. Rapid, Simple and Cost-Effective Molecular Method to Differentiate the Temperature Sensitive (ts+) MS-H Vaccine Strain and Wild-Type Mycoplasma synoviae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Pásztor, Alexandra; Erdélyi, Károly; Felde, Orsolya; Povazsán, János; Kőrösi, László; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens and turkeys can cause respiratory disease, infectious synovitis and eggshell apex abnormality; thus it is an economically important pathogen. Control of M. synoviae infection comprises eradication, medication or vaccination. The differentiation of the temperature sensitive (ts+) MS-H vaccine strain from field isolates is crucial during vaccination programs. Melt-curve and agarose gel based mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) are provided in the present study to distinguish between the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain, its non-temperature sensitive re-isolates and wild-type M. synoviae isolates based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms at nt367 and nt629 of the obg gene. The two melt-MAMAs and the two agarose-MAMAs clearly distinguish the ts+ MS-H vaccine strain genotype from its non-temperature sensitive re-isolate genotype and wild-type M. synoviae isolate genotype, and no cross-reactions with other Mycoplasma species infecting birds occur. The sensitivity of the melt-MAMAs and agarose-MAMAs was 103 and 104 copy numbers, respectively. The assays can be performed directly on clinical samples and they can be run simultaneously at the same annealing temperature. The assays can be performed in laboratories with limited facilities, using basic real-time PCR machine or conventional thermocycler coupled with agarose gel electrophoresis. The advantages of the described assays compared with previously used methods are simplicity, sufficient sensitivity, time and cost effectiveness and specificity. PMID:26207635

  14. High-dynamic-range MCP structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the development of a new high-dynamic-range two-stage Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) imaging tube designed for improved high count rate performance at FUV and EUV wavelengths. The new two-stage MAMA tube employs two 25-mm-diameter format MCPs placed in tandem with a small gap between the plates. The front (input) MCP is designed to be a low-gain converter plate that supports an opaque photocathode and converts the detected photons to electrons, while the second (output) MCP is of higher conductivity and thus maintains the overall gain of the multiplier at high count rates. The second MCP is mounted in proximity focus with a (224 x 960)-pixel fine-fine coincidence MAMA array for high-spatial-resolution imaging studies. The applied voltage across each MCP can be controlled independently. We report on the gain and dynamic range performance characteristics of the two-stage MAMA tube in two different configurations: first, with the output MCP having moderate conductivity (about 100 MOhm); and second, with the output MCP having very high conductivity (about 2 MOhm). These results are compared and contrasted with those of the more conventional MAMA tube configuration which employs a single high-gain curved-channel MCP.

  15. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  16. Imaging pulse-counting detector systems for space ultraviolet astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    A family of imaging, pulse-counting, photoelectric detector systems, the Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs), are now under active development for use on a number of space ultraviolet astrophysics missions at far-ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths between about 300 and 28 nm. Specifically, MAMA detectors are being fabricated and tested for use in two instruments on the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission, for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, and for the prime FUV spectrograph of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer FUSE/Lyman mission. The construction and performance characteristics of the different MAMA detector systems are described, and techniques for improving the spatial resolution of each of the detector systems by the use of custom application specific integrated circuits in the electronics are discussed.

  17. Recent progress with multi-anode microchannel array detector systems. [for use in instruments on telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    The construction and modes of operation of Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMA's) are briefly reviewed. The MAMA detectors, which are a family of photoelectric, photon-counting array detectors being developed specifically for use in instruments on ground-based and space-borne telescopes, combine the high sensitivity and photometric stability of a conventional channel electron multiplier with a high-resolution imaging capability. The MAMA detectors feature low applied potential (less than 3 kV), high gain (greater than 10 to the 6th electrons/pulse), an absolute event timing accuracy of 100 ns or better, a very long count lifetime (greater than 2.5 x 10 to the 11th counts/sq mm), and a power consumption of less than 30 W for a complete system

  18. Determination of geometric distortion in STIS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malumuth, Eliot M.; Bowers, Charles W.

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on the characterization of the geometric distortion of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) and the STIS Far-Ultraviolet Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (FUV-MAMA) detectors when used in imaging mode. We find that the amount of the distortion is fairly small over most of the field. The maximum displacement is 1.66 pixels for the CCD and 2.71 pixels for the FUV-MAMA. This data also allows us to determine the plate scale for both cameras. For the CCD the scale is 0".05071 +/- 0".00007 /pixel. For the FUV-MAMA the scale is 0".02447 +/- 0".00001 /pixel in x and 0".02467 +/-0".00002 /pixel in y.

  19. High-resolution detectors for imaging and spectroscopy at ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Slater, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs) are a family of pulse-counting imaging array detectors designed specifically for astrophysical investigations in space. The MAMAs have a number of unique performance characteristics which make them particularly suitable for imaging and spectroscopy at ultraviolet and soft X-ray wavelengths. First, they employ 'solar blind' photocathodes eliminating the 'red leak' problem associated with solid state arrays such as the CCDs. Second, they operate with zero readout noise, yielding photon-statistics limited signals. Third, they utilize a random readout technique and can determine both the location of a detected photon and also its arrival time to an accuracy of the order of 100 ns. This paper gives an overview of the construction, mode of operation, and performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors and describes the current status of the development program.

  20. Photon-counting array detectors for space and ground-based studies at ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet /VUV/ wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAs) are a family of photoelectric photon-counting array detectors, with formats as large as (256 x 1024)-pixels that can be operated in a windowless configuration at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray wavelengths or in a sealed configuration at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. This paper describes the construction and modes of operation of (1 x 1024)-pixel and (24 x 1024)-pixel MAMA detector systems that are being built and qualified for use in sounding-rocket spectrometers for solar and stellar observations at wavelengths below 1300 A. The performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors at ultraviolet and VUV wavelengths are also described.

  1. Purification of the M. magneticum strain AMB-1 magnetosome associated protein MamADelta41.

    PubMed

    Zeytuni, Natalie; Zarivach, Raz

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria comprise a diverse group of aquatic microorganisms that are able to orientate themselves along geomagnetic fields. This behavior is believed to aid their search for suitable environments (1). This capability is conferred by the magnetosome, a subcellular organelle that consists of a linear-chain assembly of lipid vesicles each able to biomineralize and enclose a ~50-nm crystal of magnetite or greigite. A principle component of the magnetosome that was shown to be required for the formation of functional vesicles is MamA. MamA is a highly abundant magnetosome-associated protein which is one of the most characterized magnetosome-associated proteins in vivo (2-6). This article focuses on the purification of MamA, which despite being studied in vivo, no clear functional or structural details have been identified for it. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that MamA is a tetra-tricopeptide repeat (TPR) containing protein. TPR is a structural motif found as such or forming part of a bigger fold in a wide range of proteins, it serves as a template for protein-protein interactions and mediates multi-protein complexes (7). TPRs are involved in many crucial tasks in eukaryotic cell organelle processes and many bacterial pathways (8-14). In order to understand MamA, a unique TPR containing protein, highly purified protein is required as a first step. In this article, we present the purification protocol for a stable MamA deletion mutant (MamADelta41) from M. magneticum AMB-1. PMID:20339346

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy with the multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Joseph, C. L.; Wolf, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a series of high-resolution spectroscopic observations undertaken with a linear (1 x 1024)-pixel visible-light Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector on the Coudespectrograph of the 2.2-meter telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory and on the vacuum spectrograph of the McMath Solar telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory are described. In addition, the two-dimensional MAMA detector systems with (16 x 1024)-pixel, (24 x 1024)-pixel, and (256 x 1024)-pixel formats which are now being readied for use in a series of ground-based, balloon, and sounding-rocket observing programs are briefly described.

  3. Descompresión microvascular en espasmo hemifacial: Reporte de 13 casos y revisión de la literatura

    PubMed Central

    Campero, Alvaro; Herreros, Isabel Cuervo-Arango; Barrenechea, Ignacio; Andjel, Germán; Ajler, Pablo; Rhoton, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de espasmo hemifacial (EHF), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde Junio de 2005 a Mayo de 2014, 13 pacientes con diagnóstico de EHF fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente, realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la sintomatología, hallazgos intraoperatorios y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 13 pacientes intervenidos, 7 fueron mujeres y 6 varones. La media de edad fue de 53 años. El tiempo medio entre el inicio de la sintomatología y la intervención quirúrgica osciló entre 3 y 9 años. En todos los casos el EHF era típico, uno de ellos con neuralgia trigeminal concomitante, observándose en todos compresión neurovascular intraoperatoria. Por orden decreciente de frecuencia la causa de la compresión fue arteria cerebelosa anteroinferior, arteria cerebelosa posteroinferior, arteria dolicomega basilar y arteria dolicomega vertebral. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 24 meses. El 62% presentó desaparición postquirúrgica inmediata de la sintomatología preoperatoria, el 30% desaparición tras un período de 3 semanas a 2 meses (8% con mejoría parcial), y en el 8% no hubo mejoría. En cuanto a las complicaciones postoperatorias: 3 pacientes presentaron paresia facial II-III en la escala de House-Brackman (se recuperaron en un período de 6 meses), y 1 paciente presentó fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ninguno de los pacientes de la serie presentaron hipoacusia transitorio o permanente. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento del EHF es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro, que permite la resolución completa de la patología en la mayoría de los casos. PMID:27127708

  4. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  5. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  6. Minimum audible movement angle as a function of the azimuth and elevation of the source.

    PubMed

    Strybel, T Z; Manligas, C L; Perrott, D R

    1992-06-01

    In the future auditory directional cues may enhance situational awareness in cockpits with head-coupled displays. This benefit would depend, however, on the pilot's ability to detect the direction of moving sounds at different locations in space. The present investigation examined this ability. Auditory motion acuity was measured by the minimum audible movement angle (MAMA): the minimum angle of travel required for detection of the direction of sound movement. Five experienced listeners were instructed to indicate the direction of travel of a sound source (broadband noise at 50 dBA) that moved at a velocity of 20 deg/s. Nine azimuth positions were tested at 0 deg elevation. Five elevations were then tested at 0 deg azimuth. Finally two azimuth positions were tested at an elevation of 80 deg. The position of the source did not significantly affect the MAMA for azimuth locations between +40 and -40 deg and elevations below 80 deg. Within this area the MAMA ranged between 1 and 2 deg. Outside this area the MAMA increased to 3 to 10 deg. PMID:1634240

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (84th, Washington, DC, August 5-8, 2001). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society section of the proceedings contains the following selected 14 papers: "When No News Is Not Good News, Ignorance Is Not Bliss, and Your Mama May Not Have Told You: Female Adolescent Information Holding and Seeking about Sexually Transmitted Diseases" (Donna Rouner and Rebecca E. Lindsey); "Newspapers & the…

  8. Romans: A Simulation of the History and Culture of Ancient Rome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staneart, Chuck; Baral, Wanda

    This simulation allows students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of ancient Roman life that have influenced present institutions and way of life. The phases of the unit include: (1) "Daily Life"; (2) "Forum of Roma"; (3) "Temple of Apollo"; (4) "Pax Romana"; (5) "History/Mystery: 'Who Killed Mama Roma?'"; (6) "Circus Maximus"…

  9. Music Is Not Our Enemy, but Noise Should Be Regulated: Thoughts on Shooting/Conflicts Related to Dama Square Dance in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    While Dama square dance is gaining popularity in China, especially with middle-aged and older-adult women--hence the "Dama" (Chinese for "big mamas") moniker--there have been conflicts due to the loud music played for the activity. After a brief explanation of Dama square dance and a description of the context of the conflicts,…

  10. COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13129. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  11. Mobile Agents for Web-Based Systems Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellavista, Paolo; Corradi, Antonio; Tarantino, Fabio; Stefanelli, Cesare

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of mobile agent technology that overcomes the limits of traditional approaches to the management of global Web systems focuses on the MAMAS (mobile agents for the management of applications and systems) management environment that uses JAVA as its implementation language. Stresses security and interoperability. (Author/LRW)

  12. Very-large-format pulse-counting UV detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn

    1988-01-01

    Multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 2048 x 2048 pixels and pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 microns are being developed for use in the NASA Goddard Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. This paper describes the current state of development of these detector systems.

  13. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  14. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  15. A Family Involvement Model for Hearing-Impaired Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mary Trabue; Fischer, Rebecca M.

    1987-01-01

    The Mama Lere Parent-Infant Training Program (Nashville, Tennessee) which serves hearing- and speech-impaired children focuses on family involvement and an intervention plan which includes four service delivery components: facilitation of child communicative competence; educational advocacy and team decision making; information exchange; and…

  16. Women and Performance Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    The diversity of important work being done by women in many aspects of theatrical performance in the United States is illustrated in this journal issue. The nine articles provide discussions of the following: (1) women's careers, images, and movements in the American theatre; (2) the evolution of La Mama, an off-off-Broadway theatre group begun in…

  17. Perception of Syllable Stress in Esophageal Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher Niles; Morris, Hughlett L.

    1988-01-01

    Ten esophageal speakers and ten normal speakers produced repetitions of the disyllable /mama/ using five different conditions of syllable stress. Nine normal listeners judged both relative and absolute syllable stress. Reliable judgments were made of the syllable stress, and speakers were able to effect systematic changes in listener perceptions…

  18. DIALECT CHECKLIST - PACIFIC NORTHWEST. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL FOR ELEVENTH GRADE UNIT ON "LINGUISTIC GEOGRAPHY AND DIALECT."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    THE CHECKLIST WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY CHARACTERISTIC WORD USAGE IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO CIRCLE THE WORD IN A GROUP OF WORDS WHICH HE ORDINARILY USES TO DESIGNATE A SPECIFIC THING. FOR INSTANCE--SELF OVER FIREPLACE - MANTEL, MANTEL BOARD, MANTEL PIECE, SHELF, CHILDHOOD WORD FOR MOTHER - MA, MAMA, MOM, MOTHER, MOMMY. ONE…

  19. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  20. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  1. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  2. Homeschoolers on to College: What Research Shows Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    Experience and anecdotes have led many people to believe that homeschool parents were either move-to-the-country anarchist goat-herders, or right-wing Bible-thumpers, and their children were either mathematically-limited, due to Mama's fear of math, or child prodigies in rocket-science who were unthinkably socially hindered. Although one can find…

  3. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    centres de santé et les établissements gouvernementaux étaient les moins susceptibles de changer de traitement. Conclusions Les taux d’échecs immunologiques du traitement et les besoins non satisfaits pour le traitement de 2nde ligne sont élevés en Tanzanie. La surveillance virologique, au moins pour les personnes avec un échec immunologique de traitement, est nécessaire pour minimiser les passages inutiles au traitement de 2nde ligne. Les établissements de santé gouvernementaux de niveau inférieur ont besoin de plus de support pour réduire les taux d’échec de traitement et pour améliorer l'adoption de la thérapie de 2nde ligne afin de maintenir les avantages d'une couverture accrue. Objetivos Las tasas de fallo de la terapia de primera línea y los cambios a la terapia de segunda línea son indicadores claves para los programas nacionales de VIH. Hemos evaluado los fallos en el tratamiento inmunológico definidos según criterios de la OMS dentro del programa nacional para VIH en Tanzania. Métodos Hemos incluido adultos que iniciaban la terapia de primera línea entre el 2004-2011 con un conteo de CD4 antes de recibir el tratamiento, y tras ≥6 meses de seguimiento. Hemos evaluado los subíndices de riesgo del fallo inmunológico en el tratamiento, y el cambio subsecuente a la segunda línea de tratamiento, utilizando análisis de riesgo competitivo para explicar las muertes. Resultados De 121,308 adultos, un 7% experimentó fallo inmunológico, y un 2% murió sin observarse un fallo inmunológico en el tratamiento, a lo largo de una mediana de 1.7 años. La probabilidad acumulada a lo largo de seis años de fallo terapéutico inmunológico era del 19.0% (IC 95% 18.5, 19.7) y de muerte del 5.1% (4.8,5.4). Los vaticinadores de fallo terapéutico inmunológico incluían haber empezado el tratamiento un año antes (p<0.001), haberlo iniciado en centros de menor nivel (SHR=2.23 [2.03,2.45] para dispensarios versus hospitales), ser ombre (1.27 [1

  4. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  5. Relationships between plasma and erythrocyte Zn and maturation in adolescent males

    SciTech Connect

    Arquitt, A.B.; Hermann, J.R.; Stoecker, B.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty-three male volunteers between the ages of 10.6 and 14.3 yr were assessed for maturation and zinc status. The adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), used as a maturation indicator, was significantly correlated with height, weight, hemoglobin, and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA) as previously reported. Erythrocyte Zn (RBC-Zn) and plasma Zn were significantly correlated. When grouped by plasma Zn tertiles, significant differences were found for RBC-Zn and cholesterol between the highest and lowest groups. When subjects were grouped by RBC-Zn concentration, the lowest 10% of subjects had higher concentrations of DHEAS, lower plasma Zn , and were taller, heavier and had larger MAMA than the other group. In these subjects plasma and RBC-Zn concentrations were within normal limits. In this study RBC-Zn and plasma Zn were related to indicators of maturation.

  6. Imaging by time-tagging photons with the multi-anode microchannel array detector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Morgan, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The capability and initial use of the Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector in the time-tag mode is reported. The detector hardware currently in use consists of a visible-light detector tube with a semitransparent photocathode proximity-focused to a high-gain curved-channel microchannel plate MCP. The photoevents are detected by a (256 x 1024)-pixel coincidence-anode array with pixel dimensions of 25 x 25 microns connected to charge-sensitive amplifiers and event-detection circuitry. In the time-lag mode, the detector delivers the pixel address and the time of arrival for each detected photon to an accuracy of 10 microns. The maximum count rate is limited by the speed of data-acquisition hardware. The MAMA detector in the time-lag mode is currently being evaluated in programs of astrometry and speckle imaging.

  7. COS Side 2 NUV Detector Recovery After MEB Side Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacinski, John

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after a COS MEB side switch. The recovery procedure consists of two separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after a COS MEB side switch: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a series of dark exposures. Visit1 must be successfully completed before proceeding onto Visit 2. This proposal is model after cycle 20 13129 - COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous ShutdownIf the cause of the COS MEB side switch is the result of a NUV anomaly, replacing this proposal with the COS NUV Detector Recovery after Anomalous Shutdown procedure {cycle 20 proposal 13129} should be consider.

  8. The evaluation of a deformable diffraction grating for a stigmatic EUV spectroheliometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    A second toroidal replica grating was found to have an aspect ratio within 10% of the desire value. The aspect ratio of replica toroidal gratings is coming out somewhat low. Whether this is caused by some relaxation in the epoxy or some residual error in the setup when the replication is made from the deformable submaster grating will be determined. The first imaging tests at EUV wavelengths near 500 A were carried out. The initial results are most encouraging with blur sizes of the order of, or less than, 40 microns. Further focussing and additional photographic tests will be carried out, and preparations made for the first photoelectric measurements of the image quality using the (256 x 1024)-pixel MAMA detection system. The visible-light (256 x 1024)-pixel MAMA detector tube has completed initial evaluation.

  9. Sterically stabilized water based magnetic fluids: Synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Marinică, Oana; Socoliuc, Vlad; Bălăsoiu, Maria; Garamus, Vasil M.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic fluids (MFs), prepared by chemical co-precipitation followed by double layer steric and electrostatic (combined) stabilization of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water, are presented. Several combinations of surfactants with different chain lengths (lauric acid (LA), myristic acid (MA), oleic acid (OA) and dodecyl-benzene-sulphonic acid (DBS)) were used, such as LA+LA, MA+MA, LA+DBS, MA+DBS, OA+DBS, OA+OA and DBS+DBS. Static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, magnetic and magneto-rheological measurements revealed that MFs with MA+MA or LA+LA biocompatible double layer covered magnetite nanoparticles are the most stable colloidal systems among the investigated samples, and thus suitable for biomedical applications.

  10. A Christmas Book from 1875

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This is a story about a book that I found in my collection, its author, and the boy who owned it. The book is "The Boy's Playbook of Science", first published in 1860 by John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). On the flyleaf is written "Arthur G. Webster; Christmas/75; from Mama." Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923) was one of the founders of the American…

  11. La reconstrucción del seno después de una mastectomía

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la reconstrucción del seno (mama) después de una mastectomía. Contiene información sobre las opciones quirúrgicas, los cuidados de seguimiento y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de seno después de la reconstrucción.

  12. Spectroscopic Sensitivity Workout: First-order modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2001-07-01

    This program is the basic sensitivity measurement for all supported MAMA and CCD first-order spectroscopic modes. It is run once in Cycle 10. Sensitivity measurements are done for all supported tilts of the gratings, at a S/N suitable to any particular setting, in order to get all measurements done in a reasonable number of orbits but still get a very accurate sensitivity measurement. Data for the newly available "pseudo-apertures" near CCD row 900 are also taken.

  13. Post-SM4 Sensitivity Calibration of the STIS Echelle Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostroem, K. Azalee; Aloisi, A.; Bohlin, R.; Hodge, P.; Proffitt, C.

    2012-01-01

    On-orbit sensitivity curves for all echelle modes were derived for post - servicing mis- sion 4 data using observations of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Additionally, new echelle ripple tables and grating dependent bad pixel tables were created for the FUV and NUV MAMA. We review the procedures used to derive the adopted throughputs and implement them in the pipeline as well as the motivation for the modification of the additional reference files and pipeline procedures.

  14. Low complexity interference alignment algorithms for desired signal power maximization problem of MIMO channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cong; Yang, Yunchuan; Yuan, Yaxiang

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we investigate the interference alignment (IA) solution for a K-user MIMO interference channel. Proper users' precoders and decoders are designed through a desired signal power maximization model with IA conditions as constraints, which forms a complex matrix optimization problem. We propose two low complexity algorithms, both of which apply the Courant penalty function technique to combine the leakage interference and the desired signal power together as the new objective function. The first proposed algorithm is the modified alternating minimization algorithm (MAMA), where each subproblem has closed-form solution with an eigenvalue decomposition. To further reduce algorithm complexity, we propose a hybrid algorithm which consists of two parts. As the first part, the algorithm iterates with Householder transformation to preserve the orthogonality of precoders and decoders. In each iteration, the matrix optimization problem is considered in a sequence of 2D subspaces, which leads to one dimensional optimization subproblems. From any initial point, this algorithm obtains precoders and decoders with low leakage interference in short time. In the second part, to exploit the advantage of MAMA, it continues to iterate to perfectly align the interference from the output point of the first part. Analysis shows that in one iteration generally both proposed two algorithms have lower computational complexity than the existed maximum signal power (MSP) algorithm, and the hybrid algorithm enjoys lower complexity than MAMA. Simulations reveal that both proposed algorithms achieve similar performances as the MSP algorithm with less executing time, and show better performances than the existed alternating minimization algorithm in terms of sum rate. Besides, from the view of convergence rate, simulation results show that the MAMA enjoys fastest speed with respect to a certain sum rate value, while hybrid algorithm converges fastest to eliminate interference.

  15. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  16. Successful endovascular treatment of transplant intrarenal artery stenosis in renal transplant recipients: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Maria; Brountzos, Elias; Loukopoulos, Ioannis; Pomoni, Maria; Antypa, Eleni; Vougas, Vasileios; Drakopoulos, Spiros

    2015-06-24

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a relatively rare complication after renal transplantation. The site of the surgical anastomosis is most commonly involved, but sites both proximal and distal to the anastomosis may occur, as well. Angioplasty is the gold standard for the treatment of the stenosis, especially for intrarenal lesions. We report two cases of intrarenal TRAS and successful management with angioplasty without stent placement. Both patients were male, 44 and 55 years old respectively, and they presented with elevated blood pressure or serum creatinine within three months after transplantation. Subsequently, they have undergone angioplasty balloon dilatation with normalization of blood pressure and serum creatinine returning to baseline level. Percutaneous transluminal balloon renal angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of the intrarenal TRAS. PMID:26131408

  17. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  18. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience.

    PubMed

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-10-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt-Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  19. Successful technical and clinical outcome using a second generation balloon expandable coronary stent for transplant renal artery stenosis: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Salsamendi, Jason; Pereira, Keith; Baker, Reginald; Bhatia, Shivank S; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a vascular complication frequently seen because of increase in the number of renal transplantations. Early diagnosis and management is essential to optimize a proper graft function. Currently, the endovascular treatment of TRAS using angioplasty and/or stenting is considered the treatment of choice with the advantage that it does not preclude subsequent surgical correction. Treatment of TRAS with the use of stents, particularly in tortuous transplant renal anatomy presents a unique challenge to an interventional radiologist. In this study, we present three cases from our practice highlighting the use of a balloon-expandable Multi-Link RX Ultra coronary stent system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA) for treating high grade focal stenosis along very tortuous renal arterial segments. Cobalt–Chromium alloy stent scaffold provides excellent radial force, whereas the flexible stent design conforms to the vessel course allowing for optimal stent alignment. PMID:26629289

  20. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  1. A Large Gene Cluster Encoding Several Magnetosome Proteins Is Conserved in Different Species of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Karen; Wawer, Cathrin; Tebo, Bradley M.; Schüler, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    In magnetotactic bacteria, a number of specific proteins are associated with the magnetosome membrane (MM) and may have a crucial role in magnetite biomineralization. We have cloned and sequenced the genes of several of these polypeptides in the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense that could be assigned to two different genomic regions. Except for mamA, none of these genes have been previously reported to be related to magnetosome formation. Homologous genes were found in the genome sequences of M. magnetotacticum and magnetic coccus strain MC-1. The MM proteins identified display homology to tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (MamA), cation diffusion facilitators (MamB), and HtrA-like serine proteases (MamE) or bear no similarity to known proteins (MamC and MamD). A major gene cluster containing several magnetosome genes (including mamA and mamB) was found to be conserved in all three of the strains investigated. The mamAB cluster also contains additional genes that have no known homologs in any nonmagnetic organism, suggesting a specific role in magnetosome formation. PMID:11571158

  2. Imaging at soft X-ray wavelengths with high-gain microchannel plate detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn

    1986-01-01

    Multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 256 x 1024 pixels and active areas of 6 x 26 mm are now under evaluation at visible, UV and soft X-ray wavelengths. Very-large-format versions of the MAMA detectors with formats of 2048 x 2048 pixels and active areas of 52 x 52 mm are under development for use in the NASA Goddard Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Open-structure versions of these detectors with Cs I photocathodes can provide a high-resolution imaging capability at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths and can deliver a maximum count rate from each array in excess of 10 to the 6th counts/s. In addition, these detector systems have the unique capability to determine the arrival time of a detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. The construction, mode of operation, and performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors are described, and the program for the development of the very-large-format detectors is outlined.

  3. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ??s health after an anomalous shutdown: signal processing electronics check, slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, ramp-up to full operating voltage, and fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 18 proposal 12430.

  4. Support of the balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    A (256 x 1024)-pixel imaging ultraviolet Multi-mode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector system for flight was fabricated, evaluated, and environmentally tested for flight on the Balloon Borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph (BUSS). The goal of the program was to replace the existing SEC Vidicon with the pulse-counting MAMA detector in order to, first, improve the overall sensitivity of the BUSS telescope and spectrograph for observations of stars down to m sub v = 7 and fainter, and, second, to improve the spectral resolution and wavelength accuracy by eliminating the image drifts in the Vidicon caused by magnetic field effects. A sealed MAMA detector tube structure employing a remotely processed photocathode mounted on a window in proximity focus with the front face of the MCP was developed to avoid contamination produced by a noisy and unstable device. The configuration of the BUSS detector system in its flight ready configuration is shown. The quantum efficiency curve for the semi-transparent Cs2Te photocathode is also shown.

  5. COS NUV Detector Recovery After Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the NUV-MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMAâ_Ts health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high-voltage ramp-up, 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage, and 4} fold analysis test {See COS TIR 2010-01}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes almost the same steps as Cycle 19 proposal 12723. Adjustments were made the the Software Global Monitor {SGM} to account for an increase in the dark counts due to window glow and to align the SGM to previously obtained Fold Analysis event data.

  6. The development and test of multi-anode microchannel array detector systems. Part 2: Soft X-ray detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems with formats of 256 x 1024 pixels and active areas of 6 x 26 square mm are now under evaluation at visible, ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths. Very-large-format versions of the MAMA detectors with formats of 2048 x 2048 pixels and active areas of 52 x 52 square mm are under development for use in the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Open-structure versions of these detectors with CsI photocathodes can provide a high-resolution imaging capability at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray wavelengths and can deliver a maximum count rate from each array in excess of 1 million counts s-1. In addition, these detector systems have the unique capability to determine the arrival time of a detected photon to an accuracy of 100 ns or better. The construction, mode-of-operation and performance characteristics of the MAMA detectors are described and the program for the development of the very-large-format detectors is outlined.

  7. Performance of high resolution decoding with Multi-Anode Microchannel Array detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasle, David B.; Horch, Elliott P.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) is a microchannel plate based photon counting detector with applications in ground-based and space-based astronomy. The detector electronics decode the position of each photon event, and the decoding algorithm that associates a given event with the appropriate pixel is determined by the geometry of the anode array. The standard MAMA detector has a spatial resolution set by the anode array of 25 microns, but the MCP pore resolution exceeds this. The performance of a new algorithm that halves the pixel spacing and improves the pixel spatial resolution is described. The new algorithm does not degrade the pulse-pair resolution of the detector and does not require any modifications to the detector tube. Measurements of the detector's response demonstrate that high resolution decoding yields a 60 percent enhancement in spatial resolution. Measurements of the performance of the high resolution algorithm with a 14 micron MAMA detector are also described. The parameters that control high resolution performance are discussed. Results of the application of high resolution decoding to speckle interferometry are presented.

  8. El dolor y el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el cáncer.

  9. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  10. Cabozantinib y lenvatinib para cáncer renal

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog del NCI sobre la aprobación reciente de la FDA de cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) y de lenvatinib (Lenvima®) para el tratamiento de pacientes cuyo cáncer avanzado de riñón ha evolucionado después de tratamiento con terapias antiangiogénicas.

  11. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación a causa del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques del manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  12. Cáncer que regresa

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer puede regresar cuando el tratamiento no elimina o destruye por completo todas las células cancerosas. Aprenda acerca de los diferentes tipos de recurrencia -recidiva- y cómo se vuelve a asignar un estadio al cáncer y se da tratamiento.

  13. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer, como la náusea y el vómito.

  14. Cannabis y canabinoides (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre el uso del Cannabis y canabinoides para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios relacionados con el tratamiento del cáncer como la náusea y el vómito.

  15. Hacer frente - Supervivencia

    Cancer.gov

    Muchos supervivientes de cáncer dicen que cuando terminó el tratamiento, fue difícil ajustarse a una nueva forma de vida. Entérese de cómo ajustarse a nuevos sentimientos y problemas que aparecen después del tratamiento del cáncer.

  16. Efectos tardíos y el linfoma de Hodgkin en estadio inicial

    Cancer.gov

    Los pacientes con linfoma de Hodgkin en estadio inicial que recibieron varios fármacos de quimioterapia como único tratamiento, tenían más probabilidad de sobrevivir 12 años después que los pacientes que recibieron tratamiento que incluía radioterapia.

  17. El dolor y el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del dolor como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo y tratamiento del dolor relacionado con el cáncer.

  18. Faltar a sesiones de radioterapia aumenta el riesgo de que regrese el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Pacientes que faltan a sesiones de radioterapia durante el tratamiento del cáncer tienen un riesgo mayor de que regrese su enfermedad, aun cuando eventualmente completen su plan de tratamiento con radiación, según un nuevo estudio.

  19. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón de la piel) como complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento. Se consideran los abordajes de manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  20. Prurito (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del prurito (picazón en la piel) como complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se consideran los abordajes de manejo y tratamiento del prurito.

  1. Understanding and Facing Discipline-Related Challenges in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom at Public Schools (Comprensión y tratamiento de los retos asociados a la disciplina en el aula de lengua extranjera en escuelas públicas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero Corzo, Josefina; Ramírez Contreras, Odilia

    2011-01-01

    Complying with school regulations and teachers' instructions is a basic principle of an excellent class; both novice and experienced teachers face challenging situations when getting into real classrooms, especially those related to classroom management. There are various reasons that explain discipline problems in public schools, as well as…

  2. A new strategy and its effect on adherence to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few women in Uganda access intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Previous studies have shown that high costs, frequent stock-out of drugs, supplies and poor quality of care are the greatest hindrance for women to access health services. In order to increase adherence to IPTp, we conceptualised an intervention that offset delivery care costs through providing a mama kit, created awareness on health benefits of IPTp and built trust between the provider and the client. Methods The new strategy was conceived along four constructs namely: 1) creating awareness by training midwives to explain the benefits of SP and the importance of adhering to the two doses of SP as IPTp to all pregnant women who attended ANC and consented to the study. Midwives were trained for two days in customer care and to provide a friendly environment. The pregnant women were also informed of the benefits of attending ANC and delivering at health facilities. 2) Each woman was promised a mama kit during ANC; 3) trust was built by showing the mama kit to each woman and branding it with her name; 4) keeping the promise by providing the mama kit when women came to deliver. The strategy to increase adherence to two doses of SP and encourage women to deliver at health facilities was implemented at two health facilities in Mukono district (Kawolo hospital and Mukono health centre IV). The inclusion criteria were women who: i) consented to the study and ii) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. All pregnant women in the second trimester (4-6 months gestation) who attended ANC and consented to participate in the study were informed of the benefits of SP, the importance of delivering at health facilities, were advised to attend the scheduled visits, promised a mama kit and ensured the kit was available at delivery. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women adhering to a two dose SP regimen. Results A total of 2

  3. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  4. Analysis of processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Chester, T. J.; Benson, R.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J.; Gautier, T. N.; Gillett, F. C.; Helou, G.; Houck, J.; McCallon, H.

    The general characteristics of the catalogs of point and small extended sources and sky brightness images are described. The positional and photometric accuracy of the point sources are discussed. An overview of the results of associating TRAS sources with objects appearing in other catalogs is given.

  5. Satellite description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  6. Transracial Adoption: How It Is 17 Years Later. Family Life Project: A Longitudinal Adoption Study/Phase V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroegh, Karen S.

    In 1970, as part of an effort to meet the needs of black children waiting for adoption by two-parent black families, the Chicago (Illinois) Child Care Society launched a longitudinal study of the growth, development, and family life of transracial adoptees (TRAs), or black and mixed-race children adopted by white families, and inracial adoptees…

  7. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatments for Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2016-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired hemorrhagic condition characterized by the accelerated clearance of platelets caused by antiplatelet autoantibodies. A platelet count in peripheral blood <100 × 109/L is the most important criterion for the diagnosis of ITP. However, the platelet count is not the sole diagnostic criterion, and the diagnosis of ITP is dependent on additional findings. ITP can be classified into three types, namely, acute, subchronic, and persistent, based on disease duration. Conventional therapy includes corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, splenectomy, and watch-and-wait. Second-line treatments for ITP include immunosuppressive therapy [eg, anti-CD20 (rituximab)], with international guidelines, including rituximab as a second-line option. The most recently licensed drugs for ITP are the thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs), such as romiplostim and eltrombopag. TRAs are associated with increased platelet counts and reductions in the number of bleeding events. TRAs are usually considered safe, effective treatments for patients with chronic ITP at risk of bleeding after failure of first-line therapies. Due to the high costs of TRAs, however, it is unclear if patients prefer these agents. In addition, some new agents are under development now. This manuscript summarizes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ITP. The goal of all treatment strategies for ITP is to achieve a platelet count that is associated with adequate hemostasis, rather than a normal platelet count. The decision to treat should be based on the bleeding severity, bleeding risk, activity level, likely side effects of treatment, and patient preferences. PMID:27441004

  8. Transplant renal artery stenosis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kayler, Liise K; Zand, Martin S; Muttana, Renu; Chernyak, Victoria; DeBoccardo, Graciela O

    2015-02-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention. PMID:25713713

  9. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY HVI AND AFIS SPINNING RELATIONSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, there were 22,638,247 Upland cotton bales classed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). USDA-AMS uses the High Volume Instrument (HVI) to class all bales for fiber length, length uniformity, micronaire, strength, color (Rd and +b), tras...

  10. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  11. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  12. Tumores carcinoides gastrointestinales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor carcinoide gastrointestinal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  13. Carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de tumor primario desconocido, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Neoplasias mieloproliferativas y síndromes mielodisplásicos—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de las neoplasias mieloproliferativas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  15. Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2013-04-14

    The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0.05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets. PMID:22856533

  16. [Selenium status in population of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Golubkina, N A; Parfenova, E O; Reshetnik, L A

    1998-01-01

    The human selenium status in 10 locations of Irkutsk region (n = 216) is estimated using serum and hair selenium as biological markers. Extremely low serum selenium was typical for the inhabitants of Angara area (63-84 mcg/l). Hair selenium varied from 504 mcg/kg to 718 mcg/kg, the lowest values being found in Shelehov and Angarsk, the highest--in Karam and Mama. Low selenium concentrations were found also in the main food products: cereals--49-89 mcg/kg, meat--234-489 mcg/kg of dry weight, bread--106-180 mcg/kg of dry weight. PMID:9825469

  17. On-Orbit Performance of the COS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnow, David; McPhate, Jason; Ake, Thomas B.; Massa, Derck; Penton, Steven V.; Burgh, Eric; Zheng, Wei

    2010-07-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph includes two microchannel plate detectors. The FUV channel uses a two-segment cross delay line (XDL) device, while the the NUV channel uses a MAMA, similar to those used by other HST instruments. Since SM4, both detectors have been characterized in detail, using data collected as part of specific calibration programs and in the course of normal science observations. We will describe the on-orbit performance of both detectors since the installation of COS, and describe ongoing detector characterization work.

  18. Detectors for the space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  19. Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The modes of operation of position-sensitive electronic readout systems which use high-gain microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers are described, and their performance characteristics, along with those of the MCP, are compared. Among the structures presented are the wedge-and-strip, Codacon, and multilayer coincidence-anode MAMA (Multimode Microchannel Array) arrays. Spatial resolution of 25 x 25 sq microns (coincidence anode arrays) is achieved with an array format of 256 x 1024 pixels. On the basis of the performance data it is concluded that the readout systems using only conducting electrodes offer the best performance characteristics.

  20. The on-orbit performance of the STIS detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), successfully installed into the Hubble Space Telescope in February 1997, achieves its advances over the first-generation HST spectrographs primarily through the use of modern large-format, two-dimensional array detectors. The performance of the STIS detectors, two Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMAS) and one CCD, has been evaluated on-orbit as part of the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification (SMOV) program. All three detectors are functioning well. We report highlights of the results to date here.

  1. High resolution decoding techniques and single-chip decoders for multi-anode microchannel arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasle, David B.

    1989-01-01

    While the pixel size in a standard multianode microchannel array (MAMA) photon-counting detector is determined by the spacing of the anode array, the factor most fundamentally limiting pixel resolution is the spacing of the channels in the microchannel plate. Detector resolution can be improved by means of digitization followed by a centroiding procedure. The decoding hardware and the techniques for enhanced pixel resolution are presently discussed with a view to the factors of speed and complexity. A single-chip CMOS gate-array implementation of the decoder is devised and compared with existing multichip decoders' performance.

  2. Effects of 1-MeV gamma radiation on a multi-anode microchannel array detector tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Bybee, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A multianode microchannel array (MAMA) detector tube without a photocathode was exposed to a total dose of 1,000,000 rads of 1-MeV gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The high-voltage characteristic of the microchannel array plate, average dark count, gain, and resolution of pulse height distribution characteristics showed no degradation after this total dose. In fact, the degassing of the microchannels induced by the high radiation flux had the effect of cleaning up the array plate and improving its characteristics.

  3. Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penton, Steven V.; Sahnow, D.; France, K.

    2011-05-01

    The circular aperture of HSTs' Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is 2.5" in diameter, but transmission extends out to a 4" diameter. The NUV MAMA and the FUV microchannel plates image the sky over the full extent of the transmission. The cross-dispersion plate scale of the NUV channel is 0.02" and is 0.1" for the FUV channel. In this presentation we will discuss the capabilities and limitations of performing two-dimensional spectroscopy, in the cross-dispersion direction, with COS. In particular, we will discuss FUV detector effects, such as fixed pattern noise, gain sag, and Y walk, and the latest techniques for their correction.

  4. Decoding techniques for fine-fine geometry multi-anode microchannel arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasle, David B.

    1988-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) is a photon-counting detector which decodes the position of an event through coincidence discrimination. The decoding algorithm which associates a given event with the appropriate pixel is determined by the geometry of the array. The decoding process can be divided into two tasks: anode encoding and pixel decoding. Techniques for performing both tasks are described and contrasted in light of application requirements. Decode times of 75 nanoseconds have been achieved, and considerably faster decoders are possible given new architectures and technologies.

  5. Detection and differentiation of CVI988 (Rispens vaccine) from other serotype 1 Marek's disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Dunn, John R; Cortes, Aneg L; El-Gohary, Abd El-Galil; Silva, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    The serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) is the causative agent for Marek's disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens of great concern to the poultry industry. CVI988 (Rispens vaccine), an attenuated serotype 1 MDV, is currently the most efficacious commercially available vaccine for preventing MD. However, it is difficult to detect and differentiate CVI988 when other serotype 1 MDVs are present. To facilitate the detection of CVI988, we developed two sets of primers for a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR that targeted the single nulceotide polymorphism associated with the H19 epitope of the phosphorylated protein 38 gene. The PCR was very specific. One primer set (oncogenic primers) amplified DNA from 15 different serotype 1 MDVs except CVI988. The other primer set (CVI988 primers) amplified DNA from CVI988 but not from any of the other 15 serotype 1 MDVs. A real-time PCR assay was developed using MAMA primers, and specificity and sensitivity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Mixtures of plasmids (CVI988 plasmid and oncogenic plasmid) at various concentrations were used to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity of MAMA primers in vitro. Both primer setswere able to amplify as little as one copy of their respective plasmid. Oncogenic primers were highly specific and only amplified CVI988 plasmid when the concentration of oncogenic plasmid was very low (1 X 10(1)) and CVI988 plasmid was very high (1 X 10(6)). Specificity of CVI988 primers was not as high because they could amplify oncogenic plasmids when the concentration of CVI988 plasmid was 1 x 10(3) and the concentration of oncogenic 1 x 10(2). Validation of MAMA primers in in vivo samples demonstrated that oncogenic primers can be used for both early diagnosis of MD in feather pulp (FP) samples collected at 3 wk of age and confirmation of MD diagnosis in tumors. CVI988 primers could be used to monitor CVI988 vaccination in samples with a low load of oncogenic MDV DNA (latently

  6. Music is not our enemy, but noise should be regulated: thoughts on shooting/conflicts related to Dama square dance in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijun

    2014-09-01

    While Dama square dance is gaining popularity in China, especially with middle-aged and older-adult women-hence the "Dama" (Chinese for "big mamas") moniker-there have been conflicts due to the loud music played for the activity. After a brief explanation of Dama square dance and a description of the context of the conflicts, this commentary shares some thoughts on the issues raised, reviews the negative impact and regulation of noise, and calls for creating more public green space in Chinese cities and for developing a new music delivery system that could eliminate public music noise for group physical activities. PMID:25141079

  7. Asiddhatva Principle in Computational Model of Aṣṭādhyāyī

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbanna, Sridhar; Varakhedi, Shrinivasa

    Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī can be thought of as an automaton to generate Sanskrit words and sentences. Aṣṭādhyāyī consists of sūtras that are organized in a systematic manner. The words are derived from the roots and affixes by the application of these sūtras that follow a well defined procedure. Therefore, Aṣṭādhyāyī is best suited for computational modeling. A computational model with conflict resolution techniques was discussed by us (Sridhar et al, 2009)[12]. In continuation with that, this paper presents, an improvised computational model of Aṣṭādhyāyī. This model is further developed based on the principle of asiddhatva. A new mathematical technique called 'filter' is introduced to comprehensively envisage all usages of asiddhatva in Aṣṭādhyāyī.

  8. Single-cell transcriptome analysis reveals coordinated ectopic gene expression patterns in medullary thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Brennecke, Philip; Reyes, Alejandro; Pinto, Sheena; Rattay, Kristin; Nguyen, Michelle; Küchler, Rita; Huber, Wolfgang; Kyewski, Bruno; Steinmetz, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is essential for self-tolerance induction and prevents autoimmunity, with each TRA being expressed in only a few mTECs. How this process is regulated in single mTECs and coordinated at the population level, such that the varied single-cell patterns add up to faithfully represent TRAs, is poorly understood. Here we used single-cell RNA-sequencing and provide evidence for numerous recurring TRA co-expression patterns, each present in only a subset of mTECs. Co-expressed genes clustered in the genome and showed enhanced chromatin accessibility. Our findings characterize TRA expression in mTECs as a coordinated process, which might involve local re-modeling of chromatin and thus ensures a comprehensive representation of the immunological self. PMID:26237553

  9. Romiplostim as early treatment of immune thrombocytopenia with severe immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Palandri, Francesca; Polverelli, Nicola; Lifrieri, Francesca; Catani, Lucia; Giannini, Maria Benedetta; Baccarani, Michele; Vianelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are the standard therapeutic approach for immune thrombocy-topenia (ITP). Their prolonged use may increase the risk of infectious complications, particularly when the patient is already at higher infectious risk. In this setting, the use of drugs with a mechanism of action alternative to immunosuppression, like thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TRAs), may find particular indication. We report the unique case of a patient with severe immunodeficiency and ITP, who experienced a serious infectious complication while on steroids treatment, and who was successfully treated with Romiplostim second-line. The present experience supports the effectiveness and safety of TRAs as early treatment of ITP patients with drug-induced immunodeficiency or with active infections. PMID:22826792

  10. Mutational specificities of environmental carcinogens in the lacl gene of Escherichia coli H. V: DNA sequence analysis of mutations in bacteria recovered from the liver of Swiss mice exposed to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, azoxymethane, and methylazoxymethanolacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilmaker, M.J.; Horsfall, M.J.; van Helten, J.B.; Glickman, B.W.; Mohn, G.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The host-mediated assay (HMA) was used to determine the spectra of mutations induced in the lacl gene of Escherichia coli cells recovered from the livers of Swiss mice exposed to the carcinogens 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (SDMH), azoxymethane (AOM), and methylazoxymethanolacetate (MAMA). These spectra were further compared with changes induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) in the HMA methodology. A total of 177 independent lacl mutations arising in the HMA following exposure to SDMH, AOM, and MAMA were analyzed. Single-base substitutions accounted for 97% of all mutations analyzed. The vast majority of the single-base substitutions consisted of G:C----A:T transitions (94% of all mutations). The remaining mutations consisted of A:T----G:C transitions (3% of all mutations) while non-base substitutions accounted for only 3% of the total mutagenesis. The latter mutations consisted of one frameshift mutation and four lacO deletions. The distribution of G:C----A:T transitions induced by the three chemicals in the first 200 bp of the lacl gene was not random, but rather clustered at sites where a target guanine was flanked at the 5{prime} site by a purine residue.

  11. Real-time PCR assays for genotyping of Cryptococcus gattii in North America

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus gattii has been the cause of an ongoing outbreak starting in 1999 on Vancouver Island, British Columbia and spreading to mainland Canada and the US Pacific Northwest. In the course of the outbreak, C. gattii has been identified outside of its previously documented climate, habitat, and host disease. Genotyping of C. gattii is essential to understand the ecological and geographical expansion of this emerging pathogen. Methods We developed and validated a mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) real-time PCR panel for genotyping C. gattii molecular types VGI-VGIV and VGII subtypes a,b,c. Subtype assays were designed based on whole-genome sequence of 20 C. gattii strains. Publically available multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data from a study of 202 strains was used for the molecular type (VGI-VGIV) assay design. All assays were validated across DNA from 112 strains of diverse international origin and sample types, including animal, environmental and human. Results Validation revealed each assay on the panel is 100% sensitive, specific and concordant with MLST. The assay panel can detect down to 0.5 picograms of template DNA. Conclusions The (MAMA) real-time PCR panel for C. gattii accurately typed a collection of 112 diverse strains and demonstrated high sensitivity. This is a time and cost efficient method of genotyping C. gattii best suited for application in large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:24886039

  12. Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay Real-Time PCR Analysis of the Leptin Gene G2548A and A19G Polymorphisms and Serum Leptin in Infancy: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Savino, Francesco; Rossi, Lorenza; Di Stasio, Liliana; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Bergallo, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy metabolism. Its coding gene (LEP) is one of the most promising candidates for obesity. Although some studies have detected associations of different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LEP gene with serum leptin levels and obesity-related traits, the results are still conflicting. We investigated two SNPs to find relationships with leptin concentrations. Thirty healthy Caucasian infants younger than 6 months were genotyped for the SNPs G2548A and A19G with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system-mismatch amplification mutation assay (ARMS- MAMA) real-time PCR, and serum leptin concentrations were measured with a radioimmunoassay method. Considering the significant linkage disequilibrium observed between the two SNPs, we divided the sample according to the number of GG haplotypes and observed that individuals homozygous for the GG haplotype had higher serum leptin levels in early infancy than the others. Although these preliminary results are based on a limited sample, they suggest that the genetic background seems to play a role in modulating leptin levels in infancy, but changes in leptin levels over infancy and their correlation with obesity need to be further explored. We describe an ARMS-MAMA real-time PCR procedure which could be profitably applied in routine genetic screening. PMID:27008407

  13. Scattered light in the STIS echelle modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Bowers, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) echelle spectra obtained during the Early Release Observations have non-zero residuals in the cores of saturated interstellar lines, indicating the need for a scattered light correction. A rough measure of the magnitude of the needed correction shows the ratio of the interorder to the in-order flux in different echelle modes in both pre-launch calibration images of a continuum lamp source and in post-launch images of stellar continuum sources. The interorder and in-order fluxes are computed by averaging the central 200 pixels in the dispersion direction. The amount of scattered light in the interorder region rises toward shorter wavelengths for two reasons: (1) the order separation decreases toward shorter wavelengths; and (2) the amount of echelle scattering is expected to have an inverse dependence on wavelength. At the shortest wavelengths the fraction of light scattered into the interorder region can be 10% for the Near-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (NUV-MAMA) and 15% for the Far-ultraviolet-Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (FUV-MAMA).

  14. Looking Closely at "Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The "Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NCG 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sized and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed.

  15. Thermal motion of the STIS optical bench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Taylor, Mary Jane; Shaw, Richard; Robinson, Richard; Hill, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    Various tests have been done of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) using internal wavecals to measure thermal motion of the spectral format on the detectors. In most cases, the spectral format moves less than the specification not to exceed 0.2 pixels per hour. Primary causes of the motion are (1) changes to the thermal design dictated by the warmer Aft Shroud environment and (2) on-orbit power cycling of Multi-Anode Microchannel Arrays (MAMA) electronics to minimize the effects of radiation hits on the MAMA detectors. The rear portion of the STIS optical bench is too warm to be held at a constant temperature by internal heaters. Electronics swing in temperature with an orbital and daily frequency. The thermal drift of the optical formats is not negligible, but is well behaved in most circumstances. The observer is advised to examine the trade-off between the most accurate wavelengths with best spectral/spatial resolutions versus increased overheads that directly affect the observing times. A long term concern is that the Aft Shroud thermal environment is predicted to heat up as much as one Centigrade degree per year. Progressively more of the bench would move out of thermal control. Thus the external cooler for STIS, being considered for the Third Servicing Mission is of major importance to the long term operation of STIS.

  16. High resolution decoding of Multi-Anode Microchannel Array detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasle, David B.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) is a photon counting detector which utilizes a photocathode for photon to electron conversion, a microchannel plate (MCP) for signal amplification and a proximity focused anode array for position sensitivity. The detector electronics decode the position of an event through coincidence discrimination. The decoding algorithm which associates a given event with the appropriate pixel is determined by the geometry of the array. A new algorithm incorporated into a CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) decoder which improves the pixel spatial resolution is described. The new algorithm does not degrade the detector throughput and does not require any modifications to the detector tube. The standard MAMA detector has a pixel size of 25 x 25 square microns, but with the new decoder circuit the pixel size is reduced to 12.5 x 12.5 square microns. We have built the first set of decode electronics utilizing the new ASIC chips and report here on the first imaging tests of this system.

  17. STIS Ultraviolet Images of Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. H.; Weistrop, D.; Hancock, M.

    1998-12-01

    We obtained UV images using STIS on board HST, of two interacting galaxy systems, NGC 3395, 3396 and NGC 3991, 3994, 3995. All of these galaxies are known to have strong UV emission from IUE observations (Kinney et al. 1993). To study the young stellar populations and the UV morphologies we used two bandpasses, the F25QTZ on the far-UV MAMA detector (lambda_c ~ 1590 Angstroms) and the F25CN182 on the near-UV MAMA detector (lambda_c ~ 1820 Angstroms). These images show many knots of UV emission indicating concentrated star-forming regions. To determine the intrinsic UV flux of these knots we use the fact that the unreddened UV spectra of stellar populations younger than 20 Myr follow F_λ ~ lambda (-2.5) (Calzetti et al. 1994, Leitherer & Heckman 1995). We calculate the extinction from the UV flux ratio and compare with ground-based estimates based on the Balmer decrement. We combine the UV fluxes with ground based optical aperture photometry to compare with evolutionary synthesis models of star-forming populations.

  18. Star Bursts in the UV Bright Interacting Galaxies NGC 3395 & 3396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, M.; Weistrop, D.; Nelson, C. H.

    2000-05-01

    We have obtained ultraviolet and visible wavelength images for the interacting galaxies, NGC 3395 and 3396, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope. IUE observations (Kinney et al. 1993) indicate that both of these galaxies have strong UV emission. Ground based spectra display evidence of extensive star formation. The visible images were obtained using the CCD detector and filter F28X50LP (central wavelength ~ 7230 Angstroms , FWHM ~ 1998 Angstroms). The ultraviolet images were obtained using the F25QTZ filter with the far-UV MAMA detector (central wavelength ~ 1595 Angstroms , FWHM ~ 206 Angstroms), and the F25CN182 filter with the near-UV MAMA detector (central wavelength ~ 2010 Angstroms, FWHM ~ 681 Angstroms). The data were reduced and analyzed using standard IRAF and STSDAS packages and customized software routines. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231. We will present luminosities, luminosity functions, sizes and colors for the UV bright star forming regions. Stellar populations and ages of these knots will be constrained by comparison with star burst models (Leitherer et al. 1999). We will discuss the dependence of the characteristics of the knots on position in the galaxies and the possible relationship to the tidal interaction.

  19. Looking Closely at ``Medusa": Star Forming Regions in NGC 4194

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2000-05-01

    The ``Medusa" (NGC 4194, Mrk 201) is a blue compact galaxy, with strong far infrared and radio emission. Ground-based observations exhibit a distorted image with a tidal tail and regions of strong star formation. A population of massive O and early B stars is evident from the IUE spectra (Kinney, et al. 1993). Malkan et al.'s (1998) HST survey of Seyfert and starburst galaxies notes NGC 4194 is an HII galaxy with lumpy HII regions and knots. The central starburst is apparently produced by a galaxy merger. As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 4194 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified. We present sizes and luminosities for the individual knots, and the knot luminosity function. We compare our data to current starburst models to constrain stellar ages and populations. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231.

  20. The development and test of a pulse-counting imaging detector system for solar system studies at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1986-05-01

    The goal of this program is the development of light-weight, pulse-counting imaging detector tubes for solar system missions. The Multi-anode Microchannel Array (MAMA), have demonstrated the best combination of spatial resolution and dynamic range of any pulse-counting detector system available to date. Under this grant, compact sealed MAMA detector tubes compatible with the weight and volume limitations of deep space missions were fabricated for the first time. The principal task of the development program to date has been the definition of the appropriate processes for conditioning the high-gain, curved-channel microchannel plate (MCP) by means of bake and scrub procedures. The curved-channel MCPs currently available are fabricated from Corning 8161 glass or equivalent, and a bake at temperatures in excess of 300 C for a period well in excess of 48 hours is required to completely desorb the internal surface area and arrive at a pressure asymptote. Following this, a scrub by stimulating the MCP with either 600 eV electrons or with UV radiation from a mercury penray lamp is required to further clean up the internal surfaces and to reach a stable gain plateau. After conditioning, a stable response to an accumulated signal level of greater than 2.5 x 10 to the 11th power counts sq/mm has far been demonstrated.

  1. Atlantic Leatherback Migratory Paths and Temporary Residence Areas

    PubMed Central

    López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Miller, Philip; Domingo, Andrés; Evans, Daniel; Kelle, Laurent; Plot, Virginie; Prosdocimi, Laura; Verhage, Sebastian; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Sea turtles are long-distance migrants with considerable behavioural plasticity in terms of migratory patterns, habitat use and foraging sites within and among populations. However, for the most widely migrating turtle, the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea, studies combining data from individuals of different populations are uncommon. Such studies are however critical to better understand intra- and inter-population variability and take it into account in the implementation of conservation strategies of this critically endangered species. Here, we investigated the movements and diving behaviour of 16 Atlantic leatherback turtles from three different nesting sites and one foraging site during their post-breeding migration to assess the potential determinants of intra- and inter-population variability in migratory patterns. Methodology/Principal Findings Using satellite-derived behavioural and oceanographic data, we show that turtles used Temporary Residence Areas (TRAs) distributed all around the Atlantic Ocean: 9 in the neritic domain and 13 in the oceanic domain. These TRAs did not share a common oceanographic determinant but on the contrary were associated with mesoscale surface oceanographic features of different types (i.e., altimetric features and/or surface chlorophyll a concentration). Conversely, turtles exhibited relatively similar horizontal and vertical behaviours when in TRAs (i.e., slow swimming velocity/sinuous path/shallow dives) suggesting foraging activity in these productive regions. Migratory paths and TRAs distribution showed interesting similarities with the trajectories of passive satellite-tracked drifters, suggesting that the general dispersion pattern of adults from the nesting sites may reflect the extent of passive dispersion initially experienced by hatchlings. Conclusions/Significance Intra- and inter-population behavioural variability may therefore be linked with initial hatchling drift scenarios and be highly

  2. Recent thymic emigrants are tolerized in the absence of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Travis J; Ji, Qingyong; Fink, Pamela J

    2016-05-30

    T cell development requires a period of postthymic maturation. Why this is the case has remained a mystery, particularly given the rigors of intrathymic developmental checkpoints, successfully traversed by only ∼5% of thymocytes. We now show that the first few weeks of T cell residence in the lymphoid periphery define a period of heightened susceptibility to tolerance induction to tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), the outcome of which depends on the context in which recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) encounter antigen. After encounter with TRAs in the absence of inflammation, RTEs exhibited defects in proliferation, diminished cytokine production, elevated expression of anergy-associated genes, and diminished diabetogenicity. These properties were mirrored in vitro by enhanced RTE susceptibility to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. In the presence of inflammation, RTEs and mature T cells were, in contrast, equally capable of inducing diabetes, proliferating, and producing cytokines. Thus, recirculating RTEs encounter TRAs during a transitional developmental stage that facilitates tolerance induction, but inflammation converts antigen-exposed, tolerance-prone RTEs into competent effector cells. PMID:27139493

  3. Fezf2 Orchestrates a Thymic Program of Self-Antigen Expression for Immune Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Tomofuji, Yoshihiko; Danks, Lynett; Nitta, Takeshi; Komatsu, Noriko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Self-tolerance to immune reactions is established via promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), leading to the elimination of T cells that respond to self-antigens. The transcriptional regulator Aire has been thought to be sufficient for the induction of TRAs, despite some indications that other factors may promote TRA expression in the thymus. Here, we show that the transcription factor Fezf2 directly regulates various TRA genes in mTECs independently of Aire. Mice lacking Fezf2 in mTECs displayed severe autoimmune symptoms, including the production of autoantibodies and inflammatory cell infiltration targeted to peripheral organs. These responses differed from those detected in Aire-deficient mice. Furthermore, Fezf2 expression and Aire expression are regulated by distinct signaling pathways and promote the expression of different classes of proteins. Thus, two independent factors, Fezf2 and Aire, permit the expression of TRAs in the thymus to ensure immune tolerance. PMID:26544942

  4. Promiscuous Gene Expression in the Thymus: A Matter of Epigenetics, miRNA, and More?

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Olga; Rattay, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The induction of central tolerance in the course of T cell development crucially depends on promiscuous gene expression (pGE) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). mTECs express a genome-wide variety of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs), preventing the escape of autoreactive T cells to the periphery, and the development of severe autoimmunity. Most of our knowledge of how pGE is controlled comes from studies on the autoimmune regulator (Aire). Aire activates the expression of a large subset of TRAs by interacting with the general transcriptional machinery and promoting transcript elongation. However, further factors regulating Aire-independent TRAs must be at play. Recent studies demonstrated that pGE in general and the function of Aire in particular are controlled by epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge of the regulation of pGE by miRNA and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromosomal topology. PMID:25784915

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fort Casamartina, Eduard; Arribas Hortiguela, Lorena; Bleda Pérez, Carmen; Muñoz Sánchez, Carme; Peiro Martínez, Imma; Perayre Badía, María; Clopés Estela, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Durante la última década, el conocimiento de nuevos mecanismos implicados en el desarrollo del cáncer ha permitido el diseño de nuevos fármacos para su tratamiento y la mayor parte de ellos son fármacos que se administran por vía oral. Uno de los principales problemas de los pacientes oncohematológicos es la desnutrición, que suele tener causas multifactoriales (de la propia enfermedad, de los pacientes y de los diferentes tratamientos administrados). Para minimizar el impacto de la desnutrición es necesaria una intervención nutricional, ya sea adaptando la dieta o mediante la instauración de soporte nutricional artificial, en función de la gravedad de cada caso. En cualquier paciente que esté recibiendo un tratamiento oncológico hay que evaluar las posibles interacciones que pueden existir con el soporte nutricional instaurado, ya sea dieta oral, suplementación oral o nutrición enteral. Estas interacciones pueden disminuir la eficacia, aumentar la toxicidad de los tratamientos o producir déficits nutricionales. Se detallan las principales interacciones que se pueden producir, las interacciones entre los tratamientos oncológicos y el soporte nutricional. PMID:27269219

  6. N-Succinimidyl guanidinomethyl iodobenzoate protein radiohalogenation agents: Influence of isomeric substitution on radiolabeling and target cell residualization

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaeyeon; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Koumarianou, Eftychia; McDougald, Darryl; Pruszynski, Marek; Osada, Takuya; Lahoutte, Tony; Lyerly, H. Kim; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl-3-[*I]iodobenzoate ([*I]SGMIB) has shown promise for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other proteins that undergo extensive internalization after receptor binding, enhancing tumor targeting compared to direct electrophilic radioiodination. However, radiochemical yields for [131I]SGMIB synthesis are low, which we hypothesize is due to steric hindrance from the Boc-protected guanidinomethyl group ortho to the tin moiety. To overcome this, we developed the isomeric compound, N-succinimidyl 3-guanidinomethyl-5-[131I]iodobenzoate (iso-[131I]SGMIB) wherein this bulky group was moved from ortho to meta position. Methods Boc2-iso-SGMIB standard and its tin precursor, N-succinimidyl 3-((1,2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)guanidino)methyl)-5-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (Boc2-iso-SGMTB), were synthesized using two disparate routes, and iso-[*I]SGMIB synthesized from the tin precursor. Two HER2-targeted vectors — trastuzumab (Tras) and a nanobody 5F7 (Nb) — were labeled using iso-[*I]SGMIB and [*I]SGMIB. Paired-label internalization assays in vitro with both proteins, and biodistribution in vivo with trastuzumab, labeled using the two isomeric prosthetic agents were performed. Results When the reactions were performed under identical conditions, radioiodination yields for the synthesis of Boc2-iso-[131I]SGMIB were significantly higher than those for Boc2-[131I]SGMIB (70.7 ± 2.0% vs 56.5 ± 5.5%). With both Nb and trastuzumab, conjugation efficiency also was higher with iso-[131I]SGMIB than with [131I]SGMIB (Nb, 33.1 ± 7.1% vs 28.9 ± 13.0%; Tras, 45.1 ± 4.5% vs 34.8 ± 10.3%); however, the differences were not statistically significant. Internalization assays performed on BT474 cells with 5F7 Nb indicated similar residualizing capacity over 6 h; however, at 24 h, radioactivity retained intracellularly for iso-[131I]SGMIB-Nb was lower than for [125I]SGMIB-Nb (46.4 ± 1.3% vs 56.5 ± 2.5%); similar results were

  7. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Mitsumori, Lee; Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2014-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of

  8. Mutations in pre-core and basic core promoter regions of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Ling; Ren, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xue-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Shao-Fang; Xiong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency of mutations in pre-core (pre-C) and basic core promoter (BCP) regions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from Shanxi Province, and the association between mutations and disease related indexes. METHODS: One hundred chronic hepatitis B patients treated at Shanxi Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were included in this study. PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)-PCR were used to detect the mutations in the HBV pre-C and BCP regions. HBV DNA content and liver function were compared between patients with mutant HBV pre-C and BCP loci and those with wild-type loci. The consistency between PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and MAMA-PCR for detecting mutations in the HBV pre-C and BCP regions was assessed. RESULTS: Of the 100 serum samples detected, 9.38% had single mutations in the pre-C region, 29.17% had single mutations in the BCP region, 41.67% had mutations in both BCP and pre-C regions, and 19.79% had wild-type loci. The rates of BCP and pre-C mutations were 65.7% and 34.3%, respectively, in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive patients, and 84.6% and 96.2%, respectively, in HBeAg negative patients. The rate of pre-C mutations was significantly higher in HBeAg negative patients than in HBeAg positive patients (χ2 = 26.62, P = 0.00), but there was no significant difference in the distribution of mutations in the BCP region between HBeAg positive and negative patients (χ2 = 2.43, P = 0.12). The presence of mutations in the pre-C (Wilcoxon W = 1802.5, P = 0.00) and BCP regions (Wilcoxon W = 2906.5, P = 0.00) was more common in patients with low HBV DNA content. Both AST and GGT were significantly higher in patients with mutant pre-C and BCP loci than in those with wild-type loci (P < 0.05). PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization and MAMA-PCR for detection of mutations in the BCP and pre-C regions had good consistency, and the Kappa values obtained were 0.91 and 0.58, respectively

  9. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  10. The development and test of a deformable diffraction grating for a stigmatic EUV spectroheliometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. Gethyn; Walker, A. B. C., Jr.; Morgan, J. S.; Huber, M. C. E.; Tondello, G.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to address currently unanswered fundamental questions concerning the fine scale structure of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. The unique characteristics of the spectroheliometer was used in combination with plasma diagnostic techniques to study the temperature, density, and velocity structures of specific features in the solar outer atmosphere. A unified understanding was sought of the interplay between the time dependent geometry of the magnetic field structure and the associated flows of mass and energy, the key to which lies in the smallest spatial scales that are unobservable with current EUV instruments. Toroidal diffraction gratings were fabricated and tested by a new technique using an elastically deformable substrate. The toroidal diffraction gratings was procured and tested to be used for the evaluation of the Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector systems for the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) and UV Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) instruments on the SOHO mission.

  11. Optical design of Lyman/FUSE. [Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D. A.; Davila, P. M.; Osantowski, J. F.; Saha, T. T.; Wilson, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The optical system for the proposed Lyman/Far UV Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) orbiting observatory is described and illustrated with drawings and graphs of predicted performance. The system comprises (1) an FUV channel based on a 1.84-m-diameter Rowland circle spectrograph with five high-density modified ellipsiodal near-normal-incidence gratings and an array of four MAMA detectors; (2) an EUV channel with ellipsoidal mirror, planar varied-line-space grating, microchannel-plate array, and wedge-and-strip anode detector; (3) a 70-cm Wolter II glancing-incidence telescope; and (4) a CCD-detector fine-error sensor to provide accurate pointing (within 200 marcsec rms). The resolving powers of the spectrographs are 30,000 in the FUV and 300-600 (wavelength-dependent) in the EUV.

  12. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  13. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  14. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: 1} a signal processing electronics check, 2} a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and 4} a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 12738 from Cycle 19.

  15. A new analytical solution of water table response to tidal fluctuations and its application to estimate aquifer properties at the Niijima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, Masaatsu; Shiokari, Megumi; Tokunaga, Tomochika

    A perturbation solution of the Boussinesq equation under the boundary condition of multi-tide at the coast was derived for evaluating the hydraulic parameters of phreatic aquifer from tidally induced fluctuation of water table. Then, the solution was applied to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the Shiro-mama formation at the Niijima Island, Japan, by fitting the solution to the results of continuous measurements of water table fluctuations. The estimated hydraulic transmissivities from both the amplitude and the phase were comparable and consistent with the results of analyses based on Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg model, suggesting that the obtained values, i.e., 0.12-1.7 m2/s were reasonable.

  16. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  17. Red Leak Effects in Observations of Solar System Objects with ACS/SBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Saur, Joachim; McGrath, Melissa A.

    2010-07-01

    Following the failure of STIS in August 2004, attempts to obtain ultraviolet spectroscopy and photometry of solar system objects shifted to the Solar Blind Channel (SBC) of the ACS. These included spatially resolved spectroscopy using the PR130L prism of comet 9P/Tempel 1 (at the time of Deep Impact) and Europa, and imaging and photometry of the asteroid 21 Lutetia, one of the targets of ESA's Rosetta mission. Initial estimates of long wavelength ("red") contamination of the data due to impurities in the FUV MAMA detector suggested that these observations were feasible. Subsequent analyses produced better sampled, more reliable response curves that showed the long wavelength response to be much worse than expected. The data from the Europa and Lutetia observations confirm this conclusion and provide additional quantitative measurements of the magnitude of the "red leak."

  18. The depletion of calcium in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P.; Seab, C. G.; Timothy, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Data on the interstellar Ca II H and K lines toward HD 147889, a star deeply embedded in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud, were obtained at the Mauna Kea Observatory of the University of Hawaii, using a multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) detector. An upper limit on the Ca II column density of 1.7 x 10 to the 11th/sq cm was derived, which, together with ionization considerations and an estimated lower limit on the total hydrogen column density, implies that the calcium-to-hydrogen ratio in this line of sight is 0.00000795 or less, relative to the solar value. The logarithmic depletion is up to -5.10, the largest yet measured, and implies that gas-grain interaction in this region has proceeded to a much greater degree than is typical of diffuse clouds.

  19. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    This proposal is designed to permit recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. Anomalous shutdowns can occur as a result of bright object violations which trigger the Bright Scene Detection or Software Global Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur as a result of SBC hardware problems. The recovery from anomalous shutdown procedure consists of four tests: a signal processing electronics check, a slow high voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the full operating voltage, and lastly, a Fold Test. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on proposal 11884, visits 1 to 4.

  20. A new analytical approach to estimate the hydraulic parameters of a coastal phreatic aquifer from tidally induced water table fluctuations and its application at the Niijima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Shiokari, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new perturbation solution of the Boussinesq equation for tidally induced water table fluctuations in a coastal phreatic aquifer was derived under the condition of multiple tidal constituents. Then, the obtained solution was applied to estimate hydraulic parameters of the Shiro-mama formation at the Niijima Island, Japan, by fitting the solution to the results of continuous measurements of water table fluctuations in the frequency space. The estimated hydraulic transmissivities from both the amplitudes and the phase-shifts were comparable and consistent with the results of analyses based on the Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg model, suggesting that the proposed approach performed well and the obtained values, i.e., transmissivity to be 0.12-1.7 m2/s were reasonable.

  1. Development efforts to improve curved-channel microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, M. B.; Feller, W. B.; Laprade, B. N.; Cochran, R.; Bybee, R.; Danks, A.; Joseph, C.

    1993-01-01

    Curved-channel microchannel plate (C-plate) improvements resulting from an ongoing NASA STIS microchannel plate (MCP) development program are described. Performance limitations of previous C-plates led to a development program in support of the STIS MAMA UV photon counter, a second generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. C-plate gain, quantum detection efficiency, dark noise, and imaging distortion, which are influenced by channel curvature non-uniformities, have all been improved through use of a new centrifuge fabrication technique. This technique will be described, along with efforts to improve older, more conventional shearing methods. Process optimization methods used to attain targeted C-plate performance goals will be briefly characterized. Newly developed diagnostic measurement techniques to study image distortion, gain uniformity, input bias angle, channel curvature, and ion feedback, will be described. Performance characteristics and initial test results of the improved C-plates will be reported. Future work and applications will also be discussed.

  2. Sampling Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Updated Status and Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael A.; Dixon, W. V.; Mason, E.; Proffitt, C.; Aloisi, A.; Oliveira, C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Osten, R.; Bostroem, K. A.; Zheng, W.; Pascucci, I.; Niemi, S.; York, B.; Sonnentracker, P.; Diaz, R.; Ely, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    A description is provided of the overall performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after Cycle 17 and through the first half of Cycle 18. Most aspects of performance are still found to be consistent with extrapolations of the trends seen during Cycle 17 calibrations. Many of the characteristics of the instrument have changed over time, and we present here an update on its current performance based on the latest Cycle 18 calibration observations. We discuss changes in the CCD and MAMA dark currents, provide updates on the sensitivity of STIS modes, echelle blaze function, discuss changes, if any, in number of hot pixels, flat fields, charge transfer inefficiency, read noise, and spurious charge.

  4. Fabrication of MgF2 and LiF windows for the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gormley, Daphne; Bottema, Murk; Darnell, Barbara; Fowler, Walter; Medenica, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Two prototype test windows (MgF2 and LiF) to be used on the 75-mm UV MAMA detector tubes for the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph are described. The spatial and optical constraints of this instrument dictate that the thickness of the window materials be no greater than 2-3 mm to achieve a minimum 50-percent transmission at hydrogen Lyman alpha (121.6 nm), and that the window must be domed to minimize optical aberrations and provide structural strength. The detector window has an input diameter of about 100 mm with a radius-of-curvature of 70 mm. The manufacturing processes involved in the fabrication of these windows is discussed, as well as test programs (optical and structural) to be performed at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog, CCAC (Orellana+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.; de Biasi, M. S.; Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderon, J. H.

    2010-07-01

    This is Cordoba Carte du Ciel-Astrographic Catalog (CCAC) constructed from four Carte du Ciel and one Astrographic Catalog photographic plates for first epoch positions in the region of the open cluster Collinder 132. The plates were digitized using the MAMA measuring machine from the Paris Observatory. Stars from Tycho-2 catalogue (Hog et al., 2000, Cat. I/259) were used as reference stars. Every plate was reduced independently from the others adopting a first order polynomial in the measured coordinates. Proper motions were calculated using the CCAC positions as first epoch, and as second epoch the positions given by UCAC2 (Zacharias et al., 2004, Cat. I/289) and USNO-B1.0 (Monet et al., 2003, Cat. I/284). (2 data files).

  6. Analysis of STIS time-tag data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindler, Don J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Kraemer, Steven B.; Hulbert, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    Very high time resolution data can be obtained from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detectors using the time-tag observing mode. In this mode, the photon events are not accumulated onboard the spacecraft. Instead, each event is recorded internally and transmitted to the ground as an X and Y location with an event time. Event times are recorded in units of 125 microseconds. Analysis of STIS Crab Pulsar data demonstrates that a time resolution of approaching 125 microseconds can be achieved. Furthermore, the time-tag observing mode has been demonstrated to be a very powerful diagnostic tool and can be used to increase the resolution of both imaging and spectral data.

  7. Multimedia agent monitoring and assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    The explosion of Information Technology (IT) in the commercial sector in the 1990's has led to billion dollar corporations overtaking the US Government (e.g., DARPA, NSF) as the leaders in IT research and development. The tenacity of the IT industry in accelerating technology development, in response to commercial demands, has actually provided government organizations with a unique opportunity to incorporate robust commercial IT into their individual applications. This development allows government agencies to focus their limited funds on the application aspects of their problems by leveraging commercial information technology developments. This paradigm applies directly to counterdrug enforcement and support. This paper describes a system that applies the state-of-the-art in information technology to news and information exploitation to produce a Multi-media Agent Monitoring and Assessment (MAMA) system capable of tracking information for field agent use, identifying assets of organizations and individuals for seizure, and disrupting drug shipping routes.

  8. An application specific integrated circuit based multi-anode microchannel array readout system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeins, Larry G.; Stechman, John M.; Cole, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Size reduction of two new multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) readout systems is described. The systems are based on two analog and one digital application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new readout systems reduce volume over previous discrete designs by 80 percent while improving electrical performance on virtually every significant parameter. Emphasis is made on the packaging used to achieve the volume reduction. Surface mount technology (SMT) is combined with modular construction for the analog portion of the readout. SMT reliability concerns and the board area impact of MIL SPEC SMT components is addressed. Package selection for the analog ASIC is discussed. Future sytems will require even denser packaging and the volume reduction progression is shown.

  9. Depletion of calcium in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, T.P.; Timothy, J.G.; Seab, C.G.

    1983-02-15

    Data on the interstellar Ca II H and K lines toward HD 147889, a star deeply embedded in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud, were obtained at the Mauna Kea Observatory of the University of Hawaii, using a multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) detector. An upper limit on the Ca II column density of 1.7 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -2/ was derived, which, together with ionization considerations (published elsewhere) and an estimated lower limit on the total hydrogen column density, implies that the calcium-to-hydrogen ratio in this line of sight is 7.95 x 10/sup -6/ or less, relative to the solar value. The logarithmic depletion is < or =-5.10, the largest yet measured, and implies that gas-grain interaction in this region has proceeded to a much greater degree than is typical of diffuse clouds.

  10. A Complex Two Dimensional Spectroscopic Database: The HST Treasury Archive for Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, R. M.; Davidson, K.; Gray, M.; Koppelman, M. D.; Qian, A.; Martin, J. C.; Ishibashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The HST Treasury Program on eta Carinae produced one of the most complex and ambitious spectroscopic datasets obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. The archival database includes the STIS/CCD and MAMA data during its recent spectroscopic event in 2003, plus all of the STIS observations of the object and its ejecta obtained during its spectroscopic cycle beginning in 1998. The database permits users to query via instrument, target, date, wavelength range, position angle, and position and allows the user to display the spectrum and download it in fits format. We have also developed software for ease of extraction and display and analysis. The user can go from an initial query to doing science in only 20 minutes! A demonstration of the database and software will be available at the poster.

  11. Sensitivity Monitor Report for the STIS First-Order Modes -II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ed; Stys, David; Walborn, Nolan; Bohlin, Ralph

    2000-09-01

    An analysis of all low and medium resolution observations of the STIS Sensitivity Monitoring Programs made prior to December 1999 shows continuation of trends correlated with temperature and with time. We provide the first detailed report on additional trends in sensitivities revealed by the medium resolution modes of the instrument. Only the G750L mode shows no significant variation in sensitivity. All other modes, when averaged over a broad band of the wavelength coverage of each, show evidence for an ~1%/yr decline, except for G140L and G230L (after ~1998.7) being ~1.4%/yr, G140M being ~2.5%/yr, and G430L declining at ~0.5%/yr. A bimodal, before and after ~1998.7, trend previously found in the G230L is found in the NUV-MAMA G230M. Similar trends are also evident in the CCD in the G230LB and the two G230MB monitoring modes. The temperature dependence of the sensitivity in the G140M modes is found to be consistent with the -0.25%/°C correlation measured in the G140L mode. The mean "relative gain", gain1/gain4, of the CCD between 1998.3 and 1999.7 was 4.039 ±0.006 and did not change significantly in that period. Recommendations are made for changes in the "pipeline" calibration software to correct for the time and temperature variations in all L modes and in the M modes of both MAMA detectors.

  12. Bridging STIS's Neutral Density Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    This is a calibration proposal focused on a set of unsupported ND-filtered long slits {31X0.05NDA,B,C} that can be used with the STIS echelles, and which provide attenuations intermediate between the standard spectroscopic slits {0.2X0.06, 0.2X0.09, or 0.1X0.03} and the {only two} supported ND slits: 0.2X0.05ND {ND=2} and 0.3X0.05ND {ND=3}. These intermediate NDs {0.6-1.4} potentially are valuable for bright continuum sources, mainly hot stars, for which currently the supported ND slits must be used to mitigate MAMA global count rate violations. Because there is such a large jump from the normal clear spectroscopic slits {ND 0} to the next supported ND step {ND=2}, there are many cases where an observation just barely exceeds the global rate with a clear aperture, and therefore must shift to the ND=2 slit, but now requires something like 100 times the exposure duration to achieve a target S/N. Adding the currently unsupported slits to STIS's toolkit will pave the way for more efficient future projects involving echelle spectroscopy, especially for the top tier of bright hot stars not yet observed by this powerful instrument.To qualify the 31X0.05ND slit set, HST standard G191B2B {DA} will be measured to determine wavelength dependent throughputs across the FUV+NUV range, and across the full field of each MAMA camera. Pole-on rapid rotator Vega {A0V} - well-known visible photometric standard, and which has a bright, rich, and complex FUV spectrum - will provide a test for any lineshape degradation by the long slits in the high-res echelle configuration. The high-S/N Vega FUV echelle spectra will have unique scientific value as well.

  13. Development and application of a dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler for HDI-derived total reactive isocyanate group.

    PubMed

    Rando, R J; Poovey, H G

    1999-01-01

    A dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler was developed for measurement of HDI (1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate)-derived total reactive isocyanate group (TRIG). The sampler consisted of an impactor or cyclone inlet, followed by an annular diffusional denuder, and a glass-fiber filter backup. The denuder walls and backup filter were each coated with 20 mg tributylphosphate and 1 mg MAMA reagent (9-N-methylamino-methylanthracene). After collection, MAMA-derivatized isocyanates were desorbed from the sampler and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with dual-wavelength ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection. Test atmospheres of HDI vapor and of HDI/HDI-biuret aerosols were generated in the laboratory and sampled with the optimized dichotomous sampler. Vapor phase HDI was completely collected by the diffusional denuder. When a mixture of HDI-biuret and HDI (approximately 30 ppb) was nebulized and collected with the dichotomous sampler, approximately 78% of the HDI was in the vapor phase, whereas about 22% was associated with the aerosol fraction. The dichotomous sampler was then used to measure vapor and condensed phase TRIG in a paint spray booth during application of a polyurethane paint. Measured levels of TRIG during the spraying operation averaged 391 +/- 154 micrograms/m3. Concentrations of HDI monomer averaged only 14 +/- 6.5 micrograms/m3. HDI-biuret was the largest component of TRIG found in these samples and was completely in the condensed aerosol phase. In contrast, the majority of the HDI was in the vapor phase, but significant (15-26%) amounts were measured in the aerosol fraction of the paint overspray. Thus, significant partitioning of HDI between vapor and condensed phases was demonstrated in both the laboratory and field, even when its concentration was well below the vapor saturation point. PMID:10635539

  14. Young, Star Forming Regions in NGC 3994 and NGC 3995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Stone, A.; Nelson, C. H.; Bachilla, R.

    2000-12-01

    NGC 3991, NGC 3994, and NGC 3995 comprise a small group of interacting galaxies. Groundbased images indicate significantly distorted morphology in NGC 3991 and NGC 3995, while NGC 3994 appears to be a normal, inclined spiral. Spectra of NGC 3991 and NGC 3995 have features typical of strong HII regions. NGC 3994 is a LINER. All three galaxies have strong ultraviolet emission and have been observed with IUE (Kinney, et al. 1993). As part of an investigation of star formation in interacting galaxies, we have obtained ultraviolet and visible images of the central regions of NGC 3994 and 3995 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. Imaging was obtained in two ultraviolet (FUV-MAMA+F25QTZ, NUV-MAMA+F25CN182) and one visible (CCD+F28X50LP) band. Individual star forming knots (at HST resolution) have been identified in both galaxies. In NGC 3994 star-forming knots are found tracing the spiral arms. Results from ground based spectroscopy indicate nuclear reddening of E(B-V) ~ 0.3- 0.4, suggesting that the lack of UV-bright knots in the center is real and not due to extinction. The knots in NGC 3995 have a distorted, 'hook shaped' distribution. The knots are typically 12 - 45 pc in diameter (FWHM), with observed FUV fluxes of approximately 10-17 to 10-16 ergs cm-2sec-1 Å-1. We compare our imaging and spectroscopy data to current starburst models to constrain knot ages and masses. Knot characteristics as a function of location in the galaxy will also be discussed. This work has been supported in part by NASA, under contract NAS5-31231, and through the Nevada Space Grant Consortium.

  15. Mechanisms of ammonia and ammonium transport by rhesus-associated glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Caner, Tolga; Abdulnour-Nakhoul, Solange; Brown, Karen; Islam, M Toriqul; Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih L

    2015-12-01

    In this study we characterized ammonia and ammonium (NH3/NH4(+)) transport by the rhesus-associated (Rh) glycoproteins RhAG, Rhbg, and Rhcg expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We used ion-selective microelectrodes and two-electrode voltage clamp to measure changes in intracellular pH, surface pH, and whole cell currents induced by NH3/NH4(+) and methyl amine/ammonium (MA/MA(+)). These measurements allowed us to define signal-specific signatures to distinguish NH3 from NH4(+) transport and to determine how transport of NH3 and NH4(+) differs among RhAG, Rhbg, and Rhcg. Our data indicate that expression of Rh glycoproteins in oocytes generally enhanced NH3/NH4(+) transport and that cellular changes induced by transport of MA/MA(+) by Rh proteins were different from those induced by transport of NH3/NH4(+). Our results support the following conclusions: 1) RhAG and Rhbg transport both the ionic NH4(+) and neutral NH3 species; 2) transport of NH4(+) is electrogenic; 3) like Rhbg, RhAG transport of NH4(+) masks NH3 transport; and 4) Rhcg is likely to be a predominantly NH3 transporter, with no evidence of enhanced NH4(+) transport by this transporter. The dual role of Rh proteins as NH3 and NH4(+) transporters is a unique property and may be critical in understanding how transepithelial secretion of NH3/NH4(+) occurs in the renal collecting duct. PMID:26354748

  16. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713

  17. Integrated UV fluxes and the HB morphology of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, W. B.; Catelan, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pereira, D.; Stecher, T. P.

    2001-12-01

    The UV ( ~ 1500 Å) flux of a globular cluster will be dominated by its blue horizontal branch (HB) population, provided that such a population is present. Thus, the integrated UV - V color of a globular cluster can provide an indication of its HB morphology, without the need to resolve the cluster into a color-magnitude diagram. To date, UV photometry of extragalactic clusters are available for only a few globulars in M31 (e.g. Bohlin et al. 1993, ApJ, 417, 127), but additional UV photometry of extragalactic globulars is soon expected from GALEX (Yi et al. 2001, AAS, 198, 5501), and from STIS FUV-MAMA observations of M87 (HST program 8643). Here we calibrate the relation between UV flux and HB morphology for Galactic globular clusters. The OAO-2 and ANS data tabulated by deBoer (1985, A&A, 142, 321) are supplemented with photometry of 14 globular clusters observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and a few cluster cores observed with the STIS FUV-MAMA. The UIT data is especially useful since its 40' diameter FOV was sufficient to completely encompass most of the observed clusters, while allowing isolation of hot field and UV-bright stars. We compare the observed Galactic UV color - HB morphology relation with synthetic HB models as a function of age and metallicity. We also estimate the effect of radiative levitation of heavy metals in hot HB stars (e.g. Moehler et al. 2000, , A&A, 360, 120) on the integrated UV flux. This work is funded by STScI grant GO-8358.01.

  18. Neoplasias de células plasmáticas (incluso mieloma múltiple)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del mieloma múltiple y otras neoplasias de células plasmáticas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  19. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, impacción, obstrucción intestinal y diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  2. Cáncer de riñón (células renales)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Cáncer de riñón (células renales)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Cáncer de páncreas—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de páncreas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Cáncer de útero—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocíticas crónicas o juveniles, y la LMC atípica.

  12. Neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de las neoplasias mielodisplásicas o mieloproliferativas, incluso las leucemias mielomonocítica crónica o juvenil y la LMC atípica.

  13. Enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la enfermedad trofoblástica de la gestación, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  14. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  16. Complicaciones gastrointestinales (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del estreñimiento, la retención fecal, la obstrucción intestinal y la diarrea como complicaciones del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discute el manejo de estos problemas.

  17. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer de seno. Incluye información acerca de los efectos secundarios posibles y de los fármacos que pueden interferir con la terapia hormonal.

  18. Cánceres poco comunes en la niñez (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los cánceres poco comunes en la niñez como los cánceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el tórax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  19. Lo que usted necesita saber sobre™ el cáncer de cérvix

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las opciones de tratamiento, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con cáncer de cérvix o cuello uterino.

  20. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  1. Cáncer de riñón—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de riñón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Cuidados médicos de apoyo en niños (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y después del tratamiento en los niños con cáncer y como sobrevivientes adultos de cáncer.

  3. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  4. Cáncer de piel (incluye el melanoma)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas, los exámenes de detección y los estudios clínicos del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Neuropatía periférica inducida por quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre un efecto secundario de la quimioterapia que causa dolor y malestar en las manos y los pies. También incluye información sobre los esfuerzos para mejorar las opciones de detección, tratamiento y prevención.

  6. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Sarcoma de tejido blando—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del sarcoma de tejido blando, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Náuseas y vómitos (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las náuseas y los vómitos como complicaciones a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las náuseas y los vómitos.

  9. Cáncer de cabeza y cuello—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección de los cánceres de cabeza y cuello, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigaciones, estadísticas y temas relacionados.

  10. Neoplasias de células plasmáticas (incluso mieloma múltiple)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del mieloma múltiple y otras neoplasias de células plasmáticas, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Cáncer de intestino delgado—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de intestino delgado, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Hacer frente - Para la familia y los amigos

    Cancer.gov

    Si usted ayuda a su familiar o amigo durante el tratamiento del cáncer, usted es quien le cuida. Estar al cuidado de una persona con cáncer puede incluir muchas tensiones. Sugerencias para que se cuide usted cuando cuida a otros.

  14. Leucemia—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  16. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  17. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  18. Tumores cerebrales—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con estos tipos de cáncer.

  19. Fungal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  20. Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  1. Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  2. Treatment and Outcomes of Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  3. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  4. Blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  5. Histoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  6. Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  7. Treatment and Outcomes of Histoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  8. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources en Español Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. neoformans Infection Definition Symptoms People at ...

  9. Hacer frente - Obtener cuidados médicos de seguimiento

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los cuidados médicos de seguimiento después del tratamiento del cáncer. Trata sobre su plan de cuidados de seguimiento, cómo obtener un plan para el bienestar e incluye una guía para una vida saludable.

  10. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  11. Hacer frente - Los sentimientos y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer puede causar una amplia gama de sentimientos, ya sea que usted, un amigo o familiar esté en tratamiento ahora o que ya lo haya completado. Sugerencias para superar las muchas emociones causadas por el cáncer.

  12. Se lanza Red Nacional de Estudios Clínicos del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) puso en marcha una nueva red de investigación de estudios clínicos con el objetivo de mejorar el tratamiento de más de 1,6 millones de estadounidenses que reciben un diagnóstico de cáncer cada año.

  13. Cánceres poco comunes en la niñez (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del tratamiento de los cánceres poco comunes en la niñez como los cánceres de la cabeza y el cuello, el tórax, el abdomen, el aparato reproductor, la piel y otros.

  14. Cáncer colorrectal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de colon y recto, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas.

  15. Linfoma—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Neuropatía persistente aumenta el riesgo de caídas entre supervivientes de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Muchas mujeres supervivientes de cáncer tienen problemas de movilidad y de otras funciones físicas como resultado de la neuropatía periférica persistente causada por el tratamiento de quimioterapia, según un estudio nuevo.

  17. Hacer frente - Su imagen propia y su sexualidad

    Cancer.gov

    El cáncer y su tratamiento pueden cambiar la forma como usted se ve y siente de su persona y de su cuerpo. Puede tomar algunas medidas para superar los cambios de su cuerpo y problemas relacionados con su sexualidad e intimidad.

  18. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  19. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  20. Cuidados médicos de apoyo en niños (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la peculiaridad de los asuntos que surgen durante y después del tratamiento en los niños con cáncer, y como sobrevivientes adultos de cáncer.

  1. Tensión postraumática relacionada con el cáncer (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la tensión postraumática y los síntomas relacionados en los pacientes con cáncer, sobrevivientes del cáncer y miembros de la familia. Se discuten la evaluación y el tratamiento de estos síntomas.

  2. Cáncer de pene—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  5. Cáncer de la corteza suprarrenal—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del carcinoma de corteza suprarrenal, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  6. Tumores de hipófisis—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor de hipófisis, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Cáncer de útero—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  9. Tumores extracraneales de células germinativas—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del tumor extracraneal de células germinativas en los niños, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados.

  10. El cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, los exámenes de detección, la genética y las causas del cáncer, así como formas de hacer frente a la enfermedad.

  11. Lo que usted necesita saber sobre™ el cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las opciones de tratamiento, los diferentes médicos que tratan el cáncer de seno, la obtención de una segunda opinión, los cuidados de seguimiento y las fuentes de apoyo para alguien que ha sido diagnosticado recientemente con c

  12. Cáncer de piel (incluye el melanoma)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  13. Cáncer de ano—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de ano, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Cáncer de tiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de tiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Cáncer de pene—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de pene, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  16. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  17. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas.

  18. Cáncer de testículo—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de testículo, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de vulva—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vulva, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Cáncer de paratiroides—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de paratiroides, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  2. Cáncer de uretra—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de uretra, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  3. Jóvenes con cáncer y supervivientes participan en estudio de oncofertilidad

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los esfuerzos que se realizan para conectar con pacientes jóvenes y lograr su participación en estudios clínicos para evaluar y remediar la esterilidad causada por el cáncer y su tratamiento.

  4. Delirio (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten los enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo, asi como farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  5. Terapia hormonal para el cáncer de próstata Hoja informativa

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe la terapia hormonal y su función en el tratamiento del cáncer de próstata. Incluye información acerca de los tipos diferentes de terapia hormonal, cómo se usan y los efectos secundarios posibles.

  6. Cáncer de vesícula biliar—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vesícula biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  7. Estudio muestra reducción de mortalidad en hombres con cáncer de próstata de grado intermedio

    Cancer.gov

    Terapia hormonal por corto tiempo administrada en combinación con radioterapia a hombres con cáncer de próstata en estadio inicial aumentó sus posibilidades de vivir más en comparación con tratamiento de radioterapia sola, según un estudio clínico patroci

  8. Náuseas y vómitos (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de las náuseas y los vómitos como complicaciones a causa del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se discuten enfoques sobre el manejo de las náuseas y los vómitos.

  9. Qué tipos hay de estudios clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los diversos tipos de estudios clínicos de cáncer, como son los estudios de tratamiento, de prevención, de exámenes selectivos de detección, de cuidados médicos de apoyo y de cuidados paliativos.

  10. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  11. Cáncer de piel—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas, los exámenes de detección y los estudios clínicos del cáncer de piel, así como referencias a otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales: Preguntas y respuestas

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) emprendió la Iniciativa de Respuestas Excepcionales a fin de entender la base molecular de los tumores en pacientes de cáncer que responden en forma excepcional al tratamiento, principalmente quimioterapia.

  13. Mesotelioma maligno—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento y las causas del mesotelioma maligno, así como referencias a estudios clínicos y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Personal de enfermería asume diversas funciones con expansión de programas de gestión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre los profesionales de enfermería oncológica que ayudan a los pacientes durante todas las etapas de la atención oncológica, desde los exámenes de detección y el diagnóstico, hasta el tratamiento y la supervivencia.

  15. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  16. El NCI inicia un estudio para evaluar la utilidad de la secuenciación genética para mejorar los resu

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) lanzará este mes un estudio clínico piloto denominado M-PACT con la finalidad de evaluar si el tratamiento asignado según mutaciones genéticas específicas puede brindar beneficios a pacientes con tumores sólidos meta

  17. Fatiga (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  18. Neuroblastoma—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. El equilibrio correcto: cómo ayudar a los supervivientes de cáncer a tener un peso saludable

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre las intervenciones que buscan ayudar a los supervivientes a mantener un peso saludable para reducir la recidiva y la muerte por cáncer, y disminuir la probabilidad de padecer efectos tardíos y crónicos del tratamiento.

  2. FDA aprueba la primera inmunoterapia para linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    La FDA ha aprobado nivolumab (Opdivo®) para el tratamiento de pacientes con el linfoma clásico de Hodgkin que ha recaído o empeorado después de recibir un trasplante autólogo hematopoyético seguido de brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)

  3. Cáncer de hueso—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de hueso (óseo), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  4. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas.

  5. Broadband performance of time-reversing arrays in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim Ghazi

    Active acoustic time reversal is the process of recording the signal from a remote source with a transducer array, and then replaying the signal in a time-reversed fashion to retro-direct the replayed sound back to the remote source to form a retrofocus, in an unknown environment. Time-Reversing Arrays (TRAs) perform well in the absence of acoustic absorption losses and temporal changes in the environment when there is sufficient array aperture and high signal-to-noise ratio. Future active sonar and underwater communication systems for use in unknown shallow ocean waters may be developed from the automatic spatial and temporal focusing properties of TRAs. The performance of TRAs can be determined by four criteria: the size, the longevity and the field amplitude of the array's retrofocus, as well as the correlation of the retrofocus signal with a time-reversed version of the original signal. Four issues related to TRAs performance are investigated in this thesis: (i) the impact of noise, (ii) the influence of array and source motion, (iii) the effects of oceanic currents, and (iv) the effectiveness of blind deconvolution of the original signal via artificial time-reversal. Noise influences TRA performance twice because the array both listens and transmits. Degradation of TRA's performance caused by noise in the acoustic environment is investigated through an analytical formulation that can be reduced to an algebraic relationship for a simple noise model. Numerical experiments that illustrate this effort are also shown. Another limitation of TRA performance is the Doppler effect induced by the dynamic source-array configuration or the moving medium. Normal modes and parabolic equation simulations illustrate these influences for various oceanic waveguides and array geometry. Finally a novel blind deconvolution technique, artificial time-reversal (ATR), is developed for providing an estimate of an unknown source signal propagating in an unknown shallow oceanic

  6. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.

  7. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method asmore » compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.« less

  8. Incidence and outcome of transplant renal artery stenosis: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Polak, W G; Jezior, D; Garcarek, J; Chudoba, P; Patrzałek, D; Boratyńska, M; Szyber, P; Klinger, M

    2006-01-01

    Since the incidence of transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) in renal allografts varies from 1% to 23%, we sought to examine its incidence, to analyze treatment options, and to ascertain its outcomes. Retrospective analysis of 793 kidney allograft recipients transplanted between 1996 and 2004 revealed an incidence of 0.9% (n = 7). Time from kidney transplantation to the first symptoms varied from 1 week to 3 years (median, 4 months). Three patients experiences refractory hypertension and six patients developed allograft dysfunction. Screening color Doppler ultrasonography showed hemodynamic changes in six patients with the definitive diagnosis confirmed by angiography in all patients. One patient with an anastomotic stenosis was treated with a surgical operation and six patients, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), with stenting in three cases. Both surgical as well as PTA treatment were successful in all but one patient, who underwent PTA alone, developed chronic renal insufficiency necessitating hemodialysis and finally lost his allograft. In the other patients all symptoms resolved after treatment and the patients are doing well with functioning allografts. Although TRAS was an uncommon complication, if recognized promptly it could be treated by surgery or PTA with a high success rate. PMID:16504683

  9. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-12-01

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3- δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. In this paper, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. The bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.

  10. Cáncer de ovario, de trompa de Falopio y primario de peritoneo—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, la genética, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de ovario, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  11. Cáncer de estómago—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de estómago (gástrico), así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  12. Linfedema (PDQ®)—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos sobre la anatomía, la patofisiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del linfedema relacionado con el cáncer, una afección en la que se acumula líquido linfático en los tejidos y causa inflamación..

  13. Cáncer de esófago—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de esófago, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Cáncer de cuello uterino—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de cuello uterino, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  15. El cáncer según su ubicación en el cuerpo

    Cancer.gov

    Lista de todos los tipos de cáncer, organizados por ubicación o función en el cuerpo. Los cánceres que hay en esta lista tienen enlaces a información sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  16. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  17. [Anorectal diseases. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    López-Ríos Fernández, F

    1999-01-01

    The presentation of the book Enfermedades Anorrectales. Diagnóstico y tratamiento edited by Dr Fernando López-Ríos (Madrid: Harcourt Brace, 1999) consisted of two parts. In the first part, the structure, goals and characteristics of the work were explained by its editor. In the second part, after a brief survey of the history of colorectal surgery, Dr López-Ríos discussed the importance of understanding colorectal surgery as a subspecialization of general surgery. PMID:10682396

  18. Cáncer de esófago—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de esófago, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas

  20. Cáncer de vejiga—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de vejiga, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Cáncer de pulmón—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de pulmón, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  2. Etapa final de la vida (PDQ®)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Sumario informativo revisado por expertos sobre el tratamiento y la atención del paciente de cáncer desde los últimos días hasta las últimas horas de vida; esto incluye los síntomas comunes, los dilemas éticos que pueden surgir y la función que desempeña el oncólogo en proveer cuidados al paciente y su familia durante este período.

  3. El análisis de un estudio clínico indica que una combinación de fármacos puede ser de gran eficacia

    Cancer.gov

    El uso de un tratamiento farmacológico combinado para el cáncer de ovario recidivante mostró mejorías significativas, según se informó el día de hoy en el congreso anual de la Sociedad Americana de Oncología Clínica (ASCO). La combinación farmacológica se

  4. Cuando uno de tus papás tiene cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Sugerencias para saber qué decir a los amigos, cómo superar la tensión y en dónde encontrar apoyo; también, información sobre el cáncer y sobre los tratamientos de cáncer, para jóvenes que tienen a uno de sus papás con cáncer.

  5. Cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del NCI sobre el tratamiento, la prevención y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de hígado y de conducto biliar, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer

  6. Cáncer de próstata—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento, la prevención, las causas y los exámenes de detección del cáncer de próstata, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados.

  7. Transient surface deformation over thousand-year timescales at Uturuncu volcano, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) in southern Bolivia has repeatedly sourced large-volume ignimbrite eruptions since 11 Ma. Though eruption rates have waned since 3 Ma, ­it is uncertain whether eruptions of a similar scale will occur in the future. Uturuncu volcano, a long-dormant dacite stratovolcano located within the APVC in southern Bolivia, currently exhibits sustained surface deformation over a broad, 70 km diameter area, with a peak uplift rate of ~1-2 cm/yr. This deformation corresponds to a magmatic source within the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB), a zone of partial melt within the mid-crust of the APVC that is thought to have sourced its large-volume ignimbrites. Given the short timescale of current geodetic measurements, however, it is unclear how this modern unrest relates to the evolution of Uturuncu's underlying magmatic source. As geomorphic processes operate on timescales similar to those of magma chamber growth, we use the topography of lakes and rivers surrounding Uturuncu as strain markers to constrain its surface deformation history since the late Pleistocene. We investigate Uturuncu's geomorphology through both field surveys and analysis of a high-resolution (0.5 m) digital elevation model (DEM). We focused our field efforts on two lakes proximal to Uturuncu: Laguna Mama Khumu and Laguna Loromayu. OSL data reveal shorelines of Tauca age (~15 ka), suggesting a regional basin response to climate. Differential GPS surveys of Mama Khumu's shorelines show no evidence of deformation along the volcano's flanks. Assuming a constant inflation rate, we estimate a maximum onset of Uturuncu's present deformation phase at ~1 kyr before present. DEM-derived shoreline elevations match well with dGPS surveys, and DEM-derived river longitudinal profiles similarly show a lack of sustained surface deformation since the Tauca highstand. Together these observations imply a relatively stable topography at Uturuncu over the late Pleistocene, and thus the

  8. Phoenix's Lay of the Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the spacecraft's recent activity site as of the 23rd Martian day of the mission, or Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), after the spacecraft touched down on the Red Planet's northern polar plains. The mosaic was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). Parts of Phoenix can be seen in the foreground.

    The first two trenches dug by the lander's Robotic Arm, called 'Dodo' and 'Goldilocks,' were enlarged on the 19th Martian day of the mission, or Sol 18 (June 12, 2008), to form one trench, dubbed 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' Scoops of material taken from those trenches are informally called 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear.' Baby Bear was carried to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, instrument for analysis, while Mama Bear was delivered to Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA, for a closer look.

    The color inset picture of the Dodo-Goldilocks trench, also taken with Phoenix's SSI, reveals white material thought to be ice.

    More recently, on Sol 22 (June 16, 2008), Phoenix's Robotic Arm began digging a trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been nicknamed 'Wonderland.'

    The Snow White trench, seen here in an SSI image from Sol 22 (June 16, 2008) is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. As of Sol 25 (June 19, 2008), the trench is 5 centimeters (2 inches deep) and the trench has been renamed 'Snow White 1,' as a second trench has been dug to its right and nicknamed 'Snow White 2.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems

  9. Evaluation of water quality parameters for the Mamasin dam in Aksaray City in the central Anatolian part of Turkey by means of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatip, Hatim; Kömür, M. Aydin

    2008-01-01

    Sustaining the human ecological benefits of surface water requires carefully planned strategies for reducing the cumulative risks posed by diverse human activities. The municipality of Aksaray city plays a key role in developing solutions to surface water management and protection in the central Anatolian part of Turkey. The responsibility to provide drinking water and sewage works, regulate the use of private land and protect public health provides the mandate and authority to take action. The present approach discusses the main sources of contamination and the result of direct wastewater discharges into the Melendiz and Karasu rivers, which recharge the Mamasın dam sites by the use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling techniques. The present study illustrates the ability to predict and/or approve the output values of previously measured water quality parameters of the recharge and discharge areas at the Mamasin dam site by means of ANN techniques. Using the ANN model is appreciated in such environmental research. Here, the ANN is used for estimating if the field parameters are agreeable to the results of this model or not. The present study simulates a situation in the past by means of ANN. But in case any field measurements of some relative parameters at the outlet point “discharge area” have been missed, it could be possible to predict the approximate output values from the detailed periodical water quality parameters. Because of the high variance and the inherent non-linear relationship of the water quality parameters in time series, it is difficult to produce a reliable model with conventional modeling approaches. In this paper, the ANN modeling technique is used to establish a model for evaluating the change in electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values in recharge (input) and discharge (output) areas of the dam water under pollution risks. A general ANN modeling scheme is also recommended for the water parameters. The modeling

  10. RETOS EN LA INTERVENCIÓN CON ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS QUE MANIFIESTAN COMPORTAMIENTO SUICIDA*

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    Presentamos un estudio de caso de una adolescente puertorriqueña con comportamiento suicida. Esta comenzó una Terapia Socio Cognitivo-Conductual para el Comportamiento Suicida (TSCC-CS) de tipo ambulatorio luego de una hospitalización por intento suicida. La TSCC-CS incorpora una perspectiva ecológica y de desarrollo a la terapia cognitivo-conductual. Inicialmente mostró baja autoestima y severos síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad. Al finalizar el tratamiento, manifestó un cambio significativo en su sintomatología clínica y evidenció una mejoría en sus destrezas de manejo. No presentó ideas suicidas durante meses previos, ni durante el seguimiento. El análisis de este caso permitió realizar cambios en el protocolo de tratamiento, particularmente en las sesiones de familia y de comunicación con el fin de aumentar la viabilidad del tratamiento. PMID:26702337

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Torres Díaz, Cristina V; Martín Peña, Gonzalo; Ezquiaga, Elena; Navas García, Marta; García de Sola, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Gracias a los avances técnicos en técnicas neuroquirúrgicas, y debido a que el diagnóstico y la clasificación de las enfermedades psiquiátricas han evolucionado significativamente a lo largo de las últimas décadas, se están desarrollando tratamientos a nivel experimental para aquellos pacientes resistentes al manejo conservador.La anorexia nerviosa es una enfermedad de prevalencia creciente, con la tasa de mortalidad más elevada dentro de los trastornos psiquiátricos, y con aproximadamente un 20% de pacientes que presentan una evolución tórpida. Para estos pacientes que no responden a manejo conservador, la estimulación cerebral profunda ha surgido como una alternativa terapéutica, si bien la literatura especializada al respecto es escasa.A continuación presentamos una revisión de la fisiopatología de la anorexia nerviosa, así como de los distintos tratamientos neuroquirúrgicos realizados a lo largo de la historia. Se detalla la perspectiva de tratamiento quirúrgico actual, así como los aspectos éticos que se han de considerar en relación con el surgimiento de estas nuevas terapias. PMID:27571678

  12. Neuroimagen en la enfermedad de Alzheimer: nuevas perspectivas

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción y desarrollo En los próximos 50 años vamos a presenciar un incremento significativo de la población mayor de 65 años y por lo tanto va a aumentar, considerablemente, el número de individuos con riesgo de desarrollar demencias neurodegenerativas, especialmente la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Las estrategias actuales de tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico se han centrado en las fases sintomáticas de esta enfermedad y, gradualmente, vamos teniendo una mayor comprensión de los posibles factores de riesgo del síndrome clínico. Conclusiones Los estudios de neuroimagen han sido muy útiles para mostrar los cambios estructurales del envejecimiento normal y patológico, así como también los factores de riesgo para la EA. Los tratamientos apropiados de los factores de riesgo y su posible combinación con tratamientos específicos para la EA podrían prolongar el período presintomático de la EA y, por tanto, mejorar la calidad de vida y disminuir la carga para el paciente, la familia y la sociedad. PMID:20517866

  13. U-Pb Zircon geochronology of the Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talavera, C.; Montero, P.; Bea, F.; González Lodeiro, F.; Whitehouse, M.

    2013-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon data from metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of the Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain and the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone from central and NW Iberia contribute to constrain the timing of the Cambro-Ordovician magmatism from Central Iberian and Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zones which occurred between 498 and 462 Ma. The crystallization ages of the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks from the northern Schist-Graywacke Complex Domain are as follows: (a) in west Salamanca, 489 ± 5 Ma for Vitigudino, 486 ± 6 Ma for Fermoselle and 471 ± 7 Ma for Ledesma; (b) in northern Gredos, 498 ± 4 Ma for Castellanos, 492 ± 4 Ma for San Pelayo and 488 ± 3 Ma for Bercimuelle; (c) in Guadarrama, 490 ± 5 Ma for La Estación I, 489 ± 9 Ma for La Cañada, 484 ± 6 Ma for Vegas de Matute (leucocratic), 483 ± 6 Ma for El Cardoso, 482 ± 8 Ma for La Morcuera, 481 ± 9 Ma for Buitrago de Lozoya, 478 ± 7 Ma for La Hoya, 476 ± 5 Ma for Vegas de Matute (melanocratic), 475 ± 5 Ma for Riaza, 473 ± 8 Ma for La Estación II and 462 ± 11 Ma for La Berzosa; and (d) in Toledo, 489 ± 7 Ma for Mohares and 480 ± 8 Ma for Polán. The crystallization ages of the metagranites from the Schistose Domain of Galicia Tras-os-Montes Zone are 497 ± 6 Ma for Laxe, 486 ± 8 Ma for San Mamede, 482 ± 7 Ma for Bangueses, 481 ± 5 Ma for Noia, 480 ± 10 for Rial de Sabucedo, 476 ± 9 Ma for Vilanova, 475 ± 6 Ma for Pontevedra, 470 ± 6 Ma for Cherpa and 462 ± 8 Ma for Bande. This magmatism is characterized by an average isotopic composition of (87Sr/86Sr)485Ma ≈ 0.712, (ɛNd)485Ma ≈ -4.1 and (TDM) ≈ 1.62 Ga, and a high zircon inheritance, composed of Ediacaran-Early Cambrian (65 %) and, to a lesser extent, Cryogenian, Tonian, Mesoproterozoic, Orosirian and Archean pre-magmatic cores. Combining our geochronological and isotopic data with others of similar rocks from the European Variscan Belt, it may be deduced that Cambro-Ordovician magmas from this belt were mainly

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Germán Díaz, Marta; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Gomis Muñoz, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria se ha convertido en un punto clave en el tratamiento de pacientes con fracaso intestinal crónico. A pesar de los importantes avances que se han producido en las últimas décadas, tanto en los accesos vasculares, como en las soluciones empleadas, las infecciones asociadas a catéter venoso central siguen constituyendo una de las complicaciones más importantes. Dentro de las estrategias para la prevención o el tratamiento de estas infecciones se encuentra el empleo de sellados con antisépticos, como el etanol o la taurolidina, o de antibióticos.Objetivo: el objetivo de este artículo es revisar la evidencia disponible sobre el empleo de sellados con antisépticos o antibióticos en el manejo de pacientes pediátricos con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria.Material y métodos: el uso de sellados con etanol o taurolidina para prevenir el desarrollo de infecciones asociadas a catéter central estaría indicado en pacientes con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria que hayan tenido más de una infección en el año anterior o que se consideren pacientes de riesgo. Los sellados con antibióticos están indicados en el tratamiento de bacteriemias asociadas a catéter central producidas por S. coagulasa-negativo o gramnegativos, asociados a un tratamiento sistémico, siempre que sea posible, con el fin de salvar el catéter. Se debería llevar a cabo la retirada del mismo cuando existan signos de infección del punto de entrada o del trayecto subcutáneo, o cuando el germen responsable de la infección sea S. aureus o Cándida.Conclusión: a pesar de que la fuerza de la evidencia sobre la eficacia del sellado en la prevención o el tratamiento de infecciones asociadas al catéter es limitada, tanto en el niño como en el adulto, cada vez existen más datos a usar esta alternativa en pacientes con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria en los que la atención y salvaguarda de los catéteres es primordial. PMID:27571647

  15. Aspergilosis cervical con diseminación al sistema nervioso central. Presentación de un caso y revisión de bibliografía

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Guillermo Enrique; Roura, Natalia; del Castillo, Marcelo; Mora, Andrea; Alcorta, Santiago Condomi; Mormandi, Rubén; Cervio, Andrés; Salvat, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Aspergilosis Invasiva (AI) del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC) es infrecuente y ocurre generalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Puede presentarse con cuadros de meningitis, aneurismas micóticos, infartos o abscesos. Es una infección con pronóstico reservado y puede afectar el SNC de forma primaria o secundaria a partir de un foco que se disemina por vía hematógena. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con AI con invasión primaria a nivel óseo y diseminación posterior al cerebro. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 25 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfática aguda en tratamiento quimioterápico que presentó neumonitis por metotrexate por lo que inicia tratamiento con corticoides. Posteriormente agregó cervicalgia y con el diagnóstico de osteomielitis cervical se realiza punción bajo tomografía computada (TC) sin aislarse gérmenes. Se colocó Halo Vest e inició tratamiento antibiótico empírico. Posteriormente presentó afasia de expresión secundaria a lesión frontal izquierda. Se realizó evacuación de absceso cerebral aislando A. fumigatus. El tratamiento antibiótico específico posterior permitió una buena respuesta clínica y radiológica. Conclusión: La presencia de lesiones en el SNC de pacientes inmunocomprometidos debe incluir a las micosis como diagnóstico diferencial. La evacuación quirúrgica permite llegar rápidamente al diagnóstico mejorando la respuesta posterior al tratamiento antibiótico. Para evaluar la respuesta terapéutica y posibles recaídas se debe realizar un seguimiento periódico clínico radiológico. Palabras clave: Aspergilosis cerebral; Aspergilosis cervical; Aspergilosis invasiva; Voriconazol. PMID:26600985

  16. Competencias en ética biocéntrica

    PubMed Central

    Stepke, Fernando Lolas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo explora el origen y la conceptualización de la bioética en tanto ética biocéntrica, definida por el pionero Fritz Jahr como un imperativo hipotético que llama a respetar la vida en todas sus formas. Tras describirla como proceso social, procedimiento técnico y producto académico, se enumeran y comentan algunas competencias que debieran presidir el empleo del discurso bioético en cualquier punto del complejo social “investigación médica”: miembros de comités de ética de investigación, investigadores, empresarios, administradores. Cada uno de estos grupos, en su “cultura epistémica” propia, define y explicita los principios básicos en tanto expresión de valores y leyes generales. PMID:23459767

  17. On the Generalizability of Pāṇini's Pratyāhāra-Technique to Other Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Wiebke; Hamann, Silke

    Pāṇini defines the sound classes involved in grammatical rules by pratyāhāras, i.e., a two-letter code based on the order of the sounds in the Śivasūtras. In the present paper we demonstrate that Pāṇini's pratyāhāra method is generalizable to the description of the phonological systems of other languages by applying it to the sound classes and phonological alternations of German. Furthermore, we compare Pāṇini's pratyāhāra technique with the technique of describing phonological classes by phonological features, which is more common in Western phonology. It turns out that pratyāhāras perform better than features for the description of our sample of German phonological processes if one considers the quality criterion for class-description devices proposed by [10] which is based on the ratio of describable to actual classes.

  18. Progresos recientes en Astronomía de Rayos Gamma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. E.

    Tras la exitosa misión del Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory durante los años 1990, la astronomía de rayos gamma ha entrado en una etapa de madurez, convirtiéndose en una de las principales herramientas para el estudio de procesos relativistas en el universo. En este reporte, presentaré una revisión de los principales tópicos abordados a través de estudios con rayos gamma en los últimos años, con particular énfasis en los intentos más recientes por establecer la naturaleza de las fuentes de rayos gamma no identificadas, detectadas por el instrumento EGRET.

  19. [Competence in biocentric ethics.

    PubMed

    Stepke, Fernando Lolas

    2012-07-01

    ResumenEste artículo explora el origen y la conceptualización de la bioética en tanto ética biocéntrica, definida por el pionero Fritz Jahr como un imperativo hipotético que llama a respetar la vida en todas sus formas. Tras describirla como proceso social, procedimiento técnico y producto académico, se enumeran y comentan algunas competencias que debieran presidir el empleo del discurso bioético en cualquier punto del complejo social "investigación médica": miembros de comités de ética de investigación, investigadores, empresarios, administradores. Cada uno de estos grupos, en su "cultura epistémica" propia, define y explicita los principios básicos en tanto expresión de valores y leyes generales. PMID:23459767

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vales Montero, Marta; Chavarría Cano, Beatriz; Martínez Ginés, María Luisa; Díaz Otero, Fernando; Velázquez Pérez, José Miguel; Cuerda Compes, María Cristina; Bretón Lesmes, Irene

    2016-01-01

    La deficiencia de vitamina A es infrecuente en los países desarrollados. La cirugía bariátrica constituye un factor de riesgo de deficiencia de esta vitamina. Se han descrito varios casos en pacientes sometidos a técnicas con un importante componente malabsortivo, como la derivación biliopancreática. En este artículo se describe un caso de deficiencia clínica de vitamina A con manifestaciones oculares y cutáneas tras bypass gástrico y se revisan las publicaciones sobre este tema y las recomendaciones para la prevención de esta importante complicación. PMID:27571679

  1. Far ultraviolet Observations of Jovian low latitude regions with HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustin, J.; Grodent, D.; Gerard, J. C.; Dols, V.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Trafton, L. T.

    1999-09-01

    Far ultraviolet observations of the Jovian disk were made at low and mid-latitudes with FUV MAMA/STIS on board HST in January 1999 both in the imaging and spectroscopic modes. An image was obtained with the Lyalpha filter in the hydrogen bulge region for comparison with the expected Lyman-alpha brightness distribution for Ly-alpha resonance scattering. Other images in the 1200-1700 { Angstroms} region show band structures parallel to the equator with fading contrast toward the center and the limb. Spectroscopic observations were made in the 1200-1700 { Angstroms} (G140L) and 1245-1298 { Angstroms} (G140M) regions at ~ 5 { Angstroms} resolution to map the H_2 airglow and the UV absorbents along the STIS slit. Preliminary results indicate that a C_2H_2 absorption signature is clearly observed in the solar ultraviolet reflected spectrum. The ethylene absorption may be mapped to derive variations of the acetylene abundance. The H_2 FUV airglow shows both the fluorescence and the electron impact components. Its spatial variation is described and compared with the expected airglow distribution. We acknowledge funding by NASA and by the PRODEX program of the European space agency.

  2. The solar neighborhood. XXXI. Discovery of an unusual red+white dwarf binary at ∼25 pc via astrometry and UV imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Gies, Douglas R.; Subasavage, John P.; Riedel, Adric R.; Ianna, Philip A. E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: ar494@hunter.cuny.edu

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby M5.0V dwarf at 24.6 pc, SCR 1848–6855, that is orbited by an unusual companion causing an astrometric perturbation of more than 200 mas. This is by far the largest perturbation found to date among more than 700 targets observed during our long-term astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO 0.9 m telescope. We present here a suite of astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of this high proper motion (∼1.''3 yr{sup –1}) system in an effort to reveal the nature of this unusual binary. The measured near-UV and optical U band fluxes exceed those expected for comparable M5.0V stars, and excess flux is also detected in the spectral range 4000-7000 Å. The elusive companion has been detected in HST-STIS+MAMA images at 1820 Å and 2700 Å, and our analysis shows that it is probably a rare, cool, white dwarf with T = 4600-5500 K. Given the long-term astrometric coverage, the prospects for an accurate mass determination are excellent, although as yet we can only provide limits on the unusual companion's mass.

  3. A magnetosome-associated cytochrome MamP is critical for magnetite crystal growth during the exponential growth phase.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Azuma; Eguchi, Yukako; Mise, Shingo; Oestreicher, Zachery; Uno, Fumio; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria use a specific set of conserved proteins to biomineralize crystals of magnetite or greigite within their cells in organelles called magnetosomes. Using Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, we examined one of the magnetotactic bacteria-specific conserved proteins named MamP that was recently reported as a new type of cytochrome c that has iron oxidase activity. We found that MamP is a membrane-bound cytochrome, and the MamP content increases during the exponential growth phase compared to two other magnetosome-associated proteins on the same operon, MamA and MamK. To assess the function of MamP, we overproduced MamP from plasmids in wild-type (WT) AMB-1 and found that during the exponential phase of growth, these cells contained more magnetite crystals that were the same size as crystals in WT cells. Conversely, when the heme c-binding motifs within the mamP on the plasmid was mutated, the cells produced the same number of crystals, but smaller crystals than in WT cells during exponential growth. These results strongly suggest that during the exponential phase of growth, MamP is crucial to the normal growth of magnetite crystals during biomineralization. PMID:25048532

  4. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  5. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  6. The Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, M.; Ford, H. C.; Feldman, P.; Golimowski, D.; Tsvetanov, Z.; Bartko, F.; Brown, B.; Burrows, C.; Hartig, G.; Postman, M.; Rafal, M.; Sparks, B.; White, R.; Crocker, J.; Bely, P.; Cheng, E.; Krebs, C.; Kimble, R.; Neff, S.; Illingworth, G.; Lesser, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Miley, G.; Lajeunesse, T.; Woodruff, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is to be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the third HST servicing mission in December 1999. The ACS comprises three cameras each designed to achieve specific goals. The first, the Wide Field Camera, will be a high throughput, wide field (200" x 204"), visible to nar-IR camera that is half critically sampled at 500 nm. The second, the High Resolution Camera (HRC), is critically sampled at 500 nm, and has a 26" x 29" field of view. The HRC optical path includes a coronagraph which will improve the HST's contrast near bright objects by a factor of 10. The third camera is a far ultraviolet, Solar-Blind Camera (SBC),with a field of 26" x 29". ACS will increase HST's capability for imaging surveys and discovery by at least a factor of 10. We give an overview of the ACS design and discuss image the quality of the optics and the performance of the CCD and MAMA detectors. The plans for the GTO science program are reviewed, and specific scientific capabilities of the instrument reviewed.

  7. Photopyroelectric Calorimetry of Magnetic Nanofluids: Effect of Type of Surfactant and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Longuemart, S.; Turcu, R.; Streza, M.; Vekas, L.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.

    2014-11-01

    Five types of magnetic nanofluids, based on nanoparticles with water as the carrier liquid, were investigated by using the two photopyroelectric (PPE) detection configurations (back (BPPE) and front (FPPE)), together with the thermal-wave resonator cavity (TWRC) technique as the scanning procedure. The difference between the nanofluids was the type of surfactant: double layers of lauric (LA-LA), oleic (OA-OA), and miristic (MA-MA) acids and also double layers of lauric-miristic (LA-MA) and palmitic-oleic (PA-OA) fatty acids were used. In both detection configurations, the information was contained in the phase of the PPE signal. The thermal diffusivity of nanofluids was obtained in the BPPE configuration, from the scan of the phase of the signal as a function of the liquid's thickness. Using the same scanning procedure in the FPPE configuration, the thermal effusivity was directly measured. The influence of a 0.12 kG magnetic field on the thermal effusivity and thermal diffusivity was also investigated. Because of different surfactants, the thermal effusivity of the investigated nanofluids ranges from to , and the thermal diffusivity, from to . The magnetic field has practically no influence on the thermal effusivity, and produces a maximum increase of the thermal diffusivity (LA-LA surfactant) of about 4 %.

  8. Mechanism of Disyllabic Tonal Reduction in Taiwan Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chierh; Xu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that time pressure is a direct cause of tonal reduction in Taiwan Mandarin. Tonal reduction refers to the phenomenon of the tones of a disyllabic unit being contracted into a monosyllabic unit. An experiment was carried out in which six native Taiwan Mandarin male speakers produced sentences containing disyllabic compound words /ma/+/ma/ with varying tonal combinations at different speech rates. Analyses indicated that increasing time pressure led to severe tonal reductions. Articulatory effort, measured by the slope of F0 peak velocity of unidirectional movement over F0 movement amplitude, is insufficient to compensate for duration-dependent undershoot (in particular, when time pressure exceeds certain thresholds). Mechanisms of tonal reduction were further examined by comparing F0 velocity profiles against the Edge-in model, a rule-based phonological model. Results showed that the residual tonal variants in contracted syllables are gradient rather than categorical--as duration is shortened, the movement towards the desired targets is gradually curtailed. PMID:26529898

  9. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Kaiser, M. E.; Keyes, C. D.; Ake, T. B.; Aloisi, A.; Friedman, S. D.; Oliveira, C. M.; Shaw, B.; Sahnow, D. J.; Penton, S. V.; Froning, C. S.; Beland, S.; Osterman, S.; Green, J.; COS/STIS STScI Team; IDT, COS

    2008-05-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, COS, (Green, J, et al., 2000, Proc SPIE, 4013) will be installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the next servicing mission. This will be the most sensitive ultraviolet spectrograph ever flown aboard HST. The program (CALCOS) for pipeline calibration of HST/COS data has been developed by the Space Telescope Science Institute. As with other HST pipelines, CALCOS uses an association table to list the data files to be included, and it employs header keywords to specify the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to be used. COS includes both a cross delay line detector for the far ultraviolet (FUV) and a MAMA detector for the near ultraviolet (NUV). CALCOS uses a common structure for both channels, but the specific calibration steps differ. The calibration steps include pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. A 1-D spectrum will be extracted and flux calibrated. Data will normally be taken in TIME-TAG mode, recording the time and location of each detected photon, although ACCUM mode will also be supported. The wavelength calibration uses an on-board spectral line lamp. To enable precise wavelength calibration, default operations will simultaneously record the science target and lamp spectrum by executing brief (tag-flash) lamp exposures at least once per external target exposure.

  10. Implementation of several mathematical algorithms to breast tissue density classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C.; Redondo, M.; Tirao, G.

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of mammographic abnormality detection methods is strongly dependent on breast tissue characteristics, where a dense breast tissue can hide lesions causing cancer to be detected at later stages. In addition, breast tissue density is widely accepted to be an important risk indicator for the development of breast cancer. This paper presents the implementation and the performance of different mathematical algorithms designed to standardize the categorization of mammographic images, according to the American College of Radiology classifications. These mathematical techniques are based on intrinsic properties calculations and on comparison with an ideal homogeneous image (joint entropy, mutual information, normalized cross correlation and index Q) as categorization parameters. The algorithms evaluation was performed on 100 cases of the mammographic data sets provided by the Ministerio de Salud de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina—Programa de Prevención del Cáncer de Mama (Department of Public Health, Córdoba, Argentina, Breast Cancer Prevention Program). The obtained breast classifications were compared with the expert medical diagnostics, showing a good performance. The implemented algorithms revealed a high potentiality to classify breasts into tissue density categories.

  11. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  12. Precision methylome characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Zhong, Jun; Jia, Xinmiao; Liu, Guan; Kang, Yu; Dong, Mengxing; Zhang, Xiuli; Li, Qian; Yue, Liya; Li, Cuidan; Fu, Jing; Xiao, Jingfa; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhang, Bing; Lei, Meng; Chen, Suting; Lv, Lingna; Zhu, Baoli; Huang, Hairong; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most common infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). To panoramically analyze MTBC's genomic methylation, we completed the genomes of 12 MTBC strains (Mycobacterium bovis; M. bovis BCG; M. microti; M. africanum; M. tuberculosis H37Rv; H37Ra; and 6 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates) belonging to different lineages and characterized their methylomes using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. We identified three m6A sequence motifs and their corresponding methyltransferase (MTase) genes, including the reported mamA, hsdM and a newly discovered mamB. We also experimentally verified the methylated motifs and functions of HsdM and MamB. Our analysis indicated the MTase activities varied between 12 strains due to mutations/deletions. Furthermore, through measuring ‘the methylated-motif-site ratio’ and ‘the methylated-read ratio’, we explored the methylation status of each modified site and sequence-read to obtain the ‘precision methylome’ of the MTBC strains, which enabled intricate analysis of MTase activity at whole-genome scale. Most unmodified sites overlapped with transcription-factor binding-regions, which might protect these sites from methylation. Overall, our findings show enormous potential for the SMRT platform to investigate the precise character of methylome, and significantly enhance our understanding of the function of DNA MTase. PMID:26704977

  13. Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after SM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Alosi, A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Bostroen, K. A.; Cox, C. R.; Diaz, R. I.; Dixon, W. V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Hodge, P.; Kaiser, M. E.; Lallo, M. D.; Lennon, D.; Niemi, S.; Pascucci, I.; Smith, E.; Wolfe, M. A.; York, B.; Zheng. W.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D. J.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-01-01

    On May 17, 2009, during the fourth EVA of SM4, astronauts Michael Good and Mike Massimino replaced the failed LVPS-2 circuit board on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), restoring this HST instrument to operation after a nearly 6 year hiatus. STIS after this 2009 repair operates in much the same way as it did during the 2001-2004 period of operations with the Side-2 electronics. Internal and external alignments of the instrument are similar to what they had been in 2004, and most changes in performance are modest. The STIS CCD detector continued to experience radiation damage during the hiatus in operations, leading to decreased charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and an increased number of hot pixels. The sensitivities for most modes are surprisingly close to what was expected from simple extrapolation of the 2003-2004 trends, although the echelle modes show somewhat more complex behavior. The biggest surprise was that the dark count rate for the NUV MAMA detector after SM4 has been much larger than had been expected; it is currently about 2.5 times bigger than it was in 2004 and is only slowly decreasing. We discuss how these changes will affect science with STIS now and in the future.

  14. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  15. Updates to the Performance and Calibration of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin; Becker, George; Biretta, John; Debes, John; Fox, Andrew; Lockwood, sean; Massa, Derck; Monroe, TalaWanda; Oliveira, Cristina; Jedrzejekski, Robert; Peeples, Molly; Penton, Steven Victor; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David; Sana, Hugues; Sonnentrucker, Paule G.; Taylor, Joanna; Walborn, Nolan

    2015-08-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been on orbit for approximately 18 years and continues to produce high quality scientific results using a diverse complement of operating modes. These include spatially resolved spectroscopy in the UV and optical, high spatial resolution echelle spectroscopy in the UV, and solar-blind imaging in the UV. In addition, STIS possesses unique visible-light coronagraphic modes that keep the instrument at the forefront of exoplanet and debris-disk research. As the instrument's characteristics evolve over the instrument’s lifetime, the instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute monitors its performance and works towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updates on the status of the STIS CCD and FUV &NUV MAMA detectors, as well as changes to the CalSTIS reduction pipeline and available instrument modes. As the STIS CCD detector continues to suffer from charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) due to prolonged radiation damage, we also present an update on the on-going effort to develop a stand-alone tool to perform a pixel-based CTI correction on the STIS CCD, for distribution to the community.

  16. FUV and UVIS observations of circumnuclear star clusters in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, Aida; Chandar, Rupali; Leitherer, Claus

    2011-01-01

    We analyze archival HST/STIS/FUV-MAMA imaging and spectroscopy of 13 compact star clusters within the circumnuclear starburst region of M83, the closest such example. We compare the observed spectra with semi-empirical models, which are based on an empirical library of Galactic O and B stars observed with IUE, and with theoretical models, which are based on a new theoretical UV library of hot massive stars computed with WM-Basic. The models were generated with Starburst99 for metallicities of Z=0.020 and Z=0.040, and for stellar IMFs with upper mass limits of 10, 30, 50, and 100 M_⊙. We estimate the ages and masses of the clusters from the best fit model spectra, and find that the ages derived from the semi-empirical and theoretical models agree within a factor of 1.2 on average. A comparison of the spectroscopic age estimates with values derived from HST/WFC3/UVIS multi-band photometry shows a similar level of agreement for all but one cluster. The clusters have a range of ages from about 2 to 20 Myr, and do not appear to have an age gradient along M83's starburst. Clusters with strong P-Cygni profiles have masses of a few ×10^4 M_⊙, seem to have formed stars more massive than 30 M_⊙, and are consistent with a Kroupa IMF from 0.1-100 M_⊙.

  17. Probing the Compositions of Two Habitable Zone Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Crossfield, Ian; Deck, Katherine; Greene, Tom; Rogers, Leslie; Vanderburg, Andrew; Barman, Travis; Morley, Caroline; Lothringer, Josh; Werner, Michael; Beichman, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of two super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zones of nearby M stars have provided us with an unprecedented new opportunity to characterize the properties of small and potentially habitable planets outside of the solar system. Here, we propose to probe their atmospheric compositions, search for escaping hydrogen, and obtain the first bulk mass and densities estimate of a habitable zone super-Earth. The proposed observations will complement our approved HST WFC3 observations of K2-18b (15-orbits, GO13665, PI Benneke) as well as the approved HST STIS/MAMA observations of K2-18b by PI Ehrenreich. These observations will determine whether or not these two planets have primarily rocky or volatile-rich compositions, and in the volatile-rich case would enable the first studies of atmospheric chemistry in this regime. Mass loss also plays a critical role in the evolution of hydrogen-rich atmospheres on small planets, and our obsevations will provide the first constraints on the stability of these atmospheres.

  18. The changing wind structure of the WR/LBV star in HD 5980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenigsberger, Gloria

    2013-10-01

    HD 5980 is an extraordinary system of massive stars that is located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. It contains an eclipsing binary {P=19.3 d} consisting of a luminous blue variable {LBV} and its Wolf-Rayet {WR} companion. The LBV underwent a major eruptive event in 1994 during which its bolometric luminosity increased by a factor of 5 and it is currently approaching its minimum state of activity. The primary objective of this proposal is to determine the wind velocity and mass-loss rate of the LBV in its current state. With these observations and our earlier observations and analyses, HD 5980 offers the unprecedented opportunity of deriving all the fundamental parameters of an LBV system throughout its activity cycle, parameters which are required in order to constrain the sources of the instabilities that lead to the eruptive phenomena. To accomplish these goals, we request 2 HST orbits to observe HD 5980 with STIS in order to obtain one set of FUV MAMA and CCD spectra at the eclipse, when the LBV occults its WR companion.The study of HD 5980 and the UV spectrum that we propose to acquire are relevant to a broad range of problems including wind-wind collision phenomena, the formation of circumstellar structures powered by stellar winds and the evolution of supernova progenitors.

  19. Quasar Ton 34 with steepest far-UV break known has entered new bal QSO phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Using HST-COS/G140L and HST-STIS with G230L and G430L, we request 4 orbits to observe the QSO Ton34 {z=1.928}. Among archive HST/FOS spectra, Ton34 shows an unusually steep FUV drop, equivalent to a powerlaw of index -5. At shorter wavelengths, only an extremely noisy IUE spectra exists. The FUV observations would provide us with a unique window to test whether Ton34 remains EUV deficient at shorter wavelengths or shows instead the onset of a second peak in the extreme {E}UV, explaining how photoionization can still account for its high excitation emission lines of CIV, OVIA? With the STIS MAMA-NUV spectrum, we will also study and confirm whether low excitation EUV BLR lines such as the permitted lines of OII + OIII {835A?} or NIII {686A?} are present and as strong as reported from an earlier but noisy IUE spectrum {this would possibly favor shock excitation}. Using archive optical spectra near the CIV region {from years 1988 and 2006}, we recently showed that Ton34 is currently undergoing a strong BalQSO phase, the first case reported among bright quasars. A priority of the proposed STIS NUV observations will be to look for the presence of blueshifted absorption troughs near Ly-alpha or OIV {as well as any change in the continuum's sharp break} using the STIS/G430L spectrum.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Magnetospirillum from saline lagoon.

    PubMed

    Revathy, T; Jacob, Jobin John; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2016-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are aquatic prokaryotes that orient themselves to earth's magnetic field with the help of intracellular organelle magnetosomes. Although many species of MTB have been identified, the isolation of MTB is a challenging task due to the lack of systematic isolation procedure and/or commercial media. In this study, we are reporting the isolation of magnetotactic spirillum from the Pulicat lagoon, India using a systematic and selective procedure. Sampling site was chosen on the basis of physicochemical properties of the ecosystem and the catalysed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of sediment samples. In the current study, a combination of techniques including 'capillary racetrack' Purification and gradient cultivation resulted in the isolation of magnetotactic spirilla from aquatic sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Magnetospirillum and was designated as Magnetospirillum sp. VITRJS1. The genes responsible for magnetosome formation (mamA, B, E, F, K, M, O, P, Q, T) were successfully detected using PCR amplification. The presence of cbbM gene confirmed that the isolate is chemolithoautotroph and utilises reduced sulphur as an electron source. Furthermore, magnetosomes extracted from VITRJS1 found to be cubo-octahedral in shape and 45 nm in size. Our results indicate that the systematic procedure using sediment analysis, CARD-FISH, and a combination of isolation methods enables the selective and rapid isolation of MTB from aquatic sediment sample. PMID:27263004

  1. Precision methylome characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Zhong, Jun; Jia, Xinmiao; Liu, Guan; Kang, Yu; Dong, Mengxing; Zhang, Xiuli; Li, Qian; Yue, Liya; Li, Cuidan; Fu, Jing; Xiao, Jingfa; Yan, Jiangwei; Zhang, Bing; Lei, Meng; Chen, Suting; Lv, Lingna; Zhu, Baoli; Huang, Hairong; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most common infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). To panoramically analyze MTBC's genomic methylation, we completed the genomes of 12 MTBC strains (Mycobacterium bovis; M. bovis BCG; M. microti; M. africanum; M. tuberculosis H37Rv; H37Ra; and 6 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates) belonging to different lineages and characterized their methylomes using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. We identified three (m6)A sequence motifs and their corresponding methyltransferase (MTase) genes, including the reported mamA, hsdM and a newly discovered mamB. We also experimentally verified the methylated motifs and functions of HsdM and MamB. Our analysis indicated the MTase activities varied between 12 strains due to mutations/deletions. Furthermore, through measuring 'the methylated-motif-site ratio' and 'the methylated-read ratio', we explored the methylation status of each modified site and sequence-read to obtain the 'precision methylome' of the MTBC strains, which enabled intricate analysis of MTase activity at whole-genome scale. Most unmodified sites overlapped with transcription-factor binding-regions, which might protect these sites from methylation. Overall, our findings show enormous potential for the SMRT platform to investigate the precise character of methylome, and significantly enhance our understanding of the function of DNA MTase. PMID:26704977

  2. Summary of the Results of STIS SMOV4 Calibration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bohlin, Ralph; Cox, Colin, Goudfrooij, Paul; Gull, Thodore, R.; Kaiser, Mary Beth; Lallo, Matt; Lennon, Daniel J.; Lindler, Don J.; Makidon, Russ; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Serrano, Beverly; Wheeler, Thomas; Wolfe, Michael E.; Serrano, Beverly; Woodgate, Bruce; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    After HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), there was a period of Science Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4), to check out the new and repaired instruments. Here we summarize the execution and results of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) SMOV 4 activities undertaken to ensure that the repaired STIS instrument was ready to carry out its scheduled science program after a nearly five year hiatus in operation. The results of the initial aliveness and functional tests are reviewed, anomalies that aff ected the execution of the STIS SMOV plan are discussed, and the results of each STIS SMOV activity executed are summarized. In most respects the performance of STIS after the SM4 repair is very similar to that seen prior to the 2004 failure. Notable chang es include a significant and unexpected enhancement of the NUV MAMA dark rate that has been declining only very slowly, and continued degradation of the CCD performance due to radiation damage. Post - repair throughputs of most modes are close to expectation s based on extrapolation of previous trends.

  3. Probing the atmosphere of a transiting ocean world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, William

    2013-10-01

    We propose to image the atmosphere of Europa against the smooth FUV and NUV background of Jupiter to reveal or constrain its structure, scale height and composition. Molecules are liberated from the surface by a combination of sputtering and erosion associated with impacting magnetospheric ions, micrometeroids, sublimation from sunlight and, potentially, cryogenic volcanism. In detail, the relationships between the atmosphere, exosphere and surface are not understood. The clumpy FUV OI emission implies a patchy, irregular exosphere, suggestive of localized sources and strong atmospheric density variations. If the internal heat sources and surface cracking are sufficient to release outgassing plumes, as for Enceladus, we have an excellent chance of detecting them. By using the STIS FUV MAMA TIME-TAG imaging: Jupiter is smooth, detector features are removed, and we can crisply image, post-facto, any and all targets in the field individually, including Europa, its shadow and features on Jupiter. The spatial resolution is highest in the FUV and cross-sections of relevant molecules are high. An intriguing archival image demonstrates the power of this approach. An additional observation in the NUV using conventional CCD imaging will provide sensitive limits on dusty particulates above the surface, potentially entrained by outflowing gas.

  4. Metal-silicate partitioning of Ni and Co in a deep magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Julien; Badro, James; Antonangeli, Daniele; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2012-03-01

    The pattern of siderophile (iron-loving) element abundance in the silicate portion of the Earth is a consequence of metal separation during core formation. The apparent excess of nickel and cobalt in mantle-derived rocks has been attributed to metal-silicate equilibration in a deep terrestrial magma ocean. Based on the extrapolation of phase equilibria and metal-silicate partitioning results obtained at lower pressure (P) and temperature (T), previous estimates of the P-T of equilibration are all greater than 25 GPa and 3000 K. Using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell, we have extended metal-silicate partitioning measurements for Ni and Co to 75 GPa and 4400 K, exceeding the liquidus temperatures for both metal and silicate (basalt or peridotite) and, therefore, achieving thermodynamic conditions directly comparable to those of the magma ocean. The metal-silicate partition coefficients of nickel and cobalt decrease with increasing pressure and reach the values required to yield present mantle concentrations at ~ 50 GPa. At these conditions, silicon and oxygen concentrations measured in the metallic liquid allow to solve the seismically constrained core density deficit. Above 60 GPa, the partition coefficients become too low, resulting in an overabundance of Ni and Co in the silicate mantle. Our data therefore support the paradigm of core formation in a deep mama ocean, providing an upper bound for the depth at which Earth's core may have formed, and explaining the main geophysical (density) and geochemical (excess siderophile elements) observables.

  5. Time-Resolved UV Spectra of Pulsars with HST/STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Lundqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Shibanov, Yura; Lindler, Don; Koptsevich, Alexi

    2003-01-01

    We have used HST/STIS to observe the young Crab pulsar and the middle-aged PSR B0656+14. The Crab pulsar was observed in both the near- and far-UV, and together with ground-based data we establish a spectrum that covers 1140-9250 A. A flat spectrum with a power-law index of 0.11 +/- 0.04 fits the entire spectral region. With the time-tag mode of the spectrograph we obtain the pulse profile, and show that the near- and far-UV profiles are similar, although the primary peak is marginally narrower. In the far-UV spectrum we also see evidence of blueshifted absorption in C IV 1550 A out to 2500km/s, which could be a sign of the long-debated fast shell around the pulsar. PSR B0656+14 was observed using the prism mode of STIS/MAMA in the near-UV, and with this observation we have made it the first middle-aged for which a UV pulse profile has been established. Preliminary analysis shows two distinct pulses per the pulsar period in near-UV, which is in contrast to a single pulse detected in radio and soft X-ray ranges.

  6. Magnetic edge states and mixed-parity pairing in spin-triplet superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Vekhter, Ilya; Romano, Alfonso

    2014-03-01

    We show that a spontaneous magnetic moment may appear at the edge of a spin-triplet superconductor if the system allows for pairing in a subdominant channel and non-uniform spatial profile. To unveil the microscopic mechanism behind such effect we combine numerical solution of the Bogoliubov-De Gennes equations for a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor attraction, and the symmetry based Ginzburg-Landau approach. We find that a modulation of the electronic density near the edge of the system leads to a non-unitary superconducting state where spin-singlet pairing coexists with the dominant triplet superconducting order. We demonstrate that the spin polarization at the edge appears due to the inhomogeneity of the non-unitary state and originates in the lifting of the spin-degeneracy of the Andreev bound-states. For chiral spin-triplet superconductors spin current flows along the interface and surface charge currents exhibit anomalous dependence on the magnetization. - A. Romano, P. Gentile, C. Noce, I. Vekhter, M. Cuoco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267002 (2013). This research has received funding from the EU -FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement N. 264098 - MAMA, and was supported in part by US NSF via Grant No. DMR-1105339

  7. The Solar Neighborhood. XXXI. Discovery of an Unusual Red+White Dwarf Binary at ~25 pc via Astrometry and UV Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Gies, Douglas R.; Riedel, Adric R.; Ianna, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby M5.0V dwarf at 24.6 pc, SCR 1848-6855, that is orbited by an unusual companion causing an astrometric perturbation of more than 200 mas. This is by far the largest perturbation found to date among more than 700 targets observed during our long-term astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO 0.9 m telescope. We present here a suite of astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of this high proper motion (~1.''3 yr-1) system in an effort to reveal the nature of this unusual binary. The measured near-UV and optical U band fluxes exceed those expected for comparable M5.0V stars, and excess flux is also detected in the spectral range 4000-7000 Å. The elusive companion has been detected in HST-STIS+MAMA images at 1820 Å and 2700 Å, and our analysis shows that it is probably a rare, cool, white dwarf with T = 4600-5500 K. Given the long-term astrometric coverage, the prospects for an accurate mass determination are excellent, although as yet we can only provide limits on the unusual companion's mass.

  8. Status of the STIS Instrument After Repair During Sm4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Dixon, W. V.; Groudfrooim, P.; Gull, T.; Lennon, D.; Lindler, D.; Osten, R. V.; Wolfe, M. A.; Woodgate, B. F.; Zheng, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in February of 1997, and operated until August of 2004, when an electrical malfunction in a power supply forced cessation of operations. On May 17,2009, during the fourth EVA of SM4, astronauts Michael Good and Mike Massimino undertook an eight-hour spacewalk, during which they replaced the STIS LVPS-2 circuit board containing the failed component, successfully repairing STIS. We will review the scientific capabilities and operational status of STIS after this repair. In most respects, STIS after the 2009 repair operates in much the same way as it did prior to the 2004 failure. Most changes in performance are close to what had been expected. The degradation of the STIS CCD due to radiation damage and the modest changes in optical throughput are consistent with extrapolation of previously-observed trends. Internal and external alignments of the instrument are also similar to what they were in 2004. The biggest surprise is that the dark current for the NUV MAMA detector is several times larger than had been expected and is only slowly decreasing towards its expected range. We discuss how these changes will affect science with STIS now and in the future.

  9. Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, A.; Bohlin, C.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C. R.; Diaz, R. I.; Dixon, W. V.; Goudfrooij, P.; Hodge, P.; Kaiser, M. E. Lallo, M. D.; Lennon, D.; Niemi, S.; Osten, R. A.; Pascucci, I.; Smith, E.; Wolfe, M. A.; York, B.; Zheng, W.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D. J.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2010-07-01

    On May 17, 2009, during the fourth EVA of SM4, astronauts Michael Good and Mike Massimino replaced the failed LVPS-2 circuit board on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), restoring this HST instrument to operation after a nearly 6 year hiatus. STIS after this 2009 repair operates in much the same way as it did during the 2001-2004 period of operations with the Side-2 electronics. Internal and external alignments of the instrument are similar to what they had been in 2004, and most changes in performance are modest. The STIS CCD detector continued to experience radiation damage during the hiatus in operations, leading to decreased charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and an increased number of hot pixels. The sensitivities for most modes are surprisingly close to what was expected from simple extrapolation of the 2003-2004 trends, although the echelle modes show somewhat more complex behavior. The biggest surprise was that the dark count rate for the NUV MAMA detector after SM4 has been much larger than had been expected; it is currently about 2.5 times bigger than it was in 2004 and is only slowly decreasing. We discuss how these changes will affect science with STIS now and in the future.

  10. UV Spectroscopy of a Peculiar White Dwarf Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCully, Curtis

    2012-10-01

    While type Ia supernovae {SNe Ia} have been extremely useful for studying the cosmic expansion history, their explosion mechanism and progenitor system remain unsolved problems. Moreover, as large samples of SNe are observed, the diversity among these explosions has grown: not all exploding white dwarfs look like normal SNe Ia. Understanding why these "peculiar" objects are different from the normal ones can help explain the standard SN Ia scenario, as well as give us a better understanding of the many endpoints of stellar evolution. Connecting observations to physical models has been difficult for both normal and peculiar white dwarf supernovae. The ultraviolet is an unexplored wavelength region for peculiar SNe Ia; the high opacity in the UV from typical thermonuclear burning products means that the UV flux in white dwarf supernovae is very sensitive to the outermost layers of ejecta. This material is the least processed, and is thus an ideal place to look for clues to progenitors and explosion mechanisms. Here we propose target-of-opportunity UV spectroscopy of a peculiar white dwarf SN using the STIS NUV-MAMA instrument to add a unique piece of the puzzle connecting peculiar SNe Ia and their progenitors.

  11. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.'

    The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing.

    The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols.

    The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches).

    The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Updates on the Performance and Calibration of HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, Sean A.; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Monroe, TalaWanda; Biretta, John A.; De Rosa, Gisella; Fix, Mees; Fox, Andrew; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Peeples, Molly S.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles R.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Taylor, Joanna M.; Walborn, Nolan R.; White, James

    2016-01-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been on orbit for almost 19 years and continues to produce high quality scientific results using a diverse complement of operating modes. These include spatially resolved spectroscopy in the UV and optical, high spatial resolution echelle spectroscopy in the UV, and solar-blind imaging in the UV. In addition, STIS possesses unique visible-light coronagraphic modes that keep the instrument at the forefront of exoplanet and debris-disk research. As the instrument's characteristics evolve over the instrument's lifetime, the instrument team at Space Telescope Science Institute monitors its performance and works towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updates on the status of the STIS CCD and FUV & NUV MAMA detectors, as well as changes to the CalSTIS reduction pipeline and available instrument modes. We present on-going work to calibrate the BAR5 occulter, as well as calibration improvements for the echelle gratings.

  13. Broadband performance of a moving time reversing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Dowling, David R.

    2003-09-01

    Acoustic time reversal exploits reciprocity between sources and receivers to generate backward propagating waves that automatically focus at their point of origin. In underwater acoustics, an array of transducers that can both transmit and receive, referred to as a time reversing array (TRA) or time reversal mirror (TRM), generates the back-propagating waves. Such arrays have been shown to spatially and temporally focus sound in unknown complicated multipath environments, and are therefore of interest for active sonar and underwater communication applications. Although stationary vertical linear TRAs have been favored in prior studies, practical applications of acoustic time reversal in underwater environments are likely to involve towed, tilted, horizontal, or bottom-mounted arrays. In particular, array motion introduces Doppler effects and eliminates source-receiver reciprocity, two factors that potentially impact the automatic focusing capability of TRAs. This paper presents the results from a theoretical and computational investigation into how array motion and orientation influence TRA retrofocusing in the shallow ocean. Here, the TRA tow speed is assumed constant, and the array is assumed to be straight and linear (vertical, horizontal, or tilted). And, for simplicity, the TRA is assumed to respond to a stationary point source emitting a broadband pulse. When a TRA moves, the retrofocus is predicted to shift in the direction of array motion due to the translation of the array between its reception and broadcast times. In addition, the performance of a towed horizontal TRA is predicted to degrade more rapidly with towing speed than that of an equivalent (but clearly idealized) towed vertical array because of range-dependent Doppler phase differences that do not influence the vertical array. However, short tilted arrays may approach vertical array performance and appear to be a potentially versatile compromise for implementing TRA concepts in active sonar or

  14. Broadband performance of a moving time reversing array.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G; Dowling, David R

    2003-09-01

    Acoustic time reversal exploits reciprocity between sources and receivers to generate backward propagating waves that automatically focus at their point of origin. In underwater acoustics, an array of transducers that can both transmit and receive, referred to as a time reversing array (TRA) or time reversal mirror (TRM), generates the back-propagating waves. Such arrays have been shown to spatially and temporally focus sound in unknown complicated multipath environments, and are therefore of interest for active sonar and underwater communication applications. Although stationary vertical linear TRAs have been favored in prior studies, practical applications of acoustic time reversal in underwater environments are likely to involve towed, tilted, horizontal, or bottom-mounted arrays. In particular, array motion introduces Doppler effects and eliminates source-receiver reciprocity, two factors that potentially impact the automatic focusing capability of TRAs. This paper presents the results from a theoretical and computational investigation into how array motion and orientation influence TRA retrofocusing in the shallow ocean. Here, the TRA tow speed is assumed constant, and the array is assumed to be straight and linear (vertical, horizontal, or tilted). And, for simplicity, the TRA is assumed to respond to a stationary point source emitting a broadband pulse. When a TRA moves, the retrofocus is predicted to shift in the direction of array motion due to the translation of the array between its reception and broadcast times. In addition, the performance of a towed horizontal TRA is predicted to degrade more rapidly with towing speed than that of an equivalent (but clearly idealized) towed vertical array because of range-dependent Doppler phase differences that do not influence the vertical array. However, short tilted arrays may approach vertical array performance and appear to be a potentially versatile compromise for implementing TRA concepts in active sonar or

  15. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2, a novel autoimmune regulator interaction partner, modulates promiscuous gene expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rattay, Kristin; Claude, Janine; Rezavandy, Esmail; Matt, Sonja; Hofmann, Thomas G; Kyewski, Bruno; Derbinski, Jens

    2015-02-01

    Promiscuous expression of a plethora of tissue-restricted Ags (TRAs) by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) plays an essential role in T cell tolerance. Although the cellular mechanisms by which promiscuous gene expression (pGE) imposes T cell tolerance have been well characterized, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is to date the only validated molecule known to regulate pGE. AIRE is part of higher-order multiprotein complexes, which promote transcription, elongation, and splicing of a wide range of target genes. How AIRE and its partners mediate these various effects at the molecular level is still largely unclear. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we searched for novel AIRE-interacting proteins and identified the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) as a novel partner. HIPK2 partially colocalized with AIRE in nuclear bodies upon cotransfection and in human mTECs in situ. Moreover, HIPK2 phosphorylated AIRE in vitro and suppressed the coactivator activity of AIRE in a kinase-dependent manner. To evaluate the role of Hipk2 in modulating the function of AIRE in vivo, we compared whole-genome gene signatures of purified mTEC subsets from TEC-specific Hipk2 knockout mice with control mice and identified a small set of differentially expressed genes. Unexpectedly, most differentially expressed genes were confined to the CD80(lo) mTEC subset and preferentially included AIRE-independent TRAs. Thus, although it modulates gene expression in mTECs and in addition affects the size of the medullary compartment, TEC-specific HIPK2 deletion only mildly affects AIRE-directed pGE in vivo. PMID:25552543

  16. Broadband time-reversing array retrofocusing in noisy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Khosla, Sunny R.; Dowling, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Acoustic time reversal is a promising technique for spatial and temporal focusing of sound in unknown environments. Acoustic time reversal can be implemented with an array of transducers that listens to a remote sound source and then transmits a time-reversed version of what was heard. In a noisy environment, the performance of such a time-reversing array (TRA) will be degraded because the array will receive and transmit noise, and the intended signal may be masked by ambient noise at the retrofocus location. This article presents formal results for the signal-to-noise ratio at the intended focus (SNRf) for TRAs that receive and send finite-duration broadband signals in noisy environments. When the noise is homogeneous and uncorrelated, and a broadcast power limitation sets the TRA's electronic amplification, the formal results can be simplified to an algebraic formula that includes the characteristics of the signal, the remote source, the TRA, and the noisy environment. Here, SNRf is found to be proportional to the product of the signal bandwidth and the duration of the signal pulse after propagation through the environment. Using parabolic-equation propagation simulations, the formal results for SNRf are illustrated for a shallow water environment at source-array ranges of 1 to 40 km and bandwidths from several tens of Hz to more than 500 Hz for a signal center frequency of 500 Hz. Shallow-water TRA noise rejection is predicted to be superior to that possible in free space because TRAs successfully exploit multipath-propagation.

  17. Examining adherence among challenging patients in public and private HIV care in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Cecchini, Diego; Sued, Omar; Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Lopez, Maria R; Spence, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Treatment engagement, retention and adherence to care are required for optimal HIV outcomes. Yet, patients may fall below the treatment recommendations for achieving undetectable viral load or not be retained in care. This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3 to 6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, engagement and retention in public and private clinic settings. Resumen El compromiso, la retención en el cuidado y adherencia al tratamiento son esenciales para el manejo óptimo del paciente con VIH. Sin embargo, muchos pacientes con VIH no siguen las el tratamiento para lograr tener una carga viral indetectable, o no permanecen bajo cuidado médico. Este estudio examina los pacientes más difíciles de retener en el cuidado médico en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hombres (n = 61) y mujeres (n = 59) a los que se les habían recetado antiretrovirales pero seguían el tratamiento en los últimos 3 - 6 meses participaron en el estudio. Adherencia, conocimiento, motivación y actitudes frente al tratamiento fueron evaluados. Los pacientes en la clínica privada tenían menor carga viral y mejor adherencia que los de la clínica pública. Motivación y pensamientos positivos con respecto a antiretrovirales estaban asociados con mejor adherencia en los pacientes de la clínica p

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Altamirano, Karolina; Mendoza-Hernández, Alma Nubia; Carcoba-Tenorio, Carolina; García-García, José Antonio; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: la terapia con antioxidantes durante la quimioterapia y radioterapia en pacientes con cáncer cervicouterino es controvertida. Mientras existe evidencia que sugiere que el uso de antioxidantes disminuye los efectos secundarios propios del tratamiento contra el cáncer, hay datos que sugieren que los antioxidantes incrementan el riesgo de recurrencia de cáncer por la afectación de la terapia de los tratamientos. Métodos: se dirigió un estudio clínico controlado en pacientes con cáncer cervicouterino que fueron suplementados con una mezcla de antioxidantes o placebo, con seguimiento por 4 años posteriores al término de su tratamiento antineoplásico para evaluar el efecto de los antioxidantes en la recurrencia. Tomamos datos de niveles de hemoglobina y albúmina. Se analizaron las diferencias entre grupos con la prueba de Chi-cuadrado, la sobrevida se calculó con un análisis multivariado por medio de regresión de COX. Resultados: se dio seguimiento a 103 pacientes con cáncer cervicouterino en etapa clínica IIB y IIIB de los cuales 48% fueron tratados con suplementación de antioxidantes y el 52% con placebo, originalmente y de estos se dio seguimiento a 88 pacientes durante 4 años. El 23,9% de los pacientes tratados presentaron recurrencia por cáncer mientras que el 76,1% no la presentó. El 21,6% de los pacientes presentaron metástasis, el 8% de los pacientes perteneció al grupo de antioxidantes y el 15,9% al grupo placebo (p > 0,05). Implicaciones para los pacientes supervivientes: la suplementación con antioxidantes aparentemente no interfiere con la recurrencia por cáncer, sin embargo no hay evidencia suficiente para probarlo. Posiblemente una dosis distinta sea la clave para un mejor efecto, pero serán necesarios futuros estudios que prueben efectos sobre otro tipo de dosis. Conclusiones: la suplementación con antioxidantes durante el tratamiento de pacientes con cáncer cervicouterino no tiene efectos en la

  19. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso Cortázar, E; Prieto Martínez, C; Fernández-Urién Sainz, I; Vila Costas, J J; Jiménez Pérez, F J; Guerra Lacunza, A

    2016-01-01

    La pancreatitis autoinmune (PAI) es una patología poco frecuente, aunque con una creciente incidencia en países orientales, si bien esto podría deberse a una mayor tasa de detección. Puede asociarse a otras patologías autoinmunes, y se ha descrito su asociación con la enfermedad sistémica por IgG4. La clínica es variada y el tratamiento habitualmente es médico, mediante corticoides.Se describe un caso clínico diagnosticado.Palabras clave. Pancreatitis autoinmune. IgG4. PMID:27125615

  20. Optimised Post-Exposure Image Sharpening Code for L3-CCD Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, Leon K.; Butler, Raymond F.; Redfern, R. Michael; Sheehan, Brendan J.; McDonald, James

    2008-02-22

    As light from celestial bodies traverses Earth's atmosphere, the wavefronts are distorted by atmospheric turbulence, thereby lowering the angular resolution of ground-based imaging. Rapid time-series imaging enables Post-Exposure Image Sharpening (PEIS) techniques, which employ shift-and-add frame registration to remove the tip-tilt component of the wavefront error--as well as telescope wobble, thus benefiting all observations. Further resolution gains are possible by selecting only frames with the best instantaneous seeing--a technique sometimes calling 'Lucky Imaging'. We implemented these techniques in the 1990s, with the TRIFFID imaging photon-counting camera, and its associated data reduction software. The software was originally written for time-tagged photon-list data formats, recorded by detectors such as the MAMA. This paper describes our deep re-structuring of the software to handle the 2-d FITS images produced by Low Light Level CCD (L3-CCD) cameras, which have sufficient time-series resolution (>30 Hz) for PEIS. As before, our code can perform straight frame co-addition, use composite reference stars, perform PEIS under several different algorithms to determine the tip/tilt shifts, store 'quality' and shift information for each frame, perform frame selection, and generate exposure-maps for photometric correction. In addition, new code modules apply all 'static' calibrations (bias subtraction, dark subtraction and flat-fielding) to the frames immediately prior to the other algorithms. A unique feature of our PEIS/Lucky Imaging code is the use of bidirectional wiener-filtering. Coupled with the far higher sensitivity of the L3-CCD over the previous TRIFFID detectors, much fainter reference stars and much narrower time windows can be used.

  1. An Algorithm for Correcting CTE Loss in Spectrophotometry of Point Sources with the STIS CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, Ralph; Goudfrooij, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The correction for the change in sensitivity with time for the STIS CCD modes is complicated by the gradual loss of charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of the CCD. The amount of this CTE loss depends on time in orbit, the location on the CCD chip with respect to the readout amplifier, the stellar signal strength, and the background level. Primary constraints on our correction algorithm are provided by measurements of the CTE loss rates for simulated spectra (tungsten lamp images taken through slits oriented along the dispersion axis) combined with estimates of CTE losses for actual stellar spectra in the first order CCD modes. The main complication is the quantification of the roll-off of the CTE losses for weak stellar signals on non-zero backgrounds. This roll-off term is determined by relatively short exposures of primary standard stars along with the G750L series of properly exposed AGK+81D266 monitoring data, where the observed changes in response over time are primarily CTE losses and not sensitivity degradations. After accounting for CTE losses and after an iterative determination of the optical system throughput losses, the CTE correction algorithm is verified by comparing G230L MAMA fluxes of faint standard stars with G430L fluxes in the overlap region around 3000Å. For spectra at the standard reference position at the CCD center, CTE losses as big as 20% are corrected to within 1% at high signal levels and with a precision of ~2% at ~100 electrons after application of the algorithm presented here.

  2. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Donald C.; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners’ meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  3. A High-Throughput Data Mining of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Coffea Species Expressed Sequence Tags Suggests Differential Homeologous Gene Expression in the Allotetraploid Coffea arabica1[W

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pot, David; Ambrósio, Alinne Batista; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidization constitutes a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. This event provides the raw material for the divergence of function in homeologous genes, leading to phenotypic novelty that can contribute to the success of polyploids in nature or their selection for use in agriculture. Mounting evidence underlined the existence of homeologous expression biases in polyploid genomes; however, strategies to analyze such transcriptome regulation remained scarce. Important factors regarding homeologous expression biases remain to be explored, such as whether this phenomenon influences specific genes, how paralogs are affected by genome doubling, and what is the importance of the variability of homeologous expression bias to genotype differences. This study reports the expressed sequence tag assembly of the allopolyploid Coffea arabica and one of its direct ancestors, Coffea canephora. The assembly was used for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms through the identification of high-quality discrepancies in overlapped expressed sequence tags and for gene expression information indirectly estimated by the transcript redundancy. Sequence diversity profiles were evaluated within C. arabica (Ca) and C. canephora (Cc) and used to deduce the transcript contribution of the Coffea eugenioides (Ce) ancestor. The assignment of the C. arabica haplotypes to the C. canephora (CaCc) or C. eugenioides (CaCe) ancestral genomes allowed us to analyze gene expression contributions of each subgenome in C. arabica. In silico data were validated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific combination TaqMAMA-based method. The presence of differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes and its implications in coffee gene expression, ontology, and physiology are discussed. PMID:20864545

  4. A high-throughput data mining of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Coffea species expressed sequence tags suggests differential homeologous gene expression in the allotetraploid Coffea arabica.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pot, David; Ambrósio, Alinne Batista; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Colombo, Carlos Augusto; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2010-11-01

    Polyploidization constitutes a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. This event provides the raw material for the divergence of function in homeologous genes, leading to phenotypic novelty that can contribute to the success of polyploids in nature or their selection for use in agriculture. Mounting evidence underlined the existence of homeologous expression biases in polyploid genomes; however, strategies to analyze such transcriptome regulation remained scarce. Important factors regarding homeologous expression biases remain to be explored, such as whether this phenomenon influences specific genes, how paralogs are affected by genome doubling, and what is the importance of the variability of homeologous expression bias to genotype differences. This study reports the expressed sequence tag assembly of the allopolyploid Coffea arabica and one of its direct ancestors, Coffea canephora. The assembly was used for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms through the identification of high-quality discrepancies in overlapped expressed sequence tags and for gene expression information indirectly estimated by the transcript redundancy. Sequence diversity profiles were evaluated within C. arabica (Ca) and C. canephora (Cc) and used to deduce the transcript contribution of the Coffea eugenioides (Ce) ancestor. The assignment of the C. arabica haplotypes to the C. canephora (CaCc) or C. eugenioides (CaCe) ancestral genomes allowed us to analyze gene expression contributions of each subgenome in C. arabica. In silico data were validated by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific combination TaqMAMA-based method. The presence of differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes and its implications in coffee gene expression, ontology, and physiology are discussed. PMID:20864545

  5. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    PubMed

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity. PMID:27374250

  6. Ultraviolet spectral synthesis of HD 72660

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golriz, S. S.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2016-03-01

    The study of chemical abundances in stellar atmosphere provides a useful tool to investigate the formation and evolution history of stars. The optical wavelength range has been used almost exclusively in the past to determine the elemental abundance in A-type stars. We use high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra obtained from the STIS/NUV-MAMA instrument on board Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra available cover the wavelength ranges 1630 Å-1901 Å and 2130 Å-2887 Å. The main challenge to carrying out abundance analysis in the ultraviolet is the extreme level of line blending. Abundance analysis using single isolated spectral lines is almost completely impossible; it is necessary to model spectral windows using spectrum synthesis with fairly complete line-lists. We have used the LTE spectrum synthesis code ZEEMAN to model the UV spectrum of HD 72660, adjusting abundances for a best match for elements with 6 ≤ Z≤ 82 for which lines are present in the Vinna Atomic Line Database line-list. Abundances or upper limits are derived for 32 elements. We find that except a few, our derived abundances are slightly higher than solar values. We estimate upper limits for abundances of eleven elements and abundance values of 12 elements which have not been detected in the optical. The high abundances that we find for some heavy elements may point to radiative levitation. The presence of lanthanides plus our results, suggest the reclassification of HD 72660 as a transition object between an HgMn star and an Am star.

  7. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  8. UV nebular absorption in Eta Car and Weigelt D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Lindler, D. J.; Eta Car HST Treasury Team

    2003-12-01

    The high angular and high spectral resolution of the HST/STIS MAMA echelle mode, provide an unique means to distinguish the physical structures surrounding Eta Car. Observations are parts of the HST treasury program (K. Davidson P.I.) for monitoring variations over Eta Car's spectroscopic minimum. Nebular emission is present above and below the stellar spectrum which is about 0.03'' wide. We have extracted the nebular part of the central source spectrum and compared it with the spectrum of Weigelt D, located approximately 0.2'' Northwest of the central source. The spectra show significant similarities and our conclusions are two-fold. First, the radiation from the Wiegelt blobs give an unwanted contribution to the spectrum of the central source, which emphasizes the importance of using an extracted spectrum in a spectral analysis. Second, the Weigelt blobs have so far been assumed to produce a pure emission line spectrum. However, this comparison shows the presence of similar absorption structures previously observed in the spectrum of the central star (Gull et al., 2003, submitted ApJL). Two velocity structures at approximately -50 and -500 km/s, respectively, have been observed in the Weigelt D spectrum. We present identifications of the absorption structures to supplement the emission line work performed by T. Zethson (2000, PhD Thesis) and provide additional information regarding the geometry of the inner parts of the Eta Car nebula. The -50 km/s velocity component is similar to the absorption structure at -146 km/s observed in the spectrum of the central object. If these velocity systems are related, this implies that the absorption component is located close to the central parts of the nebular system.

  9. Investigating the Enigmatic Ultraviolet 2175 A Extinction Feature and Correlation with Infrared Aromatic/PAH emission in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Karl

    2011-10-01

    The 2175 Angstrom ultraviolet dust extinction feature has been known for more than 45 years, but the source of the extinction has yet to be positively identified. One of the leading contenders in dust grain models is small aromatic/PAHs grains. Through IR observations of HII regions in the spiral galaxy M101, PAHs have measured emission strengths that dramatically weaken at large radii and ionizations. The parameter space of these HII regions in terms of metallicity, ionization, and PAH emission strengths is the largest of any known galaxy. To explore the connection between the 2175 A extinction feature and IR aromatic/PAH emission strengths, we propose to observe the six regions in M101 {5 HII and the nucleus} using near-UV and far-UV gratings {G230L/G140L} with the MAMA detectors on STIS. The STIS instrument provides the opportunity to obtain high S/N UV spectra integrated over the same large spatial scales of the previous IR observations { 78 square arcsec} in minimal time {2 orbits per region}. From the measured spectra, we will employ stellar evolutionary synthesis and radiative transfer models to extract the intrinsic strength of the 2175 A extinction feature. The 2175 A features strengths will be compared with the published emission strengths of five different aromatic/PAH features in all six regions. If the 2175 A feature is associated with aromatic/PAHs grains, we will see a strong correlation. The lack of a strong correlation will imply the need for significant modification of leading dust models.

  10. STIS Spectra of the Remnant of SN 1885 in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Kathryn; Fesen, Robert A.; Hoeflich, Peter; Hamilton, Andrew James S.

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet and optical spectra of the remnant of Supernova 1885 (S And) taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). S And is a probable Type Ia supernova that is seen in absorption against the bulge of the Andromeda galaxy, M31. The STIS optical spectra, covering 2900-5700 Å, were taken using six 0.2‧‧ wide slit positions through the remnant in two orientations providing insight to the three dimensional structure of S And. The spectra show broad Ca II H & K absorption extending out to at least 11,500 km/s consistent with previous HST images of S And in Ca II. There is noticeable enhancement of Ca II absorption between expansion velocities of 2,000 and 5,000 km/s suggestive of a Ca II-rich shell. The spectra also show strong asymmetric Ca I 4227 Å absorption extending out to 12,400 km/s along with weak Fe I 3720 Å absorption confined to a shell between 2,000 and 9,000 km/s on both the near and far sides of the remnant. These STIS spectra exhibit features similar to the spectrum taken with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on HST in 1996, with the notable differences in the width of Fe I 3720 Å absorption as well as weaker and more asymmetric Ca I 4227 Å absorption. STIS NUV-MAMA observations, covering 1570-3180 Å, taken in one orientation. show broad absorption shortward of 3000 Å consistent with model predicted spectra. These spectral observations, together with previous images, indicate a less than 10% departure from spherical symmetry in Ca-rich ejecta.

  11. Study on spectrograph for ionosphere: a broadband imaging instrument prototype for far-ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Shu-rong; Lin, Guan-yu

    2011-08-01

    Current research on space-based exploration for the ionosphere needs more advanced technologies. Because the spectral signals in the ionosphere distributing basically in the farultraviolet waveband are very weak. Usual spectrometer structures and detectors such as CCD can't receive enough information. Based on this principle of atmospheric sounding, the imaging spectrometer prototype for ionosphere detection application was designed to solve the problem. This prototype consists of the telescope and the imaging spectrometer. The simple structure and small number of mirrors can help higher transmission efficiency be achieved and weak signals detection be implemented. The telescope is an off-axis parabolic mirror and the spectrometer is a modified Czerny-Turner spectral imaging system. Modified Czerny-Turner spectrometer contains a spherical mirror, a fixed plane grating and a toroidal mirror. By adjusting the incident angle to the collimating mirror and using toroidal mirror, coma and astigmatism were corrected well. We also optimize distances between the grating to the focusing mirror and the focusing mirror to the image plane to improve disadvantages of traditional Czerny-Turner structure. Designed results demonstrate that aberrations are substantially corrected, and high image quality can be obtained in broad waveband. The photon counting Wedge-Strip-Anode detector with micro-channel planes as the receiving plane is accepted for the instrument prototype. The other photon counting 2-D detector responding well for weak light such as Cross-Delay line detector and MAMA detector can also be used for detection. The calibration and performances testing system is made of a vacuum system, a deuterium lamp, a monochrometer and the instrument prototype. Results obtained from the experiment show that the spectral resolution is 2.4 nm and the spatial resolution is 80 μm. The other calibration experiments are running. The technology of the spectrometer prototype is important

  12. Remote sensing of the energy of Jovian auroral electrons with STIS: a clue to unveil plasma acceleration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    The polar aurora, an important energy source for the Earth's upper atmosphere, is about two orders of magnitude more intense at Jupiter where it releases approximately 10 GW in Jupiter's thermosphere. So far, HST observations of Jupiter's aurora have concentrated on the morphology and the relationship between the solar wind and the brightness distribution. While STIS-MAMA is still operational, time is now critical to move into a new era where FUV long-slit spectroscopy and the spatial scanning capabilities of HST are combined. We propose to use this powerful tool to remotely sense the characteristics of the precipitated electrons by slewing the spectral slit over the different auroral components. It will then be possible to associate electron energies with spatial auroral components and constrain acceleration mechanisms {field-aligned acceleration, magnetic field reconnection, pitch angle electron scattering} associated with specific emission regions. For this, a combination of FUV imaging with STIS long slit spectroscopy will map the spatial variations of the auroral depth and thus the energy of the precipitated electrons. These results will be compared with current models of the Jovian magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and will provide key inputs to a 3-D model of the Jupiter's atmosphere global heat budget and dynamics currently under development. This compact timely program is designed to provide a major step forward for a better understanding of the physical interactions taking place in Jupiter's magnetosphere and their effects on giant planets' atmospheres, a likely paradigm for many giant fast spinning planets with massive magnetic field in the universe.

  13. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Circumnuclear Star Clusters in M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-02-01

    We analyze archival HST/STIS/FUV-MAMA imaging and spectroscopy of 13 compact star clusters within the circumnuclear starburst region of M83, the closest such example. We compare the observed spectra with semi-empirical models, which are based on an empirical library of Galactic O and B stars observed with IUE, and with theoretical models, which are based on a new theoretical UV library of hot massive stars computed with WM-Basic. The models were generated with Starburst99 for metallicities of Z = 0.020 and Z = 0.040, and for stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) with upper mass limits of 10, 30, 50, and 100 M sun. We estimate the ages and masses of the clusters from the best-fit model spectra and find that the ages derived from the semi-empirical and theoretical models agree within a factor of 1.2 on average. A comparison of the spectroscopic age estimates with values derived from HST/WFC3/UVIS multi-band photometry shows a similar level of agreement for all but one cluster. The clusters have a range of ages from about 3 to 20 Myr and do not appear to have an age gradient along M83's starburst. Clusters with strong P-Cygni profiles have masses of a few×104 M sun, seem to have formed stars more massive than 30 M sun, and are consistent with a Kroupa IMF from 0.1to100 M sun. Field regions in the starburst lack P-Cygni profiles and are dominated by B stars.

  14. Enigmatic Extinction: An Investigation of the 2175Å Extinction Bump in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danowski, Meredith E.; Cook, Timothy; Gordon, Karl D.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Lawton, Brandon L.; Misselt, Karl A.

    2014-06-01

    Evidence from studies of starburst galaxies indicates that active formation of high mass stars modifies the UV dust extinction curve as seen by a lack of the characteristic 2175Å bump. For over 45 years, the source of the 2175Å extinction feature has yet to be positively identified. Small aromatic/PAH grains are suggested as a leading contender in dust grain models. The face-on spiral galaxy M101 is an ideal laboratory for the study of dust, with many well-studied HII regions and a steep metallicity and ionization gradient.The Interstellar Medium Absorption Gradient Experiment Rocket (IMAGER) probes the correlation between dust extinction, and the metallicity and radiation environment in M101 at ultraviolet wavelengths. IMAGER simultaneously images M101 in three 400Å-wide bandpasses, measuring the apparent strength of the 2175Å bump and the UV continuum.Combining data from IMAGER with high S/N far- and near- UV observations from the MAMA detectors on the Hubble STIS instrument, we examine the apparent strength of the 2175Å bump in HII regions of M101. With additional infrared data from Spitzer, the DIRTY radiative transfer model, and stellar evolution models, we probe the correlation between the 2175Å feature and the aromatic/PAH features across HII regions of varying metallicity and radiation field hardness. The results of this experiment will directly impact our understanding of the nature of dust and our ability to accurately account for the effects of dust on observations at all redshifts.

  15. The Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer for SOHO (UVCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) is to provide information about the behavior, in the extended corona, of the primary particles (protons and electrons) and several minor ions (O(5+) , Mg(9+) , Si(11+) , and Fe(11+) ). Spectroscopic diagnostic techniques will be used to determine random velocity distributions, densities, and bulk outflow velocities for these particles. The resulting empirical description of the extended corona can be used to address a broad range of scientific questions regarding the nature of the solar corona and the generation of the solar wind. The instrument consists of an externally and internally occulted telescope assembly and a spectrometer assembly. It has three channels whose purposes are the following: 1) VUV spectroscopy and absolute radiometry in the 1130 to 1361 Angstroms wavelength range with spectral resolution up to 9800 and spatial resolution elements of 7" or larger, 2) EUV spectroscopy and absolute radiometry in the 937 to 1127 Angstroms (first order) and 469 to 655 Angstroms (second order) wavelength ranges with spectral resolution up to 12000 and the same spatial resolution as the VUV channel, and 3) White light polarimetry with a wavelength band pass of 4500 -- 6000 Angstroms and a single 14" by 14" spatial resolution element. MAMA detectors provide simultaneous ultraviolet observations of a 40' long strip (parallel to a limb tangent) of the corona. Mirror and instrument motions allow this instantaneous field-of-view to scan out to heliocentric heights of 10 Rsun and onto the solar disk. This work is supported by NASA under contract NAS5-31250 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  16. Fabrication of Thiol-Ene "Clickable" Copolymer-Brush Nanostructures on Polymeric Substrates via Extreme Ultraviolet Interference Lithography.

    PubMed

    Dübner, Matthias; Gevrek, Tugce N; Sanyal, Amitav; Spencer, Nicholas D; Padeste, Celestino

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to grafting thiol-reactive nanopatterned copolymer-brush structures on polymeric substrates by means of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography. The copolymer brushes were designed to contain maleimide functional groups as thiol-reactive centers. Fluoropolymer films were exposed to EUV radiation at the X-ray interference lithography beamline (XIL-II) at the Swiss Light Source, in order to create radical patterns on their surfaces. The radicals served as initiators for the copolymerization of thiol-ene "clickable" brushes, composed of a furan-protected maleimide monomer (FuMaMA) and different methacrylates, namely, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (EGMA), or poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Copolymerization with ethylene-glycol-containing monomers provides antibiofouling properties to these surfaces. The number of reactive centers on the grafted brush structures can be tailored by varying the monomer ratios in the feed. Grafted copolymers were characterized by using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The reactive maleimide methacrylate (MaMA) units were utilized to conjugate thiol-containing moieties using the nucleophilic Michael-addition reaction, which proceeds at room temperature without the need for any metal-based catalyst. Using this approach, a variety of functionalities was introduced to yield polyelectrolytes, as well as fluorescent and light-responsive polymer-brush structures. Functionalization of the brush structures was demonstrated via ATR-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and was also indicated by a color switch. Furthermore, grafted surfaces were generated via plasma activation, showing a strongly increased wettability for polyelectrolytes and a reversible switch in static water contact angle (CA) of up to 18° for P(EGMA-co-MaMA-SP) brushes, upon exposure to alternating visible and UV-light irradiation

  17. Trends in the genomic epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated worldwide since 1961.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Sounak; Das, Parijat; Nandy, Suman; Koley, Hemanta; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-10-01

    Here we describe the international scenario of Vibrio cholerae with a comparative analysis of different aspects of typing. Representative V. cholerae strains (n=108) associated with endemic cholera regions from 29 states of India and worldwide were subjected to microbiological, molecular and phylogenetic study. All of the strains were V. cholerae serogroup O1 biotype El Tor and were typed according to both the new phage (NP) type and Basu & Mukherjee (BM) typing schemes. The predominant phage type was T-27 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (65.7%; n=71), followed by phage type T-27 (NP)/T-2 (BM) (14.8%; n=16), T-26 (NP)/T4 (BM) (12.0%; n=13), T-13 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (2.8%; n=3), T-20 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (1.9%; n=2), T-3 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (0.9%; n=1), T-23 (NP)/T-4 (BM) (0.9%; n=1) and T-24 (NP)/T-2 (BM) (0.9%; n=1). Mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR (MAMA-PCR) findings showed the dominance of ctxB El Tor genotype (77.1%; 54/70) from 1961-1991, whilst the next two epochs showed the supremacy of ctxB classical genotype. Multidrug-resistant strains showed resistance to erythromycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin and ampicillin. The regional resistance of epidemic clones in India draws a layout of the rapid dissemination of resistance in the past 30 years and the necessity of proper treatment to protect populations at risk. PMID:26255896

  18. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  19. Eta Carinae and the 2003.5 Minimum: Ultraviolet Changes of the Central Source and the Very Nearby Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Vieira, G. L.; Hillier, D. J.; Walborn, N.; Davidson, K.

    2004-01-01

    We utilized the high spatial and high spectral resolution of the HST/STIS MAMA echelle modes in the ultraviolet (0.025 sec spatial resolution and 30,000 to 120,000 spectral resolving power) to view changes in and around Eta Carinae before and after the X-Ray drop which occurred on June 29, 2003. Major changes in the spectra of the Central Source and nearby nebulosities occurred between June 22 and July 5. Visibility of the Central Source dropped, especially between 1175 and 1350 A, but not uniformly through the UV. This fading is likely due to multiple line absorptions both in the source and in the intervening ejecta. Nebular emission of Si III and Fe III, located 0.09 sec to the west, disappeared. By July 29, a bright feature extending up to 0.07 sec east of the Central Source became prominent in broad emission lines near 2500 A, but was not noticeable longward of 2900 A. ACS/HRC imagery and STIS CCD spectra taken concurrently are being examined for larger scale changes. Numerous narrow velocity components between -146 and -585 km/s were identified in spectra before the minimum. New components appeared primarily in Fe II absorption lines with velocities between -170 and -380 km/s. While the lines of the -513 km/s component did not change, most lines of the -146 km/s component changed considerably. Lines originating from high energy levels diminished or disappeared, while lines originating from lower energy levels strengthened. Strong absorption lines of Ti II, not present before the X-Ray drop, appeared within seven days, but disappeared by July 29. Further analysis of these unprecedented data will provide significant new information about the structure of Eta Carinae and its periodic variations.

  20. Ultraviolet Changes of the Central Source and the Very Nearby Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Nielsen, Krister; Vierira, Gladys; Hillier, John; Walborn, Nolan; Davidson, Kris

    2004-01-01

    We utilized the high spatial and high spectral resolution of the HST/STIS MAMA echelle modes in the ultraviolet (0.025 inch spatial resolution and 30,000 to 120,000 spectral resolving power) to view changes in and around Eta Carinae before and after the X-Ray drop which occurred on June 29, 2003 (M. Corcoran, IAUC 8160). Major changes in the spectra of the Central Source and nearby nebulosities occurred between June 22 and July 5. Visibility of the Central Source dropped, especially between 1175 and 1350 Angstroms, but not uniformly throughout the ultraviolet. This fading is likely due to multiple line absorptions both in the source and in the intervening ejecta. Nebular emission of Si III] and Fe III, located 0.09 sec. to the west, disappeared. By July 29, a bright feature extending up to 0.071 sec. east of the Central Source became prominent in broad emission lines near 2500 Angstroms, but was not noticeable longward of 2900 Angstroms. ACS/HRC imagery and STIS CCD spectra taken concurrently are being examined for larger scale changes. Numerous narrow velocity components between -146 and -585 kilometers per second were identified in spectra before the minimum. New components appeared primarily in Fe II absorption lines with velocities between -170 and -380 kilometers per second. While the lines of the -513 kilometers per second component did not change, most lines of the -146 kilometers per second component changed considerably. Lines originating from high energy levels diminished or disappeared, while lines originating from lower energy levels strengthened. Strong absorption lines of Ti II, not present before the X-Ray drop, appeared within seven days, but disappeared by July 29. Further analysis of these unprecedented data will provide significant new information about the structure of Eta Carinae and its periodic variations.